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Definition:Layering is a type of asexual plant propagation in which adventitious roots developed on stem which it is attached to parent plant

. After proper rooting, the stem is detached and become a new plant for growing on its own roots. The practice based phenomenon is known as layerage. The stem portion which detached from mother plant is known as layer. The process of rooting is may be naturally or artificial. For commercial production of some plant this is done. By this method, number of plant is produce by less mortality. This practice is common in blackberry, raspberry, runner of strawberry, stolons of bermuda grass. Structures as off-set, suckers and crowns are handled essentially as rooted layers. Layering is an ancient nursery technique which was used extensively by Europeans nurseries from eighteenth century for propagating woody shrub and tree species. Mould and trench layering were developed to mass produce hard to root clonal root stocks for apple. To a large extent, layering is a nursery techniques have been replaced by more modern methods of rooting and container production. Nevertheless, the procedure is highly reliable for hard to root clones and continues to be used in the production of horticulturally important root stocks and other plants which are sufficiently valuable to justify the higher costs and hand labor requirement associated with layering. Fruit crops propagated by justify the higher costs and hand labor requirement associated with layering. Fruit crops propagated by layering include: filbert, Muscadine grape, size controlling apple root stocks, and some tropical fruit plants such as mango and litchi.

or bending of the stem may be requiring for maximizing this effect. It has proven to be a successful way to propagate a variety of plant species that are difficult or impossible to root from cuttings. carbohydrates.  However. and other hormones through the intact xylem and phloem to the rooting area.. to the girdled cuts of layers as with cutting propagation. carbohydrates. girding. M. and hormones through the intact xylem and phloem to the rooting area. Rooting may be further enhanced by adding auxins. an important factor is rooting success is the ability of the stem to accumulate sugar and auxin from the leaves and shoot tip.  Leaching of nutrients and metabolites associated with mist systems is avoided.  Increased accumulation of photosynthates and hormones in the rooting area of the stem: During all types of layering. Reasons for layering success Layering is a simple technique that induces adventitious roots on a stem while it is attached b the mother plant. These include: Maintaining a Physical Attachment of Stem to the Mother Plant This characteristic allows for a continual supply of water. 1988). There are several possible explanation for this increase in regeneration capacity. Water stress associated with stem-cutting propagation is avoided during the long rooting period required for hard-to-root genotypes (Raviv. such a IBA. . incision. minerals.Reasoning for the layering success:  Maintaining physical attachment of the stem (layer) to the mother plant: This characteristic allow for a continual supply of water. minerals.

Using PVC black tape to cover the base of shoots has enhanced the rooting of apple. incision. Exclusion of light from the intact intact stem after it has grown is known as blanching. However. The success of trench layering occurs because approximately 2. . 1954). Light Exclusion in the Rooting Zone Exclusion of light from the area of the stem that will eventually form roots is common to all types of layering and is important for the success of propagating difficult-to-root plants from layers. E. N.) of the base of the layered shoots is never exposed to light. The production of vigorous new shoots (invigoration) from the base of the plants that are in close proximity to the root system is similar to the hedging methods used to rejuvenate stock plants for improved rooting of cuttings. an important factor in rooting success is the ability of the stem to accumulate sugar and auxin from the leaves and shoot tip. or bending of the stem may be required to maximize this effect.Leaching of nutrients and metabolites associated with mist systems is avoided. lnvigoration and Possibly Rejuvenation A common procedure used in layering is to cut back stock plants and cover the base of the emerging shoot to exclude light and provide a moist rooting environment. such as indole butyric acid (IBA) to the girdled cuts of layers as with cutting propagation (Sutton.. Accumulation of Photosynthates and Hormones in the Rooting Area During all types of layering. Some plants are also able to produce roots on intact stems after blanching. girdling.5 cm (1 in. Rooting may be further enhanced by adding auxins. Effect which produced shoot elongates in the absence of light is known as etiolation.

drainage. In general. allow for good aeration. Rejuvenation may be a key element in inducing roots on layered stems of difficult-to-root plants. layering is started in the spring with the attached dormant previous season's shoots. Only virus-tested. Management of plants during layering: Layering methods are field nursery operations. and help in-R-late the layer from temperature extremes. true-to-type propagation sources should be used. Special attention needs to be paid to wed. which may continue in beds for 10 to 20 once established. . Disease and insect control without good management. Nevertheless. much hand labor and attention is required. In Most cases. but also to provide continuous moisture. The proper choice of the site for good soil. and climate is essential. During the rooting period. such that layering procedures tend to facilitate expensive. layering beds to decline overtime. Rooting on the shoot may not begin until later in the season and is associated with the accumulation of carbohydrates and other substances toward the latter part of the growth cycle. modem nurseries have developed specific kinds of mechanical devices and machinery to facilitate the management of large layering beds.The cluster of new shoots is referred to as stool shoots and the process as stooling. layers are covered with soil or other rooting media not only to excluding light. Utilizing seasonal effects on rooting:Seasonal patterns are important for root initiation and development on stems during layering.

