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Patran 2008 r1

Reference Manual
Part 4: Functional Assignments

Main Index
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Main Index
Contents
Functional Assignments

1 Introduction to Functional Assignment Tasks


Orientation 8
Naming Conventions 10

2 Loads and Boundary Conditions Application


Overview of the Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 12
Purpose 12
Definitions 12
Capabilities 13
Summary of Key Features 14

Rules=for Creating/Modifying/Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions


15
Local Coordinate System Definition 16
Sign Conventions 17
Markers 17
Units 17
Set Names 17
Plotting Loads and Boundary Conditions as Contours 17
Set Types 18
Structural Analysis Loads/BCs Set Inputs 19
Thermal Analysis Loads/BCs Set Inputs (other than Patran Thermal) 22
Thermal Analysis Loads/BCs Set Inputs (Patran Thermal) 24
Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis Loads/BCs Set Inputs 25
Loads and Boundary=Conditions Form 27
Create Structural LBCs Sets 27
Create Thermal LBCs Sets 30
Create Fluid Dynamics LBCs Sets 33
Input LBCs Set Data (Static Load Case) 36
Input LBCs Set Data (Time Dependent Load Case) 38
Change Current Load Case 41
LBCs Select Application Region 42
Modify LBCs Sets 44
Delete LBCs Sets 46

Main Index
2 Functional Assignments
==

Show LBCs Sets Tabular Format 48


Loads/BCs Set Show Tabular 50
Plot Contours of LBCs Set Data 50
Plot LBCs Set Markers 52

Loads and Boundary Conditions Global Display Parameters 59

3 Element Properties Application


Overview=of the Element Properties Application 62
Purpose 62
Definitions 62
Capabilities 63
Summary of Key Features 64

Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Element Properties 65

Element Properties Forms 67


Create Element Property Sets 67
Typical Element Properties Input Menu 70
Defining Vectors 72
Modify Element Property Sets 73
Delete Element Property Sets 75
Show Element Property Sets 77
Show Element Properties in Tabular Format 79
Show Element Properties as a Scalar, Vector, or Marker Plot 80
Expand Element Properties 82
Compress Element Properties 84

4 Materials Application
Overview of the Materials Application 88
Purpose 88
Definitions 88
Capabilities 89
Summary of Key Features 89
Rules for Creating/Modifying Materials 90

Materials Forms 91
Create Materials 91
Manual Input 94
Constitutive Model Status 96
Materials Selector 97

Main Index
CONTENTS 3

Materials Selector Database 98


Externally Defined 99
Create Composites 101
Show Materials 103
Show Properties, Tabular 105
Show Material Stiffness/ Compliance Matrix 107
Show Composites 107
Modify Materials 109
Modify Composites 111
Delete Materials 113
Composite Materials Construction 116
Laminated Composite 116
Laminated Composite Form 117
Rule-of-Mixtures Composite 121
Rule-of-Mixtures Composites Form 122
Halpin-Tsai Continuous Fiber Composite 123
Continuous Fiber Composite Form 125
Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Fiber Composite 126
Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Fiber Composite Form 127
Halpin-Tsai Continuous Ribbon Composite 128
Halpin-Tsai Continuous Ribbon Composite Form 129
Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Ribbon Composite 130
Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Ribbon Composite Form 132
Halpin-Tsai Particulate Composite 133
Halpin-Tsai Particulate Composite Form 134
Short Fiber Composite (1D) 135
Short Fiber Composite (1D) Form 136
Short Fiber Composite (2D) 137
Short Fiber Composite (2D) Form 138
Composite Material Properties 139

Theory - Composite Materials 142


Laminated Composite Materials 142
Classical Lamination Theory 143
Rule-of-Mixtures Composite Materials 147
Material Property Derivation 147
Halpin-Tsai Composite Materials 150
Uniform Continuous Fiber 150
Uniform Discontinuous Fiber 152
Uniform Continuous Ribbon 153
Uniform Discontinuous Ribbon 154
Particulate Composite 155
Elasticity and Flexibility Matrices 155

Main Index
4 Functional Assignments
==

Halpin-Tsai Thermal and Moisture Expansion Coefficients 156


Other Material Properties 157
Short Fiber Composite Materials 157

5 Load Cases Application


Overview of the Load Cases Application 162
Purpose 162
Definitions 163
Capabilities 163
Summary of Key Features 164

Rules for Creating/Modifying Load Cases 165


Load Cases Forms 166
Create Load Cases 166
Modify Load Cases 169
Delete Load Cases 172
Show Load Cases 174
Show Assigned Loads/BCs 175
Show Assigned Load Cases 176
Prioritize Loads/BCs Within Load Cases 177
Assign/Prioritize Loads/BCs 178
Combination Load Cases 185
Simple Load and Boundary Condition Grouping 187
Procedure for Simple Load Case Grouping 187
Combining Load Cases 188
Procedure for Combining Load Cases 189

6 Fields Application
Overview of The Fields Function 192
Purpose 192
Definitions 192
Capabilities 193
Summary of Key Features 193

Procedures for Using Fields 195


Create 195
Spatial Fields 196
Data Tables 198
General Fields 201
FEM Fields 202
Creating a Continuous FEM Field 202

Main Index
CONTENTS 5

Creating a Discrete FEM Field 203


Modify a Field 203
Common Spreadsheet Functionality 204
Delete a Field 208
Show a Field 209

Fields Forms 210


Fields Create (Spatial, PCL Function) 212
Field Type (Vector Option) 215
Fields Create (Spatial, Tabular Input) 216
Coordinate System Type (Parametric) 219
Spatial Field 1D Tabular Input 219
Spatial Field 1D Linear Parametric Tabular Input 220
Spatial Field 1D Tabular Input Options 222
Spatial Field 2D Tabular Input 224
Spatial Field 2D Linear Parametric Tabular Input 225
Spatial Field 2D Tabular Input Options 227
Spatial Field 3D Tabular Input 229
Spatial Field 3D Linear Parametric Tabular Input 230
Spatial Field 3D Tabular Input Options 232
Time Spatial Fields Create (Patran Thermal only) 234
Fields Create (Material Property, Tabular Input) 238
Material Field 1D Data Input Table 240
Material Field 2D Data Input Table 241
Material Field 3D Data Input Table 242
Fields Create (Non-Spatial, Tabular Input) 243
Fields Create (Active Independent Variable, Input Data) 245
Fields Create (Input Data, Map Function) 246
Non-Spatial Field 2D Data Input Table 247
Non Spatial Field 3D Data Input Table 248
Non-Spatial Complex Scalar Field Data Input Table 249
Fields Create (Input Complex Data, Map Function) 251
Fields Create (Non-Spatial, Discrete FEM) (SAMCEF Only) 253
Non-Spatial Discrete FEM Field Tabular Input (SAMCEF Only) 255
Fields Create (General Field) 257
Fields Create (General Field, Input Data) 259
Fields Create (General Field, Generic Function) 261
Fields Create (Spatial, Discrete FEM) 262
Spatial Discrete FEM Field Tabular Input 264
Spatial Discrete FEM Field Access by Other Applications 266
Fields Create (Spatial, Continuous FEM) 268
Spatial Continuous FEM Field Options 270
Fields Show 272
Show Field (1D Table Display) 274

Main Index
6 Functional Assignments
==

Show Field (2D Table Display) 275


Show Field (3D Table Display) 276
Show Field (Complex 1D Table Display) 277
Show Field (1D Specify Range) 278
Show Field (2D Specify Range) 279
Show Field (3D Specify Range) 280
Show Field (Discrete FEM Table Display) 281
Fields Modify (Spatial, PCL Function) 282
Fields Modify (Spatial, Tabular Input) 284
Fields Modify (Material Property) 286
Fields Modify (Non-Spatial) 288
Fields Modify (Non-Spatial, Discrete FEM) (SAMCEF Only) 290
Fields Modify (General Field) 292
Fields Modify (Spatial, Discrete FEM) 294
Fields Modify (Spatial, Continuous FEM) 296
Fields Delete 298

Fields Example 301


Spatial PCL Function 301
Index

Main Index
Ch. 1: Introduction to Functional Assignment Tasks
Patran Reference Manual

1 Introduction to Functional
Assignment Tasks

 Orientation 8
 Naming Conventions 10

Main Index
8 Patran Reference Manual
Orientation

1.1 Orientation
Functional Assignments are necessary to turn a collection of finite elements into a complete finite
element model. The five Functional Assignment Applications assign element properties, material
properties, loads and boundary conditions, load cases, as well as assign those features as a function of a
mathematical field.
The diagram below describes the basic flow of finite element analysis and its relationship to the
application of Functional Assignments. The five Functional Assignment Application tasks are the topic
of this chapter.

Geometry FEM Model Analysis Results

Element Properties Load Cases

Material Properties Fields Loads and Boundary Conditions

This area is called Functional


Assignments. They include all the
actions that are necessary to turn a
collection of finite elements into a
complete, ready-for-analysis model.

Each of the five Functional Assignments are accessed by a menu selection in the main form. Each
Functional Assignment area deals with groups of items, typically called sets, that have names and may
be of different types.
A Field is a special kind of Functional Assignment. Fields define spatial and time- or temperature-
dependent distributions of scalar or vector quantities. These functions can be defined by tables or general
PCL expressions in real or parametric space. They are extremely useful tools in defining complex
distributions of element properties, material properties, loads or boundary conditions. Examples include:
the temperature or stress dependence of a material property, the thickness distribution of a shell, and a
time-dependent pressure pulse.

Main Index
Ch. 1: Introduction to Functional Assignment Tasks 9
Orientation

An important feature of Patran is the ability to apply element properties and LBCs to the geometry prior
to meshing. This eliminates the need to reapply them if the finite element model is remeshed.
The primary Functional Assignment actions are Create, Delete, Modify, and Show. These actions refer
both to the contents of the sets themselves, and to their associativity to the geometric and FEM entities
that make up the model.

Create Used to create the element property sets, material property sets, loads and boundary
conditions sets, load cases, and the various fields used to define these sets.
Delete Used to remove the Functional Assignment sets.
Modify Used to edit the Functional Assignments sets.
Show Provides the capability of displaying information in both tabular and plot format. The
most common plot type is contour plot of the selected data on the model, although in
fields and materials XY plotting of data is also supported. Displays other than contours
are also available such as Marker displays, where annotated symbols that indicate a
material type or load direction are shown.

An important characteristic of the Patran approach to finite element analysis is the ability to retain
information in the database. Thus, the model database includes not only the current analysis but also
elements of all previous analyses: different loads, materials, configurations, etc. This archival ability
adds an important new dimension to analysis: a record of its history.
Many of the actions that are taken in Functional Assignments are analysis code specific. The types of
element properties that can be created, the property input forms, and the types of loads that can be applied
all depend on the code preference selected. It is important that this selection be made before working in
the Functional Assignments areas.
A database inherently assumes that a single code and analysis type are being used. If the analysis code
preference is changed, Patran will attempt to convert all code specific information to the new preference.
Switching the analysis code preferences back and forth will, in general, not result in a complete
translation. To use an existing database with an alternate analysis code, it is recommended that the
database be duplicated.

Main Index
10 Patran Reference Manual
Naming Conventions

1.2 Naming Conventions


Since all Functional Assignments deal with named items or groups of items (sets or cases), it is important
that users be aware of the conventions and restrictions that exist for names. These are summarized below.
• Length - 1 to 31 characters
• Permitted Characters - A to Z, a to z, 0 to 9, underscore, hyphen, period
• Not Allowed - Spaces, parenthesis, brackets, commas, +, !, ?, =, etc.
• Case Sensitive - Yes

It is recommended that the user provide names that describe the FA being created.
When a field is to be used as input to a databox, the field name must be preceded by “f:.” This identifies
it as a field. Similarly, materials are preceded by “m:” when they are entered into element property
databoxes.

Main Index
Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application
Patran Reference Manual

2 Loads and Boundary Conditions


Application

 Overview of the Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 12


 Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Loads and Boundary
Conditions 15
 Loads and Boundary Conditions Form 27
 Loads and Boundary Conditions Global Display Parameters 59

Main Index
12 Patran Reference Manual
Overview of the Loads and Boundary Conditions Application

2.1 Overview of the Loads and Boundary Conditions


Application

Purpose
The Loads and Boundary Conditions application (Loads/BCs) provides the ability to apply a variety of
static and dynamic loads and boundary conditions to finite element models. Loads/BCs may be
associated with geometric entities as well as FEM entities. When associated with geometric entities, they
can be transferred to finite elements created on the geometry. Loads and boundary conditions are
intended to be created in multiple single purpose groups referred to as sets. These sets are grouped into
load cases in the Load Cases application. Fields can be used in the definition of loads and boundary
conditions. Loads/BCs sets remain in the database unless specifically deleted and thus provide an
archival record.

Definitions
Loads/BC Set: A Loads/BC set is comprised of a collection of data (which may include fields) that are
associated with both an analysis type and geometric and/or FEM entities. Typical examples are
displacements associated with nodes in a structural analysis, or heat fluxes associated with surfaces in a
thermal analysis.
Load Case: A Load Case is a group of Loads/BCs sets that together define a single analysis case. Load
Cases are assembled from the entire array of Loads/BCs sets in the Load Cases Application.
Analysis Type: Analysis types currently supported are Structural, Thermal, and Fluid Dynamics (CFD).
Nodal: This refers to the case where loads or boundary conditions are associated with finite element
nodes. A typical case is a specified displacement at a node of a structural finite element.
Element Uniform: This refers to the case where the loads or boundary condition is associated with the
element itself and is assumed to be uniform over the element face, or element edge. A typical case is an
element temperature.
Element Variable: This refers to the case where the loads or boundary condition is associated with an
element, but varies in magnitude over the element, element face or element edge. It may thus have
different values at the element’s nodes. This leads to the case where nodes that are common to adjacent
elements may be multi-valued in the loads or boundary conditions. A typical example is pressure applied
over an element.
Target Element Type: Target Elements are elements selected to be actual or eventual recipients of the
desired loads or boundary condition. All elements in a set must be of the same type: either 1D, 2D, or 3D.
If more than one type is involved, make a separate set for each. Target Element Types are only required
for Element Uniform or Element Variable Loads/BCs sets.
Dynamic Loads/BCs Sets: Dynamic loads and boundary conditions sets are those which have a time-
dependent component. They must be associated with a time dependent Load Case, which must be the
current case when the set is created. Time and spatial dependencies are assumed to be uncoupled.

Main Index
Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 13
Overview of the Loads and Boundary Conditions Application

Dynamic sets are comprised of a static spatial component multiplied by a time varying component. Fields
must be used to define the time dependency.
Markers: These are the graphic symbols (e.g., arrows, circles) that appear on the screen and provide
visual feedback of the location, type, magnitude and direction of the loads or boundary condition. Their
display can be turned on or off in the Plot Marker form, or in the Display/Functional Assignment top
menu form. See Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions, 15 for more
details.
Type Prefix: As a convenience, each set is given a type prefix that is displayed when sets of different
types are listed together. This prefix is the first five letters of the set type followed by an underscore. For
example, a set of displacements named “set_1” would appear as “displ_set_1” when displayed with sets
of other types.

Capabilities
The Loads/BCs application has the capability of creating, deleting, modifying, and displaying loads and
boundary condition sets. Three Analysis Types are supported: Structural, Thermal, and Fluid Dynamics
(CFD).
The sets can be either Static or Time Dependent (dynamic). Time dependency is introduced either
through the inclusion of a time dependent field multiplier, or through use of initial condition options (e.g.,
initial displacements).
The loads and boundary condition set types that can be created depend on the analysis selected. The
Loads/BCs set types available are a function for the analysis code set in “Analysis Preferences.” For
example, if MSC Nastran is the current analysis code selection then only Structural Loads/BC set types
will be available. For structural analyses, nine different set types are supported: displacement, force,
pressure, temperature, inertial load, initial displacement, initial velocity, velocity and acceleration. For
thermal analyses, sets can include temperature (thermal), convection, heat flux, heat source, and initial
temperature. Fluid analysis set types are: inflow (incomp), outflow (incomp), solid wall (incomp),
symmetry, inflow (comp), outflow (comp), open flow (comp), solid wall (comp), volumetric and total
heat load.
Loads and boundary conditions are created and stored in the database as sets. Each set has a unique name
and is associated with one analysis type (e.g., structural), one loads and boundary conditions type (e.g.,
pressure), and one target element type (e.g., 2D), if applicable. All sets are associated with a load case,
which by default is the Current Load Case when the set is created.
Sets can be visually displayed on the screen by markers which show the location, type, magnitude, and
direction of the applied loads or boundary condition. Only the static portion of a dynamic Loads/BCs set
is reflected in the marker display. Sets can also be displayed as tables.
A powerful capability is the display of any set scalar data directly on the model as a fringe plot. For
display purposes, data are treated as “results,” with full user control over the spectrum, method, shading,
etc. Data display is scalar, but the data can be pressures, vector component magnitudes, and vector
resultant magnitudes. Fringe plots can only be displayed on finite elements. Fringes of a dynamic
Loads/BCs set may be displayed at user-specified times.

Main Index
14 Patran Reference Manual
Overview of the Loads and Boundary Conditions Application

The use of PCL functions in defining loads and boundary conditions is supported through the use of
Fields. Use the PCL option in the Fields function to create the desired input data distribution. The field
can be used in the Loads/BCs application by simply selecting it from a listbox display.
Loads/BCs can be defined on geometric entities. These are subsequently evaluated on FEM entities
associated to that geometry. This is convenient because remeshing the geometry has no effect on the
loads and boundary conditions.

Summary of Key Features


The Loads/BCs function provides:
• A straightforward, convenient means for taking data, whether from fields or direct input, and
associating it with either FEM or geometric entities. Data are grouped as uniquely named sets.
These sets, in turn, can be grouped into load cases in the Load Cases Application.
• Archival records in the model database of all previous loads and boundary conditions unless
specifically deleted.
• Loads and boundary conditions to be associated with geometric entities (e.g., surfaces). These
sets can then be evaluated on the FEM model. This permits remeshing without impacting the
loads and boundary conditions.
• A means of creating new sets that are modifications of existing sets.
• Full support of the use of Fields in defining data input. This, for example, permits access to PCL
functions in defining Loads/BCs.
• Support for structural, thermal, and fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis types. Loads/BCs
associativity can be nodal, uniform over the element, or variable over the element. It also
provides the addition of time dependence through the use of time-dependent fields or initial
conditions (e.g., initial displacements).
• The ability to create, delete, modify and show sets. Visual display of sets includes showing the
type, location, magnitude, and direction of applied loads and boundary conditions. Sets can also
be shown in a table format.
• Scalar data (e.g., pressure, temperature, vector components) which can also be displayed as
fringe plots on the model. The data are treated as “results,” with full control over the display
(e.g., spectrum, shading, type, etc.).

Main Index
Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 15
Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions

2.2 Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Loads and


Boundary Conditions
All Loads/BCs sets created are associated with the Current Load Case. This load case will be the one
named “Default” unless a different one is specified. The current load case can be changed from within
the Loads/BCs application.

Important: A common strategy is to create all sets within the default load case and break them out
into separate named load cases later.

The scope of an individual set is limited to a single analysis type (e.g., structural), a single loads or
boundary condition definition (e.g., displacement), a single data set, and either FEM or geometry entity
types.

Important: It is intended that multiple sets be used to define the complete load case. Avoid large
complex sets. This reduces the chance for error and makes modification and set
manipulation easier.

Loads/BCs sets can be created, modified, deleted, and displayed. Set modification is completely general
in that this action essentially deletes the original set and replaces it with the modified set. The Create
option may also be used to modify a set. The only difference is that you will be prompted with a message
warning that the set already exists, and asking whether it can be overwritten.
Creating a new set that is a modification of an existing set is accomplished by selecting an existing set,
renaming it, and making the desired modifications using the Create action.
In many cases, a Scale Factor may be specified in the Input Data form. All data in the set will be
multiplied by this value. The default scale factor is 1.0.
The region of application on the model of the defined set is established using the standard selection tools.
If more than one entity can be selected, a select menu will be displayed. The ID of selected items is
displayed in the selection region databox.
It is important that the analysis code to be used is selected prior to creating Loads ⁄BCs sets.

Important: All loads and boundary conditions sets are integrally related to the specific analysis
type and code selected.

Fields are created in the separate Fields Application (Ch. 6). Fields must be created before they can be
assigned in the Input Data form.

Main Index
16 Patran Reference Manual
Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions

Important: The use of fields to define complex data distributions makes this task easier and is
encouraged.

Depending on the specific analysis code and Loads/BCs type, the loads or boundary condition is
associated with either the elements themselves or the nodes. If values are associated with elements, they
can be either applied uniformly across the element, element face, or element edge (Element Uniform), or
vary across the element based on values at associated nodes (Element Variable). The selection between
these two options depends on the method used by the analysis code. Determine what is required before
attempting to define element loads.

Important: For element variable loads, a node may have multiple load values, if the node is
associated to multiple elements.

Local Coordinate System Definition


Loads/BCs applied to elements are defined in terms of local coordinate systems as follows: The 1, 2, and
3 directions are defined to be either consistent with the geometric entity C1, C2, and C3 directions or with
respect to the element nodal connectivity as shown.

Top Surface
L K
C3 3
C2
I 2 J
C1 1

Bottom Surface
For a rectangular surface, the C1, C2, and C3 directions form a right-handed coordinate system. The top
surface is the side in the plus C3 direction.
For elements, connectivity is used to define a coordinate system. If the connectivity is I-J-K-L, the 1-axis
corresponds to the I-to-J direction, the 2-axis the I-to-L direction, and the 3-axis normal to the plane
defined by 1 and 2 in a right-handed sense. The top surface is on the positive 3-direction side of the
element.

Main Index
Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 17
Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions

Sign Conventions
Displacements, forces, velocities, and accelerations are positive in the positive directions of the Analysis
Coordinate Frame displayed in the Input Data form.
Positive pressures are those that act inward toward the entity. Negative pressures act outward from the
entity and represent a surface “suction.”

Markers
When loads and boundary conditions are created, they are automatically displayed with markers.
Markers may be arrows, circles, squares, etc. Use the Graphics Preferences form to select the marker
options. In general, arrows (also referred to as graphical vectors) are used to display quantities which
have a direction. All other types of markers are used to display scalar quantities. Arrow markers can have
one, two, or three heads. For example, translational displacements, forces, pressures, and translational
velocities are displayed as single-headed arrows. Moments and rotations are displayed as double-headed
arrows. Rotational accelerations are displayed as triple-headed arrows. Displacement constraint markers
may have one-, two-, or three-headed arrows with no tail. For example, if only a translational constraint
is specified, a single-headed arrow will be displayed in the appropriate direction. If only a rotational
constraint is specified, then a double-headed arrow will be displayed. If both a translational and rotational
constraint are specified in the same direction, then a triple-headed arrow will be displayed.
Marker colors can be changed in the Display/Functional Assignment form in the main form. Marker
display for each Loads/BCs set type can be selectively turned ON and OFF from this form.

Units
The Loads/BCs application is nondimensional. Input data units are those required by the analysis code
selected. Scale factors can be used for conversion if model units differ from code required units (e.g.,
metric to English).

Set Names
Set names can be up to 31 characters long and must be unique. Use descriptive names with words
separated by underscores. As a convenience, each set is given a type prefix that is displayed when sets of
different types are listed together. This prefix is the first five letters of the set type followed by an
underscore. For example, a set of displacements named “set_1” would appear as “displ_set_1” when
displayed with sets of other types. If only displacement sets are listed, the type prefix is omitted.

Plotting Loads and Boundary Conditions as Contours


A powerful capability is the display of any set scalar data directly on the model as a fringe plot. For
display purposes, data are treated as “results,” with full user control over the spectrum, display method,
shading, etc. Data display is scalar, of course, but the data to be plotted can be pressures, vector
component magnitudes, and vector resultant magnitudes.

Main Index
18 Patran Reference Manual
Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions

Set Types
The loads and boundary condition set types that can be created depend on the type of analysis being
performed. Three different types are currently supported: Structural, Thermal, and Fluid Dynamics
(CFD).
For structural analyses, nine different set types are supported: Displacement, Force, Pressure,
Temperature, Inertial Load, Initial Displacement, Initial Velocity, Velocity, and Acceleration. Thermal
analyses sets can include Temp (Thermal), Convection, Heat Flux, Heat Source, and Initial temperature.
Fluid analysis set types include: Inflow (Incomp), Outflow (Incomp), Solid Wall (Incomp), Symmetry,
Inflow (Comp), Outflow (Comp), Open Flow (Comp), and Solid Wall (Comp), Volumetric Heat and
Total Heat Load.
Each set type can, in turn, have different element associativities, target element types, and required
inputs. The tables on the following pages provide maps of all possibilities and options.

Main Index
Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 19
Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions

Structural Analysis Loads/BCs Set Inputs

Set Type Association Element Inputs


Displacement Nodal --- Translations <T1 T2 T3>

Rotations < R1 R2 R3>

Analysis Coordinate Frame


Element Uniform 2D Surf Translations <T1 T2 T3>

Surf Rotations < R1 R2 R3>

Edge Translations <T1 T2 T3>

Edge Rotations < R1 R2 R3>

Analysis Coordinate Frame


3D Translations <T1 T2 T3>

Analysis Coordinate Frame


Element Variable 2D Surf Translations <T1 T2 T3>

Surf Rotations < R1 R2 R3>

Edge Translations <T1 T2 T3>

Edge Rotations < R1 R2 R3>

Analysis Coordinate Frame


3D Translations <T1 T2 T3>

Analysis Coordinate Frame


Force Nodal --- Force <F1 F2 F3>

Moment < M1 M2 M3>

Analysis Coordinate Frame

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Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions

Set Type Association Element Inputs


Pressure Element Uniform 2D Top Surf Pressure

Bot Surf Pressure

Edge Pressure
3D Pressure
Element Variable 2D Top Surf Pressure

Bot Surf Pressure

Edge Pressure
3D Pressure
Temperature Nodal --- Temperature
Element Uniform 1D Temperature
2D Temperature
3D Temperature
Element Variable 1D Centroid Temperature

Axis-1 Gradient

Axis-2 Gradient
2D Top Surface Temperature

Bottom Surface Temperature


3D Temperature
Inertial Load not element Trans Accel <A1 A2 A3>
dependent
(applies to entire
model) Rotationa l Veloc <w1 w2 w3>

Rotational Accel <a1 a2 a3>

Analysis Coordinate Frame


Initial Displacement Nodal --- Translations <T1 T2 T3>

Rotations <R1 R2 R3>

Analysis Coordinate Frame


Initial Velocity Nodal --- Trans Veloc <v1 v2 v3>

Rotationa l Veloc <w1 w2 w3>

Analysis Coordinate Frame

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Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 21
Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions

Set Type Association Element Inputs


Distributed Load Element Uniform 1D Distr Load <f1 f2 f3>

Distr Moment <m1 m2 m3>


2D Edge Distr Load <f1 f2 f3>

Edge Distr Moment <m1 m2 m3>


Element Variable 1D Distr Load <f1 f2 f3>

Distr Moment <m1 m2 m3>


2D Edge Distr Load <f1 f2 f3>

Edge Distr Moment <m1 m2 m3>


Contact Element Uniform --- Friction Coefficient (MU1)

Stiffness in Stick (FSTIF)

Penalty Stiffness Scaling Factor


(SFAC)

Slideline Width (W!)

A Vector Pointing from Master to


Slave Surface

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Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions

Thermal Analysis Loads/BCs Set Inputs (other than Patran


Thermal)

Set Type Association Element Inputs


Temp (Thermal) Nodal --- Temperature
Convection Element Uniform 2D Top Surf Convection

Bot Surf Convection

Edge Convection

Ambient Temperature
3D Convection

Ambient Temperature
Element Variable 2D Top Surf Convection

Bot Surf Convection

Edge Convection

Ambient Temperature
3D Convection

Ambient Temperature
Heat Flux Element Uniform 2D Top Surf Heat Flux

Bot Surf Heat Flux

Edge Heat Flux


3D Heat Flux
Element Variable 2D Top Surf Heat Flux

Bot Surf Heat Flux

Edge Heat Flux


3D Heat Flux
Heat Source Nodal --- Heat Source
Element Uniform 2D Heat Source
3D Heat Source

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Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 23
Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions

Set Type Association Element Inputs


Initial Temperature Nodal --- Temperature
Voltage Nodal --- Voltage

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24 Patran Reference Manual
Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions

Thermal Analysis Loads/BCs Set Inputs (Patran Thermal)

Set Type Association Element Inputs


View Factor Element Uniform 1D View Factor
2D
View Factor
3D
View Factor
Convection Element Uniform 1D Convection
2D
Convection
3D
Convection
Element Variable 1D Convection
2D
Convection
3D
Convection
Heat Flux Element Uniform 1D Heat Flux
2D
Heat Flux
3D
Heat Flux
Element Variable 1D Heat Flux
2D
Heat Flux
3D
Heat Flux
Heat Source Nodal --- Heat Source
Element Uniform 1D Heat Source
2D
Heat Source
3D
Heat Source
Element Variable 1D Heat Source
2D
Heat Source
3D
Heat Source
Fixed Temperature Nodal --- Temperature
Initial Temperature Nodal --- Temperature
Variable Temperature Nodal --- Temperature
Scale Factor

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Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 25
Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions

Set Type Association Element Inputs


Mass Flow Nodal --- Mass Flow Rate
Fixed Pressure Nodal --- Pressure
Initial Pressure Nodal --- Pressure
Variable Pressure Nodal --- Pressure Scale
Factor

Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis Loads/BCs Set Inputs

Set Type Association Element Inputs


Inflow (Incomp) Element Uniform 2D Velocity <u v w>)

Pressure
3D Velocity <u v w>

Pressure
Outflow (Incomp) Element Uniform 2D Pressure
3D Pressure
Solid Wall (Incomp) Element Uniform 2D Heat Flux
3D Temperature

Heat Flux

Heat Transfer
Coefficient

Ambient Temperature
Symmetry Element Uniform 2D None
3D None
Inflow (Comp) Element Uniform 2D Velocity <u v w>)

Pressure

Absolute Temperature
3D Velocity <u v w>

Pressure

Absolute Temperature

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Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Loads and Boundary Conditions

Set Type Association Element Inputs


Outflow (Comp) Element Uniform 2D Velocity <u v w>

Pressure

Absolute Temperature
3D Velocity <u v w>

Pressure

Absolute Temperature
Open Flow (Comp) Element Uniform 2D Velocity <u v w>

Pressure

Absolute Temperature
3D Velocity <u v w>

Pressure

Absolute Temperature
Solid Wall (Comp) Element Uniform 2D Temperature

Heat Flux
3D Temperature

Heat Flux
Volumetric Heat Element Uniform 2D Heat Source
3D Heat Source
Total Heat Load Element Uniform 2D
3D

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Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 27
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

2.3 Loads and Boundary Conditions Form


The functions of the Loads/BCs menu are listed and described below in the order in which they appear
on the menu.

