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Chapter 6

HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN

MOHAMAD HAIQAL BIN ZAINAL ABIDIN KEK100026

Topic 6.1.1 Introduction 6.1.2 Type of flow in heat exchanger 6.1.3 Heat Exchanger Standard and Quality 6.2.0 OBJECTIVE 6.3.0 CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF HEAT EXCHANGER 6.3.1 Heat transfer 6.3.2 Classification on service 6.3.3 Design data 6.4.0 Design of heat exchanger 6.5.0 Summary 6.6.0 Appendix 6.7.0 Reference 6.8.0 Nomenclature

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List of figure Figure 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.1.4 6.1.5 6.1.6 6.1.7 6.1.8 6.1.9 6.1.10 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 6.4.5 6.4.6 6.4.7 6.4.8 6.4.9 Description Double-pipe exchangers Shell and tube exchangers Plate and frame exchangers Plate-fin exchangers Air cooled Spiral heat exchanger Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger Counter Flow of Heat Exchanger Cross Flow Heat Exchanger TEMA designations for shell-and-tube heat exchangers heat exchanger H101 Overall coefficient Temperature Differences between Inlet and Outlet of organic mixture and steam Type of pitch and its number of passes Shell bundle clearance Tube side heat transfer factor Shell side heat transfer factors Tube side friction factors Shell side friction factors Page No.

6.1.1 Introduction

In chemical processes industrial, the transfer of heat to and from the process fluid is very important and critical. So to understand the heat exchanger theory is very critical to engineer that involved in designing, operating, manufacturing and service heat exchanger. The main purpose of heat exchanger device is that facilitate the exchange of heat between two fluids that are at different temperatures while keeping them from mixing with each other. A common heat exchanger in household usage is the water heater and air conditioner system. There are many types of heat exchanger in industry. The basic or the common type of heat exchanger used in chemical process and allied industries is: 1) Double-pipe exchanger: the simplest type, used for cooling and heating

Figure 6.1.1 2) Shell and tube exchangers: common and used for all application

Figure6.1.2

3) Plate and frame exchanger: used for heating and cooling

Figure 6.1.3 4) Plate-fin exchangers

Figure6.1.4 5) Air cooled

Figure6.1.5

6) Spiral heat exchanger

Figure 6.1.6 The selection of a heat exchanger involves many criteria that need to take important. The criteria include heat transfer rate, cost, size, weight, type and material construction. Other consideration like servicing, maintenance cost, reliability of heat exchanger and safety also need to consider.

6.1.2Type of flow in heat exchanger There are 3 types of flow in heat exchanger design. I. Parallel-flow heat exchanger: the two fluids enter the exchanger at the same end, and travel in parallel to one another to the other side.

Figure 6.1.7: Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger

II.

Counter-flow heat exchanger: The fluid enter the exchanger from the opposite ends. The counter flow design is the most efficient because it can transfer the most heat from the heat transfer medium due to the fact that the average temperature difference along any unit length is greater.

Figure6.1.8: Counter Flow of Heat Exchanger III. Cross Flow Heat Exchanger: The fluid flow roughly perpendicular to one another through the exchanger.

Figure 6.1.9: Cross Flow Heat Exchanger

6.1.3 Heat Exchanger Standard and Quality In this design heat exchanger, we will try to follow the standard and quality from the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA). This association is the trade association of the leading in manufacturer of the shell and tube heat exchanger. This TEMA standard is the standard of worldwide and has acceptance as the authority on shell and tube heat exchanger mechanical design. The TEMA standards have Three classes of mechanical standards R, C and B at presented reflecting acceptable designs for various service applications. The user or designer should refer to the scope of each section and choose the one that best fits the specific need.

TEMA Class R

TEMA Class C

TEMA Class B

The TEMA Mechanical Standards for Class R heat exchanger specify design, fabrication, and materials of unfired shell and tube heat exchanger for the generally severe requirements of petroleum and related processing application The TEMA Mechanical Standards for Class C heat exchanger specify design, fabrication and materials of unfired shell and tube heat exchanger moderate requirements of commercial and general process application The TEMA Mechanical Standards for Class B heat exchanger specify design, fabrication and materials of unfired shell and tube heat exchanger for chemical process service

TEMA also have publishes standards defining how shell and tube exchanger should be built. They define a naming system that is commonly used.

Figure 6.1.10: TEMA designations for shell-and-tube heat exchangers

6.2.0 OBJECTIVE 1. To design heat exchanger and understand shell-and-tube heat exchanger component, tube layout, baffling, pressure drop and mean temperature. 2. To determine the suitable hot fluid to heating the mixture in the heat exchanger.

6.3.0 CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF HEAT EXCHANGER 6.3.1 Heat transfer By design the heat exchanger, the designer need to understand more about heat transfer. Heat transfer is about heat released equal to heat absorbed hot fluid is released and absorbed by cold fluid Must satisfy balance of heat transfer, appropriate design on heat transfer area is crucial.