The base of the layer is covered.) from the tip. and such a food is favorable to development root by layer. thus utilizing all of the area surrounding the plant. and growing them in place for several years prior to use. Once the layering beds are established.  This bending process destroys the phloem tissue partially or completely.4 to 3 m (8 to 10 ft) apart. or girdling at the bottom of the "U" stimulates rooting at that location.  Shoots layered in the spring will usually be rooted by the end of the growing season and removed either in the fall or in the next spring before growth starts. and retardant movement of food materials manufactured by leaves of the exposed terminal portion. These shoots are bent and "pegged down" at a location 15 to 20 cm (6 to 9 in.  Layering is usually done in the early spring using flexible.  Historically. oneyear-old stems. The result is an accumulation of plant food at injured area. cutting. Mature shoots layered in summer should be left through the winter and either removed the next spring before growth begins or left until the end . dormant. forming a "U. European nurseries have established permanent layering beds by planting shrubs 2. twisting." Bending.Procedure in layering: Simple layering  Compound layering  Serpentine layering  Air layering  Mould layering  Trench layering  Drop layering Simple Layering: Simple layering is the bending of an intact shoot to the ground and covering a single portion of the stem between the base and shoot tip with soil or rooting medium so that adventitious roots form. All available shoots are worked with. leaving the tip exposed. which can be bent easily. the new shoots are bent to the ground annually for layering while new shoots develop for the following year.

This phenomenon is naturally occurs in strawberry.  New shoots growing from the base of the plant during the rooting year are used for layering during the next season. In tip layering.  A variation of this method (sometimes called serpentine layering) is used for propagat-plants that have long. it is treated essentially as a rooted cutting. flexible shoots: for example.of the second growing season. the pegs are removed. Soil or other media is filled in as the shoots grow. This method is used for propagation of many varieties of fruit crops like.  When in simple layer only tip portion of bended stem is completely covered in soil is known as tip grafting. When the rooted layer is removed from the parent plant.8 to 3 m (6 to 10 ft) apart grown for several years to establish a good root system. The vegetative top is then cut back 2. and raspberries. the Muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) and ornamental vines such as Wisteria and Clematis.  This method was once used extensively in Europe. The horizontal shoots are alternately and uncovered to produce roots at different nodes.) from the ground and shoots are allowed to grow for the following season.  Permanent layering beds are established with plants spaced 1. blackberries dewberries. but has been replaced by more modem methods of rooting cuttings and growing plants in containers. the mother plant do not has lost any branches. and the shoots are laid in the bottom of the trench with additional pegs applied to hold them in place. Once new shoots grow about 10cm (4 in). Compound Layering  Compound layering is similar to simple layering. long shoots are bent over horizontally to the ground and held with wire pegs.5 cm (1 in. With this system a supply of rooted layers can be produced over a period of years by establishing a layering bed composed of stock plants far enough apart to allow room for all shoots to be layered. except that the branch to be layered is horizontally to the ground and numerous shoots for rooting develop from various nodes rather than just one. . Before the beginning of the season. a shallow trench is dug adjacent to the stem.