Menu Pick Action


Create Structural Sets • Create a new set using structural analysis set type options.
Create Thermal Sets • Create a new set using thermal analysis set type options.
Create Fluid Dynamics Sets • Create a new set using fluid dynamic analysis set type options.
Modify • Change any property or characteristic of a set.
Delete • Remove selected sets from the database.
Show Tabular • View set data displayed in a table format.
Plot Contours • Display contour plots of selected set data on the model.
Plot Markers • Control display of markers (arrows, etc.) on groups.

Create Structural LBCs Sets


This form is used to create all structural loads and boundary conditions sets. Existing sets can be recalled
and used as templates for new sets. Separate forms are used for data input and selection of a region on
the model for application.

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28 Patran Reference Manual
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Main Index
Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 29
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Action A new loads and boundary conditions set will be created.


Object The available types of structural sets include:

• Displacement
• Force
• Pressure
• Temperature
• Inertial Load
• Initial Displacement
• Initial Velocity
• Distributed Load
• Contact
Type Sets are ultimately associated with either nodes (Nodal) or elements. Sets
can be associated with the element itself (Element Uniform) or the
element’s nodes (Element Variable).
Analysis Type The analysis type is Structural. The form changes if an alternative analysis
type is selected.
Current Load Case The set will be assigned to this Current Load Case named “Default.” To
change, select this button and make a new selection in the form that
appears. Time-dependent sets require a time dependent load case.
Existing Pressure Sets The names of all sets of the type selected are displayed here. Selecting one
retrieves it from the database.
New Set Name Each new set requires a unique name (31 characters maximum, no spaces).
Target Element Type For element associated sets, select the element type (1D, 2D, or 3D). If
more than one type, create different sets for each. Not used for Nodal types.
Input Data Select this box to bring up the Input Data form containing the appropriate
variables for the set type selected.
Select Application Select this box to bring up forms for selecting the entities to which this set
Region applies. Standard selection methods are used.

Note: Note: The new set is not created until Apply is selected.

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30 Patran Reference Manual
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

More Help: Preference Guides Application Modules


• Patran ABAQUS • Patran FEA
• Patran ANSYS • Patran Thermal
• Patran LS-DYNA • Patran Advanced FEA
• Patran MSC.Marc
• Patran MSC.Dytran
• Patran MSC Nastran
• Patran PAMCRASH
• Patran SAMCEF
• Patran P2NF

Create Thermal LBCs Sets


This form is used to create all thermal loads and boundary conditions sets. Existing sets can be recalled
and used as templates for new sets. Separate forms are used for data input and selection of a region on
the model for application.

Main Index
Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 31
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

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32 Patran Reference Manual
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Action A new loads and boundary conditions set will be created.


Object The available types of thermal sets include:
*Denotes Patran Thermal only.

• Temp (Thermal)
• Convection
• Heat Flux
• Heat Source
• Initial Temperature
• Volumetric Heat (PatranT*)
• Pressure (Patran T*)
• Mass Flow (Patran T*)
• Viewfactors (Patran T*)
• Voltage (Thermal)
Type Sets are ultimately associated with either nodes (Nodal) or elements. With
elements, they can be associated with the element itself or the element’s
nodes (Element Uniform or Element Variable).
Analysis Type The analysis type is Thermal. The form changes if an alternative analysis
type is selected.
Current Load Case The set will be assigned to this Current Load Case named “Default.” To
change, select this databox and make a new selection in the form that
appears. Time dependent sets require a time-dependent Load Case. (Note:
Not applicable to Patran Thermal.)
Existing Heat Flux Sets The names of all sets of the type selected are displayed here. Selecting one
retrieves it from the database.
New Set Name Each new set requires a unique name (31 characters maximum, no spaces).
Target Element Type For element associated sets, select the element type (1D, 2D, or 3D). If
more than one type, create different sets for each. Not used for Nodal types.
Input Data Select this box to bring up the Input Data form containing the appropriate
variables for the set type selected.
Select Application Select this box to bring up forms for selecting the entities to which this set
Region applies. Standard selection methods are used.

Note: Note: The new set is not created until Apply is selected.

Main Index
Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 33
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

More Help: Preference Guides Application Modules


• Patran ABAQUS • Patran FEA
• Patran ANSYS • Patran Thermal
• Patran LS-DYNA • Patran Advanced FEA
• Patran MSC.Marc
• Patran MSC.Dytran
• Patran MSC Nastran
• Patran PAMCRASH
• Patran SAMCEF
• Patran P2NF

Create Fluid Dynamics LBCs Sets


This form is used to create all fluid dynamics loads and boundary condition sets. Existing sets can be
recalled and used as templates for new sets. Separate forms are used for data input and selection of a
region on the model for application.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Load/Boundary Conditions

Action: Create

Object: Inflow(Incomp)
Type : Element Uniform

Analysis Type: Fluid Dynamics

Current Load Case:

Default...

Type: Static

Existing Sets

New Set Name

Target Element Type: 2D

Input Data...

Select Application Region...

-Apply-

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Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 35
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Action A new loads and boundary conditions set will be created.


Object The available types of Fluid Dynamics sets include:

• Inflow (Incomp)
• Outflow (Incomp)
• Solid Wall (Incomp)
• Symmetry
• Inflow (Comp)
• Outflow (Comp)
• Open Flow (Comp)
• Solid Wall (Comp)
• Volumetric Heat
• Total Heat Load
Type Sets are ultimately associated with either nodes (Nodal) or elements. With
elements, they can be associated with the element itself or the element’s
nodes (Element Uniform or Element Variable).
Analysis Type The analysis type is Thermal. The form changes if an alternative analysis
type is selected.
Current Load Case The set will be assigned to this Current Load Case named “Default.” To
change, select this box and make a new selection in the form that appears.
Time-dependent sets require a time-dependent Load Case.
Existing Sets The names of all sets of the type selected are displayed here. Selecting one
retrieves it from the database.
New Set Name Each new set requires a unique name (31 characters maximum, no spaces).
Target Element Type For element associated sets, select the element type (1D, 2D, or 3D). If
more than one type, create different sets for each. Not used for Nodal types.
Input Data Select this box to bring up the Input Data form containing the appropriate
variables for the set type selected.
Select Application Select this box to bring up forms for selecting the entities to which this set
Region applies. Standard selection methods are used.

Note: Note: The new set is not created until Apply is selected.

Main Index
36 Patran Reference Manual
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

More Help: Preference Guides Application Modules


• Patran ABAQUS • Patran FEA
• Patran ANSYS • Patran Thermal
• Patran LS-DYNA • Patran Advanced FEA
• Patran MSC.Marc
• Patran MSC.Dytran
• Patran MSC Nastran
• Patran PAMCRASH
• Patran SAMCEF
• Patran P2NF

Input LBCs Set Data (Static Load Case)


Data used to define a static loads and boundary conditions set is input on this form. Although the basic
methodology remains the same, the parameters displayed change depending on both the type of analysis
selected, the LBCs set type (e.g., Pressure), LBCs type (e.g., nodal, element uniform), and the target
element type, if applicable. Inputs for all options are presented in Loads and Boundary Conditions
Application (Ch. 2). Fields can be used as inputs. Sets which include vector quantities may be associated
with a coordinate frame.

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Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 37
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

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Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Load/BCs Set Scale All loads and boundary conditions data variables are multiplied by this
Factor Scale Factor. The default value is 1.0.
Translations All parameters appropriate to the Analysis Type and Loads/BCs type
selected appear as input databoxes. The following rules apply to data entry
Rotations in these databoxes:
Spatial Fields
1. Commas or spaces may be used as delimiter (e. g., “<1 0 1>”).
2. “< >” above the input databoxes indicates that this variable is a
vector quantity.
A blank (no entry) is considered a null, or no input, which is the same as
zero, except for displacement (including initial displacements) type sets. A
zero value for a displacement means that the displacement component in
that direction is constrained. A null value indicates that the nodes are free
to move. Null values can be indicated by “,,” (e.g., “10 ,, 4”).

3. Data values can be constants, scalar fields, or vector fields. If a


vector field is input in a databox, the vector components are used in
sequence as the parameters in the box.
Note: If a field is entered, a vector field must be used to define
vector quantities and a scalar field must be used to define scalar
quantities.
4. To use a field, first select the databox, and then a field. name here.
The name is echoed in the databox.
FEM Dependent This button will display a Discrete FEM Fields input form to allow field
Data... creation and modification within the loads/bcs application. Available only
when focus is set in a databox which can have a DFEM field reference. See
Spatial Discrete FEM Field Access by Other Applications, 266.
Analysis Coordinate This is the default coordinate frame specified in Preferences. Select this
Frame databox if a different one is applicable to this set.

Note: For displacements this must be set to the nodal analysis


coordinate frame. If there is a conflict between loads and
boundary conditions analysis coordinate frame and nodal
analysis coordinate frames the nodal analysis will be
modified to the LBCs analysis coordinate frame.

Input LBCs Set Data (Time Dependent Load Case)


Data used to define a dynamic loads and boundary conditions set is input in this form. Although the basic
methodology remains the same, the parameters displayed change depending on both the type of analysis
selected and the type of set (e.g., Pressure). Fields can be used as inputs. Sets, which include vector
quantities, may be associated with a coordinate frame.

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Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 39
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Important: The resulting data values are calculated as Loads/BCs Set Scale Factor multiplied by
both Spatial Dependence and Time Dependence.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Load/BCs Set Scale All data in this set are multiplied by this Scale Factor. The default value is
Factor 1.0.

Note: Note: If the set is constant in space, input one (1.0) as


Load/BCs Set Scale Factor.
Spatial Dependenc Time dependence must be defined as a field. First, select an input box and
Time Dependence then a field name from the list below.

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Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 41
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Translations All parameters appropriate to the Analysis Type and Loads/BCs type
selected appear as input databoxes.
Rotations
Note: Commas or spaces may be used as delimiters. Blanks (no
entry) are considered a null, or no input, which is the same as
zero, except for displacement sets.
Spatial Time dependence must be defined as a field. First, select an input box and
Fields/Time/Freq. then a field name from the list below.
Dependent Fields
FEM Dependent Displays a Discrete FEM Fields input form to allow field creation and
Data... modification within the loads/bcs application. Available only when focus
is set in a databox which can have a DFEM field reference. See Spatial
Discrete FEM Field Access by Other Applications, 266.
Analysis Coordinate This is the default coordinate frame specified in Preferences. Select this
Frame databox if a different one is applicable to this set.

Change Current Load Case


This form allows the current load case to be changed from within the Loads/BCs Application. Any new
set created will automatically reside in the Current Load Case and in no other load case, unless
specifically added to that load case in the Load Cases Application.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Filter If the user has multiple load cases, the filter feature can be used to list only
those Load Cases which match the text shown in the databox to its left.

Note: An (*) is considered a wild card.


Existing Load Cases Select the Load Case which is to be the Current Load Case. The change
will be reflected in the main form on exit.

LBCs Select Application Region


This form is used to select the entities to which the loads and boundary conditions sets will be applied.
The select databox can be used to graphically select the Application Region. Entities may also be
selectively removed from the Application Region.

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Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 43
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

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Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Geometry/FEM Loads and boundary conditions sets can be associated either directly with
FEM entities or with geometric entities.

Note: It is not permissible to mix geometric and FEM entities in a


single application region.
Sets applied to geometry can be displayed on the associated FEM model by
turning on the “Display on FEM Only” toggle on the Display/Functional
Assignments form (see Display>LBC/Element Property Attributes (p. 385)
in the Patran Reference Manual) and executing either the Plot Markers or
Plot Contours action.
Select Geometric Focus is automatically set to this databox. In the instances where more than
Entities one type entity is valid, a separate selection icon menu appears indicating
the type of entity to be selected (e.g., curve or surface). Use standard
selection tools to select the desired entity or group of entities. The entity
types and IDs of selected items appear in this databox.
Remove Removes selected entities (those appearing in the Select Nodes databox)
from the Application Region.
Application Region When the selected entities are correct, select the Add button. The selected
entities appear in the Application Region listbox.

Modify LBCs Sets


This form permits a selected set to be modified in a general manner. Any property or parameter may be
changed. The selected set is effectively deleted and replaced with a modified copy.

Main Index
Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 45
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

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46 Patran Reference Manual
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Action Select Modify.


Current Load Case The set will be assigned to this Current Load Case. To change, select this
button and make a new selection in the form that appears. The set will also
remain in the original load case. Time dependent sets require a time-
dependent load case.
Select Set to Modify Select the set to be modified.
Rename Set As Rename the set here.
Target Element Type For element associated sets, the element type (1D, 2D, or 3D) associativity
can be changed. If this is done, however, remove the old types from the
application region and add the new types.
Modify Data Select this box to bring up the Input Data form. Make changes to the set
data as required.
Modify Application Select this box to bring up a form for changing the entities to which this set
Region applies. Standard selection methods are used.

Note: The set is not modified until Apply is selected.

Delete LBCs Sets


This action permits any loads and boundary conditions set to be deleted from the database. Multiple sets
can be deleted at once. If a set is deleted in error, it can be reinstated prior to taking further actions.

Main Index
Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 47
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Action Select Delete.


O bject Select the type of the loads and boundary conditions set that is to be
deleted. The list of options depends on the analysis type selected.
Analysis Type Select the Analysis Type. The options available are a function of analysis
code.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Existing Displacement All sets of the type selected will appear in this databox. Select those to be
Sets deleted. Selected sets appear in the listbox below.
Load/BCs to be deleted Selected sets appear in this databox. They can be removed from this delete
list by selecting them.

Note: Nothing is deleted until Apply is selected. Wait for the


deleted sets to be removed from the Existing Sets listbox.
Deleted sets may be reinstated by selecting the erasure icon in
the main menu.

Show LBCs Sets Tabular Format


This form permits the contents of a selected loads and boundary conditions set to be displayed in a table
format. For graphical display of set data, use the Plot Contours or Plot Markers Actions.

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Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 49
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Action Select Show Tabular.


O bject Select the type of the loads and boundary conditions set that is to be
displayed
Analysis Type Select the Analysis Type. The options available are a function of analysis
code.
Current Load Case To change the Current Load Case, select this databox and make a new
selection in the listbox that appears. The set will also remain in the original
Load Case.
Existing Load/BCs Sets All sets of the type selected will appear in this databox. Select the one to be
shown.

Note: Selecting Apply brings up the display table. The table is


removed from the screen by leaving the Show Action.

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Loads/BCs Set Show Tabular


This table lists all the entities in the set and shows their associated parameters and data values.

Load/BCs Table Show

Entity Type Coordinate Frame Scale Factor Force F1 Force


Node 78 0 1 100 . 100.
Node 79 0 1 100. 100.
Node 80 0 1 100. 100.
Node 81 0 1 100. 100.
Node 82 0 1 100. 100.

Entity Type Column1 is the entity type, its ID number and its Sub ID. All entities are
the same type in a set.
Scale Factor This Scale Factor multiplies all data values in this row.

Note: In many cases, the table is much larger than can be displayed on the screen. Use scroll bars
to view the entire table.

Plot Contours of LBCs Set Data


This form is used to display loads and boundary conditions set data on the model. The method used is to
create a fringe contour plot of the selected variable. It is useful for visual verification of complex loading
conditions. Once created, the plot can be changed using any of the graphics tools located in the display
menu (e.g., change spectrum, shading, etc.).

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Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

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52 Patran Reference Manual
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Action Select Plot Contours.


Object Select the type of the loads and boundary conditions set that is to be
displayed.
Analysis Type Verify that this is the Analysis Type being performed.
Current Load Case This is the Current Load Case. To change, select this box and make a new
selection in the submenu that appears.
Existing Sets All sets in the Current Load Case appear in this listbox. Contours for all
Loads/BCs sets in the Current Load Case with the selected data variable are
plotted.
Select Data Variable Select the variable data to display on the model.
Component If the data is a vector, either the magnitude of the resultant or a component
may be selected with this menu.
Time If the Current Load Case is Time Dependent then you may specify the time
at which the loads and boundary conditions set contours will be evaluated.
Select Groups This area of the form permits contour display control by groups. Selecting
All Groups causes contours to be displayed in all groups. Selecting Current
Viewport provides contour display only on those groups in the Select
Groups listbox. At least one group must be selected.
Fringe Attributes See Display Attributes (p. 6) in the Results Postprocessing.
Reset Graphics Select this databox to remove the contour plot and restore the original
model display.

Plot LBCs Set Markers


Loads and boundary conditions markers (e.g., arrows or circles) appear on the screen when sets are
created. This form is used to control their display. The display may be limited to the groups in the current
viewport or may include all groups. Marker display is also controlled from the “Display” form in the
main form. (See Display>LBC/Element Property Attributes (p. 385) in the Patran Reference Manual.)

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Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 53
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

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54 Patran Reference Manual
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Action The action will be either to remove (or reinstate) load and boundary
conditions markers from the display.
Modify Vector Display This toggle allows vector Loads/BCs quantities currently displayed to be
displayed in a different coordinate system.
Current Load Case This is the Current Load Case. To change the current load case, select this
box and make a new selection in the listbox that appears.
Assigned Load/BCs These load and boundary conditions sets are assigned to the Current Load
Sets Case. Select the ones you wish to act on. They will be highlighted. Click a
second time to deselect. Only Load/BCs in the Current Load Case can be
displayed with this form.
Group Filter This area of the form permits marker display control by groups. Selecting
All Groups provides a filter list of all groups available in the model.
Selecting Current Viewport provides a filter list of only those groups in the
current viewport.

This is the default form that is displayed when the Modify Vector Display toggle is on. This allows the
current vector Load/BCs display to be displayed in a coordinate frame that is different than one used
when the Load/BC set was created. This feature doesn’t cause the Load/BCs set to be altered. Only the
display is temporarily altered.

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Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 55
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Modify Vector Display The Loads/BCs vector display will be restored to its original orientation
whenever: (1) a new Loads/BCs set is created, (2) a Load/BCs set is
modified, (3) a Loads/BCs set is deleted or (4) the database is closed.
Use Existing Selecting the Use Existing switch will allow the user to select an existing
coordinate frame in the Select Coord Frame selectdatabox. This is the
coordinate frame in which selected vectors will be displayed.
Entities Selecting the Entities switch allows the user to select geometric and/or
FEM entities on which the vector display is to be modified. Selecting the
Vector Load/BCs Sets allows the user to display all the currently displayed
Load/BCs set vectors in the selected coordinate frame.

Note: The display of displacements and other Load/BCs set types


which use an implied local coordinate system (e.g., Pressure,
Distributed Load) will not be altered. When the apply button
is selected, the Vector coloring method on the Vector
Attributes form is set to component.

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Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Note: In many cases, the table is much larger than can be displayed on the screen. Use scroll bars
to view the entire table.

Selecting the Define Local switch will allow the user to define a local coordinate frame. The local
coordinate system definition is similar to defining a beam cross section orientation. This is the coordinate
frame in which selected vectors will be displayed.

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Ch. 2: Loads and Boundary Conditions Application 57
Loads and Boundary Conditions Form

Define Local The Define Local option allows the user to modify vector display on nodes.
Nodes The Nodes selectdatabox allows the user to select the nodes on which the
vector display will be modified. These nodes are also the used as the origin
of the coordinate system.

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Nodes on 1-Axis Nodes on the 1-Axis define the orientation of the 1-axis. If this list is empty
the nodes Nodes list are paired sequentially to define the 1-Axis. The last
node in the Nodes list is used for orientation only. If this list is not empty
then the nodes in this list are paired with the nodes in the Nodes list. If there
are more nodes in the Nodes list than in this list, the last node in the Nodes
on 1-Axis is paired with the remaining Nodes list nodes.
Vector(s) in 1-2 Plane Vectors in 1-2 plane define the orientation of the 1-2 plane. One or more
vectors can be used to define the 1-2 plane. If there are more nodes in
Nodes list than in this list then the last vector will be used for the remaining
nodes. If there are more vectors that nodes then the remaining vectors in
this list are ignored.

Note: When the apply button is selected, the Vector coloring


method on the Vector Attributes form is set to “Same For All”

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Loads and Boundary Conditions Global Display Parameters

2.4 Loads and Boundary Conditions Global Display


Parameters
This section includes display parameters which affect the Loads/BCs application. All of these parameters
are found under the top menu pick “Display.” For more help see Display>LBC/Element Property
Attributes (p. 385) in the Patran Reference Manual.

Form Effect
Display/Functional Assignments • Global control of Functional Assignment marker
display. Allows user to change the colors and turn the
display on/off of set types.
Display/Entity Type • When the graphic preference is set to “entity mode,” the
Display FA Vectors affect whether any Functional
Assignments markers are displayed.
Note: This can be used to quickly refresh the graphical
display, but once this toggle is off, no markers will be
displayed until it is turned on again.
Display/Group • When the graphics preference is set to “group mode,”
the Display FA Vectors affect whether any Functional
Assignments are displayed.
Display/Properties/Vector • Allows user to control whether graphical “vectors” (i.e.,
arrows) are displayed with a constant length or are
scaled relative to their magnitude.
Display/Properties/Geometric • The number of visualization lines parameter affects
where the Loads/BCs markers are displayed on
geometric entities. If this number is greater than 10,
markers will only be calculated at locations
corresponding to 10 visualization lines.

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Main Index
Ch. 3: Element Properties Application
Patran Reference Manual

3 Element Properties Application


Overview of the Element Properties Application 62

Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Element Properties 65

Element Properties Forms 67

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Overview of the Element Properties Application

3.1 Overview of the Element Properties Application

Purpose
The Element Properties application provides the ability to: (1) define sets of analysis code specific
element properties, and (2) apply, or associate these sets with selected finite elements. Element properties
are created in named groups that are referred to as sets. The general use of Fields in defining sets is
supported. Element Property sets also reference material properties created in the Materials top menu
selection. Element Property sets remain in the database unless specifically deleted and thus provide an
archival record. The ability to display individual properties, both in tabular form or visually on the model,
is also provided.

Definitions
Element Property Set:
A group of properties (e.g., thickness, mass, density, material name), that when taken together, provide
all necessary information to define a specific element type as required by the selected analysis code. Sets
have an associated name and number. Names are supplied by the user, and numbers are assigned in
sequence by Patran. The only place you will see numbers displayed is in the Show/Marker Plot option.
This is because text information cannot currently be displayed as marker annotation.

Analysis Code:
Each Element Property set is associated with a specific element type of a specific analysis code.

Fields:
A Field is a scalar or vector quantity that is a function of up to three independent variables. It can be
defined by tables or PCL expressions, and can be applied to both the definition of material properties and
element properties. Examples would be a thickness distribution of a shell, or the stress-strain behavior in
a material. Fields are defined in the Fields application switch. In Element Properties, names that are
prefixed by f: are field names.

Markers:
These are the graphic symbols that appear on the screen and provide visual feedback of the location,
magnitude and direction of displayed element properties. They appear as the result of a Show/Marker
Plot action. To remove them from the screen, turn off the “General Marker” display in the
Display/Functional Assignments menu or click on the clear display icon (broom).

Scalar Plot:
Virtually all element properties can be displayed as fringe plots on the model. Select the Show/Scalar Plot
option and then the property to be displayed. To remove the plot from the screen, select the Display/Entity
Types menu and change the Render Style to Wireframe or click on the clear display icon (broom).

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Overview of the Element Properties Application

Tabular Plot:
A table which lists all elements with the selected property in the current viewport or all viewports in
sequence along with the associated Set Name(s), Property Type, and Value.

Property:
A property is any information required to define FEM element properties as required by an analysis code.
These include thickness, spring constants, areas, degrees-of-freedom, offsets, directions, masses, etc.
Each property has a name and is of a specific type.

Property Type:
Each property has an associated property type. There are nine different property types: Integer, Real
Scalar, Real Scalar List, Vector, Material Name, Character String, Node, Coordinate Frame, and Nodal
Field Name. Every Property is classified as one of these types.

Capabilities
The Element Properties application has the capability of creating, modifying, deleting and showing sets
of element properties. Element properties associated with all of the analysis codes listed under
Preferences/Analysis are supported.
The Element Property sets that can be created also depend on the type of analysis being performed. Three
different types are currently supported: Structural, Thermal, and Fluid Dynamic (CFD). Several analysis
codes support both structural and thermal analyses.
Element properties are created and stored in the database as sets. Each set has a unique name and is
associated with one analysis type (e.g., structural), one analysis code (e.g., MSC Nastran), and one
element type (e.g., QUAD4). If the analysis code or analysis type preference is changed, the existing
element property sets are modified to use the closest matching element type in the new preference
environment. All applicable property data is automatically transferred.
Existing sets can be identified by selection within the respective Existing Sets listboxes, manual entry
(modify and delete) of the set name, or visually selecting associated entities from the screen. If more than
one unique property set results from a screen selection, all unique property set names associated with the
screen-picked entities will be displayed alphabetically in a Selection Listbox to allow the final selection
of a single existing property set. The delete operation has a slightly different behavior where all of the
screen-picked property set names will be echoed in a To Be Deleted listbox.
Sets can be visually displayed on the screen by markers which show the location, type, magnitude, and
direction of the selected property. Sets can also be displayed as tables.
A powerful capability is the display of any set scalar data directly on the model as a fringe plot. For
display purposes, data is treated as “results,” with full user control over the spectrum, method, shading,
etc. Data display is scalar, of course, but the data can be any nonvector element property.

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The use of PCL commands in defining properties is supported indirectly. First, use the PCL option in the
Fields function to create the desired input data distribution. The field can be used in the Element
Properties function by simply selecting it from a listbox display.

Summary of Key Features

FEM and Geometric The Element Properties function provides a straightforward, convenient
Associativity means for taking property data, whether from fields or direct input, and
associating it directly with FEM entities or indirectly through Geometric
entities. Data is grouped as uniquely named sets. These sets can be
created, deleted, modified or displayed.
Archival Records Provides archival records in the model database of all previous property
sets unless specifically deleted.
Set Manipulation Combines Material Properties and other property data into sets and
associates these sets with FEM entities (e.g., QUAD4s). Provides a
means of creating new sets that are modifications of existing sets.
Set Creation Provides for creating, deleting, modifying and showing sets. Visual
display of sets includes showing the type, location, magnitude, and
direction of properties. Entities and their associated properties can also be
shown in a table format.
Set Selection Provides for selection of existing property sets by selecting associated
entities from the screen.
Fields Support Fully supports the use of Fields in defining data input. This permits
access to PCL commands in defining spatially varying property
distributions.
Multiple Analysis Types Provides support for structural, thermal, and fluid dynamic (CFD)
analysis types.
Scalar Data Display Scalar data (e.g., thickness) can be displayed as fringe plots on the model.
The data is treated as “results,” with full control over the display (e.g.,
spectrum, shading, type, etc.).

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Ch. 3: Element Properties Application 65
Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Element Properties

3.2 Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Element


Properties
All Element Property sets created are associated with an analysis preference. This preference is selected
in the Preferences/Analysis menu. Make the appropriate selection before proceeding. Be aware that if the
analysis preference is changed during a session, Patran will attempt to convert existing element property
sets to the new preference environment. Converting back to the original preference will not necessarily
restore the element property definitions to their original state. To run the same problem on different
codes, while maintaining the original state of the element property definitions, copy the database, change
the analysis preference, and make the appropriate changes to element properties, materials, loads, etc.
Element Property sets can be created, modified, deleted, and displayed. Set Modification is completely
general in that this action essentially deletes the original set and replaces it with the modified set.
The Create option may also be used to Modify a set. The only difference is that you will be prompted
with a message warning that the set already exists, and asking whether it should be overwritten.
Creating a new set that is a modification of an existing set is accomplished by creating a renamed set
using the Create action.
The region of application on the model of the defined set is established using the standard selection tools.
The ID of selected items is displayed in the Select Members databox. These members can be added or
removed from the Application Region by pushing the appropriate button on the form. The Application
Region listbox can also be edited directly. The Element Property set is applied to the members in the
Application Region box, not the Select Members box.
The Option(s) portion of the form will vary with element type, as will the menu brought up by selecting
Input Properties. The typical Input Properties menu has boxes for providing data values as well as
specifying material and field names. To avoid confusion field names are prefixed by f: and material
names by m:. Also, property inputs that are enclosed in [brackets] are optional, and need not be input if
the defaults are applicable.
Element Property sets are associated with specific finite element types. See the preference guide or the
user manual for discussions of the large number of specific element types and properties supported.
Elements may be associated to only one element property set. Property sets that are associated directly
to elements take precedence over property sets associated to elements through geometry.
The use of fields to define complex spatial data distributions, such as thickness distributions, is
encouraged. Fields are created in the separate Fields application. The use of Discrete FEM Fields can be
very helpful for properties that vary in value for many elements but can not be defined using a function.
In general, Element Discrete FEM Fields should be used. There are cases where a Nodal Discrete FEM
Field is more convenient. One such case is for a thickness which varies across the element. Care must
be taken when using Nodal Discrete FEM Fields for property values that may not vary within a given
element. In this case, the Field evaluator will average the values for each of the element nodes. This may
result in unwanted values.
Material properties are created separately in the Materials application. Material properties must be
defined prior to creating element property sets. Their existence is required to complete definition of the

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property set. If you don’t have the material properties yet, input a dummy material name in any required
material property databox, and a blank material will automatically be created.
The PATRAN 2.5 Neutral File uses material numbers rather than material names. If a PATRAN 2.5
Neutral File is created under File/Export or Analysis translation, the material names supplied by the user
will appear in the Neutral File as material numbers assigned in sequence by Patran. If a material number
is significant to an analysis code using the Neutral File (e.g., a pointer to a materials library), the user
should use an explicit material number instead of a name. For example, the material name “m:18” or
“MATRL.18” will be passed to the Neutral File as material “18,” even if it is the only material in the
database.

Important: Do not mix material names and material numbers in the same database.

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Ch. 3: Element Properties Application 67
Element Properties Forms

3.3 Element Properties Forms


The functions of the Element Properties menu are listed and described below in the order in which they
appear on the menu.