In order to satisfy the amount of heat to be transferred. There are some consideration: design data tube side design shell side design fouling consideration latest available technology

6.3.2 Classification on service Heat exchanger: both sides single phase and process streams (that is, not a utility). Cooler: one stream a process fluid and the other cooling water or air. Heater: one stream a process fluid and the other a hot utility, such as steam or hot oil. Condenser: one stream a condensing vapor and the other cooling water or air. Chiller: one stream a process fluid being condensed at sub-atmospheric temperatures and the other a boiling refrigerant or process stream. Reboiler: one stream a bottoms stream from a distillation column and the other a hot utility (steam or hot oil) or a process stream. In this design project will focus on heater and understand more about it.

6.3.3 Design data


Table 1

Fluid Temperature, T(K) Cold Fluid:


H20 H2N(CH2)6NH2 (CH2)4(COOH)2 Nylon

Inlet Pressure, P (kPa) 100 (0.987atm)

313.9 (40.750C)

Flow rate (kg/s) 1.68

Temperature, T(K) 393.1 (119.950C)

Outlet Pressure, P (kPa) 100 (0.987atm)

Flow rate (kg/s) 1.68

Hot Fluid:
Steam

473.15 (200oC)

100 (0.987atm)

4.13

423.15 (150oC)

100 (0.987atm)

4.13

Allowable pressure drop for both stream is very important parameter for heat exchanger design. In our design that use liquid for hot fluid, the general allowable pressure drop is 0.5-0.7 kg/cm2 is permitted per shell. A higher pressure drop is usually warranted for viscous liquid. Fouling resistance for both streams also important. Based on the value specify in the TEMA standards, the fouling resistance or fouling factor for our fluid is Steam (oil free) 10000 W/m2.oC Organic liquid 5000 W/m2.oC Physical properties

Table 2 Fluid Density (kg/m ) Cold Fluid Hot Fluid 0.202 0.46
3

Physical Properties Viscosity (Pa.s) 9.68x10-4 1.617x10-5

Thermal conductivity (W/mK) 0.202 0.0322

Heat duty: The heat duty should be consistent for both the shell side and tube side. Heat duty in this design heater is Qh = Qc = 413.96 kW Type of heat exchanger: There many types of heat exchanger that can chose to design heater. The best and suitable application for heater is shell and tube heat exchanger because of many advantages and widely used in industry. Preferred tube size: The tube size is designated as Outer Diameter X thickness X length = 20x10-3 X 2x10-3 X 1.88 = 7.52x10-5 m3

Material of construction: The shell and tube are made from identical materials that is copper. Copper is chosen because can give high thermal conductivities and also commonly use. The thermal conductivities is 388 W/m0C. The shell and tube are made from identical material. Tube Arrangement: The tubes in a heat exchanger are usually arranged in an equilateral triangular, square or rotated square pattern. In this project, we chose the triangular pattern because of high heat coefficient and create more turbulence . The recommended tube pitch is 1.25 times the tube outside diameter.

Tube Side Passes: The fluid in the tube is usually directed to flow back and forth in a number of passes through groups of tubes arranged in parallel, to increase the length of the flow path. In this design project, 1 tube passes were chosen for our calculation.

Baffles: Baffles are used in shell to direct the fluids stream across the tube. It helps increase the fluid velocity, thus improving the heat transfer rate. The most common used of baffles is the single segmented baffle. In our design, we use double segmental baffle with 15 per cent cut.

6.4.0 Design of heat exchanger In this designing, the objective is to design a suitable heat exchanger for Heater H101. The type that has choose is shell and tube exchanger counter flow because of high heat transfer.

Figure 6.4.1: heat exchanger H101 Assumptions: 1. No work interaction, W = 0 2. Under steady state operation 3. Inlet and outlet flow rate is equal, min=mout 4. No heat loss to surrounding 5. Equal heat transfer areas in each pass 6. There is no leakage of the fluid between shell passes 7. Changes of kinetic and potential energy are negligible, Ke = Pe = 0 8. Heating up medium is free from contamination 9. The Cps are constant over the temperature range involve (Reasonable for most exchanger of pratical interest.)

10. U is constant over the tempearature range involved. (reasonable for most exchanger of pratical interest The typical step in design heat exchanger is[1] : 1. Define the duty: heat-transfer rate, fluid flow-rates, and temperatures. 2. Collect together the fluid physical properties required: density, viscosity, thermal conductivity. 3. Decide on the type of exchanger to be used. 4. Select a trial value for the overall coefficient, U. 5. Calculate the mean temperature difference, 6. Calculate the area required from Q = UATm. 7. Decide the exchanger layout. 8. Calculate the individual coefcients. 9. Calculate the overall coefcient and compare with the trial value. If the calculated value differs signicantly from the estimated value, substitute the calculated for the estimated value and return to step 6. 10. Calculate the exchanger pressure drop; if unsatisfactory return to steps 7 or 4 or 3, in that order of preference. 11. Optimize the design: repeat steps 4 to 10, as necessary, to determine the cheapest exchanger that will satisfy the duty. Usually this will be the one with the smallest area. Tm.