and it has the same effect on rooting as other treatments.. This stem is first injured by an method like slicing. Circumposition. For instance. 1950). ringing.. N. J. which is tied in place and kept continuously moist by sprinkling. N. R.  By another method the moss is covered with plastic strips or sheets to retain a constant level of moisture in the area where new roots are to be formed.Air layering (Pot layering. J. and philoden-dron will result in rapid production of large plants (Vieitez. The injured area on the stem it then covered with a handful of moist sphagnum. 1974).. 1994).  Today the method is useful for producing a few plants of relatively large size for special purposes. E. .  It is common practices to apply a coating of one of the concentrated hormones dusts to the area where root are to form. Gootee)  Air layering includes wrapping an aerial stem with rooting medium and causing adventitious roots to form. It is also known as Chinese layerase.  Care must be exercised not to injure it sufficiently as to cause breakage or death of layer. 1947). 1954). E. By using polyethylene film and aluminum foil to wrap the layers. R. J. 1974). This can be affected easily by binding with copper wire wrapped tightly about the stem.  Air layering has been used to root mature pines to obtain clones for research or to produce seed orchards (Barnes. This is particularly helpful in the rooting of difficult species. notching. Monstera. outdoor air layering is possible with many woody plant species (Grove W. or binding. Marcottage. longan (Euphoria) (Young P. 1994). including the litchi (Nephelium) (Young P... It was an ancient method used to propagate a number of tropical and subtropical trees and shrubs (Jooiner.. The film to be used must retain moisture and at the same time be permeable to both oxygen and carbon dioxide.  A method used to root branches of upright growing plants that do not sprout or sucker readily is known as air layerage. and the Persian lime (Citrus aurantifolia) (Sutton. Croton. greenhouse and field production (in subtropical/tropical regions) of Ficus species. D.

The film will keep the moss moist for a prolonged period.  Another use of preliminary layarage is for the purpose of etiolating the stem so as to induce rooting by cuttings. panduratas.  The time required for air layers to develop roots varies with the species of plant being propagated.  Air layering is used exclusively in the propagation of named varieties of lychee trees. Layerage is sometimes used as a preliminary treatment for the rooting of cuttings. It is alto used successfully in the propagation of bougainvillaeas. Work done by several investigators in England shows that. and it used commonly with air layers. or string. One method described for the air layering of Mahonia aquifolium "Compacta" is to insert . This material is wrapped closely about the moist moss. the etiolated portion of the young stem forms a superficial starch sheath and that roots form more readily when this condition occurs. and many other kinds of ornamental plants. but the stem pieces with small roots may be separated from the plant and treated as cuttings. and the layer does not require further attention until it is rooted.  Layerage as a Preliminary Treatment. drawn in tightly at the top and bottom. A plastic known as polyethylene is a material that meets these requirements. best results will be obtained if they are kept in a cool. shaded location until they have become established and have renewed their growth. When sufficient roots have developed. It frequently happens that the layered parts do not form satisfactory root systems in the first season.  It is frequently used as a novelty method of propagation on plants that can readily lie propagated by other methods. It is available in sheets of various sizes. hybrid hibiscus. tape.  The air layer may be made on stems of one-year wood or older. hybrid crotons. dracaenas. but the older branches are often slower to root and they become reestablished leys readily when moved.  When these new plants are detached and transplanted. the layer is severed from the parent plant and replanted in a permanent location or container.  Application of IB A to the exposed wound can be beneficial. from a few weeks to a year or longer. and tied securely with rubber bands.

. and gooseberries (Carlson.a small amount of sphagnum moss soaked with 60 ppm IBA under the wounded flap of tissue (52). currants.  A stock bed is established by setting young plants 2 feet apart in rows 3% feet apart The plants are headed back before growth starts and are allowed to grow for one season. which root freely from these new shoots. which should be placed from the center outward. 1968). after they ore formed and have reached the height of 8 inches they are mounded with 5 to 6 inches of soil. J. the stools arc allowed to remain uncovered during the early part of the growing season.. It is also useful for quince. D. whereas other layering techniques produce "layers". especially with vigorous shoots. This spacing seems to give a better rooting. The following winter the plants are cut back within 2 inches of the ground level...and J.  In the case of apples. (spark. W. 1970) Mould layering: Mound layering is a method where the shoots are cut back to the ground and soil or rooting medium is mounded around them to stimulate roots to develop at their bases. with the result that many new shoots arise from the base during the following season.  Stooling produces stool shoots. hi order to bend the shoots out and give them better spacing.  The procedure continues to be used commercially to propagate millions of apple. pear. and some other fruit tree roots each year.  This old nursery propagation method was standardized and improved to mass-propagate specific apple clonal rootstocks in England in the early 1900s. Increased utrations up to 2 percent IBA in talc has increased rooting and survival in pecan air layers.  This method is especially satisfactory for the rooting of apple and quince rootstocks and is used in preference to trench layerage when possible. as it involves less trouble and expense. R. Mounding should be done with moist soil. Chapman. The greatest number of shoots is produced in this way.