Menu Pick Action


Create ... Input analysis code specific finite element property data and associate that
data with selected FEM or geometric entities.
Modify ... Make any modification desired to Existing Property Sets.
Delete ... Remove element property sets from the database.
Show ... Display tables listing FEM or geometric entities and their associated
properties. Create scalar, vector, and marker plots of selected properties.

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Create Element Property Sets


This form is used to both define element property data and associate that data with selected entities.
Property data is intrinsically code specific, so be sure that the desired analysis code has been selected (see
the Preferences/Analysis menu). Property sets have both an associated name and number.

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Element Properties Forms

Dimension The element types are 2-Dimensional. The options are:

• 0D (e.g., mass)
• 1D (e.g., beam)
• 2D (e.g., shell)
• 3D (solid)
Type The options for the types of elements are analysis code specific. Refer to
the Preference Guide or the analysis code User’s Guide for help.
Existing Property Sets The names of previously defined property sets are listed in this databox.
Select one if you want to use it as the template for the new set.
Property Set Name Select this databox and give the set a new unique name (31 characters
maximum). This databox will also allow existing property sets to be
selected from the existing properties listbox or by selecting entities from
the screen. If more than one unique property name results from a screen-
pick, a Selection Listbox will appear, allowing the selection of a single
property set name.
Options The options selection databoxes that appear in this portion of the form are
analysis code specific. Refer to the code users manual for help in making
the desired selections.
Input Properties... Select this databox to bring up the form used to input properties relevant to
the type and option selected.
Select Members Select this databox and enter the entity IDs which you want to add or
remove from the Application Region. Type in directly or use the selection
tools. These can either be FEM, ASM, or SGM entities.
Add These buttons are used to either Add or Remove the contents of the Select
Members databox to/from the Application Region.
Remove
Application Region These are the entities to which the property set will apply. You can add or
remove members either by editing the contents directly, or by selecting
members in the select box and pushing the Add or Remove buttons.

More Help: Preference Guides Application Modules


• Patran ABAQUS • Patran FEA
• Patran ANSYS • Patran Thermal
• Patran MSC.Marc • Patran Advanced FEA
• Patran MSC Nastran
• Patran SAMCEF

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Typical Element Properties Input Menu


There are different Input Properties menus for virtually all element types used in all analysis codes and
their different analysis types. The menu below is the one for the homogeneous shell element in
ABAQUS. It is typical of many of the different menus.

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Element Properties Forms

Material Name Specific input items are listed in this column. Items in brackets are
optional.
Value Input the desired values in these databoxes. When names are selected for
the listbox below, they will include a type prefix: “m”: for material name
and “f”: for a field name.
Value Type Each property has a value type. These are listed in this column for
reference and indicating what the analysis code is expecting. Some
properties may be one of several value types. In this case an option-menu
containing the valid value types will appear. Properties enclosed in [ ] are
optional.
Field Definitions This listbox will appear when Material Property Sets or Field Definitions
may be used in the selected Value databox. Selecting a field or material
will cause the name to appear in the Value databox. Read Section 3.2
Rules for Creating/Modifying/Applying Element Properties for use of
Discrete FEM Fields.

More Help: Preference Guides Application Modules


• Patran ABAQUS • Patran FEA
• Patran ANSYS • Patran Thermal
• Patran MSC.Marc • Patran Advanced FEA
• Patran MSC Nastran
• Patran SAMCEF

Defining Vectors
When the “Value Type” for any data box in the Input Properties form is “Vector” a vector definition is
expected. The general syntax for vectors is defined in The List Processor (p. 43) in the Patran Reference
Manual. Element Properties extends this to allow an alternate coordinate system to be specified for
interpreting the vector. This syntax is:
“vector_specification coordinate_frame”
A simple example is “<0 1 0> Coord 3”. The vector <0 1 0> is interpreted as being in coordinate system
3. If the vector needs to be in any other system, the appropriate transformation is done by Patran.
Any valid vector specification that can be generated by using the Select Menus or entered by hand may
be followed by a coordinate frame. The coordinate frame is stored with the vector and is used whenever
the vector is referenced for any purpose (eg. Display or analysis code translators).
When the Value Type for any data box is Vector and the data box is selected the following select box
appears on the screen.

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These select tools provide different options for defining vectors.


They are discussed in more detail in Select Menu (p. 35) in the
Patran Reference Manual.

These tools provide


different ways to define
vectors. In addition, the
user is requested to
select a coordinate
These three tools define the vector as system in which this
the 1 (x), 2(y), or 3(z) axis of a selected vector is defined.
coordinate system. This is a The simplest list
convenient way to specify the vector processor syntax that
when it is aligned with one of the three appears in the databox
axes of a rectangular coordinate for a vector in an
system. When the system is not alternate coordinate
rectangular (e.g. cylindrical) these tools system is <x_component,
may not provide the desired definition y_component,
because the defined vector does not z_component> coord
change direction at different points in cord_id (e.g. <1, 0, 0>
space— these tools just provide an coord 3). In many cases it
alternate way to define a global vector. is easy to simply type a
definition in this form into
the databox.

This tool may be used to define a


general vector with respect to an
alternate coordinate system. When this
icon is picked, the select menu
changes to the one on the right.

After a vector has been defined it may be verified by selecting the Show Action, the Property Name, and
Display Method Vector Plot. The vectors defining the property will be shown on the model.
Users should be aware of possible difference between the Patran and analysis code definitions for vector
properties. For example, in Patran the beam orientation is completely independent of the analysis
coordinate system at the beam nodes. In MSC Nastran, the orientation vector is assumed to be defined in
the same system as the analysis system at the first node of the beam. In PatranNastran it is perfectly
permissible to define the orientation in a different coordinate system from that analysis system. When the
MSC Nastran input file is generated, the necessary transformation of this vector to the analysis system at
node 1 will be performed.

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Ch. 3: Element Properties Application 73
Element Properties Forms

Modify Element Property Sets


Modifying an Element Property Set is functionally equivalent to creating new set using an old set as a
template and then deleting the old set. This enables a complete generality in the type and scope of
modifications that can be made.

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Dimension The dimensionality of the set can be changed. The options are:0D (e.g.,
mass)

• 0D (e.g., mass)
• 1D (e.g., beam)
• 2D (e.g., shell)
• 3D (solid)
Type The options for the types of elements can be changed. These are analysis
code specific. Refer to the Preference Guide or the analysis code user
manual for help.
Select Prop. Set to The names of previously defined property sets are listed in this databox.
Modify Select one you want to modify.
New Property Set Give the set a new name (31 characters maximum). This databox allows
Name existing Property Sets to be selected from the existing properties listbox or
by selecting entities from the screen. Existing property set names can also
be manually entered.
Options The options selection databoxes that appear in this portion of the form are
analysis code specific. Refer to the code users manual for help in making
desired modifications.
Select Members Select this databox and input the entity IDs which you want to add or
remove from the Application Region. Type in directly or use the selection
tools.
Add These buttons are used to either Add or Remove the contents of the Select
Members databox to/from the Application Region.
Remove
Application Region These are the entities to which the property set will apply. You can add or
remove members either by editing the contents directly, or by selecting
members in the select box and pushing the Add or Remove buttons.

Note: The set is not modified until Apply is selected. Wait for the
green heartbeat before proceeding.

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Ch. 3: Element Properties Application 75
Element Properties Forms

Delete Element Property Sets


Deleted Element Property Sets are removed from the database. They can only be restored if the “undo”
icon is selected as the next subsequent action.

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Prop. Sets By Name The names of existing property sets appear in this listbox. As each one is
selected, its name is echoed in the delete listbox below.

This toggle enables Property Set Name databox. If this toggle is off, the
databox will not be displayed.
Filter Use the filter button to filter the Property set list.
Screen Picked Property This databox allows existing Property Sets to be selected by selecting
Set entities from the screen. All unique property sets associated with the
screen-picked entities will be highlighted in the existing properties listbox
above and echoed in the delete listbox below. Existing property set names
can also be manually entered.
Auto Add/Remove If On, properties selected in the top listbox are immediately removed and
added to the bottom listbox, and properties selected in the bottom listbox
are immediately removed and added to the top listbox.

If Off, the Add and Remove buttons perform the same function manually.
Selected Property Sets This databox lists the names of sets that will be deleted when Apply is
selected. If you decide you do not want to delete a listed set, remove it from
the list by selecting it.
Clear Removes all properties from the listbox above and adds them to the top
listbox.

Note: The sets are not deleted until Apply is selected. Wait for the
green heartbeat before proceeding.

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Ch. 3: Element Properties Application 77
Element Properties Forms

Show Element Property Sets


“Show” in this form does not apply to showing the contents of an Element Property Set. Use the Create
or Modify actions for that purpose. This form permits display of selected properties assigned to entities
in the current viewport or in all groups. Property display can be either by table, by placing annotated
markers or vectors on viewport displayed entities, or by creating a contour plot of the selected property
on the model.

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Existing Properties This is a list of all of the types of properties that have been defined,
regardless of set association, that are available to be shown. Select one.
Note that names are displayed as their associated integer value in the
graphical display. For example, property sets are given an integer ID in the
order of their creation.
Type The type of the selected property appears here (e.g., integer, real scalar).
Display Method Select the desired method of display. The available options are Table, Plot
Marker, and Plot Scalar.

Table: Displays a table listing each element that has the selected property,
the set name, data type, and data value.

Marker Plot: Marker symbols are plotted at the center of each element or
geometric entity along with the data value (e.g., set ID number).

Vector Plot: Vectors are plotted at the center of each element or geometric
entity.

Scalar Plot: Makes a color contour plot of the data values on the model and
displays a value spectrum bar. The default plot type is “Fringe-Flat.” This
can be changed in the Display/Entity Types menu.

Note: To display properties assigned to geometric entities on their


associated elements, select the “Display on FEM only” toggle
in the Display/functional assignments menu pick. See
Display>LBC/Element Property Attributes (p. 385) in the
Patran Reference Manual for more information.

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Ch. 3: Element Properties Application 79
Element Properties Forms

Show Element Properties in Tabular Format

Elementprops Table Show

Entity Property Set Name Data Type


Element 1 tank_flange Real Scalar 0
Element 2 tank_flange Real Scalar 0
Element 3 tank_flange Real Scalar 0
Element 4 tank_shell Field at Nodes f
Element 5 tank_shell Field at Nodes f
Element 6 tank_flange Real Scalar 0
Element 7 tank_flange Real Scalar 0
Element 8 tank_flange Real Scalar 0

Entitiy Column The first column is a list of the entities that have the selected property (e.g.,
have a specified thickness).
Property Set Name The second column lists the names of the Element Property Sets associated
Column with the column 1 entity.
Data Type Column The third column lists the type of data (e.g., integer, real scalar, field at
nodes, etc.).
Value Column The fourth column lists the data value. Fields are not evaluated. Use the
Scalar Plot option to show field defined values.

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Show Element Properties as a Scalar, Vector, or Marker Plot

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Ch. 3: Element Properties Application 81
Element Properties Forms

Existing Properties Select the type of property to be displayed. The type of the property
appears immediately below as shown.
Display Method Select the Marker Plot, Vector Plot, or Scalar Plot option.

Marker Plot: Marker symbols are plotted at the center of each element
along with the data value (e.g., set ID number).

Scalar Plot: Makes a color contour plot of the data values on the model and
displays a value spectrum bar. The default plot type is “Fringe-Flat.” This
can be changed in the Display/Entity Types menu.

Vector Plot: Vectors are plotted at the center of each element or geometric
entity.
Select Groups Property display can be restricted to just those elements in selected groups
in the current viewport, or can include all elements in all groups that have
the selected property. Note: At least one group must be selected.
Fringe Attributes See Display Attributes (p. 6) in the Results Postprocessing.

Note: After completing the show action, the display will remain on the model. Scalar plots can
be erased by changing their type to “Wireframe” in the Display/Entity Types menu.
Markers are removed by turning off the “General Marker” display in the
Display/Functional Assignments menu. The display can also be reset by pressing the “clear
display” icon (broom).

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Element Properties Forms

Expand Element Properties


The Expand form will expand one element property assigned to many elements into many element
properties assigned to one element each.

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Ch. 3: Element Properties Application 83
Element Properties Forms

Prop. Sets By Name List the properties by Name, ID, or Suffix. Then select the properties to
expand.
Filter Use the filter button to filter the Property set list.
Property Name Prop Name.Elem ID is the original name of the property to be expanded.
Options Elem ID is the ID of the element which the new property will be associated
with.

Use the Prefix or Suffix options to add a specific (maximum of 8


characters) Prefix or Suffix to the name of the new property.
Delete Original If checked, Patran will automatically delete the original (now empty)
Property Sets property set.

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Element Properties Forms

Compress Element Properties


You can use the Compress Element Properties form to select Property Sets to be compared against each
other. Any duplicate sets are merged to the one with the first alphanumeric name..

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Ch. 3: Element Properties Application 85
Element Properties Forms

Action Choose the object dimension or any object dimension.


Object Select the type or any to be compressed.
Type Choose the method by which the property sets will be sorted.
Prop. Sets By Name The names of existing property sets appear in this listbox. As each one is
selected, its name is echoed in the Selected Property Sets listbox below.
Filter Use the filter button to filter the Property set list.
Screen Picked Property Allows picking a property by picking an entity that references that
Set property.
Auto Add/Remove If On, properties selected in the top listbox are immediately removed and
added to the bottom listbox, and properties selected in the bottom listbox
are immediately removed and added to the top listbox.

If Off, the Add and Remove buttons perform the same function manually.
Selected Property Sets This databox lists the names of sets that will be compressed when Apply is
selected. If you decide you do not want to compress a listed set, remove it
from the list by selecting it.
Apply This button causes all of the sets in the Selected Property Sets listbox to be
compared against each other. Any duplicate sets are merged to the one
with the first alphanumeric name. The Significant Digits value can be
changed based on the precision desired (Default = 3). The sets that are
merged are deleted. Compression information is written to the file
"compress.prop.rpt" in your current directory unless a preference is set
false with the following command:

pref_env_set_logical( "property_compress_file_write", FALSE )

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Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application
Patran Reference Manual

4 Materials Application


Overview of the Materials Application 88

Rules for Creating/Modifying Materials 90

Materials Forms 91

Composite Materials Construction 116

Theory - Composite Materials 142

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Ch. 4: Materials Application 88
Overview of the Materials Application

4.1 Overview of the Materials Application

Purpose
The Materials application provides the ability to define groups of analysis code specific material
properties. Materials or “material models” are created as named groups of individual properties. Each
group is intended to provide only the information necessary to define a material for use with a specific
analysis code, analysis type, and possibly a specific element type. There is no intent to provide a complete
material specification or database “undo.”
A single Material may, however, have multiple Constitutive Models associated with it. Thus, a material
might have an elastic representation and an inelastic one under the same name. The specific
representation of a given material used for an analysis is controlled via the Material Status. Patran will
attempt to use all Active Constitutive Models when an analysis is submitted. To use a simple elastic
model for check runs, set all other Constitutive Models Inactive. To use a more complex model for
detailed studies, set the simpler Constitutive Models Inactive.
Material property data may be obtained directly from the Patran Mvision material databases through the
Patran Materials, as well as input directly. There is also the capability to define and assign materials in
name only. This permits property data to be included in run files external to Patran.
Material Property Fields can be created which define distributions of any property with respect to any
combination of temperature, strain, or strain rate. Materials remain in the database unless specifically
deleted and thus provide an archival record. The ability to display properties versus temperature, strain,
and strain rate is provided in either tabular form or as XY plots. Resultant stiffness and compliance
matrices can also be displayed.
Material Names: The material name may be assigned as a character string or an integer (e.g.,18, m:18
or MATRL.18). Use a number if the material number is significant to the analysis code, such as a pointer
to a materials library.

Note: If a PATRAN 2.5 Neutral File is exported from Patran, materials that were assigned a
character name will appear in the Neutral File as a material ID number in the sequence in
which they were created.

Important: Do not mix material names and numbers in the same database.

Definitions
Material Property: A material property is any information used to create a material model that is
required by a specific analysis code. These include items such as density, specific heat, elastic modulus,
Poisson’s ratio, etc.

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Ch. 4: Materials Application 89
Overview of the Materials Application

Material: Also called a Material Model. A group of material properties that, when combined, provide
all necessary information to define a material as required by the selected analysis code. Materials have
an associated name and description. These are supplied by the user.
Material Property Fields: A Material Property Field is a distribution of a material property with respect
to temperature, strain, strain rate, time or frequency. It is defined by tables that are input in the Fields top
menu selection. An example would be the dependence of an elastic modulus on temperature.
XY Plot: Virtually all material properties can be displayed as XY Plots with the X-axis being
temperature, strain, or strain rate. For bivariate properties, additional curves can be plotted at different
values of the third variable. See Overview of the XY Plot Application (Ch. 1) in the Patran User’s Guide
for more information.

Capabilities
The Materials application has the capability of creating, deleting, modifying, and showing materials.
Materials are created and stored in the database as named groups of property data. Each group has a
unique name and is associated with one analysis type (e.g., structural), one analysis code (e.g., MSC
Nastran), and in some cases one element type. Multiple models involving different Constituent Models
can be created under the same Material name. The particular model used for an analysis is controlled by
the Constituent Model Status.
Materials can be visually displayed as XY Plots of a selected property plotted as a function(s) of
temperature, strain, or strain rate. Multiple curves can be created and included in the same plot,
permitting comparisons to be made between materials. Properties can also be displayed as tables. Both
stiffness and compliance matrices which result from the input values can be displayed.

Summary of Key Features


The Materials function provides a straightforward and convenient means for taking property data,
whether from fields or direct input, and grouping it in specific formats for code dependent element
property definition. These data are grouped as a named Material. Materials can be created, deleted,
modified or shown. Key features of the Materials function are:
• Provides archival records in the model database of all previous Material property data unless
specifically deleted.
• Fully supports the use of Material Property Fields in defining data input. These Fields can
provide property variation with respect to temperature, strain, strain rate, time or frequency, as
well as various combinations of these.
• Provides support for structural, thermal, and fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis types.
• Provides for creating, deleting, modifying, and showing sets. Visual display of sets includes
creating XY plots of selected properties. Tabular display includes showing resultant stiffness
and/or compliance matrices resulting from the input properties.

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Ch. 4: Materials Application 90
Rules for Creating/Modifying Materials

4.2 Rules for Creating/Modifying Materials


All Material Properties created are associated with an Analysis Preference. This preference is selected in
the Preferences/Analysis menu. Make the appropriate selection before proceeding. Be aware that if the
analysis preference is changed during a session, Patran will attempt to convert existing material
properties to the new preference requirements. No record of the properties entered with the original
preference active is retained, so converting back to the original preference may not completely restore
the material property sets.
Materials can be created, deleted, modified, and shown. Modification is completely general in that this
action essentially deletes the original set and replaces it with the modified set.
The Create option may also be used to Modify a material. The only difference is the user will be prompted
with a message warning that the set already exists and asking whether it can be overwritten.
Creating a new material that is a modification of an existing material is accomplished by creating a
renamed set using the Create action.
Every Material has a unique, user-defined name from 1 to 31 characters long. A sequential ID number is
also automatically assigned for internal use, and may be supplied to certain analysis codes during
translation.
Each material has an associated user provided description (1 to 256 characters). By default, this
descriptor contains the date and time of the start of the Patran session during which the material was
created.
Material properties may be associated with specific finite element types. See the Translator
Documentation for discussions of large numbers of specific element types and properties supported.
The use of fields to define complex temperature, strain, strain rate, time or frequency dependencies is
encouraged. These material property fields are created in the Fields application. Multiple material fields
can be used in the definition of a single material.

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Ch. 4: Materials Application 91
Materials Forms

4.3 Materials Forms


This section provides help for the forms that are used to create, delete, modify and show material
properties and materials. Only those forms that are of general use are included here. A reference is
provided in the appropriate chapter of the translator documents which describes each material form as it
applies to the preferred analysis code and the type of finite element model.

Option Description
Create Materials • Manual Input
• Constitutive Model Status
• Materials Selector
• Externally Defined
• Create Composites
Show Materials • Tabular
• Show Composites
Modify Materials • Isotropic
• 2d Orthotropic
• 3d Orthotropic
• 2d Ansiotropic
• 3d Ansiotropic
• Modify Composites
Delete Materials

Create Materials
This is the basic form used to create all homogeneous material models. Materials are defined with
reference to a specific analysis code. Be sure the proper code and type have been selected before
proceeding (Preferences/Analysis menu).

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 92
Materials Forms

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 93
Materials Forms

Object Select the material category to be created. All materials which belong to
that category are listed in the Existing Materials box. (Provide additional
filtering if the list is lengthy.)
Method Select the Method to be used to create the Material. The three available
Methods are:

Manual Input of the properties from an auxiliary form.

Material Selector - Utilize P3/Materials Selector Database to obtain


material properties.

Externally Defined - Create and assign material names only, with


properties supplied externally.
Existing Materials Selecting a material in the Existing Materials box causes it to be transferred
to the Material Name databox.
Material Name Each material must have a unique name (1 to 31 characters). It will also be
assigned a sequential Material ID number automatically.
Description User-supplied descriptions of a selected material are displayed here for
reference (2500 characters maximum).
Code: / Type: The Analysis Preference and Type are displayed for reference. Check for
correctness.
Input Properties Input Properties brings up forms for data entry.

More Help: Preference Guides Application Modules


• Patran ABAQUS • Patran FEA
• Patran ANSYS • Patran Thermal
• Patran LS-DYNA3D • Patran Advanced FEA
• Patran MSC.Marc
• Patran MSC.Dytran
• Patran MSC Nastran
• Patran PAMCRASH
• Patran SAMCEF
• Patran P2NF

Material property inputs depend on:


• Analysis Code Selection (e.g., ABAQUS)

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Ch. 4: Materials Application 94
Materials Forms

• Analysis Type Selection (e.g., Structural)


• Specific Constitutive Equations (e.g., Isotropic, 2D Orthotropic)
• General Behavior Model (e.g., Elastic or Viscoelastic)
• Specific Behavior Model Inputs (e.g., Damping Constant, Exponents)
• Failure Theory and Related Model Inputs (e.g., von Mises, maximum stress)

There is a very large number of options available, and the information for creating them all is not resident
in this help section. It is available, however, in related sections located in the specific preference
documentation.

Manual Input
This is one of literally hundreds of Input properties forms that can appear depending on the analysis code,
type, material model, or option selected. Most forms are similar to this one. There is a Constitutive Model
plus other option selections followed by places for input of specific property parameters. When a
property input location is selected where the use of fields is appropriate, a list of Material Property Fields
available for use appears as shown.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 95
Materials Forms

Constitutive Model First select the Constitutive Model for the material. A single material may
have multiple constitutive models.
Property Name/Value Input the values necessary to define the material model.

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Ch. 4: Materials Application 96
Materials Forms

Temperature When an input databox is selected which allows a field definition, this
Dependent Fields listbox will appear with a list of available Material Property Fields.
Selecting a Field enters its name into the input property databox.
Current Constitutive The existing constitutive models and their respective options as well as
Models their status (i.e., active or inactive) will appear here. A newly created set
will appear as an active model, after Apply is selected.

More Help: Preference Guides Application Modules


• Patran ABAQUS • Patran FEA
• Patran ANSYS • Patran Thermal
• Patran LS-DYNA3D • Patran Advanced FEA
• Patran MSC.Marc
• Patran MSC.Dytran
• Patran MSC Nastran
• Patran PAMCRASH
• Patran SAMCEF
• Patran P2NF

Constitutive Model Status


A single material may contain multiple Constitutive Models. The Constitutive Model used is determined
by the Constitutive Model Status. Patran will use all Constitutive Models active when the analysis is
submitted. Redundant or unneeded Constitutive Models should be rendered inactive.
Existing constitutive models of an existing material will appear in either of the listboxes, depending on
their active/inactive status. Selection of a model from one listbox will add it to the other one.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 97
Materials Forms

Materials Selector
This form is used to invoke the Patran Materials product which can access Patran Mvision databases to
define properties for the selected material.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 98
Materials Forms

More Help:
• MSC.Mvision Materials
Selector Databases

Object Select the material category to be created.


Method Selecting Materials Selector, as the method, changes the form to the one
shown here and displays the Database Selection menu. See Materials
Selector Database, 98.

Materials Selector Database


This form is used to select and access the Patran Mvision Materials Selector Databases that contain the
needed materials data.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 99
Materials Forms

Materials Selector Databases

Filter
/okinawa/users/smith/*.mdb

Directories Databases
/smith/.
/smith/..
/smith/.fminit2.0
/smith/Exercises
/smith/Mail
/smith/Part_2_basic_functions
/smith/Part_4_FEM

Existing P3⁄Materials Selector Database

-Apply- Filter Cancel

Directories First, select a directory or enter the path to the directory where the database
resides. Use the Filter button to search the selected directory for applicable
databases.
Databases Available databases in the selected directory appear here. Select the one
desired. Its name appears in the box below.
Apply Selecting Apply opens the database.

Externally Defined
The Externally Defined method is used when a material name is necessary for creation of Element
Properties, but the actual material properties will be supplied by the user external to Patran.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 100
Materials Forms

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 101
Materials Forms

Object Select the material category to be created. All materials which belong to
that category are listed in the Existing Materials box. Provide additional
filtering if the list is lengthy.
Method The material properties will be defined external to Patran, which will
associate the input material name (and ID) with selected elements.
Existing Materials Selecting a material in the Existing Materials box causes it to be transferred
to the Material Name box.
Material Name Each Material must have a unique name (1 to 31 characters). It will also be
assigned a sequential Material ID number automatically.
Description User-supplied descriptions of a selected material are displayed here for
reference (2500 characters maximum).
Preference/Type The Analysis Preference and Type are displayed for reference. Check for
correctness.
Input Properties Input Properties button is “grayed out” indicating it is not available for the
selected External Definition Method.

Create Composites
This is the basic form used to create all composite materials.

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Ch. 4: Materials Application 102
Materials Forms

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Ch. 4: Materials Application 103
Materials Forms

Method Select the type of composite material to be created. Laminate is the default.
The Rule-of-Mixtures model, five Halpin-Tsai models, and two Short
Fiber Composite models are also available.See Composite Materials
Construction, 116 for more help.
Existing Materials Selecting materials in the Existing Materials listbox causes them to be
written to the form containing composite model-specific definition data to
be used as constituent materials. For example, if the “Laminate” Method is
displayed, then selecting materials in the Existing Materials listbox causes
them to be written in the Material Name column of the spreadsheet on the
Laminated Composite form and treated as ply materials.
Laminated Composites Contains the existing materials that have been created using the material
model indicated by the Method selection. Selecting materials in this listbox
causes their names to be written to the Material Name databox and their
definition data to be written to the model-specific form immediately to the
left of this form.
Material Name Each material must have a unique name (1 to 31 characters). It will also be
assigned a sequential Material ID number.
Material Descriptions User-supplied descriptions of materials (up to 2500 characters) are entered
here.
Apply Selecting Apply causes the composite material definition on this form and
on the model-specific form to be used to create a new composite material.
Reset Restores all composite material Create form inputs (including those on the
model-specific form) to the values present at the last time Apply was
selected.

Show Materials
This form is used to display both tables of the material stiffness and compliance matrices as well as XY
plots of selected properties as functions of temperature, stress, or strain rate.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 104
Materials Forms

Object Select the material category to be created. All materials which belong to
this category are listed in the Existing Materials box. Provide additional
filtering if the list is lengthy.
Existing Materials Selecting a material in the Existing Materials box causes it to be transferred
to Material Name box.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 105
Materials Forms

Material Name Each material has a unique name (1 to 31 characters) and a unique Material
ID. The Material ID is automatically assigned when the material is created.
Description User-supplied descriptions of a selected material are displayed here for
reference (2500 characters maximum).
Preference/Type The Analysis Preference and Type are displayed for reference. Check for
correctness.

Show Properties, Tabular


This form permits review of the input property values. They cannot be modified here. It also provides for
display of the stiffness and compliance matrices that result from those properties.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 106
Materials Forms

Constitutive Model Select the desired constitutive model for the material being shown. One
material can have multiple constitutive models.
Property Name/Value This section of the form presents a reprise of the Create form, so it (or
Modify) can also be used to review inputs.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 107
Materials Forms

Current Constitutive Existing constitutive models of the material are listed here. The analysis
Models options of models and their active/inactive status are also shown.
Show Material These buttons show the selected matrix in a separate form, as shown on
Stiffness page 107.
Show Material
Compliance

Show Material Stiffness/ Compliance Matrix


This is the Material stiffness matrix that results from the constitutive model and input properties. Material
directions follow the analysis code definitions. The matrix size is appropriate to the material type
displayed. Compliance matrices can also be displayed.

Show Composites
This is the basic form used to show all composite materials.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 108
Materials Forms

Method Select the type of composite material to be shown. Laminate is the default.
The Rule-of-Mixtures model, five Halpin-Tsai models, and two Short
Fiber Composite models are also available.
Existing Material All existing materials are displayed in the Existing Materials listbox.

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Ch. 4: Materials Application 109
Materials Forms

Laminated Composites Contains the existing materials that have been created using the material
model indicated by the Method selection. Selecting materials in this listbox
causes their names to be written to the Material Name databox and their
definition data to be written to the model-specific form immediately to the
left of this form.
Material Name Each material must have a unique name
(1 to 31 characters).
Material Description User-supplied descriptions of materials (up to 2500 characters) are
displayed here.

Modify Materials
Modifying a Material is a completely general operation in that the modified material overwrites itself in
the database. Thus anything can be changed.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 110
Materials Forms

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 111
Materials Forms

Method The material category to be edited is selected here. Only existing


materials that match the category will appear in the Material name
listbox. See figure below for other categories.
Constitutive Model The material constitutive to be edited is selected here. Only
existing materials that match the constitutive model will appear in
the Material name listbox. When the selected category is
Composite, this option menu changes to a label indicating that
Laminates are the only Composites that may be modified in this
form.
Material Sets By... Options to sort material set names by name, .ID or suffix.
Material Set Names Material set names to modify. Any number may be selected.
Filter Material Names Databox for entering a filter to use for displaying material set
names. A "CR" with focus in this databox causes the current filter
to be applied.
Filter Filter button to cause the material set names to be filtered by the
current filter in the filter databox.
Material Values to Change All of the allowable property values common to the selected
material sets. Multiple values may be selected.
Action The modify action to be applied. "Set Equal To" replaces the
current value. "Delete" removes the property value. "Add",
"Subtract", "Multiply" and "Divide" apply the operation of the
new value to the current.
Always Update Values This toggle specifies whether a given material set should be given
the property value even if the property value does not already
exist. The default is Off or False.
Current Value The current value of the selected property value. If the property
value does not exist for all of the selected material sets, the word
"Undefined" will appear. If the property value does not exist for
some of the selected material sets, or if the property value varies
between material sets, the word "Varies" will appear.
New Value The new value to be assigned to operate on the current value.
Temperature Dep/Model If the property value and selected value type can be defined using
Variable a field, this listbox will contain those items which are available.

