Chapter 6



Topic 6.1.1 Introduction 6.1.2 Type of flow in heat exchanger 6.1.3 Heat Exchanger Standard and Quality 6.2.0 OBJECTIVE 6.3.0 CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF HEAT EXCHANGER 6.3.1 Heat transfer 6.3.2 Classification on service 6.3.3 Design data 6.4.0 Design of heat exchanger 6.5.0 Summary 6.6.0 Appendix 6.7.0 Reference 6.8.0 Nomenclature

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List of figure Figure 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.1.4 6.1.5 6.1.6 6.1.7 6.1.8 6.1.9 6.1.10 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 6.4.5 6.4.6 6.4.7 6.4.8 6.4.9 Description Double-pipe exchangers Shell and tube exchangers Plate and frame exchangers Plate-fin exchangers Air cooled Spiral heat exchanger Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger Counter Flow of Heat Exchanger Cross Flow Heat Exchanger TEMA designations for shell-and-tube heat exchangers heat exchanger H101 Overall coefficient Temperature Differences between Inlet and Outlet of organic mixture and steam Type of pitch and its number of passes Shell bundle clearance Tube side heat transfer factor Shell side heat transfer factors Tube side friction factors Shell side friction factors Page No.

6.1.1 Introduction

the transfer of heat to and from the process fluid is very important and critical. used for cooling and heating Figure 6.2 . manufacturing and service heat exchanger.1. The basic or the common type of heat exchanger used in chemical process and allied industries is: 1) Double-pipe exchanger: the simplest type.1 2) Shell and tube exchangers: common and used for all application Figure6. operating. So to understand the heat exchanger theory is very critical to engineer that involved in designing. The main purpose of heat exchanger device is that facilitate the exchange of heat between two fluids that are at different temperatures while keeping them from mixing with each other.1. There are many types of heat exchanger in industry.In chemical processes industrial. A common heat exchanger in household usage is the water heater and air conditioner system.

3) Plate and frame exchanger: used for heating and cooling Figure 6.1.3 4) Plate-fin exchangers .

5 6) Spiral heat exchanger .4 5) Air cooled Figure6.1.Figure6.1.

and travel in parallel to one another to the other side. cost. Other consideration like servicing. 6.1. Parallel-flow heat exchanger: the two fluids enter the exchanger at the same end. type and material construction.1. Figure 6.7: Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger .2Type of flow in heat exchanger There are 3 types of flow in heat exchanger design. weight. reliability of heat exchanger and safety also need to consider.6 The selection of a heat exchanger involves many criteria that need to take important. I.1.Figure 6. The criteria include heat transfer rate. maintenance cost. size.

II.3 Heat Exchanger Standard and Quality In this design heat exchanger.1. we will try to follow the standard and quality from the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA).1. The TEMA standards have Three classes of mechanical standards R.9: Cross Flow Heat Exchanger 6. The counter flow design is the most efficient because it can transfer the most heat from the heat transfer medium due to the fact that the average temperature difference along any unit length is greater. . This TEMA standard is the standard of worldwide and has acceptance as the authority on shell and tube heat exchanger mechanical design. Figure 6. Figure6. C and B at presented reflecting acceptable designs for various service applications.8: Counter Flow of Heat Exchanger III. Cross Flow Heat Exchanger: The fluid flow roughly perpendicular to one another through the exchanger.1. The user or designer should refer to the scope of each section and choose the one that best fits the specific need. Counter-flow heat exchanger: The fluid enter the exchanger from the opposite ends. This association is the trade association of the leading in manufacturer of the shell and tube heat exchanger.

fabrication and materials of unfired shell and tube heat exchanger for chemical process service TEMA also have publishes standards defining how shell and tube exchanger should be built. They define a naming system that is commonly used. fabrication. . and materials of unfired shell and tube heat exchanger for the generally severe requirements of petroleum and related processing application The TEMA Mechanical Standards for Class “C” heat exchanger specify design. fabrication and materials of unfired shell and tube heat exchanger moderate requirements of commercial and general process application The TEMA Mechanical Standards for Class “B” heat exchanger specify design.TEMA Class “R” TEMA Class “C” TEMA Class “B” The TEMA Mechanical Standards for Class “R” heat exchanger specify design.

Figure 6.1.10: TEMA designations for shell-and-tube heat exchangers .

