Microbiology as a Science Prepared by Dr. Jhason John J. Cabigon 1. Microbiology a. Study of microorganisms b.

Application of techniques - such as sterilization and the use of culture media - that are necessary for the successful isolation and growth of microorganisms. 2. Microorganism a. Very small organisms: i. Living things which individually are too small to be seen with the naked eye. ii. Something studied using characteristic techniques including: 1. aseptic technique 2. pure culture technique 3. microscopic observation of whole organisms b. All of the following may be considered microorganisms: i. bacteria (eubactera, archaebacteria) ii. fungi (yeasts, molds) iii. protozoa iv. microscopic algae v. viruses vi. various parasitic worms* 3. Relevance of Microbiology a. Microbes live on and in our bodies - indigenous or normal microflora/microbiota (beneficial) - approximately 10 times as many microorganisms as the total number of cells - 500 to 1000 different species live on and in us b. Some microbes are opportunists - when they gain access to a part of our anatomy where they do not belong - when a person becomes stressed out or debilitated - prolonged antibiotic use can reduce the normal flora c. Microbes are essential for life - algae and cyanobacteria produce more oxygen than plants - endosymbiotic bacteria inside cells d. Microorganisms are involved in the decomposition of dead organisms - decomposers/saprophytes break down dead and dying organic materials into nitrates, phosphates, and other chemicals necessary for the growth of plants. e. Microbes are capable of decomposing industrial waste - bioremediation and genetic engineering f. Many microorganisms are involved in elemental cycles - microbial ecology; i.e. conversion of nitrogen gas to ammonia, then to nitrites and nitrates g. Algae and bacteria serve as food for tiny animals

infectious diseases are the leading cause of death in the world 3. at some time before 1668. disease-causing microorganisms (microbial enemies). bacteria.e.Vitamin K and B1-producing bacteria . live microorganisms. insulin. History of Microbiology • • First Microorganisms – primitive microorganisms found in ancient rock formations in Northwestern Australia date back to about 3.biotechnology or industrial microbiology. Microbes have been used as “cell models” . He learned to grind lenses. e. beer and antibiotics j. interferons. Microbes are essential in the field of genetic engineering . that scatter light thereby producing turbidity in broth cultures) . Earliest Known Infectious Disease – pestilence in Egypt on 3180 BC Concept of Spontaneous Generation (i) The "spontaneous" clouding of clear broth (ii) The occurrence of maggots on meat Germ Theory (i) Diseases may be caused by microscopic organisms (ii) Microorganisms were not spontaneously generated a.gene from one organism is inserted into a bacterial or yeast cell for production of a gene product. scientists have learned a great deal about working cells l.5 billion years ago. invented Single-lens or Simple Microscope magnifying up to 200-300x. Some microorganisms live in the intestinal tracts of animals . Louis Pasteur – contributions are considered to be the foundation of microbiology and cornerstone of modern medicine • Pasteur showed that boiled broth did not become cloudy (turbid) when air but not dust could contact the broth • Built elegant "swan-necked" flasks which trapped dust (and microorganisms) along their curved necks.by studying microbes.. i.g. i. cheese. vaccines k. He was the first to observe individual. Many microorganisms are essential in various food and beverage industries .Cellulose-eating protozoa in termites i.pathogens – “germs”..e. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek – father of Microbiology. only 3% of known microbes . GH. thus showing that neither air nor broth were sufficient to allow the generation of microorganisms (it is the microorganisms. Microorganisms cause diseases .serving as the starting point of many food chains h.infectious diseases and microbial intoxication . b.

the heating of foods to eliminate harmful microorganisms while retaining not-harmful microorganisms • Introduced Aerobes and Anaerobes • He was responsible for the association of specific microbes with diseases • He development the rabies vaccine (as well as other vaccines) c. Alexander Fleming (early 1900s) . it must cause the disease. cholera • Contributed significantly to the development of pure culture technique • Introduction of agar to microbiology • Koch's Postulates. Hans Jansen – developed the first compound microscope. Francesco Redi – showed that meat protected from flies via a gauze barrier did not develop maggots. they concluded that all plant and animals were composed of cells Rudolf Virchow – biogenesis. a way of ascribing a particular infectious disease to a particular. tuberculosis. Joseph Lister (mid-late 1800s) – father of aseptic surgery d. • The infectious organism must be reisolated from the diseased organism and grown in pure culture. Edward Jenner (late 1700s) . Life comes from pre-existing life. • The organism must be isolated from an infected host and grown in pure culture in the laboratory.discovered penicillin .use of cowpox virus to vaccinate against smallpox virus e. Theodore Schwann and Matthias Schleiden – around 1838-1839. Other contributors: a. • When organisms from the pure culture are inoculated into a susceptible host organism. only 3-9x magnifications Robert Hooke – 3-lens-compound microscope. coined the term “cells”.Pasteur additionally showed that cotton plugs (a primitive air-filtration device) could prevent microbes from reaching otherwise air-exposed sterile broths • Note that Pasteur was fortunate that the foods he boiled into broths did not contain bacterial spores since such spores are resistant to killing by boiling • Pasteur invented pasteurization. causing microorganism Koch’s postulates: • A specific organism must be always observed in association with the disease. e. hence were not spontaneously generated b. cells come from pre-existing cells • d. f. Robert Koch – father of modern bacteriology • Identified the bacteria that cause anthrax. g. Ignaz Semmelweis (mid-late 1800s) – aseptic technique c.

Veterinary Microbiology . Environmental Microbiology and Bioremediation D. Mycology E. Virology Other Fields of Microbiology A. Sanitary Microbiology J. Parasitology I. Bacteriology B. Microbial Genetics and Genetic Engineering F. Agricultural Microbiology B. Pleomicrobiology H. Biotechnology C. Medical and Clinical Microbiology E.4. Microbial Physiology G. Branches of Microbiology A. Protozoology D. Phycology C.

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