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320-amp-models.

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ECE 320

Amplier Models

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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2-Port Networks
A 2-port network is any circiut with two pairs of wires connecting to the outside world. (Each port is a pair of wires.) The standard notation used for the voltages and currents in a 2-port network is shown below.

i1 + v1 2-port network

i2 + v2 -

Just as there are two completely equivalent models for a 1-port network (the Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits), there are multiple equivalent models for a 2-port network. We will consider the z , y , g , and h parameter models. (There are also s and abcd parameters.)

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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z Parameters
i1 + v1 z11 z21i1 + + z12i2 z22 i2 + v2 -

v1 = z11 i1 + z12 i2 v2 = z21 i1 + z22 i2

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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z11 =

v1 i1 v1 i2 v2 i1 v2 i2

= open-circuit input resistance


i2 =0

z12 =

= reverse open-circuit transresistance


i1 =0

z21 =

= forward open-circuit transresistance


i2 =0

z22 =

= open-circuit output resistance


i1 =0

All of the zij are in Ohms.

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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y Parameters
i1 + v1 1 y11 y21v1 y12v2 1 y22 i2 + v2 -

i1 = y11 v1 + y12 v2 i2 = y21 v1 + y22 v2

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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y11 =

i1 v1 i1 v2 i2 v1 i2 v2

= short-circuit input conductance


v2 =0

y12 =

= reverse short-circuit transconductance


v1 =0

y21 =

= forward short-circuit transconductance


v2 =0

y22 =

= open-circuit output conductance


v1 =0

All of the yij are in Siemens.

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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g Parameters
i2 + v1 1 g11 g21v1 + g12i2 g22 + v2 -

i1 = g11 v1 + g12 i2 v2 = g21 v1 + g22 i2

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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g11 =

i1 v1 i1 i2 v2 v1 v2 i2

= open-circuit input conductance


i2 =0

g12 =

= reverse short-circuit current gain


v1 =0

g21 =

= forward open-circuit voltage gain


i2 =0

g22 =

= short-circuit output resistance


v1 =0

g12 and g21 are dimensionless, while g11 is in Siemens and g22 is in Ohms.

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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h Parameters
i1 + v1 h11 h21i1 + h12v2 1 h22 i2 + v2 -

v1 = h11 i1 + h12 v2 i2 = h21 i1 + h22 v2

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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h11 =

v1 i1 v1 v2 i2 i1 i2 v2

= short-circuit input resistance


v2 =0

h12 =

= reverse open-circuit voltage gain


i1 =0

h21 =

= forward short-circuit current gain


v2 =0

h22 =

= open-circuit output conductance


i1 =0

h12 and h21 are dimensionless, while h11 is in Ohms and h22 is in Siemens.

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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IEEE Alternative Subscript Notation


11 i for input 12 r for reverse transfer 21 f for forward transfer 22 o for output

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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Ampliers
An amplier is a special case of a 2-port network having an input port and an output port. Ampliers are considered to be one-directional, producing a scaled copy of the input signal at the output port. ` Standard amplier models are used in system design in much the same way as the Thevenin and Norton models: they provide the simplest possible description of the properties of a more complex circuit. Thus, the parameters of the standard amplier models are used in specications.

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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The circuit below shows an amplier, together with a model for the source that drives it, and the load. The denitions of a number of commonly-used parameters are also given.

RL vS +

ii + vi -

+ + vo -

io RL

o Av = v vi vo Overall voltage gain: Avs = v S io Current gain: Ai = i i o Transresistance: Rm = v ii io Input transconductance: Gm = v i po Input power gain: Ap = p i vo io = vi ii = Av Ai p Overall power gain: Aps = po s vo io = vs ii = Avs Ai

Input voltage gain:

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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Amplier Models
There are four equivalent amplier models. Each one can be derived from one of the 2-port network parameterizations by setting the parameter with the subscript 21 to zero, renaming v1 . v2 and i1 to vi , vo and ii , changing the direction of i2 and naming the new current io . Thus there are four amplier models, which are discussed in detail on the next few slides.

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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Voltage Amplier
RS + + vi Ri + Avovi Ro io + vo RL

vS

Avo =

vo vi

= open circuit voltage gain


io =0

The voltage amp comes from the g-parameter 2-port model. The gure below shows how.

io i2 + vi v1 1 g11 Ri Avovi g21v1 + g12i2 0 g22 Ro + vo v2 -

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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RS + + vi Ri + Avovi

Ro io + vo RL

vS

The voltage amplier, together with its source and load, are used to connect the specic amplier model with quantities describing the ampliers performance.

Av = Avs = Ai =

vo = vi

RL Ro + RL

Avo = input voltage gain Av = overall voltage gain Ri Ro Av = current gain

vo vi vo = = vS vi vS

Ri RS + Ri

io vo /Ro Ri vo = = = ii vi /Ri Ro vi

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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Current Amplier
RS + ii Ri Aisii Ro io + vo RL

vS

Ais =

io ii

= short circuit current gain


vo =0

Ai =

io = ii

Ro Ro + RL

Ais = input current gain

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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Transconductance Amplier
RS + + vi Ri Gmsvi Ro io + vo RL

vS

Gms =

io vi

= short circuit transconductance


vo =0

Gm =

io = vi

Ro Ro + RL

Gms = input transconductance

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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Transresistance Amplier
RS + ii Ri + Rmoii Ro io + vo RL

vS

Rmo =

vo ii

= open circuit transconductance


Io =0

Rm =

vo = ii

RL RL + Ro

Rmo = input transconductance

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson

320-amp-models.tex

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Conversion Between Amplier Models


Lets nd the component values of a voltage amp that is equivalent to a given current amp.
RS + ii Ri Aisii Ro io + vo RL
+ RS + vi Ri + AvoviRo io + vo RL

vS

vS

Current Amp

Voltage Amp

Neither Ro or Ri needs a new value, although Ro changes from parallel- to series-connected.

Avo =

vo vi

=
io =0

Ro Ais ii Ro Ais Ro = = Ais vi vi /ii Ri

Note that this nal expression contains only component values, and that all the voltages and currents have been eliminated.

ECE 320 - Linear Active Circuit Design

Phyllis R. Nelson