1 Heat transfer By design the heat exchanger. 6. In this design project will focus on heater and understand more about it. . In order to satisfy the amount of heat to be transferred.0 OBJECTIVE 1. Heat transfer is about • • • heat released equal to heat absorbed hot fluid is released and absorbed by cold fluid Must satisfy balance of heat transfer. To design heat exchanger and understand shell-and-tube heat exchanger component. There are some consideration: • • • • • design data tube side design shell side design fouling consideration latest available technology 6.2 Classification on service • • • • • Heat exchanger: both sides single phase and process streams (that is. To determine the suitable hot fluid to heating the mixture in the heat exchanger.3. baffling. appropriate design on heat transfer area is crucial. Condenser: one stream a condensing vapor and the other cooling water or air. pressure drop and mean temperature. • Reboiler: one stream a bottoms stream from a distillation column and the other a hot utility (steam or hot oil) or a process stream. such as steam or hot oil.6. Cooler: one stream a process fluid and the other cooling water or air. tube layout.3.2. the designer need to understand more about heat transfer. Heater: one stream a process fluid and the other a hot utility.3.0 CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF HEAT EXCHANGER 6. not a utility). Chiller: one stream a process fluid being condensed at sub-atmospheric temperatures and the other a boiling refrigerant or process stream. 2.

Fouling resistance for both streams also important.987atm) 4. the general allowable pressure drop is 0.68 Temperature.6.oC Physical properties • • Table 2 Fluid Density (kg/m ) Cold Fluid Hot Fluid 0.5-0. T(K) 393.13 423.750C) Flow rate (kg/s) 1.7 kg/cm2 is permitted per shell.15 (150oC) 100 (0. In our design that use liquid for hot fluid. P (kPa) 100 (0.3 Design data • Table 1 Fluid Temperature.617x10-5 Thermal conductivity (W/mK) 0.950C) Outlet Pressure.68 Hot Fluid: Steam 473. the fouling resistance or fouling factor for our fluid is Steam (oil free) 10000 W/m2.1 (119.46 3 Physical Properties Viscosity (Pa. P (kPa) 100 (0. T(K) Cold Fluid: H20 H2N(CH2)6NH2 (CH2)4(COOH)2 Nylon Inlet Pressure.15 (200oC) 100 (0.987atm) 4.202 0.9 (40.3.987atm) 313.0322 .68x10-4 1. A higher pressure drop is usually warranted for viscous liquid.13 • Allowable pressure drop for both stream is very important parameter for heat exchanger design.987atm) Flow rate (kg/s) 1.202 0. Based on the value specify in the TEMA standards.oC Organic liquid 5000 W/m2.s) 9.

square or rotated square pattern. The thermal conductivities is 388 W/m0C. It helps increase the fluid velocity.25 times the tube outside diameter. In this design project. we use double segmental baffle with 15 per cent cut. 1 tube passes were chosen for our calculation. thus improving the heat transfer rate. The best and suitable application for heater is shell and tube heat exchanger because of many advantages and widely used in industry.88 = 7. In this project. In our design.96 kW Type of heat exchanger: There many types of heat exchanger that can chose to design heater.• • Heat duty: The heat duty should be consistent for both the shell side and tube side. The shell and tube are made from identical material. • Baffles: Baffles are used in shell to direct the fluids stream across the tube. The most common used of baffles is the single segmented baffle. Preferred tube size: The tube size is designated as Outer Diameter X thickness X length = 20x10-3 X 2x10-3 X 1. The recommended tube pitch is 1. Copper is chosen because can give high thermal conductivities and also commonly use. we chose the triangular pattern because of high heat coefficient and create more turbulence . Heat duty in this design heater is Qh = Qc = 413. • • Tube Side Passes: The fluid in the tube is usually directed to flow back and forth in a number of “passes” through groups of tubes arranged in parallel. .52x10-5 m3 • • Material of construction: The shell and tube are made from identical materials that is copper. Tube Arrangement: The tubes in a heat exchanger are usually arranged in an equilateral triangular. to increase the length of the flow path.

There is no leakage of the fluid between shell passes 7.) . No heat loss to surrounding 5.0 Design of heat exchanger In this designing. the objective is to design a suitable heat exchanger for Heater H101.1: heat exchanger H101 Assumptions: 1. min=mout 4.4. The Cp’s are constant over the temperature range involve (Reasonable for most exchanger of pratical interest.4. ΔKe = ΔPe = 0 8. Inlet and outlet flow rate is equal. Equal heat transfer areas in each pass 6. Under steady state operation 3.6. No work interaction. The type that has choose is shell and tube exchanger counter flow because of high heat transfer. Changes of kinetic and potential energy are negligible. Figure 6. Heating up medium is free from contamination 9. W = 0 2.

