Oracle Overview

Oracle Corporation: is an American multinational corporation that specializes in developing and marketing enterprise software products, particularly database management systems. In 2007 Oracle ranked third on the list of largest software companies in the world, after Microsoft and IBM
Address: 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, California 94065 U.S.A. Telephone: (650) 506-7000 Fax: (650) 506-7200 Incorporated: 1977 as System Development Laboratories Employees: 41,650 Sales: $10.2 billion (2004) Stock Exchanges: NASDAQ Ticker Symbol: ORCL Publishes two magazines: Oracle and Profit 1977: System Development Laboratories, the precursor to Oracle, is founded. 1978: The Oracle Relational Database Manager Program is developed. 1982: Oracle forms its first international subsidiary, Oracle Denmark. 1983: The Company becomes Oracle Corporation. 1986: Oracle goes public on NASDAQ and debuts its SQL*Star software. 1987: Oracle ranks as the world's largest database management software company. 1991: The Company experiences its first fiscal loss. 1992: Nippon Steel Corporation buys a stake in Oracle Japan; Oracle7 makes its debut. 1997: Network Computer Inc. is established. 1999: Oracle Japan goes public. 2000: Oracle E-Business Suite 11i and Technology Network (OTN) Xchange are introduced. 2001: Oracle's database system is the first to pass nine industry standard security evaluations. 2003: Oracle attempts a hostile takeover of rival PeopleSoft. 2004: Department of Justice files multiple antitrust lawsuits to prevent Oracle's takeover of PeopleSoft. Chapter 1 | Oracle Overview

Oracle Versions
2004 Oracle10g 2002 Oracle9i Release 2 2001 Oracle9i Release 1 2000 Oracle8i Release 2 1999 1998 Oracle8i 1997 Version 8 Flashback Query, Data Pump, Automatic Storage Management. RAC and Advanced Analytic Service (business intelligence), Fine-grained auditing. RAC and Advanced Analytic Service (business intelligence), Fine-grained auditing. Oracle tools integrated in middle tier: 9i Application Server available First RDBMS on Linux Java support, SQLJ, XML and Oracle interMedia. First web database, object-oriented development and multimedia, Binary data types, Table Partitioning. Very Large Database (VLDB) features for 64-bit RDBMS For PC. for UNIX, distributed transactions, stored procedures, triggers, declarative referential integrity, User-Defined Functions, Cost based optimizer, Varchar2 datatype, ANSI SQL92, Parallel operations including query, load, and index creation Oracle Financial Applications built on relational database. First distributed database, first true client/server database, VAX-cluster support, and distributed queries. Row Level Locking. First portable toolset; first RDBMS for IBM PC, introduced read consistency, was ported to multiple platforms, first interoperability between PC and server. - First portable database (mainframes, minicomputers, and PC); first RDBMS to support SMP

1995 Version 7 1994 Version 7 1992 Version 7

1988 Version 6 1986 Version 5

1984 Version 4

1982 Version 3

Chapter 1 | Oracle Overview

1980 Version 2 1979 Version 1

- First commercial SQL database (PDP11/VAX) - Not commercially released.

Example of an Oracle Database Release Number

Database Administrators
Each database requires at least one database administrator (DBA). An Oracle Database system can be large and can have many users. Therefore, database administration is sometimes not a one-person job, but a job for a group of DBAs who share responsibility. A database administrator's responsibilities can include the following tasks: • • • • • • • • • • • Installing and upgrading the Oracle Database server and application tools Allocating system storage and planning future storage requirements for the database system Creating primary database storage structures (tablespaces) after application developers have designed an application Creating primary objects (tables, views, indexes) once application developers have designed an application Modifying the database structure, as necessary, from information given by application developers Enrolling users and maintaining system security Controlling and monitoring user access to the database Monitoring and optimizing the performance of the database Backing up and restoring the database Maintaining archived data on tape Contacting Oracle for technical support
Chapter 1 | Oracle Overview

Security Officers

In some cases, a site assigns one or more security officers to a database. A security officer enrolls users, controls and monitors user access to the database, and maintains system security
Network Administrators

Some sites have one or more network administrators. A network administrator, for example, administers Oracle networking products, such as Oracle Net Services