 This applies not only to shoots from stools and layers but also to stems used for cuttings. Eakes. J. They will be ready to bud during the summer of the following year. but the shoots that are produced are etiolated and form roots better than those that are produced before mounding. J. When plums ore being grown. Kessler. G. they are allowed to grow during the rest of the season. M.  In early winter the rooted shoots are removed and planted in the nursery row. keever. J. This practice results in the formation of fewer new shoots than the other method.  The procedure was developed to propagate the bacterial canker-resistant cherry rootstock Mazzard 'F12-1. D. the procedure is modified and the plants mounded before the new shoots appear. These develop into new plants when they are detached and planted out separately. Its success was attributed to careful etiolation of the emerging shoots (Garner. . Trench Layering: Trench layering is a layering method in which the mother plants are established in a sloping position such that shoots can be layered horizontally in the base of a trench. or they may be grafted at the end of one season in the nursery. sawdust.  The chrysanthemum forms natural mound layers from the overwintering crown at the beginning of each new growing season. from which better rooting is obtained when their bases have been etiolated during growth. bark. Soil.. These plants are set at a depth of about 6 inches. 1995). Varieties of currants and gooseberries that do not grow readily from cuttings are frequently grown from mould layering.  After the plants have been mounded by either method in early spring.' which could not be propagated by stooling. Quince and Japanese flowering quince have habits of growth that permit them to be propagated from natural layers from the crown of the plant. J. and roots will form on the new shoots along the covered portions of the stems. or other rooting material is filled in around the new shoots as they develop so as to bring about etiolation. R.

The bases of shoots that develop when treated in this manner are etiolated. and walnut Uuglans) (McDonald.  By another practice. about 1 inch of fine soil is added when the layer is first placed in the trench. In practice three methods are used in covering continuous layers.  By one method. pear.  Others. New shoots develop from lateral buds.  In every case. Obviously. and when they are about 6 inches high. the layer is covered to a depth of about 3 inches with loose soil when it is made. The rooted plants are allowed to develop one full growing season before they are removed from the parent layer and replanted. The new shoots push upward through this layer. mulberry (Moms). this would be practicable only with small whiplike plants. The best season for making continuous layer is in late winter or early spring. cherry. is added to a depth of about 5 inches. As the shoots elongate. Drop layering: Drop layering is a combination of crown division and layering that has been used for a limited number of shrubby species. Plants that produce long vines can can easily be bent to the ground. such as dwarf ericaceous plants like rhododendrons.  Type of this layer differs from the compound layer in that the branch is covered for its entire length instead of alternately. It can also be used on Muscadine and other kinds of grapes that do not root well from cuttings. The method can be used for clones of other woody species that are difficult to root by mound layering (stooling). must be planted in horizontal position with the roots in proper contact with the soil and the main stem in the trench. The shoots push upward through this layer and develop roots from the etiolated portion of the stem below ground. plum. B. This method is adapted to the Propagation of own rooted apple. apple [Malus). 1986). including quince (Cydonia). the layer is placed in an open trench.  Essentially trench Layerage consists of placing the main stem of a plant in a trench in a way that will permit young stems to develop from lateral buds and to form roots on the lower portions of these new stems. the roots arise adventively from the cambium layer of the new stems. . Roots develop on the bases of the shoots that are covered with soil. a condition favorable to ready root formation. By still a third practice. more soil is added around them until they are covered to a depth of 5 to 6 inches. and other plants needed for research investigation or other uses. like apple and pear.

barberry (Barberis). kumquat.  The mortality rate is more in layering. if we use plant as a sock.  It is the best method of propagation of plants which are produce naturally by layering.  It does not require precise control on water. 1986. blackberry. that can be create a problem of establishment in orchard.  The plants produced from layering have usually small brittle roots. but the older bases of the branches are blanched and roots form.  Layering is useful producing relatively a smaller number of plants of good size with minimum propagation facilities. each used as rooted liners. . fibberts and litchi. B. if climate change for long time or detaching is done at a proper time. And some dwarf conifer.  It is possible to produce large size plant with layering within a short time.). Disadvantages of layering:  It is costlier techniques in area where labor availability is problem. such at spruce.  It is not possible to produce large number of plant within a short time from small scale orchard. or temperature as in require other methods of propagation. and boxwood (boxux) (McDonald. relative humidity. it is not possible to derive beneficial characteristic of stock to scion through grafting.  In layering.  New growth comes from the branch tips.  Well-grown and well branched plants are planted deeply in a hole or trench and covered almost completely with only the tip of the branches exposed. Advantages of layering:  It is an effective means propagating species that usually do not root easily by as in mango.  It is easy to perform and does not require much facility.  At the end of season the entire plant is dug and divided into all of its rooted parts. black raspberry.