4. to determine the cheapest exchanger that will satisfy the duty.1 (119. T(K) 393. Define the duty: heat-transfer rate. U is constant over the tempearature range involved.9 (40.950C) Outlet Pressure. 5.15 100 4. Tm. 8. Calculate the exchanger pressure drop. 6. and temperatures.987atm) The heat transfer rate of hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer rate of cold fluid. and temperatures. Collect together the fluid physical properties required: density. Decide the exchanger layout.13 . Table 1 Fluid Temperature. Select a trial value for the overall coefficient. 10.987atm) 313.10.68 Temperature. thermal conductivity. 2. 7. viscosity. 3. Decide on the type of exchanger to be used.987atm) (150oC) (0.750C) Flow rate (kg/s) 1. 4. U. Calculate the mean temperature difference.987atm) Flow rate (kg/s) 1. Usually this will be the one with the smallest area. T(K) Cold Fluid: H20 H2N(CH2)6NH2 (CH2)4(COOH)2 Nylon Inlet Pressure. fluid flow-rates. (reasonable for most exchanger of pratical interest The typical step in design heat exchanger is[1] : 1. 9. fluid flow-rates. 11. Calculate the overall coefficient and compare with the trial value.13 423. if unsatisfactory return to steps 7 or 4 or 3. Calculate the area required from Q = UAΔTm. as necessary.15 100 (200oC) (0. Step 1:Define the duty: heat-transfer rate. Optimize the design: repeat steps 4 to 10. If the calculated value differs significantly from the estimated value. Calculate the individual coefficients. in that order of preference. substitute the calculated for the estimated value and return to step 6. P (kPa) 100 (0.68 Hot Fluid: Steam 473. P (kPa) 100 (0.

can withstand more abuse (physical and process) .0202 0.68x10-4 1.322 Step 3: Decide on the type of exchanger to be used The plant has choose the shell-and tube heat exchanger because of many factor.617x10-5 Thermal conductivity (W/mK) 0. Can be built from a wide range of materials 3. steam generator.s) 9. They also have been used as alternative energy application including ocean. Cleaning and repair is very easy and straightforward 4.K x ( Tout . Rugged mechanical construction . They are used in many process industries. Most versatile in terms of types of service 7. 5. Low cost because simple construction.Qh = Qc = 413. Widest range of allowable design pressures and temperatures 8.96kW= 4.15)K Step 2: Collect together the fluid physical properties required: density. The advantages[4] of shell and tube heat exchangers are: 1.473.13kg/s x 2 kJ/kg.96 kW The temperature out get from mass energy balance calculation: Qout=mCp∆T -413. Widely known and understood since it is the most common type. in conventional and nuclear power station. viscosity. Table 2 Fluid Density (kg/m ) Cold Fluid Hot Fluid 0. The shell-andtube heat exchanger is the common heat exchanger in industry and most widely use. thermal conductivity. It give a large surface area in a small volume 2. Shell and tube is the most versatile heat exchanger. and other more. 6. thermal geothermal.46 3 Physical Properties Viscosity (Pa.202 0.

ΔTm. we need to calculate the mean temperature difference. based on Coulson Richardson’s Chemical Engineering Design Volume 6. From the figure 6. Countercurrent flow has high LMTD(log mean temperature difference) than concurrent flow.75 T (°C) . 1 shell and 1 tube passes have been chosen. our estimated overall coefficient value is 500 W/m2 oC. U. So. Temperature difference is the driving force for heat transfer. the approximate value of overall heat transfer is as follows Steam Organic solvents 500-1000W/m2°C Therefore.Step 4: Select a trial value for the overall coefficient.2 in the appendix. T (°C) 200 150 119 40.4. Step 5: Calculate the mean temperature difference.

4.3 Temperature Differences between Inlet and Outlet of organic mixture and steam The temperature correction factor is calculated: .Figure 6.

Step 6: Calculate the area required from Q = UAΔTm The area is calculated from the equation: .

as the shell side is relatively clean. The tube thickness also selected to endure the internal pressure and sufficient corrosion allowance.25 triangular pitch. Therefore. . so more cheaper exchanger[1].88 2 Number of tubes From Coulson Richardson’s Chemical Engineering Design Volume 6. 20 diameter have been chose because smaller diameter will more compact. use 1.Step 7: Decide the exchanger Layout The normal range of tube diameter heat exchanger is 16mm to 50 mm. The standard diameter and wall thickness for steel tube are given in figure Table 3 Inner Diameter Outer Diameter Length Wall Thickness Surface area of one tube Dimension(mm) 18 20 1.

4 in the appendix. (In the range of 5-10) Step 8: Calculate the individual coefficients Tube-side coefficient: (hot fluid) .5.From Figure 6. 1 pass have chosen Tube bundle diameter.4.4. As a fixed and U-tube head type is chosen. Where. Thus. from Figure 6.

This show very good because turbulence flow give high heat coefficient and good heat transfer.This value show that steam in tube side is turbulence flow as Reynolds number is greater than 2000.6.4. By referring to figure 6. the heat transfer factor is .

we take 30% of the shell diameter as the baffle spacing.5 times the shell inside diameter. In this case. mm For an equilateral triangular pitch arrangement: .3 to 0.Shell-side coefficient: (cold fluid) The optimum baffle spacing is 0.