Modify Composites
This is the basic form used to modify composite materials.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 112
Materials Forms

Method When selected category is Composite, only Laminates can be


modified.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 113
Materials Forms

Mat. Value(s) to Change [ID] The only laminate value that may be modified is the offset.
Action Deleting the laminate offset value sets it to the default, which is
half the thickness.

Delete Materials
Deleted Materials are removed from the database. They can only be restored if the “undo” icon is selected
immediately.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 114
Materials Forms

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 115
Materials Forms

Object Select the material category to be deleted. All materials which belong to
this category are listed in the Existing Materials listbox. Provide additional
filtering if the list is lengthy.
Existing Material Selecting materials in the Existing Materials listbox causes them to be
transferred to the Delete Materials list. Similarly, selecting a material in
Selected Materials the Delete Materials listbox restores it to the Existing Materials list.
Description User-supplied descriptions of selected materials are displayed here for
reference.
Compress Duplicate This button causes all of the sets in the Selected Materials listbox to be
Data compared against each other. Any duplicate materials are merged to the
one with the first alphanumeric name. The Significant Digits value can be
changed based on the precision desired (Default = 3). The materials that are
merged are deleted. Compression information is written to the file
"compress.mat.rpt" in your current directory unless a preference is set false
with the following command:

pref_env_set_logical( "material_compress_file_write", FALSE )


Reset Reset restores all Materials in the Delete Materials listbox and thus to the
Existing Materials listbox, if it is selected prior to selecting the Apply
button.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 116
Composite Materials Construction

4.4 Composite Materials Construction


The Method menu for Composite materials contains the nine composite material models shown below.

Option Method
Composite • Laminated Composite
• Rule-of-Mixtures Composite
• Halpin-Tsai Continuous Fiber Composite
• Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Fiber Composite
• Halpin-Tsai Continuous Ribbon Composite
• Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Ribbon Composite
• Halpin-Tsai Particulate Composite
• Short Fiber Composite (1D)
• Short Fiber Composite (2D)

Laminated Composite
The Laminated Composite option is used to compute the material properties of a laminate having, for
each ply, an arbitrary constituent material, constant thickness, constant orientation and an optional global
ply id for optimization. A laminate offset may also be specified. This is generally done when the neutral
surface does not coincide with the middle surface. The offset is defined as the coordinate of the bottom
of the stack relative to the neutral surface, which, by default, is the negative of half the laminate thickness.
Five Stacking Sequence Conventions are available for defining the layers. If there is no plane of
symmetry, or global ply ids will be defined, then select the “Total” convention and define the attributes
of all “n” layers of an n-ply stack. If the stack is symmetric or anti-symmetric with an even number of
plies, select the appropriate convention and define the attributes of just the first n/2 layers. A
(30,60,60,30) stack may be defined by selecting “Symmetric” and entering the angles “30 60" while a
(30,60,-60,-30) stack may be defined by selecting “Anti-Symmetric” and entering the angles “30 60.” If
the plane of symmetry passes through the center of a ply, use one of the “Mid-Ply” conventions and
define the attributes of the first (n+1)/2 layers. A (45,90,45) stack may be defined by selecting
“Symmetric/Mid-Ply” and entering the angles “45 90" while a (45,90,-45) stack may be defined by
selecting “Anti-Symmetric/Mid-Ply” and entering the angles “45 90.” This last convention may be used
with middle plies of arbitrary orientation to create laminates that are not truly anti-symmetric.
Global ply ids may only be entered when the Stacking Sequence Convention is “Total”. Attempts to enter
them for other Stacking Sequence Conventions is not allowed.
Classical lamination theory is used to compute shell force-deformation properties. Other properties,
including the elasticity matrix and the thermal expansion coefficients, are calculated using volume-
weighted averaging. For more information on material property calculation, see Theory - Composite
Materials, 142.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 117
Composite Materials Construction

Laminated Composite Form


This form contains a spreadsheet on which the composite ply material stacking sequence is defined. The
spreadsheet can be loaded either by selecting ply materials from the Existing Materials listbox contained
on the Materials application form or by entering a list of ply material names, thicknesses, orientation
angles or global ply ids in the textbox on this form and selecting the Load Text Into Spreadsheet button,
or by specifying the thickness for all layers of a given material in the lower databox. The user-selected
cell determines where text is loaded into the spreadsheet. If in Overwrite mode, then the selected column
is overwritten, starting with the selected cell, until the entries in the textbox are exhausted. If the entries
exceed available space in the spreadsheet column, then a prompt will ask if additional rows are to be
created. If in Insert mode, then new rows will be created just below the selected cell to accommodate the
data in the textbox. If (as in the case at start-up) no rows exist, Insert mode is the default mode and entries
in the textbox are loaded into the column specified by the switch on this form, starting at the first row.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 118
Composite Materials Construction

Stacking Sequence Select the convention that matches your laminate. Select “Total” if there is
Convention no symmetry plane, or if you will be assigning Global Ply IDs, in which
case all layers must be defined in the spreadsheet. Symmetric and Anti-
Symmetric laminates require only the bottom half of the stack. The “Mid-
Ply” options are similar, except that the last specified layer in the
spreadsheet is not assumed to be repeated (ie., “0 45” defines a 0/45/0
stack).

If the convention is changed from “Total” and any non-blank Global Ply
IDs exist, a warning will be issued and the option to clear all Global Ply
IDs will be given. If declined, the convention will remain “Total”.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 119
Composite Materials Construction

Offset Specify the laminate offset, which is the coordinate of the bottom of the
stack relative to the neutral surface. If no offset is specified, Patran assumes
that the middle surface is the neutral surface.
Stacking Sequence Select a cell to set the insertion or overwrite starting point. Select a method
Definition of entry: Overwrite or Insert mode. To delete a row of cells, select a group
of cells in a column and select the Delete Selected Rows button.

If the Stacking Sequence Convention is not “Total”, cells in the Global Ply
ID column may not be selected. Attempts to do so will fail and an
informational message will be given.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 120
Composite Materials Construction

Insert Material Names The textbox and its associated button, option menu and switch are strongly
coupled to the spreadsheet. Enter strings of ply material names,
thicknesses, orientation angles (in degrees) or global ply ids into the
textbox. Then select the Load Text into Spreadsheet button to load the
textbox contents into the spreadsheet. Entry starts at the selected cell (if in
Overwrite mode) or just after it (if in Insert mode). The textbox title is
determined by the settings of the associated option menu and buttons.

This textbox accept shorthand. For example

“-60,0,-60,0,-60,0” or “3(-60,0)” could both be used to enter the


thicknesses shown above. To clear global ply ids cells enter “0” for the cell
value. To clear a number of global ply ids enter “n(0)” where n is the
number of rows to clear.
Delete Selected Rows Deletes the rows corresponding to any selected cells.
Thickness for All Enter a value and hit <Return or Enter> to load that value into the
Layers spreadsheet Thickness column for all rows where the Material Name
matches the one given over this databox. To change the name of this
material (in order to assign thicknesses to a different material), select a
spreadsheet cell containing the name of the desired material. This databox
is not displayed until a ply material name is entered into the spreadsheet.
Load Text Into Loads the contents of the textbox into the spreadsheet.
Spreadsheet
Show Laminate Displays the Composite Material Properties form showing all stored
Properties properties of the material specified in the Material Name databox
contained in the Materials Application form.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 121
Composite Materials Construction

Text Entry Mode Determines whether textbox data are to be loaded into the Material Name,
Thickness, Orientation or Global Ply ID columns. If any spreadsheet rows
exist, a new cell will be highlighted in the appropriate column to indicate
where data from the textbox are to be loaded. Global Ply IDs becomes
inactive if the Stacking Sequence Convention is not “Total”.
Clear Text and Data Clears the textbox and the two databoxes. The spreadsheet is unaffected.
Boxes

Rule-of-Mixtures Composite
The Rule-of-Mixtures model is used to describe three-dimensional solids having an arbitrary number of
material phases with arbitrary orientations and volume fractions. Orientations are defined for each phase
using a triad of space-fixed rotation angles ( γ, β, α ) in a 3-2-1 sequence. These angles rotate the
composite material frame into the phase frame. The orientation of each phase is defined by starting with
the phase frame aligned with the composite frame, and rotating the phase material frame γ degrees about
the 3-axis of the composite material frame, then rotating the phase frame β degrees about the 2-axis of
the composite frame, and finally rotating the phase frame α degrees about the 1-axis of the composite
frame.
Rule-of-Mixtures materials are, in general, fully anisotropic. All properties are calculated using volume-
weighted averaging. The algorithms are described in Rule-of-Mixtures Composite Materials, 147.

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Ch. 4: Materials Application 122
Composite Materials Construction

Rule-of-Mixtures Composites Form

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 123
Composite Materials Construction

Phase Material Name Select phase materials by selecting their names in the Existing Materials
List listbox contained in the Materials application form. If the cursor is set in
the Phase Material Name List textbox, then selecting a material in the
Existing Materials listbox will cause that material name to be inserted at
the cursor. Phase materials must have 3-D material properties.
Phase Volume Fraction Specify the phase volume fractions corresponding to the phase materials
specified in the Phase Material Name List textbox. The number of entries
should be the same in both textboxes, but the last volume fraction may be
omitted, in which case it will be assumed to be that value which would
make the sum of all volume fractions unity. If the last volume fraction is
not omitted, then the sum of the volume fractions must be unity.
Phase Orientations Specify the phase orientations corresponding to the phase materials
specified in the Phase Material Name List textbox. Phase orientations are
defined using a triad of space-fixed rotation angles ( γ, β, α ) in a 3-2-1
sequence. These angles (in degrees) rotate the composite material frame
into the phase frame. The number of angles entered in the Phase
Orientations textbox must therefore be three times the number of materials
in the Phase Material Name List textbox. The first three angles are the first
triad, the second three angles are the second triad, and so on. It is not
necessary to group the angles with brackets or parentheses; simply input
the sequence of angles separated by spaces.
Show Material Displays the Composite Material Properties form showing all stored
Properties properties of the material specified in the Material Name databox
contained in the Materials application form. 2-D material properties, such
as the shell force-deformation matrices [A], [B], and [D], which are not
consistent with this 3-D material option, always have displayed values of
zero.
Clear Clears all information from the three textboxes on this form.

Halpin-Tsai Continuous Fiber Composite


The Halpin-Tsai Continuous Fiber model is used to describe 2-phase composites in which the matrix
phase is isotropic and the fibers are uniform, continuous, cylindrical, and transversely isotropic. The
resulting composite is therefore transversely isotropic. The Halpin-Tsai relations are used to calculate
E L, E T, νLT, G LT, and G TT , from which the remaining elastic constants can be determined. Some
earlier versions of Patran calculated ν TT instead of G TT , so this option is provided for compatibility.
Only the names of the material constituents and their respective volume fractions are required input. The
volume fractions provide default empirical factors for the Halpin-Tsai equations. If Halpin-Tsai relations
are not desired the Override Default Equations toggle may be selected and empirical factor may be
entered for each of the five elastic constants. See the Halpin-Tsai material model discussion in Halpin-
Tsai Composite Materials, 150 for the implementation of these constants in the Halpin-Tsai equations.

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 124
Composite Materials Construction

The Halpin-Tsai Continuous Fiber model expects a transversely isotropic fiber material and an isotropic
matrix material. Warning messages will occur if this is not the case. Patran will ignore any additional
properties that those materials may have and use the minimum number required to create a transversely
isotropic composite material. It is, therefore, possible to use fully anisotropic fiber and matrix materials
to create a transversely isotropic material. Physically, this makes no sense, so be careful if the warning
message should appear.

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Ch. 4: Materials Application 125
Composite Materials Construction

Continuous Fiber Composite Form

Material Constituents Select the fiber and matrix materials by clicking on their names in the
Existing Materials listbox contained in the Materials application form. The
switch, which you can set, determines whether the selected material goes
into the Fiber listbox or the Matrix listbox.
Fiber Volume Fraction Use either the slide bars or the databoxes to set the Fiber Volume Fraction
and the Matrix Volume Fraction. The two parameters are coupled so that
their sum cannot exceed one. Sums less than one are permitted (but not
recommended) for modeling voids.

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Composite Materials Construction

Override Default Enable the five Empirical Factors databoxes.


Equations
Empirical Factors If enabled, enter five Empirical Factors used to calculate the corresponding
composite elastic constants. The implementation of these constants is
described in Halpin-Tsai Composite Materials, 150.
Show Material Displays the Composite Material Properties form showing all stored
Properties properties of the material specified in the Material Name databox
contained in the Materials application form. 2-D material properties such
as the shell force-deformation matrices [A], [B], and [D], which are not
consistent with this 3-D material option, always have displayed values of
zero.
Clear Clears all information from the two Material Constituent databoxes and the
five Empirical Factors databoxes.

Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Fiber Composite


The Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Fiber model is used to describe 2-phase composites in which the matrix
phase is isotropic and the fibers are uniform, discontinuous, cylindrical, and transversely isotropic. The
resulting composite is therefore transversely isotropic. The Halpin-Tsai relations are used to calculate
E L, E T, νLT, G LT, and G TT , from which the remaining elastic constants can be determined. Only the
names of the material constituents, their respective volume fractions, and the fiber aspect ratio are
required input. The volume fractions and fiber aspect ratio provide default empirical factors for the
Halpin-Tsai equations. If the default Halpin-Tsai relations are not desired the Override Default Equations
toggle may be selected and empirical factor may be entered for each of the five elastic constants, in which
case, the fiber aspect ratio is no longer required. See the Halpin-Tsai material model discussion in Halpin-
Tsai Composite Materials, 150 for the implementation of these constants in the Halpin-Tsai equations.

The Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Fiber model expects a transversely isotropic fiber material and an
isotropic matrix material. Warning messages will occur if this is not the case. Patran will ignore any
additional properties that those materials may have and use the minimum number required to create a
transversely isotropic composite material. It is, therefore, possible to use fully anisotropic fiber and
matrix materials to create a transversely isotropic material. Physically, this makes no sense, so be careful
if the warning message should appear.

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Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Fiber Composite Form

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 128
Composite Materials Construction

Material Constituents Select the fiber and matrix materials by selecting their names in the
Existing Materials listbox contained in the Materials application form. The
switch, which you can set, determines whether the selected material goes
into the Fiber listbox or the Matrix listbox.
Fiber Volume Fraction Use either the slide bars or the databoxes to set the Fiber Volume Fraction
and the Matrix Volume Fraction. The two parameters are coupled so that
their sum cannot exceed one. Sums less than one are permitted (but not
recommended) for modeling voids.
Override Default Enable the five Empirical Factors databoxes.
Equations
Empirical Factors If enabled, enter five Empirical Factors used to calculate the corresponding
composite elastic constants. The implementation of these constants is
discussed in Halpin-Tsai Composite Materials, 150.
Show Material Displays the Composite Material Properties form showing all stored
Properties properties of the material specified in the Material Name databox
contained in the Materials application form. 2-D material properties, such
as the shell force-deformation matrices [A], [B], and [D], which are not
consistent with this 3-D material option, always have displayed values of
zero.
Clear Clears all information from the two Material Constituent databoxes, the
Fiber Aspect Ratio databox, and the five Empirical Factors databoxes.

Halpin-Tsai Continuous Ribbon Composite


The Halpin-Tsai Continuous Ribbon model is used to describe 2-phase composites in which the matrix
phase is isotropic and the fibers (or ribbons) are uniform, continuous, orthotropic, and have rectangular
cross sections. The resulting composite is therefore orthotropic. The Halpin-Tsai relations are used to
calculate E 11, E 22, E33, ν12, G 12, and G23 from which the remaining elastic constants are determined. Only
the names of the material constituents, their respective volume fractions, and the fiber (or ribbon) aspect
ratio are required input. The volume fractions and fiber aspect ratio provide default empirical factors for
the Halpin-Tsai equations. If the default Halpin-Tsai relations are not desired, the Override Default
Equations toggle may be selected and empirical factor may be entered for each of the six elastic
constants, in which case the fiber aspect ratio is no longer required. See the Halpin-Tsai material model
discussion in Halpin-Tsai Composite Materials, 150 for the implementation of these constants in the
Halpin-Tsai equations.
The Halpin-Tsai Continuous Ribbon model expects an orthotropic fiber (or ribbon) material and an
isotropic matrix material. Warning messages will occur if this is not the case. Patran will ignore any
additional properties that those materials may have and use the minimum number required to create an
orthotropic composite material. It is, therefore, possible to use fully anisotropic fiber and matrix materials
to create an orthotropic material. Physically, this makes no sense, so be careful if the warning message
should appear.

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Halpin-Tsai Continuous Ribbon Composite Form

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 130
Composite Materials Construction

Material Constituents Select the fiber (or ribbon) and matrix materials by selecting their names
in the Existing Materials listbox contained in the Materials application
form. The switch, which you can set, determines whether the selected
material goes into the Fiber listbox or the Matrix listbox.
Fiber Volume Fraction Use either the slide bars or the databoxes to set the Fiber (or ribbon)
Volume Fraction and the Matrix Volume Fraction. The two parameters are
coupled so that their sum cannot exceed one. Sums less than one are
permitted (but not recommended) for modeling voids.
Override Default Enable the five Empirical Factors databoxes.
Equations
Empirical Factors If enabled, enter six Empirical Factors used to calculate the corresponding
composite elastic constants. The implementation of these constants is
discussed in Halpin-Tsai Composite Materials, 150.
Show Material Select to display the Composite Material Properties form showing all
Properties stored properties of the material specified in the Material Name databox
contained in the Materials application form. 2-D material properties, such
as the shell force-deformation matrices [A], [B], and [D], which are not
consistent with this 3-D material option, always have displayed values of
zero.
Clear Select this button to clear all information from the two Material
Constituent databoxes, the Fiber Aspect Ratio databox, and the six
Empirical Factors databoxes.

Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Ribbon Composite


The Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Ribbon model is used to describe 2-phase composites in which the matrix
phase is isotropic and the fibers (or ribbons) are uniform, discontinuous, orthotropic, and have
rectangular cross sections. The resulting composite is therefore orthotropic. The Halpin-Tsai relations are
used to calculate E11, E 22, E 33, ν12, G 12, and G 23 , from which the remaining elastic constants are
determined. Only the names of the material constituents, their respective volume fractions, and the fiber
(or ribbon) aspect ratios are required input. The volume fractions and fiber aspect ratios provide default
empirical factors for the Halpin-Tsai equations. If the default Halpin-Tsai relations are not desired the
Override Default Equations toggle may be selected and empirical factor may be entered for each of the
five elastic constants, in which case the fiber aspect ratios are no longer required. See the Halpin-Tsai
material model discussion in Halpin-Tsai Composite Materials, 150 for the implementation of these
constants in the Halpin-Tsai equations.
The Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Ribbon model expects an orthotropic fiber (or ribbon) material and an
isotropic matrix material. Warning messages will occur if this is not the case. Patran will ignore any
additional properties that those materials may have and use the minimum number required to create an
orthotropic composite material. It is, therefore, possible to use fully anisotropic fiber and matrix materials

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Composite Materials Construction

to create an orthotropic material. Physically, this makes no sense, so be careful if the warning message
should appear.

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Ch. 4: Materials Application 132
Composite Materials Construction

Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Ribbon Composite Form

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Ch. 4: Materials Application 133
Composite Materials Construction

Material Constituents Select the fiber and matrix materials by selecting their names in the
Existing Materials listbox contained in the Materials application form. The
switch, which can be set, determines whether the selected material goes
into the Fiber listbox or the Matrix listbox.
Fiber Volume Fraction Use either the slide bars or the databoxes to set the Fiber Volume Fraction
and the Matrix Volume Fraction. The two parameters are coupled so that
their sum cannot exceed one. Sums less than one are permitted (but not
recommended) for modeling voids.
Override Default Enables the six Empirical Factors databoxes.
Equations
Empirical Factors If enabled, enter six Empirical Factors used to calculate the corresponding
composite elastic constants. The implementation of these constants is
discussed in Halpin-Tsai Composite Materials, 150.
Show Material Displays the Composite Material Properties form showing all stored
Properties properties of the material specified in the Material Name databox
contained in the Materials application form. 2-D material properties, such
as the shell force-deformation matrices [A], [B], and [D], which are not
consistent with this 3-D material option, always have displayed values of
zero.
Clear Clears all information from the two Material Constituent databoxes, the
two Fiber Aspect Ratio databoxes, and the six Empirical Factors
databoxes.

Halpin-Tsai Particulate Composite


The Halpin-Tsai Particulate model is used to describe 2-phase composites in which both the particulate
and the matrix phase are isotropic. The resulting composite is, therefore, isotropic. Common applications
of the Particulate model include materials used in civil engineering applications, such as concrete. The
Halpin-Tsai relations are used to calculate E and G, from which the remaining elastic constants can be
determined. Only the names of the material constituents and their respective volume fractions are
required input. The volume fractions provide default empirical factors for the Halpin-Tsai equations. If
the default Halpin-Tsai relations are not desired, the Override Default Equations toggle may be selected
and empirical factor may be entered for each of the six elastic constants. See the Halpin-Tsai material
model discussion in Halpin-Tsai Composite Materials, 150 for the implementation of these constants in
the Halpin-Tsai equations.
The Halpin-Tsai Particulate model expects an isotropic particulate material and an isotropic matrix
material. Warning messages will occur if this is not the case. Patran will ignore any additional properties
that those materials may have and use the minimum number required to create an isotropic composite
material. It is, therefore, possible to use fully anisotropic particulate and matrix materials to create an
isotropic material. Physically, this makes no sense, so be careful if the warning message should appear.

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Ch. 4: Materials Application 134
Composite Materials Construction

Halpin-Tsai Particulate Composite Form

Material Constituents Select the particulate and matrix materials by selecting their names in the
Existing Materials listbox contained in the Materials application form. The
switch, which you can set, determines whether the selected material goes
into the Particulate listbox or the Matrix listbox.
Fiber Volume Fraction Use either the slide bars or the databoxes to set the Particulate Volume
Fraction and the Matrix Volume Fraction. The two parameters are coupled
so that their sum cannot exceed one. Sums less than one are permitted (but
not recommended) for modeling voids.

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Composite Materials Construction

Override Default Enables the two Empirical Factors databoxes.


Equations
Empirical Factors If enabled, enter two Empirical Factors used to calculate the corresponding
composite elastic constants. The implementation of these constants is
discussed in Halpin-Tsai Composite Materials, 150.
Show Material Displays the Composite Material Properties form showing all stored
Properties properties of the material specified in the Material Name databox
contained in the Materials application form. 2-D material properties such
as the shell force-deformation matrices [A], [B], and [D], which are not
consistent with this 3-D material option, always have displayed values of
zero.
Clear Clears all information from the two Material Constituent databoxes and the
two Empirical Factors databoxes.

Short Fiber Composite (1D)


The 1D Short Fiber Composite model is used to compute the material properties of short fiber composites
whose fiber orientation distributions can be described by a Gaussian curve. The user specifies a mean
fiber orientation and a standard deviation to define the Gaussian (or normal) distribution.
A Monte Carlo integration scheme is used to sum the contributions of normally distributed “fibers” of a
unidirectional material which should usually be a Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Fiber material or a Halpin-
Tsai Discontinuous Ribbon material. In other words, the geometrically appropriate Halpin-Tsai model is
used to synthesize the properties of a unidirectional material having the same fiber material, matrix
material, and fiber and matrix volume fractions as those of the short fiber composite to be created. The
Short Fiber Composite model is then used to “distribute” the properties of the unidirectional Halpin-Tsai
material within the specified Gaussian function. The material properties for each iterate are summed
using the volume-weighted averaging methods used for Rule-of-Mixtures Composites. The default
number of iterations is 1000, but it may be overridden to any positive integer. Scalar quantities, such as
density, are simply assigned the same values as those of the constituent unidirectional material.
For more information on the algorithm, see Short Fiber Composite Materials, 157.

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Composite Materials Construction

Short Fiber Composite (1D) Form

Unidirectional Specify the Unidirectional Material Constituent by selecting its name in


Material Constituents the Existing Materials listbox contained in the Materials application form.
Constituent materials may have 2-D or 3-D material properties.
Mean Orientation Specify the mean orientation of the fibers in polar coordinates. A mean
(degrees) orientation of 0 degrees means that the preferred fiber direction is toward
the material frame 1-axis, while a 90-degree mean tends to align the fibers
with the 2-axis.
Standard Deviation Specify the standard deviation of the fiber distribution. It must be positive.
(degrees)
Number of Monte Select the number of Monte Carlo iterations used for the numerical
Carlo Iterations integration of the unidirectional material properties. The default of 1000 is
usually adequate, but any positive integer is acceptable. Avoid excessively
large values which will only tie up the computer CPU needlessly.

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Composite Materials Construction

Show Material Displays the Composite Material Properties form showing all stored
Properties properties of the material specified in the Material Name databox
contained in the Materials application form. Material properties such as the
shell force-deformation matrices [A], [B], and [D], which are not
consistent with this material option, always have displayed values of zero.
Clear Clears the Unidirectional Material Constituent databox.

Short Fiber Composite (2D)


The 2D Short Fiber Composite model is used to compute the material properties of short fiber composites
whose fiber orientations can be described by a Gaussian surface. The user specifies mean fiber
orientations and standard deviations, as well as a correlation coefficient, to define the Gaussian (or
normal) distribution.
A Monte Carlo integration scheme is used to sum the contributions of normally distributed “fibers” of a
unidirectional material which should usually be a Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Fiber material or a Halpin-
Tsai Discontinuous Ribbon material. In other words, the geometrically appropriate Halpin-Tsai model is
used to synthesize the properties of a unidirectional material having the same fiber material, matrix
material, and fiber and matrix volume fractions as those of the short fiber composite to be created. The
Short Fiber Composite model is then used to “distribute” the properties of the unidirectional Halpin-Tsai
material within the specified Gaussian function. The material properties for each iterate are summed
using the volume-weighted averaging methods used for Rule-of-Mixtures Composites. The default
number of iterations is 1000, but it may be overridden to any positive integer. Scalar quantities, such as
density, are simply assigned the same values as those of the constituent unidirectional material.
The Unidirectional Material Constituent must have 3D properties defined. For more information on the
algorithm, see Short Fiber Composite Materials, 157.

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Composite Materials Construction

Short Fiber Composite (2D) Form

Main Index
Ch. 4: Materials Application 139
Composite Materials Construction

Unidirectional Select the Unidirectional Material Constituent by selecting its name in the
Material Constituents Existing Materials listbox contained in the Materials application form.
Constituent materials must have 3-D material properties.
First Dimension: Theta Select the mean orientation and the standard deviation corresponding to the
(degrees)
azimuthal angle θ . See Short Fiber Composite Materials, 157 for a
description of the spherical frame in which θ is defined. Use either the
slide bar or the databox to specify the standard deviation. The standard
deviation must be positive and cannot exceed 30.0.
Second Dimension: Phi Select the mean orientation and the standard deviation corresponding to the
(degrees)
polar angle φ . See Short Fiber Composite Materials, 157 for a description
of the spherical frame in which φ is defined. Use either the slide bar or the
databox to specify the standard deviation. The standard deviation must be
positive and cannot exceed 30.0.
Correlation Coefficient Use either the slide bar or the databox to define the Correlation Coefficient.
The default value of zero is usually adequate. The Correlation Coefficient
must be a nonnegative number less than one.
Number of Monte Select the number of Monte Carlo iterations used for the numerical
Carlo Iterations integration of the unidirectional material properties. The default of 1000 is
usually adequate, but any positive integer is acceptable. Avoid excessively
large values which will only tie up the computer CPU needlessly.
Show Material Displays the Composite Material Properties form showing all stored
Properties properties of the material specified in the Material Name databox
contained in the Materials application form. 2-D material properties, such
as the shell force-deformation matrices [A], [B], and [D], which are not
consistent with this 3-D material option, always have displayed values of
zero.
Clear Clears the Unidirectional Material Constituent databox.

Composite Material Properties


The Composite Material Properties form is displayed when the “Display” button on a Composite option-
specific form is selected.

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Ch. 4: Materials Application 140
Composite Materials Construction

Composite Material Properties

Membrane, Bending, and Coupling Matrices

Bend
Membrane
0.000E+00 -1.526
6.782E+06 5.395E+03 1.886E-04
-1.526E-05 2.56
Membrane 5.395E+03 6.782E+06 -2.958E-01
0.000E+00 0.000
1.886E-04 -2.958E-01 2.163E+03
1.581E+05 7.193
0.000E+00 -1.526E-05 0.000E+00
7.193E_01 2.279
Bending -1.526E-05 2.563E-03 0.000E+00
0.000E+00 -9.86
0.000E+00 0.000E+00 -7.629E-06

High Precision Value


6.782E+06
Composite Property Display Options

u A, B, and D Matrices uu 3D Flexibility Matrix uu Thermal

uu 3D Elasticity Matrix uu E’s,NU’s,G’s, and Qij's uu CTE’s,C


Cancel

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Composite Materials Construction

High Precision Value Selecting any of the displayed values in the 6x6 spreadsheet causes that
value to be displayed in greater precision in the databox.
Composite Property A, B, and D Matrices. The displayed 6 x 6 matrix relates the in-plane force
Display Options and moment vector {N1,N2,N12,M1,M2,M12} to the vector of midsurface
strains and curvatures { ε 1, ε2, ε 12, κ 1, κ 2, κ 12 } in the expression

⎧ ⎛ N⎞ ⎫ A B ⎧ ⎛ ε⎞ ⎫
⎨ ⎝ M⎠ ⎬ Z ⎨ ⎬
⎩ ⎭ B D ⎩ ⎝ κ⎠ ⎭

where A, B, and D are symmetric 3x3 matrices.