Step 1:Define the duty: heat-transfer rate, fluid flow-rates, and temperatures. Table 1

Fluid Temperature, T(K) Cold Fluid:


H20 H2N(CH2)6NH2 (CH2)4(COOH)2 Nylon

Inlet Pressure, P (kPa) 100 (0.987atm)

313.9 (40.750C)

Flow rate (kg/s) 1.68

Temperature, T(K) 393.1 (119.950C)

Outlet Pressure, P (kPa) 100 (0.987atm)

Flow rate (kg/s) 1.68

Hot Fluid:
Steam

473.15 100 4.13 423.15 100 (200oC) (0.987atm) (150oC) (0.987atm) The heat transfer rate of hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer rate of cold fluid,

4.13

Qh = Qc = 413.96 kW The temperature out get from mass energy balance calculation: Qout=mCpT -413.96kW= 4.13kg/s x 2 kJ/kg.K x ( Tout - 473.15)K

Step 2: Collect together the uid physical properties required: density, viscosity, thermal conductivity. Table 2 Fluid Density (kg/m ) Cold Fluid Hot Fluid 0.0202 0.46
3

Physical Properties Viscosity (Pa.s) 9.68x10-4 1.617x10-5

Thermal conductivity (W/mK) 0.202 0.322

Step 3: Decide on the type of exchanger to be used The plant has choose the shell-and tube heat exchanger because of many factor. The shell-andtube heat exchanger is the common heat exchanger in industry and most widely use. Shell and tube is the most versatile heat exchanger. They are used in many process industries, in conventional and nuclear power station, steam generator, and other more. They also have been used as alternative energy application including ocean, thermal geothermal. The advantages[4] of shell and tube heat exchangers are: 1. It give a large surface area in a small volume 2. Can be built from a wide range of materials 3. Cleaning and repair is very easy and straightforward 4. Low cost because simple construction. 5. Widely known and understood since it is the most common type. 6. Most versatile in terms of types of service
7. Widest range of allowable design pressures and temperatures

8. Rugged mechanical construction - can withstand more abuse (physical and process)

Step 4: Select a trial value for the overall coefficient, U. From the figure 6.4.2 in the appendix, based on Coulson Richardsons Chemical Engineering Design Volume 6, the approximate value of overall heat transfer is as follows Steam Organic solvents 500-1000W/m2C

Therefore, our estimated overall coefficient value is 500 W/m2 oC.

Step 5: Calculate the mean temperature difference, Tm. 1 shell and 1 tube passes have been chosen. So, we need to calculate the mean temperature difference. Temperature difference is the driving force for heat transfer. Countercurrent flow has high LMTD(log mean temperature difference) than concurrent flow. T (C)
200 150 119 40.75

T (C)

Figure 6.4.3 Temperature Differences between Inlet and Outlet of organic mixture and steam

The temperature correction factor is calculated:

Step 6: Calculate the area required from Q = UATm

The area is calculated from the equation:

Step 7: Decide the exchanger Layout The normal range of tube diameter heat exchanger is 16mm to 50 mm. Therefore, 20 diameter have been chose because smaller diameter will more compact, so more cheaper exchanger[1]. The tube thickness also selected to endure the internal pressure and sufficient corrosion allowance. The standard diameter and wall thickness for steel tube are given in figure Table 3 Inner Diameter Outer Diameter Length Wall Thickness Surface area of one tube Dimension(mm) 18 20 1.88 2

Number of tubes

From Coulson Richardsons Chemical Engineering Design Volume 6, as the shell side is relatively clean, use 1.25 triangular pitch.

From Figure 6.4.4 in the appendix, 1 pass have chosen

Tube bundle diameter,

Where;

As a fixed and U-tube head type is chosen, from Figure 6.4.5,

Thus,

(In the range of 5-10)

Step 8: Calculate the individual coefcients

Tube-side coefficient: (hot fluid)

This value show that steam in tube side is turbulence flow as Reynolds number is greater than 2000. This show very good because turbulence flow give high heat coefficient and good heat transfer. By referring to figure 6.4.6, the heat transfer factor is

Shell-side coefficient: (cold fluid)

The optimum baffle spacing is 0.3 to 0.5 times the shell inside diameter. In this case, we take 30% of the shell diameter as the baffle spacing, mm

For an equilateral triangular pitch arrangement:

Thus, this value shows that the mixture of component in shell is turbulence flow as Reynolds number is greater than 2000.So is good for our performance in shell and tube exchanger because turbulence flow give high heat transfer.