Thus. Without the viscosity correction term. this value shows that the mixture of component in shell is turbulence flow as Reynolds number is greater than 2000. Overall heat transfer coefficient can be calculated by using the following equation. Uo = the overall heat transfer coefficient based on the outside area of the tube hs = outside fluid film coefficient hsd = outside dirt coefficient hid = inside dirt coefficient hi = inside fluid film coefficient kw = thermal conductivity of the tube wall material di = tube inside diameter do = tube outside diameter . = Step 9: Calculate the overall coefficient and compare with the trial value. 15 percent per baffle cut is chosen.So is good for our performance in shell and tube exchanger because turbulence flow give high heat transfer.4. Where.7[1]. From Figure 6.

Step 10: Calculate the exchanger pressure drop Tube-side: From Figure 6. so to decrease the pressure so that not over the limit is to[4]: • The tube diameter can be increased which effect :   Decrease the tube length Increase the shell diameter and the number of tubes . but after calculation is 312.8.The first assumption of overall heat transfer coefficient is 500 W/m2 0C . So the assumption not very much good.4. Neglecting the viscosity correction term The pressure drop is high because of the high viscosity and velocity flow rate.43 W/m2 0C that is 37% deviate from the first assumption. So the assumption is not very good because the assumption is from the range (Steam Organic solvents 500-1000W/m2°C) but the organic solvent in our shell side have water also because of the mixture.

for Neglecting viscosity correction term 2. 6.0 Summary Qualitative Design for Heater Title Type of Heat Exchanger Shell Tube Material of Construction Tube of material Results Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (fixed and U-tube head) Carry Cold mixture Carry Steam Carbon Steel Copper .5. tube pitch and baffle cut can be increased or one can change the baffle type.95 bar The pressure drop is too high and greater than allowable pressure drop then[4]: • Baffle spacing.4.9.Shell-side: From Figure 6.

4.95 6.K 0. Q Log Mean Temperature Difference Heat Transfer Area Number of Tubes Number of passes Tube Length Tube Inner Diameter Tube Outer Diameter Shell Inner Diameter Baffle Spacing Reynolds Number (Tube Side) Pressure Drop (Tube Side) Pitch Reynolds Number (Shell Side) Pressure Drop (Shell Side) Nusselt Number.082 m m m m m Dimensionless bar m Dimensionless bar Dimensionless W/m2.88 0.K Dimensionless W/m2.273 0.Shell of material Quantitative Results Parameters Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Heat duty.6.K kW o C m2 - Copper Values 413. Nu (Tube Side) Heat Transfer Coefficient.025 2. Nu (Shell Side) Heat Transfer Coefficient.89 9.2 Overall coefficient .96 93.48 1 1.020 0. h (Tube Side) Unit W/m2.018 0.0 APPENDIX Figure 6. h (Shell Side) Nusselt Number.

4 Type of pitch and its number of passes.4.Figure 6. .

Figure6.5 Shell bundle clearance .4.

6 Tube side heat transfer factor Figure 6.4.7 Shell side heat transfer factors .4.Figure 6.

9 Shell side friction factors .8 Tube side friction factors Figure6.4. 4.Figure 6.

D. 4. H. 7th Edition. New York. Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association. Butterworth Heinemann. Coulson & Richardson Chemical Engineering (Volume 6) 3rd Edition. Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook. (1997). Sinnott. 3. W.0 NOMENCLATURE AS Ashell Atube C Cp fS ft Heat transfer area Shell part cross flow area Tube part cross flow area Clearance Specific heat capacity Friction factor on the shell part Friction factor on the tube part .7. & Green. R.cuny.8. McGraw Hill. 7th Edition.engr.pdf 6.0 REFERENCES 1. Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association.ccny. (1999). 2.K. Heat Exchanger Design Retrieved 20th May 2013 http://wwwche.6. TEMA (1988). Perry.

shell ho. tube Jh kt Correction factor Mass flux in shell Mass flux in tube Heat transfer coefficient Outside dirt coefficient Inside dirt coefficient Heat transfer coefficient on the shell side Heat transfer coefficient on the tube part Heat transfer factor Thermal conductivity of the wall tube material Mass flowrate N Nt P Number of baffle Number of tube Temperature efficiency of heat exchanger Rate of heat transfer Re Tin Tout U UO US Ut Reynolds number Inlet Temperature Outlet Temperature Estimated overall heat transfer coefficient Calculated overall heat transfer coefficient Velocity of the mixture inside the shell Velocity of the hot water inside the tube .F Gs Gt h HOD HID ho.

Rate of work transfer Greek Letters Density Shell side pressure drop Tube side pressure drop due to friction Tube side pressure drop Change in temperature ΔTLMTD ΔTM . Log mean temperature difference True temperature difference .

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