3D Elasticity Matrix. The 3D Elasticity matrix relates the stresses { σ } to


the strains { ε } in the expression:

The Thermal and Moisture Expansion Coefficient vectors are displayed


with the Density, Structural Damping Coefficient, Specific Heat, and
Reference Temperature.
3D Flexibility Matrix. The 3D Flexibility matrix relates the strains { ε } to
the stresses { σ } in the expression:

{ε} Z S {σ}

E’s, NU’s, G’s, and Qij’s

Triads of E’s, ν ’s, and G’s are presented, along with the plane stress
Stiffness matrix [Q] relating the stresses { σ 1, σ 2, σ 12 } to the strains
{ ε 1, ε2, γ 12 } in the expression:

{σ} Z Q {ε}
Thermal: Kij, Ni, and Mi. The 3 x 3 Conductivity matrix Kij is shown
with the Resultant Thermal Force and Moment vectors, Ni and Mi,
respectively.

CTE’s, CME’s and Others. The Thermal and Moisture Expansion


Coefficient vectors are displayed with the Density, Structural Damping
Coefficient, Specific Heat, and Reference Temperature.

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Theory - Composite Materials

4.5 Theory - Composite Materials


The Create Composite options in Patran synthesize material properties for four classes of composite
construction techniques.

Table 4-1 Patran Composite Material Construction Techniques


Construction
Method Algorithm Intended Application
Laminate Classical Lamination Theory. Laminated shells and solids.
Rule of Mixtures Volume-Weighted Averaging. 3D composites with multiple phases,
arbitrary orientations, and arbitrary
volume fractions.
Halpin-Tsai Halpin-Tsai Equations. 2-Phase Composites.
Short Fiber Monte-Carlo integration combined Short fiber composites whose
with volume-weighted averaging. orientation distribution can be
described by a Gaussian curve or
surface.

Two of these construction methods can be implemented in more than one way. There are five Halpin-
Tsai options and two Short Fiber composite options.

Laminated Composite Materials


The Laminate model is used to describe laminated solids and shells. In this construction, adjacent layers
(or laminae or plies) are arranged as shown in Figure 4-1, and the orientation of each layer is defined by
a single constant angle θ . Each layer may be a unique material and have a unique constant thickness. The
Laminate model uses Classical Lamination Theory (CLT) to calculate the membrane, bending, and
membrane-bending coupling stiffness matrices for a laminated shell.

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Theory - Composite Materials

Z Y

θ
7 θ 45
6 0
5 90
4 0
3 -45
2 θ
1

Figure 4-1 Laminate Definition Conventions

Classical Lamination Theory


The two fundamental assumptions of CLT are: (1) that surface normals remain normal when the laminate
deforms:

0
ε i Z ε i H zκ i i Z 11, 22, 33 (4-1)

0
where ε i is the strain, ε i is the midsurface strain, κ i is the curvature, and z is the distance from the
neutral surface; and (2) that each layer is in a state of plane stress, implying that the transverse stresses
are all zero:

σ 33 Z σ 23 Z σ 31 Z 0 (4-2)

The constitutive equation for an orthotropic ply in a state of plane stress is given by:

⎧ ⎫ ⎧ ⎫
⎪ σ1 ⎪ Q 11 Q 12 0 ⎪ ε1 ⎪
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎨ σ 2 ⎬ Z Q 12 Q 22 0 ⎨ ε2 ⎬ (4-3)
⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪
⎪ τ 12 ⎪ 0 0 Q 33 ⎪ γ 12 ⎪
⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭
where:

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E 11
Q 11 Z ----------------------------- (4-4)
( 1 Ó ν12 ν21 )

E 22
Q 22 Z ----------------------------- (4-5)
( 1 Ó ν12 ν21 )

ν21 E 11 ν 12 E 22
Q 12 Z ----------------------------- Z ----------------------------- (4-6)
( 1 Ó ν 12 ν21 ) ( 1 Ó ν 12 ν21 )

Q 33 Z G 12 (4-7)

The constitutive matrix Q for a layer in the laminate frame is given by:

Ó1 T
Q Z T Q T (4-8)

with:

cos2 θ sin2 θ 2 cos θ sin θ


T Z sin2 θ cos2 θ Ó 2 cos θ sin θ (4-9)

Ó cos θ sin θ cos θ sin θ cos2 θ Ó sin2 θ

where T is the matrix transforming the laminate frame strain into the ply frame and θ is the angle
from the laminate frame to the ply frame shown in Figure 4-1. Combining the expression for the
kinematic assumption, (4-1), with the constitutive equation for the kth ply

{ σ }k Z Q { ε } k (4-10)
k

yields:

0
{ σ }k Z Q { ε } H z Q { κ } (4-11)
k k

Substituting (4-11) into the integral expressions for force per unit length { N } and moment per unit
length {M} :

{ N } Z ∫ { σ }dz and { M } Z ∫ { σ }zdz (4-12)

leads to:

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Theory - Composite Materials

0
{N} Z ∫ Q k { ε }dz H ∫ Q k z { κ }dz (4-13)

0
{M} Z ∫ Q k z { ε }dz H ∫ Q k z { κ }dz
2 (4-14)

0
The midsurface strains { ε } and curvatures { κ } are not a function of z, and Q is constant wi
k
thin each ply, so the above expressions may be simplified to:
n n
0 1 2 2
{N} Z {ε } ∑ Q k ( h k Ó h k Ó 1 ) H --2- { κ } ∑ Q k ( hk Ó hk Ó 1 ) (4-15)
kZ1 kZ1
n n
1 0 2 2 1 3 3
{ M } Z --- { ε }
2 ∑ Q k ( h k Ó h k Ó 1 ) H --3- { κ } ∑ Q k ( hk Ó h k Ó 1 ) (4-16)
kZ1 kZ1

where h k is the coordinate of the top of the kth ply (or higher z coordinate of the kth ply, see Figure 4-1.
0
The shell constitutive equations relating the midsurface strains { ε } and curvatures { κ } to the in-
plane forces { F } and moments { M } are documented in (4-15) and (4-16). From these two expressions
the stiffness matrices for membrane behavior A , bending behavior D , and membrane-bending
coupling behavior B can be extracted:
n

A Z ∑ Q k ( hk Ó hk Ó 1 ) (4-17)
kZ1
n
1 3 3
D Z --3- ∑ Q k ( hk Ó h k Ó 1 ) (4-18)
kZ1
n
1 2 2
B Z --2- ∑ Q k ( hk Ó hk Ó 1 ) (4-19)
kZ1
If no laminate offset is specified, then Patran assumes that the middle surface is the neutral surface, and
the above expressions for shell stiffness are used. The Patran offset is not the distance from the middle
surface to the neutral surface, but rather the coordinate of the bottom of the stack (or lowest z coordinate,
see Figure 4-1) relative to the neutral surface, which, by default is the negative of half the laminate
thickness. If a non-default offset is specified, implying that the neutral surface does not coincide with the

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146 Patran Reference Manual
Theory - Composite Materials

middle surface, then the following corrections must be made to the bending matrix D and the
membrane-bending coupling matrix B :

D' Z D H 2d B H d A
2 (4-20)

B' Z B H d A (4-21)

where d is the coordinate of the neutral surface relative to the middle surface and is related to the user-
input offset as:
d = offset + (laminate thickness)/2 (4-22)
Thus, if a laminate having three layers of thickness .02 is specified without an offset, the default offset is
taken to be -.03, since d = 0. If, however, the neutral surface is taken to be, for example, the interface
between the first and second ply, corresponding to d = -.01, then the user-input offset should be -.04,
yielding the corrected bending and coupling matrices:

D' Z D Ó 0.02 B H 0.0001 A (4-23)

B' Z B Ó 0.01 A (4-24)

Patran also calculates the resultant in-plane forces { N } t and moments { M } t corresponding to a
uniform temperature increase of one degree:
n

{ N }t Z ∫ Q k { α } k dz Z ∑ Q k { α } k ( hk Óh k Ó 1 ) (4-25)
kZ1
n
1 2 2
{ M }t Z ∫ Q k { α }k zdz Z --2- ∑ Q k { α } k ( h k Ó hk Ó 1 ) (4-26)
kZ1

where { α } k is the vector of thermal expansion coefficients in the laminate frame for the kth layer.
All other laminated composite material properties are calculated using the same algorithms as those
implemented by the Rule-of-Mixtures option, whose description starts on the next page.

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Caution: The elasticity matrix [C] calculated for laminated composites using the Rule-of-
Mixtures equations is based on a volume weighted averaging scheme and is insensitive
to the order of plies in a lay-up. In other words, for plies of the same material and
thickness, a 90-0-90 degree stack will yield the same elasticity matrix as a 90-90-0
degree stack. Thus the elasticity matrix should be used for laminate problems with
membrane behavior only (no bending and no coupling behavior). Additional
simplifications, which may or may not be warranted for the user’s application, are made
when the nine engineering constants (elastic moduli, Poisson’s ratios, and shear moduli)
are evaluated from the elasticity matrix. In order to calculate nine unique engineering
constants, Patran assumes that the 12 terms of the elasticity matrix that correspond to
normal-shear coupling and shear-shear coupling behavior are zero. This reduces an
elasticity matrix that is, in general, anisotropic, to orthotropy, on the premise that the
engineering constants can only be meaningful if the laminated composite is effectively
orthotropic. The resulting engineering constants can only be used, therefore, for laminate
problems in which the response is characterized by membrane behavior only, when the
laminate is effectively orthotropic.

Rule-of-Mixtures Composite Materials


The Rule-of-Mixtures model is used to describe three-dimensional solids having an arbitrary number of
material phases with arbitrary orientations and volume fractions. Orientations are defined for each phase
using a triad of space-fixed rotation angles ( γ, β, α ) in a 3-2-1 sequence. These angles rotate the
composite material frame to the phase frame. The orientation of each phase is defined by starting with
the phase frame aligned with the composite frame and rotating the phase material frame γ degrees about
the 3-axis of the composite material frame, then rotating the phase frame β degrees about the 2-axis of
the composite frame, and finally rotating the phase frame α degrees about the 1-axis of the composite
frame. Rule-of-Mixtures composites are, in general, fully anisotropic.

Material Property Derivation


Scalar quantities, such as density, are calculated using a simple volume-weighted averaging method, as in
n

ρ Z ∑ ρk vk (4-27)
kZ1

where ρ k is the density of the kth phase, v k is the volume fraction of the kth phase, and n is the number
of phases. The composite structural damping coefficient is also calculated in this way. For vector and
matrix quantities, however, it is necessary to transform the phase properties into the composite material
coordinate frame before performing volume-weighted averaging. Thus, the expression for the composite
elasticity matrix is given by

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n
T
C Z ∑ DD k C k DD k vk (4-28)
kZ1
with

d11 d11 d 21 d 21 d 31 d 31 d 11 d 21 d 21 d31 d 11 d31


d12 d12 d 22 d 22 d 32 d 32 d 12 d 22 d 22 d32 d 12 d32
Z
d13 d13 d 23 d 23 d 33 d 33 d 13 d 23 d 23 d33 d 13 d33
DD k
( 2 d 11 d 12 ) ( 2 d 21 d 22 ) ( 2 d 31 d 32 ) ( d 11 d 22 H d 12 d 21 ) ( d 21 d 32 H d 31 d 22 ) ( d 11 d 32 H d 31 d 12 )
( 2 d 12 d 13 ) ( 2 d 22 d 23 ) ( 2 d 32 d 33 ) ( d 12 d 23 H d 22 d 13 ) ( d 22 d 33 H d 23 d 32 ) ( d 12 d 33 H d 32 d 13 )
( 2 d 11 d 13 ) ( 2 d 21 d 23 ) ( 2 d 31 d 33 ) ( d 11 d 23 H d 21 d 13 ) ( d 21 d 33 H d 31 d 23 ) ( d 11 d 33 H d 31 d 13 )

(4-29)

where C is the elasticity matrix for the kth phase in the phase frame, DD is the matrix that
k k
transforms the strains in the kth phase from the laminate frame to the phase frame, and the dij are the
terms of the matrix of direction cosines

cos α k cos βk Ó sin α k cos βk sin βk


( sin α k cos γ k H cos α k sin βk sin γ k ) ( cos α k cos γ k Ó sin α k sin βk sin γk ) ( Ó cos βk sin γ k ) (4-30)
( sin α k sin γ k Ó cos α k sin βk cos γ k ) ( cos α k sin γ k H sin α k sin βk cos γ k ) ( cos βk cos γ k )

from the composite frame to the phase frame in terms of the rotation angles, α k , βk , and γ k , for the kth
phase. Similarly, the composite thermal conductivity matrix is calculated using the expression
n
T
κ Z ∑ D k κ k D k vk (4-31)
kZ1

where κ k
is the thermal conductivity matrix of the kth phase in the phase frame. The composite
thermal and moisture expansion coefficient vectors are given by
n
T
{α} Z S ∑ DD k C k { α }k v k (4-32)
kZ1
n
T
{ β} Z S ∑ DD k C k { β}k vk (4-33)
kZ1

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Theory - Composite Materials

Ó1
where S Z C is the composite flexibility matrix, { α } k is the thermal expansion coefficient
vector for the kth phase, and { β } k is the moisture expansion coefficient vector for the kth phase. The
nine engineering constants (elastic moduli, Poisson ratios, and shear moduli) are calculated from the
composite flexibility matrix as follows:

1
E i Z ------ i Z 1, 2, 3 (4-34)
S ii

νij Z Ó Sij E i ij Z 12, 23, 31 (4-35)

1
G ij Z --------------------------
- ij Z 12, 23, 31 (4-36)
S( i H 3 ) ( i H 3 )
Note that only nine of the 21 Sij’s are used to calculate the nine engineering constants. The potential
anisotropy of the composite material is partially ignored: it is assumed to be at most orthotropic. Thus,
these nine constants should be used in subsequent analyses only if the composite is known to be
orthotropic. Patran also calculates the 2D plane stress constitutive matrix Q from the 3D composite
elasticity matrix C :

C 3i C 3j
Q ij Z C ij Ó ---------------
- ij Z 11, 12, 22 (4-37)
C 33

C34 C 3j
Q 3j Z C 4j Ó ----------------
- j Z 1, 2 (4-38)
C 33

C 34 C 34
Q 33 Z C 44 Ó ----------------- (4-39)
C33
The user must be sure that the composite material is appropriate for a 2D plane stress analysis before
using the Q matrix. The composite specific heat, or heat capacity per unit mass, is calculated using a
mass weighted averaging scheme:
n n
1
CP Z ∑ C Pk m k Z ---
ρ ∑ CPk ρ k vk (4-40)
kZ1 kZ1

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where C Pk is the specific heat for the kth phase, mk is the mass fraction for the kth phase, and ρ is the
density of the composite material. Finally, the reference temperature for the composite material is taken
to be the reference temperature for the first phase material specified by the user.

Halpin-Tsai Composite Materials


The Halpin-Tsai models are used to describe 2-phase composites in which the matrix phase is isotropic.
Halpin-Tsai materials may be transversely isotropic, orthotropic, or isotropic, depending on the geometry
of the material reinforcing the matrix. The composite material frame corresponds with the fiber (or non-
matrix) phase frame. Five different Halpin-Tsai material models exist in Patran: continuous fiber,
discontinuous fiber, continuous ribbon, discontinuous ribbon, and particulate. These provide empirical
relations for the engineering constants using, generally, Rule-of-Mixtures equations having the form

PC Z ξ ( P f v f H P m v m ) (4-41)

and Halpin-Tsai equations of the form:

( 1 H ξηv f ) ( Pf Ó P m )
PC Z P m -------------------------- with η Z -------------------------
- (4-42)
( 1 Ó ηv f ) ( P f H ξPm )

where PC is the composite elastic property (which may be an elastic modulus, a Poisson ratio, or a shear
modulus), P f and P m are the corresponding properties for the fiber and matrix material, respectively,
vf and vm are the volume fractions for the fiber and matrix phase, respectively, and ξ is a user-
specified empirical constant. Each Halpin-Tsai model specifies a set of equations for the engineering
constants and each equation in the set has a default value for ξ which may be overridden by the user.
These models are summarized below from J.C. Halpin’s text, Revised Primer on Composite Materials:
Analysis, Technomic Publishing Co., Lancaster, PA, 1984, pp. 123-142.

Uniform Continuous Fiber


This model assumes the 2-phase geometry shown in Figure 4-2. The fibers are uniform, continuous,
cylindrical, and transversely isotropic. The resulting composite is therefore transversely isotropic. This
is the only Halpin-Tsai model supported by some earlier versions of Patran.

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Figure 4-2 Halpin-Tsai Continuous Fiber Material Coordinates

Rule-of-Mixtures equations are used to determine E L and νLT for the composite, with the default
value for the empirical constant ξ being 1.0 in both cases. (The default value of ξ for any Rule-of-
Mixtures equation in the five Halpin-Tsai models is always 1.0.) Halpin-Tsai equations are used to
determine E T, G LT, and G TT , so that the expression for E T , for example, is given by:

( 1 H ξηv f ) ( E Tf Ó E Tm )
E T Z E Tm -------------------------- where η Z --------------------------------
- (4-43)
( 1 Ó ηv f ) ( E Tf H ξE Tm )
in which ETm is the transverse matrix modulus and ETf is the transverse fiber modulus. The default
empirical constants for E T, G LT, and G TT are given by:

10
ξE Z 2 H 40v f (4-44)
T

10
ξG Z 1 H 40v f (4-45)
LT

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1 -
ξG Z ----------------------- (4-46)
TT ( 4 Ó 3νm )
10
where νm is the Poisson ratio for the isotropic matrix material and the ugly expression 40v f is a
correction term for composites with high fiber volume fractions. (Remember, these are empirical
relations. They were not derived for the sole purpose of looking elegant and sophisticated.) The
composite transverse Poisson ratio νTT is then determined from the known transverse isotropy:

ET
ν TT Z ------------
-Ó1 (4-47)
2G TT

Some earlier versions of Patran used a Halpin-Tsai equation to calculate νTT instead of GTT, and then
used relations for transverse isotropy to calculate GTT. Although Halpin’s text does not specify a default
value for ξ ν , Patran provides the value:
TT

10
ξν Z 2 H 40v f (4-48)
TT
which should be selected with some caution. GTT is then calculated using the expression:

ET
G TT Z -------------------------
- (4-49)
2 ( 1 H ν TT )

Uniform Discontinuous Fiber


This model assumes the fibers are uniform, discontinuous, cylindrical, and transversely isotropic. The
resulting composite is therefore transversely isotropic.

A Rule-of-Mixtures equation is used to determine ν LT for the composite, with the default value for the
empirical constant ξ being 1.0. Halpin-Tsai equations are used to determine EL, ET, GLT, and GTT, so
that the expression for EL , for example, is given by:

( 1 H ξηv f ) ( E Lf Ó E Lm )
E L Z E Lm -------------------------- where η Z --------------------------------
- (4-50)
( 1 Ó ηv f ) ( E Lf H ξE Lm )
in which ELm is the longitudinal matrix modulus and ELf is the longitudinal fiber modulus. The default
empirical constants for EL, ET, GLT, and GTT are given by:

Z 2 ⎛⎝ ---⎞⎠ H 40v f
l 10
ξE (4-51)
L d

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Theory - Composite Materials

10
ξE Z 2 H 40v f (4-52)
T

10
ξG Z 1 H 40v f (4-53)
LT

1 -
ξG Z ----------------------- (4-54)
TT ( 4 Ó 3νm )

where --l- is the fiber length-to-diameter ratio. As with the Uniform Continuous Fiber model, the
d
transverse Poisson ratio ν TT is determined from (4-47).

Uniform Continuous Ribbon


This model assumes the fibers are uniform, continuous, and orthotropic, with a rectangular cross section.
The resulting composite is orthotropic.

Rule-of-Mixtures equations are used to determine E 1 and ν12 for the composite, with the default value
for the empirical constant ξ being 1.0 in both cases. Halpin-Tsai equations are used to determine
E 2, E 3, G 12, and G 23 , so that the expression for E2, for example, is given by:

( 1 H ξηv f ) ( E 2f Ó E 2m )
E 2 Z E 2m -------------------------- where η Z ------------------------------- (4-55)
( 1 Ó ηv f ) ( E 2f H ξE 2m )
in which E2m is the transverse matrix modulus, and E2f is the transverse fiber modulus. The default
empirical constants for E2, E3, G12, and G23 are given by:

ξ E Z 2 ⎛⎝ ----⎞⎠ H 40v f
w 10
(4-56)
2 t
10
ξ E Z 2 H 40v f (4-57)
3

w 1.73
Z ⎛ ----⎞
10
ξG H 40v f (4-58)
12 ⎝ t ⎠

10
ξG Z 2 H 40v f (4-59)
23

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w
where ---- is the ribbon width-to-thickness ratio.
t
The transverse Poisson ratio ν23 is calculated from the expression:

1
ν 23 Z ---------------------------------------
- (4-60)
vf
⎛ -------- ( 1 Ó v f )⎞
⎝ ν - H ----------------- -
23f νm ⎠

where ν 23f is the transverse Poisson ratio for the fiber material and ν m is the matrix Poisson ratio. The
remaining two engineering constants, G 13 and ν 31 , are not provided for in the theory, but are
calculated in Patran by making the approximation that G 13 Z G 12 and ν 13 Z ν 12 , from which:

E3
ν 31 Z ν13 ------ (4-61)
E1

Uniform Discontinuous Ribbon


This model assumes the fibers are uniform, discontinuous, and orthotropic, with a rectangular cross
section. The resulting composite is orthotropic.

A Rule-of-Mixtures equation is used to determine ν 12 for the composite with the default value for the
empirical constant ξ being 1.0. Halpin-Tsai equations are used to determine E1, E2, E3, G12, and G23, so
that the expression for E3, for example, is given by:

( 1 H ξηv f ) ( E 3f Ó E 3m )
E 3 Z E 3m -------------------------- where η Z ------------------------------- (4-62)
( 1 Ó ηvf ) ( E 3f H ξE 3m )
in which E3m is the cross-ply matrix modulus and E3f is the cross-ply fiber modulus. The default
empirical constants for E1, E2, E3, G12, and G23 are given by:

ξ E Z 2 ⎛⎝ -⎞⎠ H 40v f
l 10
(4-63)
1 t

ξ E Z 2 ⎛⎝ ----⎞⎠ H 40v f
w 10
(4-64)
2 t
10
ξ E Z 2 H 40v f (4-65)
3

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Theory - Composite Materials

(l H w) 1.73 10
ξG Z ----------------- H 40v f (4-66)
12 2t
10
ξG Z 2 H 40v f (4-67)
23

where -l is the ribbon length-to-thickness ratio and w


---- is the ribbon width-to-thickness ratio.
t t
As with the Uniform Continuous Ribbon model, the transverse Poisson ratio ν 23 is calculated from
(4-60), and the remaining two engineering constants, G13 and ν 31 , are calculated by making the
approximation that G 13 Z G 12 and ν13 Z ν 12 , yielding ν31 by (4-61).

Particulate Composite
This model assumes an isotropic particulate reinforcement of the matrix. The resulting composite is
therefore isotropic.
Halpin-Tsai equations are used to determine both E and G, so that the expression for E, for example, is
given by

( 1 H ξηv f ) ( Ef Ó Em )
E Z E m -------------------------
- where η Z --------------------------
- (4-68)
( 1 Ó ηv f ) ( E f H ξE m )
in which Em is the matrix elastic modulus, and Ef is the fiber elastic modulus. The default empirical
constants for E and G are given by

10
ξ E Z 2 H 40v f (4-69)

10
ξ G Z 1 H 40v f (4-70)

The isotropy of the particulate composite uniquely defines the Poisson ratio ν.

Elasticity and Flexibility Matrices


The elasticity matrix can be expressed in terms of the orthotropic engineering constants as

( 1 Ó νjk νkj )
C ii Z ---------------------------- E i ijk Z 123, 231, 312 (4-71)
D

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( νji H νjk νki )


C ij Z ------------------------------- E i ijk Z 123, 132, 231 (4-72)
D
C ( i H 3 ) ( i H 3 ) Z G ij ij Z 12, 23, 31 (4-73)

body

D Z 1 Ó ν 12 ν21 Ó ν13 ν31 Ó ν23 ν32 Ó 2ν12 ν 23 ν31 (4-74)

If the composite material symmetry is more general than that of an orthotropic material, i.e., if the
material is isotropic or transversely isotropic, then the above equations can be simplified. The flexibility
matrix is calculated by inverting the elasticity matrix.

Halpin-Tsai Thermal and Moisture Expansion Coefficients


The exact Levin solution for 2-phase composites (V.M. Levin, “Thermal Expansion Coefficients of
Heterogeneous Materials,” Mekhanika Tverdogo Tela, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 88-94, 1967) is used to
determine both thermal and moisture expansion coefficients for all Halpin-Tsai models. The composite
thermal expansion coefficient vector is calculated using the expression

T
Ó1 ⎛ ⎞
{ α }C Z { α } H S S CÓ S ⎠ { α } DIF (4-75)
DIF ⎝

and the composite moisture expansion vector is given by the analogous expression

T
Ó1 ⎛ ⎞
{ β}C Z { β} H S S CÓ S ⎠ { β } DIF (4-76)
DIF ⎝

{ α } Z vf { α } f H v m { α }m (4-77)

{ β} Z vf { β}f H vm { β}m (4-78)

S Z vf S f H vm S m
(4-79)

{ α } DIF Z { α } f Ó { α } m (4-80)

{ β } DIF Z { β }f Ó { β } m (4-81)

S Z S Ó S (4-82)
DIF f m

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and S is the composite flexibility matrix.


C

Other Material Properties


All other material properties are calculated using the methods described for Rule-of-Mixtures materials
(which are described immediately preceding this Halpin-Tsai discussion), but the calculations are
generally simpler for Halpin-Tsai materials because both phase frames coincide with the composite
frame. Thus, it is not necessary to transform phase properties to the composite frame before summing
their contribution to the composite properties.

Short Fiber Composite Materials


The Short Fiber Composite model is used to compute the material properties of short fiber composites
whose fiber orientations can be described by a normal (Gaussian) distribution. The orientations may vary
in a single plane, in which case a Gaussian curve

⎧ 1 θ Ó θ av ⎫
F ( θ ) Z ----------------- exp ⎨ Ó --- ⎛ -----------------⎞ ⎬
1
(4-83)
⎝ ⎠
2πσ θ ⎩ 2 σθ ⎭

describes the fiber orientations. Here θ av is the mean orientation and σ θ is the standard deviation of
the distribution. The fiber orientations may also vary in two dimensions, however, in which case the fiber
distribution is described by a Gaussian surface

⎧ θ Ó θ av⎞ 2
1 - ⎛ ---------------- θ Ó θ av⎞ ⎛ φ Ó φ av⎞ ⎛ φ Ó φ av⎞ 2 ⎫
F ( θ, φ ) 1
Z --------------------------------------- exp ⎨ Ó ---------------------- - Ó 2ρ ⎛ ----------------
- ----------------- H -----------------
2 ⎝ σ ⎠ ⎝ σθ ⎠ ⎝ σφ ⎠ ⎝ σφ ⎠ ⎬
2πσ θ σ φ 1 Ó ρ 2 ⎩ 2(1 Ó ρ ) θ ⎭

where θ av and φ av are the mean orientations, σ θ and σ φ are the corresponding standard deviations,
and ρ is the correlation coefficient. Figure 4-3 illustrates the spherical coordinates used to define a 2D
Gaussian distribution in Patran. Here the e1-e2 plane defines the “equator” and θ is the azimuthal angle
defining, effectively, a “longitude,” while a positive angle φ defines a “latitude” in the southern
hemisphere.

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e3

e2
φ

e1

Figure 4-3 Spherical Coordinates for 2D Gaussian Distributions of Short Fiber Composites

A Monte Carlo integration scheme is used to sum the contributions of normally distributed “fibers” of a
unidirectional material which should usually be a Halpin-Tsai Discontinuous Fiber material or a Halpin-
Tsai Discontinuous Ribbon material. In other words, the geometrically appropriate Halpin-Tsai model is
used to synthesize the properties of a unidirectional material having the same fiber material, matrix
material, and fiber and matrix volume fractions as those of the short fiber composite to be created. The
Short Fiber Composite model is then used to “distribute” the properties of the unidirectional Halpin-Tsai
material within the specified Gaussian function. The integration is simplified by the approximation that
all fibers lie within a 3σ range of the mean orientation, where σ is a standard deviation. The default
number of iterations is 1000, but it may be overridden to any positive integer. The material properties for
each iterate are summed using the Rule-of-Mixtures methods described earlier in this section. Scalar
quantities, such as density, are simply assigned the same values as those of the constituent unidirectional
material.
Short Fiber Composites are usually, to a first approximation, transversely isotropic or orthotropic, but
because of the randomness of the Monte Carlo integration scheme, small shear coupling terms are
introduced which tend to make these materials fully anisotropic. Larger iteration counts reduce this effect
somewhat, but it cannot be eliminated. Nonetheless, it should not be cause for undue concern: the
purpose of this model is to provide material properties with good first-order accuracy. The more complex
Eshelby equivalent inclusion (and related) methods, which provide for fiber-matrix and fiber-boundary
interaction effects, have been eschewed in favor of this simpler method. This Monte Carlo/Rule-of-
Mixtures approach yields good first-order results accounting for the most significant factor in composite

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Theory - Composite Materials

stiffness (the fiber orientations) and allows the materials designer to gain an understanding of the relative
effects of varying fiber orientation parameters.

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Main Index
Ch. 5: Load Cases Application
Patran Reference Manual

5 Load Cases Application


Overview of the Load Cases Application 162

Rules for Creating/Modifying Load Cases 165

Load Cases Forms 166

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Overview of the Load Cases Application

5.1 Overview of the Load Cases Application

Purpose
The Load Cases application provides the ability to group multiple loads and boundary conditions (LBCs)
sets, see Loads and Boundary Conditions Form, 27, into single load cases for application to the model.
Load cases remain in the database unless deleted.

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Overview of the Load Cases Application

Definitions

Load Cases Group of selected loads and boundary conditions sets. Each load case has
a unique user-selected descriptive name as well as an associated
descriptive statement.

Loads and BCs Sets These are named groups of node and/or element loads that are created in
the Loads and BCs Application. Fields created in the Fields Application
may or may not have been used in their creation.

Static Load Cases Load cases in which none of the constituent loads or boundary conditions
sets has a time varying component.

Time Dependent Load Load cases in which one or more of the constituent loads or boundary
Cases conditions sets has a time varying component. These are also referred to
as dynamic load cases.