Application Developers

Application developers design and implement database applications. Their responsibilities include the following tasks: • • • • • • • Designing and developing the database application Designing the database structure for an application Estimating storage requirements for an application Specifying modifications of the database structure for an application Relaying this information to a database administrator Tuning the application during development Establishing security measures for an application during development

Application Administrators

An Oracle Database site can assign one or more application administrators to administer a particular application. Each application can have its own administrator
Database Users

Database users interact with the database through applications or utilities. A typical user's responsibilities include the following tasks: • • Entering, modifying, and deleting data, where permitted Generating reports from the data
Chapter 1 | Oracle Overview

Tasks of a Database Administrator
The following tasks present a prioritized approach for designing, implementing, and maintaining an Oracle Database: Task 1: Evaluate the Database Server Hardware • • • How many disk drives are available to the Oracle products How many, if any, dedicated tape drives are available to Oracle products How much memory is available to the instances of Oracle Database you will run (see your system configuration documentation)

Task 2: Install the Oracle Database Software For more information on what software to install, see "Identifying Your Oracle Database Software Release". Task 3: Plan the Database As the database administrator, you must plan: • • • The logical storage structure of the database The overall database design A backup strategy for the database

Task 4: Create and Open the Database After you complete the database design, you can create the database and open it for normal use. You can create a database at installation time, using the Database Configuration Assistant, or you can supply your own scripts for creating a database. Task 5: Back Up the Database
Chapter 1 | Oracle Overview

After you create the database structure, carry out the backup strategy you planned for the database. Create any additional redo log files, take the first full database backup (online or offline), and schedule future database backups at regular intervals Task 6: Enroll System Users After you back up the database structure, you can enroll the users of the database in accordance with your Oracle license agreement, and grant appropriate privileges and roles to these users Task 7: Implement the Database Design After you create and start the database, and enroll the system users, you can implement the planned logical structure database by creating all necessary tablespaces. When you have finished creating tablespaces, you can create the database objects Task 8: Back Up the Fully Functional Database When the database is fully implemented, again back up the database. In addition to regularly scheduled backups, you should always back up your database immediately after implementing changes to the database structure. Task 9: Tune Database Performance Optimizing the performance of the database is one of your ongoing responsibilities as a DBA. Oracle Database provides a database resource management feature that helps you to control the allocation of resources among various user groups

Chapter 1 | Oracle Overview

Lab section Discuss with your friends the requirements to install the operating system and oracle version Note*you must to install LINUX RedHat ®operating system in your PC. Note* for girls “by yourself” don’t used ready image Now the steps: 1. RedHat Linux partitions Mount point / /boot /usr /oraeng Filesystem ext3 ext3 ext3 swap ext3 size 4500MB 1000MB 4500 2*RAM 1024 8000 MB

2. Log as root and make directory #mkdir /disk1 #mkdir /disk2 #mkdir /disk3 #chmod . . #chmod #chmod -R -R 777 777 /oraeng /tmp -R 777 /disk1

Chapter 1 | Oracle Overview

Insert oracleX cd in a drive #mount #cd /mnt/cdrom


Then copy all the files and directory on the CD to disk1 “the installing from the Harddisk more speed than CDs” #cp -r * /disk1 . . .

Wait to complete. #cd #eject

Insert cd2 then cd3 and copy the componentsof the CDs to /disk2 /disk3 like the last one.

#groupadd #useradd oracle9i #passwd ora123 #chgrp #chgrp #chownr #chownr -u


600 -g

dba dba -d /oraeng -s /bin/bash



dba dba

/oraeng /tmp /oraeng /tmp

oracle9i oracle9i

Copy configuration files Sysctl.conf to /etc & .bash_profile to /oraeng

Login as oracle9i Chapter 1 | Oracle Overview

#cd #sh

/disk1 runInstaller

And take dump of oracle software and give read write execute permission to all directories including /oraeng and /temp directory 3. Create dba group and Linux user ora9i with password. And change the directory /oraeng and /temp group to dba and change the ownership to ora9i user. 4. Copy system control configuration file to /etc directory and bash_profile_configration file to user home directory 5. Login as ora9i user and execute the runinstaller from desk1 dump. 6. Follow the instruction given by The Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) and execute the necessary script 7. The errors generated must be ignore at 71% and generate the missing file at 86% and execute the necessary script at 100% and finally reboot the machine.

Chapter 1 | Oracle Overview

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