15 percent per baffle cut is chosen. From Figure 6.4.7[1],

Without the viscosity correction term, =

Step 9: Calculate the overall coefcient and compare with the trial value. Overall heat transfer coefficient can be calculated by using the following equation,

Where, Uo = the overall heat transfer coefficient based on the outside area of the tube hs = outside fluid film coefficient hsd = outside dirt coefficient hid = inside dirt coefficient hi = inside fluid film coefficient kw = thermal conductivity of the tube wall material di = tube inside diameter do = tube outside diameter

The first assumption of overall heat transfer coefficient is 500 W/m2 0C , but after calculation is 312.43 W/m2 0C that is 37% deviate from the first assumption. So the assumption is not very good because the assumption is from the range (Steam Organic solvents 500-1000W/m2C) but the organic solvent in our shell side have water also because of the mixture. So the assumption not very much good.

Step 10: Calculate the exchanger pressure drop

Tube-side: From Figure 6.4.8, Neglecting the viscosity correction term

The pressure drop is high because of the high viscosity and velocity flow rate, so to decrease the pressure so that not over the limit is to[4]: The tube diameter can be increased which effect : Decrease the tube length Increase the shell diameter and the number of tubes

Shell-side: From Figure 6.4.9, for

Neglecting viscosity correction term

2.95 bar

The pressure drop is too high and greater than allowable pressure drop then[4]: Baffle spacing, tube pitch and baffle cut can be increased or one can change the baffle type.

6.5.0 Summary Qualitative Design for Heater Title Type of Heat Exchanger Shell Tube Material of Construction Tube of material

Results Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (fixed and U-tube head) Carry Cold mixture Carry Steam Carbon Steel Copper

Shell of material Quantitative Results Parameters Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Heat duty, Q Log Mean Temperature Difference Heat Transfer Area Number of Tubes Number of passes Tube Length Tube Inner Diameter Tube Outer Diameter Shell Inner Diameter Baffle Spacing Reynolds Number (Tube Side) Pressure Drop (Tube Side) Pitch Reynolds Number (Shell Side) Pressure Drop (Shell Side) Nusselt Number, Nu (Shell Side) Heat Transfer Coefficient, h (Shell Side) Nusselt Number, Nu (Tube Side) Heat Transfer Coefficient, h (Tube Side) Unit W/m2.K kW o C m2 -

Copper Values 413.96 93.89 9.48 1 1.88 0.018 0.020 0.273 0.082

m m m m m Dimensionless bar m Dimensionless bar Dimensionless W/m2.K Dimensionless W/m2.K

0.025 2.95

6.6.0 APPENDIX
Figure 6.4.2 Overall coefficient

Figure 6.4.4 Type of pitch and its number of passes.

Figure6.4.5 Shell bundle clearance

Figure 6.4.6 Tube side heat transfer factor

Figure 6.4.7 Shell side heat transfer factors

Figure 6.4.8 Tube side friction factors

Figure6. 4.9 Shell side friction factors

6.7.0 REFERENCES 1. Sinnott, R.K. (1999). Coulson & Richardson Chemical Engineering (Volume 6) 3rd Edition, Butterworth Heinemann. 2. Perry, R. H. & Green, D. W. (1997). Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook, 7th Edition, McGraw Hill. 3. TEMA (1988). Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, 7th Edition, Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association, New York. 4. Heat Exchanger Design Retrieved 20th May 2013 http://wwwche.engr.ccny.cuny.edu/rinard/design/materials/3.pdf

6.8.0 NOMENCLATURE

AS Ashell Atube C Cp fS ft

Heat transfer area Shell part cross flow area Tube part cross flow area Clearance Specific heat capacity Friction factor on the shell part Friction factor on the tube part

F Gs Gt h HOD HID ho,shell ho, tube Jh kt

Correction factor Mass flux in shell Mass flux in tube Heat transfer coefficient Outside dirt coefficient Inside dirt coefficient Heat transfer coefficient on the shell side Heat transfer coefficient on the tube part Heat transfer factor Thermal conductivity of the wall tube material Mass flowrate

N Nt P

Number of baffle Number of tube Temperature efficiency of heat exchanger Rate of heat transfer

Re Tin Tout U UO US Ut

Reynolds number Inlet Temperature Outlet Temperature Estimated overall heat transfer coefficient Calculated overall heat transfer coefficient Velocity of the mixture inside the shell Velocity of the hot water inside the tube

Rate of work transfer

Greek Letters Density Shell side pressure drop Tube side pressure drop due to friction Tube side pressure drop Change in temperature TLMTD TM
.

Log mean temperature difference True temperature difference