Priority In the event that a conflict arises between loads and boundary conditions
set types (e.g., Displacement) with the same loads and boundary
conditions type (e.g., Nodal, Element Uniform) that belong to the same
load case, the priority will specify which loads and boundary conditions
set will take precedence. Priorities may be set so that values are added
together when a conflict arises or priorities may be set so that one load and
boundary conditions set overwrites other sets with which it conflicts.
Priorities are currently not supported by the MSC Nastran analysis
preference.

Load Case A scale factor which is applied to the entire load case. Each load case has
a load case scale factor. The default value is 1.0. Some analysis
Scale Factor preferences may not allow a scale factor other than 1.0.

Load Case LBC Scale factor applied to a LoadsBC set by the load case. Some analysis
preferences may not allow a scale factor other than 1.0.
Scale Factor

Capabilities
The Load Cases function provides the ability to combine a large number of individual loads and boundary
conditions sets into a single coherent case for application to the model. If supported by the analysis
preference, the use of load case LBC scale factors can reduce the number of individual loads and
boundary conditions required. Unless deleted, load cases remain in the database and provide a permanent
record of the analysis loading conditions.
The Load Cases function provides the capability of creating, deleting, modifying, and showing load
cases.

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Overview of the Load Cases Application

Summary of Key Features


The Load Cases function provides straightforward, intuitive means for combining separate loads and
boundary conditions sets to form load cases. Key features of the Load Cases function are:
• Provides archival load case data within the database.
• Provides a means of creating new load cases by retrieving, modifying, and renaming existing
load cases.
• Provides for creating, deleting, modifying, and showing load cases. When deleting load cases,
provides the option of also deleting the constituent Loads/BCs sets. If load and boundary
conditions sets to be deleted belong to more than one load case, they will not be deleted.
• Provides a means of re-use of Loads/BCs sets by use of load case LBC scale factors. This can
reduce the number of individual Loads/BCs required.

Main Index
Ch. 5: Load Cases Application 165
Rules for Creating/Modifying Load Cases

5.2 Rules for Creating/Modifying Load Cases


There is always a current load case. This will be the “default” load case unless changed by the user. Any
loads and boundary conditions sets created are added to the current load case.
The current load case can be changed in three ways:
• When a new load case is created using the Load Cases Create option, the new load case becomes
the current load case if the Make Current toggle is on.
• When a load case is modified using the Load Cases Modify option, the modified load case
becomes the current load case if the Make Current toggle is on.
• The current load case can also be changed from the Loads/BCs application.

The current load case affects which loads and boundary conditions sets markers will be displayed. Only
those loads and boundary conditions in the current load case can be graphically displayed.
The default load case is static. In order to create time-dependent loads and/or boundary conditions sets,
the load case type must be defined as time dependent in the Load Cases application.
If a static loads and boundary conditions set is assigned to a time dependent or dynamic load case, the
loads and boundary conditions set will be assumed to be constant with time.
Load case information is permanently stored in the database (unless deleted) and can be modified at any
time.
For simple analyses, the Load Cases application need not be used. All loads and boundary conditions sets
will automatically be included in the default load case and applied to the model.

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Load Cases Forms

5.3 Load Cases Forms


The functions on the Load Cases menu are listed and described below in the order in which they appear
on the menu.

Menu Pick Action


Create • Create new load cases either from scratch or by modifying
existing load cases.
Modify • Modify existing load cases. Change name, type, description,
Loads⁄ BCs sets. Change current load case.
Delete • Delete load cases from the database, including associated
Loads/BCs sets if desired.
Show • Show all load cases in the database. Review names, types,
descriptions, and constituent Loads/BCs sets. Show current load
case.
Assign/Prioritize Loads/BCs • Assign Loads/BC sets to the load case. Resolve potential conflicts
for a given load case within specific Loads/BCs set types. Assign
scale factors to the load case and Loads/BC sets in the load case.
• Combine load cases.

Create Load Cases


This form permits you to create new load cases, either from scratch or by modification of existing load
cases. The new case is given a unique name, type (static or time dependent), description, and assigned a
complement of loads and boundary conditions sets. The new load case can also be made the current load
case if desired.

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Action Create action brings up this form.

Existing Load Cases All load cases in the database appear in this table. Select a case to be
modified into a new case if this approach is desired. When an existing load
case is selected, the load case scale factor databox below updates and the
Assign/Prioritize form is displayed.

Load Case Name The name of a selected case (if any) will appear here. Change the name or
input a new unique name. (31 characters maximum.)

Make Current Toggle this button ON if you want this to be made the current load case.
Note: A combination loadcase may be the current loadcase, just like any
other loadcase. If the current loadcase is a combination loadcase, and LBC
markers are plotted for LBCs therein, then the marker values will be
scaled based on the accumulated scale of the LBC across all loadcases in
the combination. However, LBCs cannot be assigned directly to a
combination loadcase. So if the current loadcase is a combination
loadcase, the Loads/BCs Create operation will fail.

Load Case Type Select the load case type (static, time dependent, or combination).

Description Input a load case description (Up to 256 characters). It is important to do


it now to have a listing later.

Input Data Assigns Load/BCs sets to the Load Case. Modifies the default priority.
The default priority is “add” (i.e., if a conflict arises then add Load/BCs
values together). Sets the scale factors for the assigned Load/BCs sets.
Combine Load/BCs sets from existing load cases.

Load Case Scale Factor Sets the Load Case Scale Factor for the load case being created. The
default is 1.0. This is disabled if not supported by the current analysis
preference.

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More Help: Preference Guides Application Modules


• Patran ABAQUS • Patran FEA
• Patran ANSYS • Patran Thermal
• Patran LS-DYNA • Patran Advanced FEA
• Patran MSC.Marc
• Patran MSC.Dytran
• Patran MSC Nastran
• Patran PAMCRASH
• Patran SAMCEF
• Patran P2NF

Modify Load Cases


This form permits you to change the name, type, description, and composition of load cases in the
database. The current load case can also be changed.

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Action Modify action brings up this form.

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Select Load Case to All load cases in the database appear in this table. Select the case to be
Modify modified. When a load case is selected, the load case scale factor databox
below updates and the Assign/Prioritize form is displayed.

Rename Load Case As The name of the selected case will appear here. Change the name if
desired.

Make Current Toggle this button on if you want this to be made the current load case.

Load Case Type The load case type of the selected load case (static or dynamic) is shown
here.

Description The load case description provided by the user will appear here. Make any
changes that are desired.

Assign/Prioritize Assigns Loads/BCs sets to the Load Case. Modifies the default priority.
Load/BCs The default priority is “add” (i.e., if a conflict arises then add Load/BCs
values together). Sets the scale factors for the assigned Load/BCs sets.
Combine Load/BCs sets from existing load cases.

Load Case Scale Factor Sets the Load Case Scale Factor for the load case being modified. This is
disabled if not supported by the current analysis preference.

Note: A combination loadcase may be the current loadcase, just like any other loadcase. If the
current loadcase is a combination loadcase, and LBC markers are plotted for LBCs therein,
then the marker values will be scaled based on the accumulated scale of the LBC across all
loadcases in the combination. However, LBCs cannot be assigned directly to a
combination loadcase. So if the current loadcase is a combination loadcase, the Loads/BCs
Create operation will fail. See section 3 Loads/BCs Forms below for more information.

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Delete Load Cases

Action Select the Delete action here to bring up this form.

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Existing Load Cases All load cases in the database appear in this table. When a load case is
selected, the Show Assigned Loads/BCs form will appear, listing the loads
and boundary conditions which comprise the selected load case. Load
cases only be deleted one at a time.

Load Case Type The load cases type of the selected load cases is shown here (static, time
dependent, or combination).

Description The load case description provided by the user is shown here. Verify that
this is the case to be deleted.

Delete Load/BCs Sets Toggle this button ON if you want the constituent loads and boundary
conditions sets to be deleted also (default is OFF).

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Show Load Cases

Action Show action brings up this form.

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Existing Load Cases All load cases in the database appear in this table. When a load case is
selected, the load case scale factor databox below updates and the Show
Assigned Loads/BCs, 175 form will appear, listing the loads and boundary
conditions which comprise the selected load case. Load cases may only be
selected one at a time.

Load Case Type The load case type of the selected load case is shown here (static, time
dependent or combination).

Description The case description provided by the user is shown here (256 characters
maximum).

Load Case Scale Factor Shows the Load Case Scale Factor for the selected load case. This is
disabled if not supported by the current analysis preference.

Show Assigned Loads/BCs


This form displays the loads and boundary conditions currently assigned to the load case selected from
the Show or Delete form. This form is automatically displayed when the load case selection is made.

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Show Assigned Load Cases


When a combination load case is selected from the Show Load Cases form, the Show Assigned Load
Cases form will appear. This form lists the different load cases that are part of the combination load case.
To view the collective assigned LBCs and their combined scales, select the “Show Assigned Loads/BCs”
button on the form. This displays a spreadsheet of LBCs and their priorities/scales. It traverses all of the
loadcases within the combination and retrieves all of their LBCs, accumulating their scales along the
way. The net affect is showing a “flattened” version of the combination loadcase.

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Load Cases Forms

Prioritize Loads/BCs Within Load Cases


Load case contents are completely defined in this form. From this form the following actions may be
performed:
• Assign (add or remove) Loads/BCs sets to the Load Case
• Modify the default priority.
• Set the Load Case Scale Factor
• Set the Load Case LBC Scale Factors
• Combine load cases

Potential conflicts for a given load case within specific Loads/BCs set types may be resolved. For
example, if there are two displacement sets in the same load case, which specify a constraint on the same
node, the priority will determine what the resulting constraint at that node will be. If default priority of
“Add” is not changed, then the constraints will be added together at that node. If the constraint in one
displacement set is to supersede the other, then an overwrite priority must be set for the Loads/BCs set
which will take precedence.

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Assign/Prioritize Loads/BCs
The Assign/Prioritize Loads/BCs form can be used to group, scale and prioritize loads and boundary
conditions as well as load cases. Creation of new load cases can be done by using either existing load
cases or individual loads & boundary conditions. Optionally, independent scale factors can be assigned
to each Load & Boundary condition or Load Case.
There are two views to the Assign/Prioritize Loads/BCs form. The default view of the form is shown
below. This selection allows simple “grouping” and prioritization of loads and boundary conditions. By
default, load cases & loads and boundary conditions selected are automatically added as individual rows
to the Assigned Loads/BCs spreadsheet. If the load or boundary condition already exists as an entry in
the spreadsheet, nothing will be added. Individual scale factors maybe assigned to each load and
boundary condition directly via the spreadsheet “Scale Factor” column.
The other view of the form is enabled by selecting the “Additional Loads/BCs Controls...” button. This
selection allows explicit load case and load & boundary condition scaling as well as controls for
combining/overwriting loads and boundary conditions.

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Select Individual Select Individual Loads/BCs - Lists all existing loads & boundary
Load/BCs conditions in the database. Selected items are inserted into the Assigned
Loads/BCs spreadsheet where individual load scaling can be defined if
desired. The default scale factor of 1.0 is applied to all selected loads &
boundary conditions. Multiple items may be selected from the listbox. If
additional load & boundary condition scaling is required, you can select
the “Additional LoadsBCs Controls...” button.

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Select Loads/BCs from Select LoadBCs from Existing Load Cases - Lists all existing load cases
Existing Load Cases in the database. When selected, the loads & boundary conditions
associated with the selected load case is inserted into the Assigned
Loads/BCs spreadsheet where individual load scaling can be defined if
desired. The scale factor for selected load cases is the existing scale factor
times the load case scale factor. If additional load case scaling is required,
you can select the “Additional LoadsBCs Controls...” button.

Additional Load/BCs Additional LoadsBCs Controls - allows user to toggle between “simple”
Controls... grouping of load and boundary conditions and “explicit scaling and
combining” of loads, boundary conditions and load cases. The default
view of the form allows simple grouping of loads and boundary
conditions. By toggling this button, the form will change and the
additional user scale controls will be displayed. Additionally, user control
of whether loads and boundary conditions are combined or overwritten is
also provided.

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Select Individual Lists all existing load cases in the database. When selected, the loads &
Load/BCs boundary conditions associated with the selected load case is inserted into
the Loads/BCs Scaling spreadsheet where additional scaling can be
defined if desired. The Existing Load Case Scale Factor databox is
updated with the scale factor of the selected load case. Only one load case
may be selected at a time.

Select Loads/BCs from Lists all existing loads & boundary conditions in the database. Selected
Existing Load Cases items are inserted into the Loads/BCs Scaling spreadsheet where
additional scaling can be defined if desired. Multiple items may be
selected. The Existing Load Case Scale Factor databox is disabled when
items are selected from here because it is not applicable.

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Input Scale Factor Entry into the Loads/BCs Scaling spreadsheet. Not visible if scaling is not
supported by the current analysis preference.

Existing Load Case Scale Scale factor of selected load case. Enabled only if scaling is supported by
Factor the current analysis preference and if a selection is made from the Select
Load/BCs from Existing Load Cases listbox.

Additional Scale Factor Factor for additional scaling, i.e. for combining (superposition) load cases.

Overwrite/Combine Computes the cumulative scale factors for the respective items in the
Loads/BCs Scaling spreadsheet and inserts these items into the Assigned
Loads/BCs spreadsheet. Should any of these items already exist in the
Assigned Loads/BCs spreadsheet, Overwrite replaces the existing scale
factors with the newly computed factor while Combine adds the two
together.

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Load/BC Type This databox allows data entry into the Assigned Loads/BCs spreadsheet.
The label and expected data type for this databox changes in accordance
to which column is active. If this databox is not visible, then either
multiple columns have been selected or the current analysis preference
does not support the data related to the active column. The Load/BC Type
column provides read-only data.

Add These buttons are visible if & only if the current analysis preference
supports loads & boundary condition prioritization. In such cases, if the
Value Priority column is active, the Input Priority databox does not become
Sort By Priority visible unless Value is picked or a range of rows where first row in the
range has a numerical priority is selected. The Sort By Priority button re-
sequences the spreadsheet in numerically ascending order of priorities.
While “Add” priorities are listed first after such a sort, numerical priorities
take precedence over “Add” with respect to loads or boundary conditions
of the same type. The order of precedence for numerical priorities with
respect to loads or boundary conditions of the same type is such that a
lower priority value indicates a higher priority status.

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Assigned Load/BCs To change values in the Priority column, first select the rows to be
changed in this column. You can select all rows by selecting the column
header. “Add” inserts the string “Add” into the Priority column of the
selected rows. Value assigns sequentially increasing priorities to the
selected rows and makes the Input Priority databox visible. Numerical
priorities values may be manually changed via this databox. Only integer
values are permitted for numerical priorities.

Combination Load Cases


When the Type is set to “Combination” and the Input Data button is selected, the Assign Load Cases form
is presented. This form is also displayed if a combination load case is selected from the Load Case Create
or Modify form, with the load case assignments/scales of the combination load case displayed.
Static loadcases are selected from the “Existing Static Load Cases” listbox to add them to the
combination load case definition. As they are selected, they are added to the list of loadcase/scale factor
pairs (spreadsheet), where the scale factors may be modified (default 1.).

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Select Static Loadcases As existing Static Load Cases are selected, they are added to the
spreadsheet below, with a default scale factor of 1.0
Filter The listed loadcases may be filtered using wildcard characters (*).
Once the filter value is set, select the “Filter” button to re-build the
Static Load Cases list based on that filter.
Scale The scale associated with the loadcases may be modified by selecting
that loadcase in the spreadsheet, then setting the value in the databox
above. The value will be updated after hitting the Enter key.
Remove Selected Rows The Remove Selected Row and remove All Rows buttons are used to
remove loadcases from the spreadsheet.

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Simple Load and Boundary Condition Grouping

Procedure for Simple Load Case Grouping


1. First, clear the Assigned Loads/BCs spreadsheet.
2. Select the desired load and boundary condition or load case from either the “Select Individual
LoadBCs” or the “Select Loads/BCs from Existing Load Cases” listbox. The corresponding loads
and boundary conditions will be automatically added to the “Assigned Loads/BCs” spreadsheet
3. Specify any additional scale factor to be applied to the overall definition of the individual loads
and boundary conditions listed in the spreadsheet.
Repeat steps 2 through 3 until the proper definition of the Load Case is defined.

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Combining Load Cases


The Assign/Prioritize form is designed to accommodate the combining (superposition) of existing load
cases. See Procedure for Combining Load Cases, 189.

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Load Cases Forms

Procedure for Combining Load Cases


1. First, clear the Assigned Loads/BCs spreadsheet.
2. Select the desired load case from the Select Loads/BCs from the Existing Load Cases listbox.

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3. Specify the scaling factor to be applied to the overall definition of the selected load case.
4. The Combine button will insert the loads and boundary conditions associated to the selected load
case into the Assigned Loads/BCs spreadsheet. The cumulative scale factor for each of these
items is the product of the individual Loads/BCs scale factor, the original load case scale factor,
and the additional scale factor.
Repeat steps 2 through 4 for all load cases to be combined.

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Ch. 6: Fields Application
Patran Reference Manual

6 Fields Application


Overview of The Fields Function 192

Procedures for Using Fields 195

Fields Forms 210

Fields Example 301

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6.1 Overview of The Fields Function

Purpose
The Fields Function enables the creation and maintenance of a library of complex data sets in a simple
and straightforward manner. Fields are used to define loads and boundary conditions as a function of one,
two, or three variables; material properties as functions of temperature, strain, strain rate, time and
frequency. Data Fields are used in the material properties, loads and boundary conditions, and element
properties applications. Fields can be either scalar or vector in nature. Complex scalar fields are also
permitted if you are using the MSC Nastran Analysis Preference.
An important purpose of the Fields functionality is to provide a means of interpolating, or applying the
results of one finite element analysis onto the same or different geometry or FEM model. Real scalar,
complex scalar, and real vector results can be interpolated. This powerful capability is useful for
multidisciplinary analyses, for example, a thermal analyst creates a model from a resident geometry
model and does an analysis. A structural analyst then creates a separate model using the same geometry,
reads in the thermal analysis results, and automatically interpolates them onto the structural model.

Definitions
Field: A field is a set of data defined by relationships between one or more independent variables. The
fields available in Patran support up to three dimensions and are divided into three types: spatial, material
property, and non-spatial fields. Fields can be created either from tabular input, mathematical
relationships expressed in PCL or as scalar or vector results on a collection of finite elements. These are
described in detail below:

Spatial Fields Describes a data set which varies over real or parametric coordinate space. It
may exist over one, two or three dimensions. In real space, the field will vary
over the coordinates of the selected rectangular, cylindrical, or spherical
coordinate system. For parametric space, the field will vary over the c1, c2 or
c3 coordinates of the single geometrical entity specified in the Create or
Modify forms. Spatial fields can be either scalar or vector in nature.
Material Property Defines a material property as a function of temperature, strain, strain rate,
Fields time or frequency (the material state variable), or combination of any two or
all three of these variables.
Non-Spatial Fields Defines a scalar field as a function of time, frequency, temperature,
displacement, velocity, or a user-defined variable for dynamic analysis
applications.

General Field: All three of the above field types may be created using the “General Field” method in
addition to the Tabular or PCL methods. A General Field is defined by creating a function expression in
PCL to describe the data variation. The terms of the function expression may consist of independent
variables, constants and PCL functions related by mathematical operators. The PCL function terms can

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Overview of The Fields Function

include user written PCL functions which utilize custom forms for data input. The General Fields
implementation for this release is limited; it supports only scalar fields and will primarily be useful for
the incorporation of custom PCL functions and forms. It will be expanded upon in future releases.
Continuous FEM Field: A special type of Spatial Field which is created from a finite element mesh and
associated results values. By utilizing the connectivity of the mesh, a Continuous FEM Field can be
evaluated (via interpolation) at any point within its space. A Continuous FEM Field is created from the
graphical display of values on a mesh contained in a group. The field remains valid as long as the mesh
and group are defined. Interpolation occurs automatically whenever the Continuous FEM Field is
applied.
Discrete FEM Field: A Spatial Field consisting of values defined at elements or nodes. A Discrete FEM
Field is created by the importation of Loads or Boundary Conditions via a Patran Neutral file, or with the
Fields User Interface. As there is no mesh associated with this field, it is only defined at discrete points.
No interpolation is available. The Discrete FEM Field was formerly known as the LBC Field.

Capabilities
The fields function is used to create and maintain a library of data fields; they are not applied here. Fields
that have been created in this area of Patran are then selected and applied in other functional areas such
as: material properties, loads and boundary conditions, and element properties.
Spatial fields are commonly used to control application of pressures and temperatures in the Loads/BCs
application, although they can also be applied to displacements and other generalized loads. Spatial fields
can be scalar or vector in nature and can be applied in either real or parametric space. Input is either
tabular, via PCL function, external PCL routine or through the General Field. Multiple spatial fields can
be simultaneously applied.
Material property fields are applied to individual properties (modulus, CTE, etc.) in the Materials
Application. These fields can be one-, two-, or three-dimensional in nature with the independent
variables being temperature, strain, strain rate, time and frequency (singly or in combination).
Non-Spatial Fields are principally used to specify time and frequency varying data. Time and frequency
dependent loads and boundary conditions, and frequency-dependent material properties are all defined
via Non-Spatial Fields. Non-Spatial functions of temperature, displacement, velocity, and user-defined
variables can also be created. In addition, complex scalar functions of frequency can be created when the
MSC Nastran Analysis Preference is selected.
The default size of all tabular fields is 30 entries in each dimension, although it can be increased to up to
1000 in the Options forms. Also, alternative methods of extrapolation can be selected if field table ranges
are exceeded.

Summary of Key Features


Flexibility: The structure of fields is flexible and generalized. While each type of field has intrinsic
characteristics and uses (time or frequency dependence, material property or spatial dependence), the
format of each is unspecified. Fields may be entered with tabular input, a PCL function, a General Field

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function or a FEM field; data may be vector or real scalar or complex scalar and up to three dimensions.
All fields spreadsheet input forms, allow import and export of comma separated value (CSV) files. This
provides compatibility with popular spreadsheet programs such as Microsoft Excel.
Ease of Use: Complicated data fields may be modeled using intuitive forms which lead the user through
the entire field generation process. Descriptive names are allowed for every field. The fields function
provides a convenient location for all data fields where they may be created, shown and modified before
application to the model.
Archival Record: All fields created remain in the database unless deleted. This represents a history of
all fields used in previous analyses. Also, it permits old fields to be retained, modified, and reapplied.
Field Creation from Analysis Results: Spatial Fields can be created from an imported finite element
mesh and associated results or loads. This so called Continuous FEM Field will automatically interpolate
result values for any points within its defined space. This capability is useful for mapping one set of
analysis results onto another finite element model.

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Procedures for Using Fields

6.2 Procedures for Using Fields


Fields can be created, modified, deleted, and shown using the procedures outlined in the following
sections. The hierarchy of this presentation reflects the Patran Fields form structure.

Caution: If using degree-based trigonometric functions in your PCL expression, and the angular
input is to be derived from a nodal or element position, Patran will internally return such
angles in radians. Therefore, you will need to include a radians-to-degrees conversion
factor in your expression, i.e. instead of sind( ‘T ), you will need to use
sind( ‘T * 180/3.14159 ). You can also use radian-based trigonometric functions.

Create
To create a new field, select the Patran Fields application button to display the fields form. Select the
Create action (the default setting), then select the Object to be created, a Spatial, Material Property or
Non-Spatial data field. Before continuing, a choice may be made between creating an all new field, or
creating one like an existing field. Upon selection of the object, Patran will display any existing fields of
the same object type in the Existing Fields box.
To create a new field like an existing field, select one of the displayed existing field names. All options
in the appropriate fields forms will then automatically be set to those of the selected existing field, as well
as the tabular data or PCL functions if applicable. After modifying the data and renaming the field as
desired, select the Apply button. This will result in the creation of a new field without changing the
original.
Instructions for creating a completely new field of any object type are given on the following pages.
• Spatial Fields, 196
• Data Tables, 198
• General Fields, 201
• FEM Fields, 202

Caution: When creating Fields in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinate Frames be aware of
problems associated with discontinuities present in function and angle definition. These
usually occur at ± 180 degrees. For example, defining a Field from 0 to 360 degrees,
and applying it where the internally defined angle abruptly changes from +180 degrees
to -180 during the application.

Caution: Tabular theta values must fall between Ó π and +π . Values outside of this range are not
valid. (This restriction does not apply to complex field phase values.)

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Spatial Fields
Upon selecting the object “Spatial Field,” the method of data input must be selected. The options are PCL
Function or Tabular Input. A description of these methods follows:

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Procedures for Using Fields

PCL Function A unique name for the field should be entered by selecting the Field Name box.
The Field Type (scalar or vector) is now selected, followed by the Coordinate
System Type (real or parametric). The appropriate coordinate system for the field
is chosen and indicated in the Coordinate System box. For parametric, this is the
parametric coordinate system of the single geometrical entity specified. Fields
using parametric coordinate systems are evaluated in the parametric coordinate
system of the single geometrical entity specified. The PCL function(s) defining
the field is (are) now input into the scalar or vector field function box(es). Any
valid PCL expression may be used to define the field values. Valid independent
variables for the functions are (c1, c2, c3) for parametric fields, and (X, Y, Z), (R,
T, Z) and (R, P, T) for rectangular, cylindrical and spherical real fields,
respectively.
Tabular Input A unique name for the field should be entered by selecting the Field Name box.
The Field Type (scalar or vector) is not active for tabular input, as only scalar
fields are permitted. The Coordinate System Type buttons (real or parametric)
actually provide three types of fields: real tabular input, parametric tabular input,
and endpoints only parametric tabular input. These three types are described
below:

• Real Tabular Input. This option permits the creation of one-, two- or three-
dimensional scalar fields from tabular input. These fields are defined over the
real space defined by the selected coordinate system. The dimensionality is
determined by the Active Independent Variables selected. Independent
variables are entered in the first row and column as well as an additional
databox depending on the dimensionality of the table. The options button
opens a form to specify the maximum number of entries into the table. (The
default value is 30.) The operation of the data table forms is described in more
detail in Data Tables, 198.
• Parametric Tabular Input. This option is very similar to Real Tabular
Input described above, except that the space is determined by the parametric
directions of the single geometrical entity specified. The dimensionality of the
field defines the geometric entity required (i.e., a two-dimensional field is
applied to a patch). This option is available only when the Endpoints Only
button at the bottom of the fields form is not selected.
• Endpoints Only Parametric Tabular Input. This is the default spatial
parametric field type. This field supplies a linear variation between values
applied to the points c = 0 and c = 1 of the single geometrical entity specified.
The dimensionality of the field defines the geometric entity required (i.e., a
two-dimensional field is applied to a patch).

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General Field See General Fields, 201 for detailed description.


FEM There are two types.

1. Continuous FEM Fields can be evaluated on any point in space over which
they are defined.
2. Discrete FEM Fields can only be evaluated at defined points in space.
A unique name for the field should be entered by selecting the Field Name
box.
• For a Continuous FEM field, select the “Continuous” FEM Field
Definition switch. The Field Type (scalar or vector) is now selected.
Select the group containing the mesh which defines the field. Note that
the desired result (scalar or vector) must be displayed on the mesh. A
vector field is created from vector markers plotted on the mesh, while a
scalar field is created from a fringe plot of the scalar value. The “Options”
form allows definition of the extrapolation option (used when the field is
evaluated at a point outside the mesh region), and the 2D to 3D
extrapolation feature. 2D to 3D extrapolation will set the value of the
field constant along a given axis.
• For a Discrete FEM Field, select the “Discrete” FEM Field Definition
switch. The Field Type (scalar or vector) is now selected. Select the
“Entity Type” (Node or Element) next and the “Input Data” button. The
spreadsheet widget requires the creation of a table of node or element ids
and values. Nodes or elements may be selected or typed in, and may not
be combined in a single field. The values must be typed in, and will be
automatically formatted to scalar or vector form.

Data Tables
Once the dimensionality of the field is determined by the number of Active Independent Variables
selected, the data table form of appropriate dimension is opened with the Input Data button. The Options
button allows the user to set the number of independent variables and the extrapolation procedure to be
used for the field. Below are general rules for using the data table forms throughout the Fields function.
Rules are given for each table dimensionality. Valid independent variables for all Spatial tables are (c1,
c2, c3) for parametric fields, and (X, Y, Z), (R, T, Z), and (R, T, P) for rectangular, cylindrical and
spherical real fields respectively.

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Procedures for Using Fields

1D Table The left-hand column of the table contains the independent variable. It is labeled
with its parametric or real spatial axis. Data is entered by selecting the desired
cell, which automatically activates the Input databox. Data typed into the box is
stored in the cell when return is pressed, and the cell below is then automatically
selected. Any other cell may be selected with the mouse. Numbers larger than the
cell display will be entered in exponential format.
2D Table The left-hand column of the table contains the first independent variable, while
the top row contains the second. Both are labeled with the corresponding
parametric or real spatial axis. The top left cell naturally accepts no input. Data is
entered by selecting the desired cell, which automatically activates the Input
databox. Data typed into the box is stored in a cell when <return> is pressed, and
the cell below is then automatically selected. Any other cell may be selected with
the mouse. Numbers larger than the cell display will be entered in exponential
format.
3D Table The left-hand column of the table contains the first independent variable, while
the top row contains the second. The third independent variable is shown and
controlled via the databox below the table; it defines the layers of tabular data.
The row, column and databox are all labeled with the corresponding parametric
or real spatial axis. As in the 2D case, the top left cells accept no input. The first
two independent variables are entered by selecting the desired cell, which
automatically activates the Input databox. Data typed into the box is stored in a
cell when return is pressed, and the cell below is then automatically selected. Any
other cell may be selected with the mouse. Numbers larger than the cell display
will be entered in exponential format. The third independent variable is entered
by selecting the databox at the bottom of the form. Different values may be
entered for each layer of data. Layers are controlled by the two arrow buttons.

Material Property Fields: Upon selecting the object Material Property, the material property create
form will be displayed. Any existing material property fields will be displayed in the Existing Fields box.
The Method box will contain a choice of Tabular Input or General, set the method to Tabular Input. A
descriptive name may be entered in the Field Name box. The appropriate Active Independent Variables
for the field must now be chosen. A tabular material property field may be a function of one, two or three
of the independent variables temperature, strain, or strain rate. It may also be a single variable function
of either time or frequency. The Options button allows the user to set the number of independent variables
and the extrapolation procedure to be used for the field. The rules for data entry into material property
fields are specified above in Data Tables. The OK button must be selected after entering data to create
and store the field defined.
Non-Spatial Fields: Upon selecting the object Non-Spatial, the non-spatial create form will be
displayed. Any existing non-spatial fields will be displayed in the Existing Fields box. The Method box
will contain a choice of Tabular Input, General or Discrete FEM(SAMCEF only).

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Tabular A unique descriptive name for the field should be entered by selecting the Field
Input Name box. The Active Independent Variable for the field must now be chosen. A
tabular non-spatial real-valued field may be a function of time, frequency,
temperature, displacement, velocity, or a user-defined variable. A tabular non-spatial
complex-valued field must be a function of frequency.

Selecting the Input Data button displays the tabular input data form. The data entry
rules for real-valued non-spatial fields are similar to those for the 1D case explained
above in Data Tables, except that a PCL function may also be used to fill the data
table. If PCL function input is desired, select the Map Function to Table button and
the PCL function form will open. Any valid PCL function may be entered into the
PCL Expression box. Note that the independent variable (“t “, “f “, “T”, “u”, “v”, or
“UD”) in this expression must always be preceded by a “' “. Filling in the Start, End
and Number of Points boxes will define points uniformly spaced with respect to the
independent variable. Selecting the Use Existing...Points button will cause the
function to be evaluated at all points previously entered in the table. Selecting Apply
in the Map Function to Table form causes the function values to be mapped to the
table. The data entry rules for complex-valued non-spatial fields differ from those of
real-valued non-spatial fields in the following respects: first, you have the option to
select the complex data format. It may be Real-Imaginary, Magnitude-Phase
(degrees), or Magnitude-Phase (radians). Second, you (obviously) need to define two
ordinate values instead of one. Spreadsheet data entry via the input databox works as
it does for real-valued fields, but you also have the option (if cells from both complex
component columns have been selected) to enter two values, or a complex
expression, so that both columns may be loaded simultaneously. Finally, the Map
Function To Table form that is displayed for complex fields is used to load one
ordinate spreadsheet column at a time because PCL does not recognize complex
expressions.
The Options button allows the user to set the number of independent variables and
the extrapolation procedure to be used for the field. The Apply button in the Fields
form must be selected after entering data to create and store the field defined.

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Discrete FEM A unique descriptive name for the field should be entered by selecting the Field
(SAMCEF Name box. Select the “Entity Type” (Node or Element). Select the “Active Dynamic
Only) Variable” of “Time(t)” or “Frequency(f)”.

Select the “Input Data” button to enter the field data into the spreadsheet. The
spreadsheet widget requires the creation of a table of node or element ids and values.
Nodes, elements, element faces, element edges or element vertices may be selected
or typed in. Nodes and elements may not be combined in a single field. The values
must be typed in. Presently, only scalar values are allowed.

The spreadsheet data is entered by layers. Each layer represents a different time or
frequency value. Time or frequency must increase or stay the same with increasing
layer numbers before the “Apply” button is selected on the main Fields form. If layer
data is entered out of order, the “Sort Layers in Ascending Order” button may be used
before selecting “Apply”.

Layers or rows may be added or deleted by using the other button options on the
spreadsheet form.

General Fields
The General Field can be used to create a field of any object type. The data are described by a
mathematical function composed in PCL. The function expression is composed of terms which can be
PCL Functions, Constants or Independent Variables, related by mathematical operators. The
expression is composed in a text box by selecting terms from option menus, or by simply typing a PCL
expression. Unlike other fields methods which strictly limit the available independent variables, the
General Field allows access to nearly any independent variable for any field. It is up to the user to create
functions with appropriate arguments for the intended application.
The General Field for this release will be of limited utility. It is restricted to scalar fields of up to three
variables, is not defined in parametric space, and analysis code translators will not evaluate general field
functions for material properties. The primary use of General Fields in this release will be for accessing
custom PCL functions and forms.
To create a General Field, select the “General” method for any field object. This will display the General
Field Create form. Any existing fields of the current object will be displayed in the Existing Fields box.
A descriptive name may be entered in the Field Name box. Selecting the Input Data button displays the
General Fields Input Data form. This form, identical for all field objects, is used to compose function
terms and to display the function expression.
The Input Data form presents two option menus, enabling the user to select the next term “type” and
“subtype.” The types currently available are “Patran Functions” and “Independent Variables.” By
default, there are no subtypes available under “Patran Functions” except with the Patran Thermal analysis
preference. Any custom functions added will allow the user to specify a subtype. There are no subtypes
for independent variables. Upon specifying a term type (and subtype), the listbox will fill with available
selections for the next term. If an independent variable is selected, it will be appended to the function

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expression. If a function is selected, another form will be displayed to accept the function input
arguments.
Function input arguments may be specified in a custom PCL form created for the custom function, or in
a simple “Generic Input” form which is part of General Fields. The use of a custom input form will be
helpful for complicated or specialized functions. The incorporation of a custom form into General Fields
is a simple step beyond custom PCL form programming. See Adding Custom General Field Functions
(p. 574) in the PCL and Customization. The Generic form will be displayed if no custom form is created.
The Generic form displays only the function name, a data box for each argument, and a label indicating
the data type expected for that argument. Because of the limited information presented on the Generic
form, it is best used only for simple functions. When entering data or expressions into the argument
databoxes, proper PCL syntax must be maintained, and any independent variables in the expression must
be preceded by a “' “. Upon selecting “OK” in the function input form, the argument data will be stored,
and the function name, complete with integer prefix and independent variable list, will be appended to
the function expression text box. (The prefix is an ID used to associate the function’s argument data with
the particular term of the function expression.)

Important: While the function expression may be entered into the textbox, or edited via the
keyboard, editing of a PCL function term will result in an error. A PCL function term
(a term with an integer prefix) has argument data associated with it. Because of this,
the modification of a function term must be done with the Modify Highlighted
Function button. To modify a PCL function term, first highlight the desired term
(double clicking the term will do). Selecting the Modify Highlighted Function button
will display the corresponding form and any current data. Modifications will be stored
when “OK” is selected.

FEM Fields
A FEM Field is a field which is associated to a finite element model. There are two kinds of FEM Field,
Continuous and Discrete. Both are created with the Fields, Spatial User Interface, using the “FEM”
method. The Continuous FEM Field is created from data associated to a finite element mesh. The
connectivity provided by this mesh allows interpolation of data to any point within the space defined.
This field is most often used to map data from one analysis to another.
The Discrete FEM Field (formerly known as the LBC Field) is simply a table of data associated to a list
of nodes or elements. This field cannot be interpolated, as no connectivity is defined.

Creating a Continuous FEM Field


Perform the following steps to create a Continuous FEM field. A finite element mesh and associated
results must be imported. It is recommended that a new viewport with a new current group be used. This
segregates the results model from the current model, permitting easy manipulation.
1. Import analysis results (and the associated model if not in the current database).

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2. Display the desired results or loads on the mesh. If they are scalar, display them as a fringe plot.
If they are vector use any available vector display method. The plot must be displayed while
creating the FEM field to ensure the correct data is used. See Fields Create (Spatial, Continuous
FEM), 268.
3. Create the field with the user interface.

Note: See fields_create (p. 1348) in the PCL Reference Manual for more information.

Once created, a Continuous FEM field can be used like any other spatial field and will be evaluated on
any point in space over which it is defined. The evaluation process automatically invokes an interpolator.

Important: The FEM field group/results should not be deleted before evaluation has taken place,
as the field has no means of interpolation without the mesh.

Creating a Discrete FEM Field


One way to create a Discrete FEM field is to import a PATRAN 2.5 Neutral File finite element mesh with
loads on it. Another way is to utilize the user interface in the Fields application or from within client
applications (i.e. Element Properties or Loads/BCs) to explicitly define values associated with existing
FEM entities. Note that a Discrete FEM field is defined only at the FEM entities listed. No interpolation
is available.

Modify a Field
To modify an existing field, select the Modify action in the fields form. Then select the object to be
modified, a Spatial, Material Property or Non-Spatial field. The “Select Fields to Modify” box will then
display the names of all existing fields of the specified object type. Upon selecting one of the displayed
names, all settings in the form will automatically be changed to reflect the parameters of the selected
field, and filled data tables or PCL functions (as appropriate) will also be displayed. After changing any
of the parameters or data as desired, selecting the Apply button will result in the creation of a modified
field.
Discrete FEM Fields can also be modified from within client applications (i.e. Element Properties or
Loads/BCs) by using the Access DFEM Fields button usually located on the input data form. The action
of the client application must also be set to Modify. For more information see Input LBCs Set Data (Static
Load Case), 36 or Typical Element Properties Input Menu, 70.

Important: The original field will be deleted in all cases. To create a new field without deleting
the old, refer to Create, 195.

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Common Spreadsheet Functionality


All Fields spreadsheet input forms have the following common functionality. All Fields spreadsheet input
forms have an "Import/Export..." button in the upper right.

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Input Data The Input Data databox is used to enter data into the spreadsheet. First one or
Databox more cells must be selected, and then data is entered into the databox. The
keyboard “Enter” key causes the data to be copied into the cells. When a single
cell is selected, the contents of the cell are copied to the databox. By default, if
more than one cell is selected, the databox is cleared. Users who prefer that the
upper leftmost selected cell contents be copied to the databox may do so by
adding the following to their settings.pcl file:

pref_env_set_logical("fields_spreadsheet_multicell", TRUE )
Auto Highlight This toggle controls the behavior of the Input Data databox when a spreadsheet
Toggle cell is selected. It is off by default. When a cell is selected, the contents of the
cell are placed into the Input Data databox. If the toggle is off, it is not
highlighted (selected) in the databox. If the toggle is on, it is. Users who prefer
to default the toggle on may do so by adding the following to their settings.pcl
file:

pref_env_set_logical( "fields_spreadsheet_auto_highlight", TRUE )

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Import/Export Allows import and export of comma separated value (CSV) files. This provides
Button compatibility with popular spreadsheet programs such as Microsoft Excel. See
below for details.
Undo Button This button will undo the last change made to the spreadsheet. There is no limit
to the number of undo-s that can be done. Closing the form, selecting an
existing field from the main form or using Import cannot be undone and reset
the undo level to zero.

Selecting it gives you a file form and the option to Import or Export CSV (comma separated value) files.

An options menu allows you to set the separator (comma is default) and whether to read the first line for
Import or write column headings for Export.

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Import completely replaces what is in the current spreadsheet. Export writes everything in the current
spreadsheet.
Some Fields spreadsheets require the spreadsheet to be fully populated. This means there must be a
dependent value specified for every combination of independent variables. The Options form from the
Fields/Create and Modify forms has a frame for specifying an “Incomplete Data Action”. This tells
Patran what you want it to do if there are missing values in an imported CSV file. “Abort” is the default.
If it is set, and a CSV file is imported with any missing values, the import will abort with a warning
message. “Set to Zero” and “Set to User Specified Value” can also be chosen. If they are, and a CSV
file is imported with any missing values, they will be set to the value specified.

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For example, if your CSV file looks like this:


X,Y,Value
1.0000000E+000, 1.0000000E+001, 9.1000000E+001
1.0000000E+000, 2.0000000E+001, 9.4000000E+001
2.0000000E+000, 1.0000000E+001, 9.2000000E+001
2.0000000E+000, 2.0000000E+001, 9.5000000E+001
3.0000000E+000, 1.0000000E+001, 9.3000000E+001
3.0000000E+000, 2.0000000E+001, 9.6000000E+001
3.0000000E+000, 4.0000000E+001, 9.8000000E+001
the value for x = 1, y = 40 and x = 2 and y = 40 are missing. They will be set to the value specified on
import.

Delete a Field
Deletion of an existing field is accomplished by selecting the Delete action, and the Object to be deleted
(Spatial, Material Property or Non-Spatial). When the desired object type has been selected, the Existing
Fields box will display all fields of that type. All fields selected for deletion will be displayed in the Fields
To Be Deleted box. Selecting the Apply button will cause the fields to be deleted.

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After selecting Apply in the Delete form, wait for the name(s) of the field(s) selected to be removed from
the Existing Fields listbox. Verify the correct Fields were deleted. If an error is made, select the Undo
icon.

Show a Field
The data in any field may be reviewed by selecting the Show action. The Show form contains a scroll
box which displays all existing fields. Upon selecting a field to show, the corresponding independent
variables will be displayed in the Select Independent Variable box directly below. Any one independent
variable at a time may be selected for display. Data is displayed in both graphical and tabular format. For
one dimensional data, a single curve over the range will be displayed. multidimensional data will be
displayed as a family of curves, each curve at some fixed value of the other independent variable(s).
Selecting the Specify Range button enables a precise definition of the range over which the variable will
be displayed, and also allows control of the fixed variable values.
If a Discrete FEM field is selected, the data is displayed only in Tabular format.

Note: Currently, Show is not enabled for the General Field.

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6.3 Fields Forms


The functions on the Fields menu are listed and described below in the order in which they appear on the
menu.

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Fields Forms

Action Object Options


Create... • Spatial Field • PCL Function
• Tabular Input
• 1D Tabular Input
• 1D Linear Parametric Tabular Input
• 1D Tabular Input Options
• 2D Tabular Input
• 2D Linear Parametric Tabular Input
• 2D Tabular Input Options
• 3D Tabular Input
• 3D Linear Parametric Tabular Input
• 3D Tabular Input Options
• General Field
• FEM Fields
• Discrete Input Data
• Continuous Options
• Material Property • 1D Data Input Table
• 2D Data Input Table
• 3D Data Input Table
• General Fields
• Non-Spatial Field • Tabular Input
• Active Independent Variable, Input
Data
• Input Data, Map Function
• T2D Data Input Table
• 3D Data Input Table
• Complex Scalar Field Data Input
Table
• Discrete FEM (SAMCEF Only)
• General Fields

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Action Object Options


Show... • 1D Table Display
• 2D Table Display
• 3D Table Display
• 1D Specify Range
• 2D Specify Range
• 3D Specify Range
• Discrete Table Display
Modify... • Spatial Field • PCL Function
• Tabular Input
• General Fields
• Discrete FEM Field
• Continuous FEM Field
• Material Property • Tabular Input
• General Fields
• Non-Spatial Field • Tabular Input
• Discrete FEM (SAMCEF Only)
• General Fields
Delete...

Fields Create (Spatial, PCL Function)


This form is used to create scalar or vector spatial fields in real or parametric space using a PCL
expression or externally defined PCL function.

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Action Select Create as the action.


Object The new field will be Spatial in either real (X,Y,Z) or parametric
(C1,C2,C3) space. It may be either scalar or vector in nature depending on
the selections made below.
Method The new field will be defined using an input PCL expression or externally
defined PCL function.
Existing Fields Existing fields are displayed here. Select one if the new field is to be a
modification of an existing field. The selected field name will appear in the
box below.
Field Name Alternatively, enter a unique field name here.
Field Type Select Scalar or Vector as the field type. The form changes depending on
the pick.
Coordinate System For type Real, input or select the desired coordinate frame if the default is
Type inappropriate. For type Parametric, select the single geometrical entity
whose parametric coordinates and space will be used for all evaluations of
this field.
Coordinate System Input or select the desired coordinate frame if the default is inappropriate.
Scalar Function Input a PCL command defining the field or the name of the external PCL
('X,'Y,'Z) function file.

Note: `X,`Y,`Z changes to `C1,`C2,`C3 when Parametric is


selected. The apostrophes identify independent variables. If
the coordinate system is cylindrical or spherical, the
independent variables are `R, `T, `Z or `R, `T, `P. `T and `P in
a PCL function are automatically converted into radians when
the function is evaluated.

Note: For more help, see Field Type (Vector Option), 215.

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Field Type (Vector Option)

Field Type Select Scalar or Vector as the field type. The form changes depending on
the pick.
Coordinate System For type Real, input or select the desired coordinate frame if the default is
Type inappropriate. For type Parametric, select the single geometrical entity
whose parametric coordinates and space will be used for all evaluations of
this field.
Coordinate System Enter or select the desired coordinate frame if the default is inappropriate.

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Vector Function `X,`Y,`Z changes to `C1,`C2,`C3 when Parametric is selected. The


apostrophes identify independent variables.
First Component Input a PCL command defining the vector field components or the names
of external PCL function files.
Second Component
The First, Second and Third Components are defined as the components in
Third Component
the frame in which the field is evaluated. The frame is specified in the
application using the field. Applied in an LBC defined in a rectangular
frame for instance, the components would be in the X, Y, and Z directions.

Fields Create (Spatial, Tabular Input)


This form is used to create scalar or vector spatial fields in real or parametric space with user supplied
tabular data. The fields may be one-, two-, or three-dimensional in nature and may be either in real or
parametric space.

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Action A new field will be created.


Object The new field will be Spatial in either real (X,Y,Z) or parametric
(C1,C2,C3) space. It may be either scalar or vector in nature, depending on
the selections made below.
Method The new field will be defined using data tables input by the user.
Existing Fields Existing fields are displayed here. S
Field Name Enter a unique field name here. Or, to create a new field using attributes of
an existing field, highlight the existing field and type the new name here.

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Coordinate System Select Real if the field is in X,Y,Z space. Select Parametric if it is in C1,
Type C2, C3 space. The form changes to the one shown on the next page if
Parametric is selected.
Coordinate System Enter or select the desired coordinate frame if the default is inappropriate.
Active Independent Select the independent variables to use. The number selected determines
Variables whether a one-, two-, or three- dimensional table input form will be
displayed. At least one variable must be selected. Select Real if the field is
in X,Y,Z space, Parametric if it is in C1, C2, C3 space.

Note: For more help, see Coordinate System Type (Parametric), 219.

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Coordinate System Type (Parametric)

Coordinate System Select Real if the field is in X,Y,Z space. Select Parametric if it is in C1,
Type C2, C3 space. The form changes to the one shown on the next page if
Parametric is selected.
Geometric Entity A spatial parametric field must be associated with a geometric entity. This
single geometrical entity’s parametric coordinates and space will be used
for all evaluations of this field. Select this box and either input directly or
select from the viewport using the selection tools.
Active Independent Determines whether a one-, two-, or three- dimensional table input form
Variables will be displayed. At least one variable must be selected. The labels change
to 1D, 2D, and 3D when the Endpoints Only option is selected.
Input Data... Selecting this box brings up the appropriately sized and labeled input table
form.
Options... Allows you to modify the maximum table size (default is 30 x 30 x 10).
Also, the treatment of points which lie outside of the table range may be
specified. Inactive when Enpoints Only is ON.
Endpoints Only This invokes a procedure where field values are defined only at the end
points of each parametric direction. The program performs a linear
interpolation in parametric space between these points. This can also be
done using the regular table forms. Making this selection causes
specialized input forms to be used along with visual identification of
selected points.

Spatial Field 1D Tabular Input


This form is used to enter tabular data into a one-dimensional table. The default maximum table length

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is 30. This can be changed in the Options submenu in the main fields application menu. The first column
heading changes depending on the independent parameter being input.

Spatial Field 1D Linear Parametric Tabular Input


This form is used to input tabular data into a one-dimensional table using the Endpoints Only option
available when using parametric coordinates. Only two values are input; the field values at the beginning
and end of the curve. Intermediate values are obtained by linear interpolation in the parametric direction

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Linear Parametric Table

Endpoint Values
(C1) Value
(0)

(1)

OK Cancel

Endpoint Values (0) Select this box and type in the desired data value(s) to be used at the
beginning (0) and end (1) of the selected curve.
Endpoints Only (1) Select this box and type in the data value(s) at the end of the selected
curve(s). Linear interpolation in parametric space will be used for
intermediate points.

Note: As each box is selected a circle will appear around the associated point in the viewport. The
parametric directions can also be displayed by turning on the “Parametric Direction”
button located on the Display/Geometric form. See Display>Geometry (p. 377) in the
Patran Reference Manual for more information.

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Spatial Field 1D Tabular Input Options


This form permits the maximum number of rows of one-dimensional field tables to be increased over the
default value of 30. The method used to handle field data if a parameter exceeds the table range can also
be selected from among three different options.

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Maximum Number of Select this box and increase the default maximum table size to equal or
X exceed the desired table size. It is not necessary to reduce this number if
smaller tables are used.

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Extrapolation Option Click on this selection box to change the method used to handle values that
may exceed the range of the table. The options are:

1. Use Closest Table Value (default)


2. Linear Extrapolation
3. Set Value to Zero
Incomplete Data Click on this selection box to change the way incomplete CSV file imports
Action are handled. The options are:

1. Abort
The import is immediately aborted.
2. Set to Zero
All missing values are set to Zero.
3. Set to User Specified Value
All missing values are set to the value in the databox below.

Spatial Field 2D Tabular Input


This form is used to input tabular data into a two-dimensional table. The default maximum table size is
30 in both dimensions. This can be changed in the Options submenu in the main Fields Application form.

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Spatial Field 2D Linear Parametric Tabular Input


This form is used to input tabular data into a two-dimensional table using the Endpoints Only option
available when using parametric coordinates. Four values are input; the field values at the corners of the
surface. Intermediate values are obtained by linear interpolation in both parametric directions.

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Linear Parametric Table

Endpoint values
(C1,C2) Value
(0,0 )

(0,1 )

(1,0 )

(1,1 )

OK Cancel

Enpoint Values Select each of these boxes individually and input field values at the
parametric corners of the surface(s).

Note: As each box is selected, a circle will appear around the associated point in the viewport.
The parametric directions can also be displayed by turning on the “Parametric Direction”
button located on the Display Properties/Geometric form. See Display>Geometry (p. 377)
in the Patran Reference Manual for more information.

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Spatial Field 2D Tabular Input Options


This form permits the maximum number of rows and columns of two-dimensional field tables to be
increased over the default value of 30. The method used to handle field data if a parameter exceeds the
table range can also be selected from among three different options.

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Maximum Number of X Select these boxes and increase the default maximum table size to equal
or exceed the desired table size. It is not necessary to reduce this number
Maximum Number of Y if smaller tables are used. Values do not need to be the same.

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Extrapolation Option Determines the method used to handle values that may exceed the range
of the table. The options are:

1. Use Closest Table Value (default)


2. Linear Extrapolation
3. Set Value to Zero
Incomplete Data Action Click on this selection box to change the way incomplete CSV file
imports are handled. The options are:

1. Abort
The import is immediately aborted.
2. Set to Zero
All missing values are set to Zero.
3. Set to User Specified Value
All missing values are set to the value in the databox below.

Spatial Field 3D Tabular Input


This form is used to input tabular data into a three-dimensional table. The default maximum table size is
30 by 30 by 10 in X, Y, and Z (or C1, C2, and C3) respectively. This can be changed in the Options
submenu in the main Fields Application form.

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Spatial Field 3D Linear Parametric Tabular Input


This form is used to input tabular data into a three-dimensional table using the Endpoints Only option
available when using parametric coordinates. Eight values are input: the field values at the corners of the
solid(s). Intermediate values are obtained by linear interpolation in the parametric directions.

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Linear Parametric Table

Endpoint values
(C1,C2,C3) Value
(0,0,0 )

(0,0,1 )

(0,1,0 )

(0,1,1 )

(1,0,0 )

(1,0,1 )

(1,1,0 )

(1,1,1 )

OK Cancel

Enpoint Values Select each of these boxes individually and input field values at the
parametric corners of the solid(s).

Note: As each box is selected a circle will appear around the associated point in the viewport. The
parametric directions can also be displayed by turning on the “Parametric Direction”
button located on the Display Properties/Geometric form. See Display>Geometry (p. 377)
in the Patran Reference Manual for more information.

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Spatial Field 3D Tabular Input Options


This form permits the maximum number of rows, columns, and layers of three-dimensional field tables
to be increased over the default values. The method used to handle field data if a parameter exceeds the
table range can also be selected from among three different options.

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Maximum Number of X Select these boxes and increase the default maximum table size to equal
or exceed the desired table size. It is not necessary to reduce this number
Maximum Number of Y if smaller tables are used.
Maximum Number of Z

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Extrapolation Option Determines the method used to handle values that may exceed the range
of the table. The options are:

1. Use Closest Table Value (default)


2. Linear Extrapolation
3. Set Value to Zero
Incomplete Data Action Click on this selection box to change the way incomplete CSV file
imports are handled. The options are:

1. Abort
The import is immediately aborted.
2. Set to Zero
All missing values are set to Zero.
3. Set to User Specified Value
All missing values are set to the value in the databox below.

Time Spatial Fields Create (Patran Thermal only)


This form is used to create time dependent spatial field distributions. The functionality is available only
while under the Patran Thermal preference. These fields can be referenced from heating and convective
thermal Loads/BC. The time independent variable (t) will appear as an additional active independent
variable that can be selected from the main form. The Fields/Create form is shown below.

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Object When the Object is Spatial and Method is Tabular Input and the Analysis
preference is PThermal, widgets to select a dynamic variable will be
Method shown. Either time or frequency or neither may be selected.
Active Independent Select X, Y, and/or Z as spatial independent variables.
Variables
Active Dynamic Enable time-dependency.
Variables

The capability is available for Tabular Input only. Both Real and Parametric coordinate system types are
supported. In the case Real, the coordinate system can reference a rectangular or cylindrical system.
The Input Data form provides a spreadsheet entry for the Time/Spatial independent variables and the
Value. The number of columns depend on the active independent variables selected on the Fields create
form. The table must be structured; that is, values at the same X,Y,Z spatial locations must be provided
for each of the time point.
Click in a blank cell and press Enter to clear form.

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An Import utility is available on the Input Data form for comma separated value (CSV) files. These can
be saved from popular spreadsheet programs such as Excel. The value separations supported are Comma,
Semi-colon, Tab and Space.

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Note: CSV files can be saved from Excel or created with a text editor.

Fields Create (Material Property, Tabular Input)


This form is used to create material property tabular fields. Currently temperature, strain, strain rate, time
or frequency can be selected as the independent variable in a material property field. This form is also
used to create new fields which are modifications of existing fields.

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Action Select the Create action.


Object Select Material Property as the type of field to be created.
Method Select the Tabular Input Method.

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Existing Fields Any existing Material Property fields are displayed here. Select one if the
new field is to be a modification of an existing one.
Field Name Enter a unique field name here, or change the name of the existing field
selected.
Active Independent Select the appropriate independent variable or variables. The number
Variables selected determines whether a one-, two- or three-dimensional table input
form will be displayed. Select up to three variables from Temperature,
Strain or Strain Rate. Only one of the variables, Time or Frequency may be
selected.
Input Data... Selecting this box brings up the appropriate one-, two-, or
three-dimensional input table form.
Options... Selecting the Options menu permits changing the maximum table size.
Also, the treatment of points which lie outside of the table range may be
specified.

Material Field 1D Data Input Table


This form is used to input tabular data into a one-dimensional Material Data table. The default maximum
table length is 30. This can be changed in the Options submenu in the main fields application menu. The
first column heading changes from temperature (T) to strain (e), strain rate (er), time (t), or frequency (f)
depending on the independent parameter used.

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Material Field 2D Data Input Table


This form is used to input tabular material property data into a two-dimensional table. The default
maximum table size is 30 in both dimensions. This can be changed in the Options submenu in the main
Fields Application form.

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Material Field 3D Data Input Table


This form is used to input tabular data into a three-dimensional table. The default maximum table size is
30 by 30 by 10 in T, e, and er respectively. This can be changed in the Options submenu in the main Fields
Application form.

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Fields Forms

Fields Create (Non-Spatial, Tabular Input)


This form is used to create Non-Spatial time and frequency-dependent fields. It is also used to create new
fields which are modifications of existing fields.

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Action Select the Create action.


Object Select Non-Spatial as the type of field to be created.
Method Select the Tabular Input Method.
Existing Fields Existing Non-Spatial fields are displayed here.
Field Name Enter a unique field name here. Or, to create a new field using attributes of
an existing field, highlight the existing field and type the new name here.
Scalar Field Type Select the desired Scalar Field Type. This switch is available only for the
MSC Nastran Analysis Preference. For all other Analysis Preferences, all
Non-Spatial Tabular fields are real valued scalar fields.

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Active Independent Select the desired independent variable. Up to three variables may be
Variables selected for real-valued fields, but you cannot select both time and
frequency. For complex fields, the independent variable must be
frequency.
Input Data... Displays the table input form.
Options... Allows you to change the maximum table size (default is 30). Also, the
treatment of points which lie outside of the table range may be specified.

Fields Create (Active Independent Variable, Input Data)


Use this form to input tabular data into a one-dimensional data table. The default maximum table length
is 30. This can be changed in the Options submenu in the main fields application form. The first column
will show the Active Independent Variable (Time, Frequency, Temperature, Displacement, or Velocity),
and the second is the associated field value.

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Map Function To Select this option if you want to use a PCL expression or function to define
Table the data points. The Independent variable points used can either be those
input in the above table, or be equally spaced values as defined in the Map
Function submenu.

Fields Create (Input Data, Map Function)


This form permits a dependent field to be defined by a PCL expression or function. The PCL expression
is evaluated either at Independent variable points specified in the input table or at equally spaced intervals
as defined in this form.

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PCL Expression f(t) Input the PCL expression you want to use to define the time dependence.
Use ‘t for the time variable.
Use Existing Time Select this option if you want to use the points specified in the input table.
Points The expression will be evaluated at those points. The Start Time, End
Time, and Number of Points databoxes will be grayed out if you select this
option.
Start Time To evaluate the expression at equally spaced time points, input the starting
time, ending time and number of points here. The number of points is one
End Time plus the number of intervals.
Number of Points

Non-Spatial Field 2D Data Input Table


This form is used to input tabular non-spatial property data into a two-dimensional table. The default
maximum table size is 30 in both dimensions. This can be changed in the Options submenu in the main
Fields Application form.

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Non Spatial Field 3D Data Input Table


This form is used to input tabular data into a three-dimensional table. The default maximum table size is
30 by 30 by 10 in the first, second, and third independent variables, respectively. This can be changed in
the Options submenu in the main Fields Application form. The independent variables can be any three
of Time (t), Frequency (f), Temperature (T), Displacement (u), Velocity (v), and User-Defined (UD),
except that Time and Frequency cannot be selected simultaneously.

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Non-Spatial Complex Scalar Field Data Input Table


This form is used to input tabular complex non-spatial property data into a one-dimensional table. The
default maximum table size is 30. This can be changed in the Options submenu in the main Fields
Application form.

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Complex Data Format Select the format in which you would like to enter your complex data
Input Data Select this box and type in the desired value. Pushing the Return key puts
this value in the selected cell. If you have selected cells from the 2 right-
hand columns, then you may enter complex pairs. Both columns will then
be loaded simultaneously. Complex pairs may be entered as space-
delimited constants. Real-imaginary pairs may, in addition, be entered in
the form of expressions like “1+2i”, “-3i-5”, “-i”, or”-3.14159”.

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Data Select a cell you wish to input a value for or a cell you wish to modify. The
selected cell frame is highlighted. If you select cells from the 2 right-hand
columns simultaneously, then you may enter complex pairs.
Map Function To Select this option if you want to use a PCL expression or function to define
Table the data points. The Independent variable points used can either be those
input in the above table, or be equally spaced values as defined in the Map
Function submenu.

Fields Create (Input Complex Data, Map Function)


This form permits the components of a complex field to be defined by a PCL expression or function. The
PCL expression is evaluated either at Independent variable points specified in the input table or at equally
spaced intervals as defined in this form.

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Map Function to Table

Complex Component
Real
Imaginary

PCL Expression f('f)

Use Existing Frequency Pts.

Starting Frequency

Ending Frequency

Number of Points

Apply Cancel

Complex Component Select the complex component that your PCL expression will represent.
The component choices are consistent with the Complex Data Format
selected on the parent form, “Non Spatial Complex Scalar Table Data”.
PCL Expression f(‘f) Input the PCL expression you want to use to define the frequency
dependence. Use ‘f for the frequency variable.
Use Existing Frequency Select this option if you want to use the frequency points specified in the
Pts input table. The expression will be evaluated at those points. The Starting
Frequency, Ending Frequency, and Number of Points databoxes will be
grayed out if you select this option.

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Starting Frequency To evaluate the expression at equally spaced frequency points, input the
starting frequency, ending frequency and number of points here. The
Ending Frequency number of points is one plus the number of intervals.
Number of Points
Apply When you hit Apply, the parent form spreadsheet column corresponding to
the selected complex component is updated. If the “Use Existing
Frequency Pts.” toggle is not selected, then the abscissa column is also
updated. Finally, the alternate Complex Component switch item is
automatically selected in preparation for defining the remaining complex
component.

Fields Create (Non-Spatial, Discrete FEM) (SAMCEF Only)


This form is used to create a discrete FEM Field (formerly known as an LBC Field).

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Fields

Action: Create

Object: Non Spatial

Method: Discrete FEM

Existing Fields
field_3
field_2
field_1

Field Name

Active Dynamic Variable


Time (t) Frequency (f)

Input Data ...

[Options...]

-Apply-

Action Select the Create action.


Object Select Non-Spatial.

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Method Select the Discrete FEM Method.


Existing Fields Existing fields are displayed here. Select one if the new field is to be a
modification of an existing field. The field name will appear in the box
below.
Field Name Alternatively, enter a unique field name here.
Entity Type Select Node for nodal entities or Element for element entities (for element
select menu options, see FEM Select Icons (p. 41) in the Patran Reference
Manual).
Active Dynamic Select the dynamic variable.
Variable
Input Data... Displays the table input form.
Options... The Options Menu allows you to change the treatment of points that lie
outside the dynamic variable range.

Non-Spatial Discrete FEM Field Tabular Input (SAMCEF Only)


This form is used to input Discrete FEM Tabular data. The default table length is 30. This can be changed
by adding and deleting rows. The default number of layers is 10. This can be changed by adding and
deleting layers. The Input Data Box changes depending on whether entities or values are selected and
what is selected on the main form.

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Discrete Space/Time Field Table Data

Select Entities (Nodes)

Entity Values

6
7
8
9

Layer: 10 Time Value:

Clear Selected Cells Delete selected row(s)

Number of Layers to Delete (from current) 1 Delete

Action: Insert Number to Insert (from selected) 1

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Select Entity Nodes The select databoxes allow you to pick either nodes or elements off the
viewport or enter them manually. The main form determines whether you
are using Nodes or Elements and they cannot be mixed. The entities will
be highlighted in the viewport.

If more than one entity is in the select databox, the spreadsheet will be
filled out starting at the first selected cell.

The databox allows you to enter Scalar values.


Entity select a cell. If an Entity cell is chosen a select databox will appear and if
a Value cell is chosen a databox will appear.
Values
Time Value Select the layer and set the time or frequency value here.
Number to Insert Define the number of rows or layers to be inserted or appended. Defaults
to 1.

Fields Create (General Field)


This form is used to create fields for any Fields object. It is also used to create new fields which are
modifications of existing General Fields.

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Action Select the Create action.


Object Select one of the three objects (Spatial, Material Property, Non Spatial) as
the type of field to be created.
Method Select the General Method.
Existing Fields Any existing fields are displayed here. Select one if the new field is to be
a modification of an existing one. The selected field name will appear in
the box below.
Field Name Alternatively, enter a unique field name here, or change the name of the
existing field selected.
Entity Type Select Node for nodal entities or Element for element entities (for element
select menu options, see FEM Select Icons (p. 41) in the Patran Reference
Manual).
Coordinate System Select Real, if the field is in X,Y,Z space. Parametric space is not enabled
Type for the General Field.

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Coordinate System Input or select the desired coordinate frame if the default is inappropriate.
Input Data... Displays the table input form.

Fields Create (General Field, Input Data)


This form is used to compose the function defining a General field. The terms of the function may be
constants, independent variables or functions and appear in the textbox at the bottom of the form. The
function expression is composed using the widgets in the “Select Function Term” and “Arithmetic
Operator” frames.

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Function Term Type This menu allows choice of term type, function or independent variable.
Term Sub-Type This menu allows choice of term subtypes. For function terms, this is user
defined.
Select Function Term The term choices are listed here. Selecting a function displays its argument
input form; selecting an independent variable appends it to the expression.
Select Arithmetic Selecting an operator appends it to the expression.
Operator

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Function Expression The Function Expression is displayed here. Typing the expression into this
form in PCL syntax is acceptable for all but function terms. Function terms
must be composed via the menus to maintain the integrity of the argument
input data.
Modify Highlighted Select this button to modify the argument data for an existing term which
Function is a function. Highlight the desired function (double clicking will do) and
select “Modify Highlighted Function.” This will display the function’s
input form, and all its current data. This button works only for terms which
are functions (terms preceded by an integer prefix). Attempting to modify
terms which are functions in the textbox via the keyboard will result in an
error.

Fields Create (General Field, Generic Function)


This form lists the input arguments (and data types) for a General Field Function. It is displayed when
there is no custom PCL form supplied for a General Field Function. Because it provides the user little
information about the argument requirements, it is best used with functions having self-evident argument
requirements.

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General Field Generic Function


Function Name: some_test()
Allowable Independent Variables:

'X 'Y 'Z 'e 'er 't 'f 'RAD

Function Argument List:

Integer

Integer

Integer

OK Cancel

Function Name This line displays the name of the function.


Allowable Independent This is the list of allowable independent variables for this function. Note
Variables temperature is not allowed for Spatial fields, and Theta is not allowed for
Material Property fields.
Function Argument This is the list of arguments for the functions; one databox per argument.
List The expected datatype is given to the left. Inputs to the databoxes must be
valid PCL syntax, all independent variables must be preceded with a “ ' “.
This example is a function requiring three integer arguments.
OK Select the “OK” button when you are satisfied with the arguments. This
will store the argument data and append the function name (and list of its
independent variables) to the Function Expression textbox in the General
Field Input Data form.

Fields Create (Spatial, Discrete FEM)


This form is used to create a discrete FEM Field (formerly known as an LBC Field).

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Action Select the Create action.


Object Select Spatial.

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Method The new field will be a FEM field.


Existing Fields Existing fields are displayed here. Select one if the new field is to be a
modification of an existing field. The field name will appear in the box
below.
Field Name Alternatively, enter a unique field name here.
FEM Field Definition Select Discrete for a discrete field.
Field Type Select Scalar or Vector as the Field Type.
Entity Type Select Node for nodal entities or Element for element entities (for element
select menu options, see FEM Select Icons (p. 41) in the Patran Reference
Manual).
Input Data... Displays the table input form.

Spatial Discrete FEM Field Tabular Input


This form is used to input Discrete FEM Tabular data. The default table length is 30. This can be changed
by adding and deleting rows. The Input Data Box changes depending on whether entities or values are
selected and what is selected on the main form.

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Select a Node The select databoxes allow you to pick either nodes or elements off the
viewport or enter them manually. The main form determines whether you
are using Nodes or Elements and they cannot be mixed. The entities will
be highlighted in the viewport.

The databox allows you to enter either Scalar or Vector values (as set on
the main form). Scalar and vector values cannot be mixed.
Entity Select a cell. If an Entity cell is chosen a select databox will appear and if
a Value cell is chosen a databox will appear.
Values
Number of Rows to Define the number of rows to be added. Defaults to 1.
Insert
Insert Rows... Adds rows to the spreadsheet after the cell selected or at the end if no cell
is selected.

If more than one entity is in the select databox, the spreadsheet will be
filled out starting at the first cell selected.

Spatial Discrete FEM Field Access by Other Applications


This form is used to input Discrete FEM Tabular data from within other applications such as Loads/BCs.
The form characteristics are similar to the Fields DFEM Fields Input Data form (p. 264) except as noted
here.

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DFem Field Access for Loads/BCs

Field Action: Create

Discrete FEM Field Information (Loads/BCs)


Field Name

Field Type: Vector Field Entity: Node


Load 3D Field Elements into Application Region
Retain Element Sub-Entities: Edge Face

Input Vector
< 1, 1, 1 > Normalize selected vector(s)

Entity ScaleFactor Values

1 Elem 25.2.1 20.0 < .5,1, 1.5 >

2 Elem 26.3 1.0 < 10, 20, 30 >

Sort selected row(s) u Ascending uu Descending

Clear selected cell(s) Delete selected row(s)

Number of rows to insert 1 Insert row(s)

-OK- Reset Cancel

Field Action Field Action is determined by the action of the Client Application at the
time this form is displayed.
Field Name If a field referenced prior to displaying this form, its name will be inserted
here. Otherwise, a field name (maximum 31 characters) must be entered
before the field can be Created/Modified.

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Field Entity The field entity and data types are determined by entity & data required by
the client application.
Load 3D Field Enabled if the field entities are to be loaded into the application region of
Elements into the client after clicking OK.
Application Region
Input Vector Sorts the active cells in ascending or descending order.
Entity The Scale Factor is used to scale the data in the Values column upon apply.
If a referenced field already exists when this form is displayed, the data
Scalar Factor corresponding to this field will be also be displayed. If values were
Values inputted previously with a scale factor, the scaled data will be displayed in
the Values column with an associated scale factor of 1.0.
OK OK creates/modifies the field. Reset clears the Values column and sets the
Reset scale factor column cells to 1.0--existing entities will remain. Cancel exits
Cancel this form.

Fields Create (Spatial, Continuous FEM)


This form is used to create a Continuous FEM Spatial Field.

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Action Select Create and Spatial as the action and field type respectively.
Object Select Spatial.
Method The new field will be a FEM field.
Existing Fields Existing fields are displayed here. Select one if the new field is to be a
modification of an existing field. The field name will appear in the box
below.
Field Name Alternatively, enter a unique field name here.
FEM Field Definition Select Continuous for a Continuous FEM field.
Field Type Select Scalar or Vector as the field type.
Entity Type Select Node for nodal entities or Element for element entities (for element
select menu options, see FEM Select Icons (p. 41) in the Patran Reference
Manual).

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Mesh/Results Group This filter permits control of group selection. A group with a contour
Filter (scalar) or vector marker (vector) plot must be selected. The field data is
defined by the graphical display.

Only groups with contour or vector plots are displayed. The plots must
therefore be created before field creation. Selecting all groups causes the
listbox to display all groups (with plots) in the database. If Current
Viewport is selected, only those groups (with plots) in the current viewport
are shown in the listbox. A group must be chosen.
Options... This button displays the form to modify the Extrapolation Option and
Interpolation Method.

Spatial Continuous FEM Field Options


This form is used to change options when creating/modifying a FEM field.

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Extrapolation Option Extrapolation method - Choose from “Use Closest Table Value,” “Linear
Extrapolation,” or “Set to Zero.” Defaults to “Use Closest Table Value.”
2D to 3D Interpolation This feature enables the Interpolator to map a 2D field into 3D space. This
is accomplished by setting the field values constant in the direction normal
to the 2D plane.
Coordinate System Select Coordinate Frame to define interpolation.
Specify Constant Axis Toggle to enable 2D to 3D Interpolation.
Axis Normal to Interp. Switch enabled when the toggle above is set. Select one axis.
Plane

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Note: 2D to 3D interpolation can only be used under a limited set of conditions. As stated above,
the interpolation is accomplished by keeping the field values constant in the direction normal
to the plane specified. For this reason, to obtain a correct 3D evaluation, the coordinate frame
axis specified must be exactly normal to the 2D field plane. For rectangular coordinate
frames, any axis may be chosen as the constant. For cylindrical and spherical coordinate
frames the radial axis (axis 1) is not valid.

Fields Show
This form contains the commands necessary to display fields, both tabular and PCL defined. The display
can either be in the form of a table, or in the form of an XY plot of the table data.

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Action Select Show.


Select Field to Show All fields are listed in this databox. Select the one to be displayed. If a FEM
Discrete Field is selected, the switches, buttons and toggles on the form
are hidden and the Field is displayed in tabular format without having to
press Apply.

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Select Independent Switches for each field variable are displayed here. Select the independent
Variables variable, or the horizontal axis of the XY plot.
Specify Range Select this submenu to specify the range of the independent variable, or set
the number of points to be used in the display. This is required for PCL
defined fields.
Post XY Plot If toggled ON, a window containing an XY plot of the field dependent
variables versus the selected independent variable will appear. If the field
is complex, then each complex component will appear in its own XY plot
window. To remove a plot from the screen, iconify it or unpost it from the
XY Plot Application form.
Unpost Current XY Removes the current XY plot window from the display. The plot window
Window may be deleted using the XY Plot application.

Additional widgets are displayed depending on the type of field selected. If a vector field is selected, then
a switch listing the vector components is displayed. You would then select the vector component that you
want shown. If a complex field is selected, then a switch listing the output complex formats is displayed.
This gives you the option to display the field as 1) real and imaginary components, 2) magnitude and
phase (degrees), 3) magnitude and phase (radians), or 4) a Bode plot, which displays the magnitude in db
and the phase in degrees. If a Non-Spatial Discrete FEM field is selected, a select databox will appear
allowing you to select one or more nodes or elements as the FEM location for the XY Plot and tabular
results. If you select elements, you must select a face or edge entered in the spreadsheet.

Show Field (1D Table Display)


This table appears after selecting Apply in the Field Show form when the selected field is one-
dimensional. It contains the tabular data as specified in the Specify Range submenu. The points
displayed are the values that are plotted in the XY Plot if this option was selected.

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Plotted Curves

X Value

Cancel

X These are the values of the independent variable that were either input or
computed based on parameters input in the Specify Range menu.
Value These are the values of the field corresponding to the independent variable
values.

Show Field (2D Table Display)


This table appears after selecting Apply in the Field Show form when the selected field is two-
dimensional. It contains the tabular data as specified in the Specify Range submenu. The points
displayed are the values that are plotted in the XY Plot if this option was selected.

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Plotted Curves
Plotted Curves

X Value

Curve 1 Y 0.

Cancel

X These are the values of the independent variable that were either input or
computed based on parameters input in the Specify Range form.
Value These are the values of the field corresponding to the independent variable
values.
Curve This is the XY plot curve number and its associated dependent variable
value.
Y

Show Field (3D Table Display)


This table appears after selecting Apply in the Field Show form when the selected field is three-
dimensional. It contains the tabular data as specified in the Specify Range submenu. The points
displayed are the values that are plotted in the XY Plot if this option was selected.

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Plotted Curves
Plotted Curves

X Value

Curve 1 Y, Z 0., 0.

Cancel

X These are the values of the independent variable that were either input or
computed based on parameters input in the Specify Range form.
Value These are the values of the field corresponding to the independent variable
values.
Curve This is the XY plot curve number and its associated Y and Z variable
values.
Y, Z

Show Field (Complex 1D Table Display)


This table appears after selecting Apply in the Field Show form when the selected field is one-
dimensional. It contains the tabular data as specified in the Specify Range submenu using the complex
format specified on the Ordinate Display Type switch. The points displayed are the values that are plotted
in the XY Plot if this option was selected.

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Plotted Complex Curves

Frequency Magnitude Phase (degrees)

Cancel

Frequency These are the values of the independent variable (Frequency) that were
either input directly or computed from parameters input in the Specify
Range menu.
Magnitude These are the values of the first complex component of the field
corresponding to the independent variable values.
Phase (degrees) These are the values of the second complex component of the field
corresponding to the independent variable values.

Show Field (1D Specify Range)


This submenu is used to define the range of the independent variable to be used in creating the XY plot.
For fields created using PCL, the number of points used to display the function must be specified.

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Use Existing Points If toggled ON, the plot will contain all existing points in a tabular field.
Minimum The minimum and maximum value of the independent plot variable
Maximum (horizontal axis) can be specified by changing the values in these boxes.
No. of Points The number of points used in the display is set in this box. This value must
be input for display of PCL defined fields.

Show Field (2D Specify Range)


This submenu is used to define the range of the independent variable to be used in creating the XY plot.
For fields created using PCL, the number of points used to display the function must be specified.

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Specify Range

Use Existing Points

Independent Variable Range

Minimum Maximum No. of Points


X 0 20 12

Fixed Independent Variable Range

Minimum Maximum No. of Sets


Y 0 1000 4

OK

Use Existing Points If toggled ON, the plot will contain all existing points in a tabular field.
Independent Variable The minimum and maximum value of the independent plot variable
Range (horizontal axis) can be specified by changing the values in these boxes.
Minimum/Maximum
No. of Points The number of points used in the display is set in this box. This value must
be input for display of PCL defined fields.
Fixed Independent The minimum and maximum values of the other variable is displayed.
Variable Range

Minimum/Maximum
No. of Sets This is the number of sets (curves) of the second variable. A value must be
input for PCL defined fields.

Show Field (3D Specify Range)


This submenu is used to define the range of the independent variable to be used in creating the XY plot.
For fields created using PCL, the number of points used to display the function must be specified.

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Fields Forms

Specify Range

Use Existing Points

Independent Variable Range

Minimum Maximum No. of Points


X 0 20 12

Fixed Independent Variable Range

Minimum Maximum No. of Sets


Y 0 1000 4

Z 0 2 3

OK

Use Existing Points If toggled ON, the plot will contain all existing points in a tabular field.
Independent Variable The minimum and maximum value of the independent plot variable
Range (horizontal axis) can be specified by changing the values in these boxes.
Minimum/Maximum
No. of Points The number of points used in the display is set in this box. This value must
be input for display of PCL defined fields.
Fixed Independent The minimum and maximum values of the other variable is displayed.
Variable Range

Minimum/Maximum
No. of Sets This is the number of sets (curves) of the second variable. A value must be
input for PCL defined fields.

Show Field (Discrete FEM Table Display)


This read-only table appears when a Discrete FEM Field is selected in the listbox. It contains a list of
entities and associated values in the field.

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Discrete FEM Field Table Data

Entities Values

6
7
8
9

OK

Entities These are the nodes or elements in the field.


Values These are the Scalar or Vector values of the field that correspond to the
entities.

Fields Modify (Spatial, PCL Function)


This form permits modification of any existing spatial PCL defined field in the database. The modified
field replaces the original field.

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Ch. 6: Fields Application 283
Fields Forms

Action Select Modify.


Object Select Spatial.
Method Select PCL Function as the method used to define the field.

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Select Field to Modify Existing Spatial fields are displayed here. Select the one you need to
modify.
Rename Field As The name of the selected field appears here. Change it if desired.
Field Type The type of the existing field is indicated here. This form is used for Scalar
fields. If you change the type to Vector, the form changes to the one shown
on the next page.
Coordinate System The Coordinate System Type of the selected field is indicated here. Change
Type it if desired.
Coordinate System The reference coordinate frame of the selected field is indicated here.
Change it if desired.
Scalar Field Function The PCL command defining the field or the name of the external PCL
function file is displayed here. Change it as desired. Note that ’X,’Y,’Z
changes to ’C1,’C2,’C3 when Parametric is selected.
Options... This button displays the form to modify the Extrapolation Option and
Interpolation Method.

Fields Modify (Spatial, Tabular Input)


This form permits modification of any existing tabular spatial field in the database. The modified field
replaces the original field.

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Ch. 6: Fields Application 285
Fields Forms

Action Select Modify.


Object Select Spatial.
Method Select Tabular Input as the method used to define the field.

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Fields Forms

Select Field to Modify Existing Spatial fields are displayed here. Select the one you need to
modify.
Rename Field As The name of the selected field appears here. Change it if desired.
Field Type The type of the existing field is indicated here. This form is used for Scalar
fields. If you change the type to Vector, the form changes to the one shown
on the next page.
Coordinate System The Coordinate System Type of the selected field is indicated here. Change
Type it if desired.
Coordinate System The reference coordinate frame of the selected field is indicated here.
Change it if desired.
Active Ind. Variables Select the independent variable(s) you want to use. The number selected
determines whether a one-, two-, or three-dimensional table input form
will be displayed. At least one variable must be selected.
Input Data... Selecting this box brings up the appropriate input table form.
Options... Selecting the Options menu permits changing the maximum table size
(default is 30 x 30 x 10). Also, the treatment of points which lie outside of
the table range may be specified.

Fields Modify (Material Property)


This form permits modification of any existing material property field in the database. The modified field
replaces the original field.

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Fields Forms

Action Select Modify.


Object Select Material Property.
Method Select Tabular Input.

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Existing Fields Any existing Material Property fields are displayed here. Select the one to
be modified.
Rename Field As The selected field name appears here. Change it if desired.
Active Independent Select the appropriate independent variable or variables. The number
Variables selected determines whether a one-, two- or three-dimensional table input
form will be displayed. Select up to three variables from Temperature,
Strain or Strain Rate. Only one of the variables, Time or Frequency may be
selected at once.
Input Data... To change data in the table, select this box to bring up the table input form.
Options... Selecting the Options menu permits changing the maximum table size
(default is 30 x 30 x 10). Also, the treatment of points which lie outside of
the table range may be specified.

Fields Modify (Non-Spatial)


This form permits modification of any existing Non-Spatial Tabular field in the database. The modified
field replaces the original field.

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Ch. 6: Fields Application 289
Fields Forms

Action Select Modify.


Object Select Non-Spatial.
Method Select Tabular Input.

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Fields Forms

Select Field to Modify Any existing Non-Spatial fields are displayed here. Select one to be
modified.
Rename Field As The selected field name appears here. Change it if desired.
Scalar Field Type The selected scalar field type appears here if you are using the MSC
Nastran Analysis Preference. Change it if desired.
Active Independent Select the desired independent variable. Only one variable may be
Variables
selected.
Input Data... To change data in the table, select this box to bring up the table input form.
Options... Selecting the Options menu permits changing the maximum table size
(default is 30). Also, the treatment of points which lie outside of the table
range may be specified.

Fields Modify (Non-Spatial, Discrete FEM) (SAMCEF Only)


This form permits modification of any existing Non-Spatial Discrete FEM field in the database. The
modified field replaces the original field.

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Ch. 6: Fields Application 291
Fields Forms

Fields

Action: Modify

Object: Non Spatial

Method: Discrete FEM

Select Field to Modify


field_3
field_2
field_1

Rename Field as

Entity Type
Node Element

Active Dynamic Variable


Time (t) Frequency (f)

Input Data ...

[Options...]

-Apply-

Action Select Modify.


Object Select Non-Spatial.

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Fields Forms

Method Select Discrete FEM.


Select Field to Modify Any existing Non-Spatial fields are displayed here. Select one to be
modified.
Rename Field As The selected field name appears here. Change it if desired.
Field Type Select Node for nodal entities or Element for element entities (for element
select menu options, see FEM Select Icons (p. 41) in the Patran Reference
Manual).
Active Dynamic Select the dynamic variable.
Variable
Input Data... This button displays the Input Data form as shown in the Create section.
Options... The Options Menu allows you to change the treatment of points that lie
outside the dynamic variable range.

Fields Modify (General Field)


This form is used to create fields for any Fields object. It is also used to create new fields which are
modifications of existing General Fields.

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Fields Forms

Action Select Modify.


Object Select one of the three objects as the type of field to be modified.

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294 Patran Reference Manual
Fields Forms

Method Select General.


Select Field to Modify Existing Spatial fields are displayed here. Select the one you need to
modify.
Rename Field As The selected field name appears here. Change it if desired.
Coordinate System Select Real, if the field is in X,Y,Z space.
Type Parametric General Fields are not enabled in this release.
Coordinate System Input or select the desired coordinate frame if the default is inappropriate.
Input Data... Selecting this box brings up the General Field Input form.

Fields Modify (Spatial, Discrete FEM)


This form permits modification of any existing Discrete FEM Spatial Field in the database. The modified
Field replaces the original Field.

Main Index
Ch. 6: Fields Application 295
Fields Forms

Action Select Modify.


Object Select Spatial
Method Select FEM.

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Fields Forms

Select Field to Modify Any existing fields are displayed here. Select the field to be modified. The
selected field name will appear in the box below.
Rename Field As The selected field name appears here. Change it if desired.
FEM Field Definition The field definition of the existing field is indicated here. This form is used
for Discrete FEM Fields.
Field Type The type of the existing field is indicated here. This setting affects the input
form.
Entity Type Entity type of the existing field is indicated here. This setting affects the
input form.

Fields Modify (Spatial, Continuous FEM)


This form permits modification of any existing Spatial FEM Continuous Field in the database. The
modified Field replaces the original Field.

Main Index
Ch. 6: Fields Application 297
Fields Forms

Action Select Modify.


Object Select Spatial
Method Select FEM.

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Fields Forms

Select Field to Modify Existing Spatial fields are displayed here. Select the one you need to
modify.
Rename Field As The selected field name appears here. Change it if desired.
FEM Field Definition The field definition of the existing field is indicated here. This form is used
for Continuous FEM Fields.
Field Type The type of the existing field is indicated here.
Group Name of the group results apply to.
Options... The extrapolation option and interpolation direction can be changed by
displaying the Options form. The form reflects the current field settings.

Fields Delete
This action permits any field to be deleted from the database.

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Ch. 6: Fields Application 299
Fields Forms

Action Select Delete.


Object Select the type of field to be deleted.

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Fields Forms

Existing Fields All fields of the type selected will appear in this databox. Select those to be
deleted.
Fields to be Deleted Selected fields appear in this databox. They can be removed from this list
by selecting them.

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Ch. 6: Fields Application 301
Fields Example

6.4 Fields Example

Spatial PCL Function


An analyst is required to determine the stress on a dam near its capacity. The analyst decides to neglect
all but the water pressure loads on the dam. As pressure is a function of depth, it is easily defined using
a spatial field. Since the pressure distribution can be represented by a simple formula, the PCL Function
method should be used. The configuration to be analyzed is shown below:

190 Feet
Y

Due to certain modeling considerations, the analyst decides to put the origin of his model at the base of
the dam. The analyst must now determine a formula which defines the pressure on the back of the dam
pressure Z ρ • depth , it is clear that
in terms of his spatial coordinate system. Since
pressure dam Z ( ρ • depthtotal ) Ó ( ρ • ′Y ) .

As the density of water is 62.4 lb/ft3, and the maximum depth is 190 feet, the following PCL expression
is entered in the “Scalar Function” databox:
(62.4 * 190) - (62.4 * ‘Y)
When selected as an edge load in the Loads/BCs create pressure form, this field will generate a pressure
ranging from 0 psf at the surface to 11,856 psf at 190 feet. It is important to realize that this field is only
meaningful for Y coordinates from 0 to 190. Care must be taken not to apply this field to entities greater
in Y than 190 to prevent nonsensical negative pressures.

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302 Patran Reference Manual
Fields Example

Main Index
jp`Kjîáëáçå=_ìáäÇÉê=~åÇ=bî~äì~íçê=OMMO=fåëí~ää~íáçå=dìáÇÉ

Index
Functional Assignments

Numerics element uniform, 12


1D short fiber composite, 135 element variable, 12
I n d e x 2D short fiber composite, 137
I n d e x
Index
F
A FEM fields, 202
analysis code, 62 field definitions
analysis preference, 90 continuous FEM field, 193
discrete FEM field, 193
field, 192
C general field, 192
change current load case, 41
material property fields, 192
composite materials
non-spatial fields, 192
theory, 142
spatial fields, 192
continuous FEM field, 202
field types
create
material property fields, 199
fluid dynamics LBCs, 33
non-spatial fields, 199
load cases, 166
spatial fields, 196
structural LBCs, 27
fields, 62
thermal LBCs, 30
fields create, 257
fields forms, 210
D fluid dynamics LBCs, 33
delete functional assignments
LBCs sets, 46 naming conventions, 10
load cases, 172
discrete FEM field, 203
display parameters, 59
G
general fields, 201
dynamic load cases, 163
dynamic loads/BCs sets, 12
H
Halpin-Tsai
E continuous fiber, 123
element properties
continuous ribbon, 128
analysis code, 62
discontinuous fiber, 126
fields, 62
discontinuous ribbon, 130
markers, 62
models, 150
property, 62
particulate model, 133
property type, 63
scalar plot, 62
tabular plot, 62 L
element property set, 62 laminated composite, 116

Main Index
304 Functional Assignments

LBCs T
display parameters, 59 tabular plot, 62
markers, 52 target element type, 12
plot contours, 50 theory
select application region, 42 composite materials, 142
show tabular, 50 thermal LBCs, 30
load case lbc scale factor, 163 time dependent load cases, 38, 163
load case scale factor, 163
load cases, 12, 163, 166, 169, 172, 174
change, 41
loads/BCs sets, 12, 163

M
markers, 13, 17, 52, 62
material model, 89
material property, 88
material property fields, 89, 199
modify
LBCs sets, 44
load cases, 169

N
naming conventions, 10
nodal, 12
non-spatial fields, 199

P
plot contours, 50
priority, 163, 177
property, 62
property type, 63

R
rule-of-mixtures composite, 121

S
scalar plot, 62
show
assigned loads/bcs, 175
load cases, 174
show tabular, 50
spatial fields, 196
static load cases, 36, 163
structural LBCs, 27

Main Index