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Basic Electronics

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2. RESISTORS
Property of Resistance: The property of a material to oppose flow of current is known as resistance. The unit of resistance is ohm and is denoted by the symbol .

Ohms Law: Ohms law gives the relationship between the applied potential difference across the conductor and the resulting current through it. Statement: The temperature remains constant, the current (I) passing through a conductor is directly proportional to the applied voltage (V) across the same conductor Mathematically, VI V = RI R = V/I or I =V/R Where V = Voltage across the conductor in volts I =Current passing through the conductor in amperes R = Resistance of the conductor in ohms

Limitations: Ohms law cannot be applied to non-linear devices such as vacuum & gas filled devices and semiconductor devices It cannot be applied to arcing devices. It cannot be applied to those electrolytes in which gases are liberated on the electrodes.

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It cannot be applied to those conductors whose temperature changes due to the flow of current through them.

Resistor: A passive component that offers Resistor. resistance is known as

Symbol: Resistor is represented by the letter R. Unit of Resistance: The unit of resistance is ohm and is denoted by the symbol . When a voltage V is applied across a resistor and I is the current passing through it, then R = V / I If V = 1 volt, I = 1 ampere, then R = 1 volt/ 1 ampere = 1 ohm. Resistors are commonly used to limit current in a circuit, to get required voltage drop, as a load element. Resistor vs. Resistance: Resistor is an electronic component which opposes the flow of current where Resistance is the property of a resistor to oppose the flow of current through it.

Factors Affecting the Resistance of a Material: The factors affecting the resistance of a material are its length area of cross section nature of the material temperature The resistance R of a material is directly proportional to its length l and proportional to its area of cross section A R l/ A R = l/A inversely

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Basic Electronics

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Where - proportionality Constant and is called resistivity or specific resistance of the material. Its unit is Ohm-meter. l - Length of the material in meters A = area of cross section in sq.meters

Specifications of Resistor: Resistance value or Ohmic value indicates value of resistance in Ohms. The value is Printed or Color coded on the body of the resistor. In general 1 to many M Resistors available. Power Rating or Wattage indicates maximum power that a resistor can handle (watts). Determines maximum current that a resistor can withstand without being destroyed. In general 0.1 Watt to hundreds of Watts available. Tolerance Indicates deviation in resistance value from the rated value. It is expressed in Percentage. 1% to 20% Tolerance values available. Stability Measure of consistency in Resistance value in different atmospheric conditions like Temperature & Humidity Size, Shape and Leads Different shapes: Different Sizes: Small and Big, Different Shapes rod, disc, washer, Different leads - axial, radial, lug Electrical Noise: Small fluctuations superimposed over the actual IR drop. Thermal or Johnson noise Current or Contacts noise Temperature Coefficient Temperature Coefficient: Indicates change in Resistance with change in Temperature. Voltage Coefficient: Indicates change in Resistance with change in Voltage. Measure of Nonlinearity. High frequency performance: Resistors are basically frequency insensitive. But at very high frequencies, they are capacitive and inductive. So, it effects & changes Resistance value. Preferred Values in the Resistors: What is meant by preferred values in Resistors? The resistance values of commercially available

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Basic Electronics

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resistors. The electronic industry specified some preferred values to be manufactured at different wattages. Why only certain value Resistors available? It is not possible to manufacture all values of Resistors from 1 to several M and also adjust every Resistor to an exact value. Only certain values of Resistors are made in each Tolerance range. Usual Tolerance ranges are 5%, 10%, 20% Precision Resistors may have Tolerances as low as 0.1% A 100 Resistor with 20% tolerance may have any value from 80 to 120 A 100 Resistor with 0.1% tolerance will have a value between 99.9 to 100.1 . Commercially Available Preferred values of Resistors: Tolerance 5% 10% 20% Preferred values (in ) 10,11,12,13,15,16,18,20,22,24,27,30,33,36,39,43,47,51,56,62, 68,75,82,91,100 10,12,15,18,22,27,33,39,47,56, 68, 82,100 10, 15, 22,33,47,68,100

The above table indicates the available Resistors in 10 to 100 range. Resistors with all their multiple and sub-multiple values are also available. Ex. 4.7 , 47 , 470 etc. are available

Color coding of Resistors: How the Resistance value is indicated on the Resistors? By printing its value on the body (for large size Resistors). By indicating its value with a color code (usual case).

What is color Coding of Resistors? A process through which different color Resistance. What these colors indicate? They indicate Resistance value and also Tolerance value
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bands or rings are used to indicate the value of

Basic Electronics

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How many color bands appear? Usually 3 to 4 color bands are printed on the body with each color having a value They appear differently on axial and radial Resistors

Color Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White Gold Silver No Color

1st Digit (A) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ----

2nd Digit (B) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ----

Multiplier (C) Tolerance (D) 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000 100,000,000 109 0.1 (EIA) 0.01 (EIA) --1% 2% 3% 4% -------20%

How to compute Resistance Value: 1st color band or ring on the body indicates first digit of the Resistance value 2nd color band or ring on the body indicates second digit of Resistance value 3rd color band or ring indicates multiplier or the no. of zeroes after the first 2 digits
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4th color band or ring indicates Tolerance percentage

Example: 1. Find the Resistance and Tolerance values for the color sequence Yellow, Violet, Gold, Gold Yellow=4, Violet=7, Gold=0.1, Gold=5% Resistance value = 47 x 0.1 = 4.7 Tolerance (5%) = 0.235 So, the Resistance = 4.465 to 4.935

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Resistors are broadly classified as: Fixed Resistors Resistance value fixed. Variable Resistors Resistance value can be changed.

These are further classified as shown in figure

Carbon Resistors: These are made of Carbon. Carbon Resistors are of two types 1. 2. Carbon composition Resistors Carbon Film Resistors

Carbon Composition Resistors:

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Made of fine powder of Carbon or Graphite mixed with a Resin binder in proper proportion Available in the range of 1 to 20 M Power ratings : 1/10, 1/8, , , 1, 2 watts

Advantages: Small in size Available in wide Resistance range Cheap Have good RF performance

Disadvantages: Have high Tolerance, low Precision Gets heated up easily Resistance value varies with age Not useful for power levels above 5 watts

Carbon Film Resistors:

These are made by depositing a very thin film of carbon on a ceramic or glass substrate. These are of two types: 1. Thin Film Resistors ( < 5 m ) 2. Thick Film Resistors (> 5 m )
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Advantages: Available from very small (<1 ) to very large ( many M ) Very small in size Offers good high frequency performance Cheap

Disadvantages: Cannot withstand high temperatures. Cannot withstand for mechanical shocks Sensitive to moisture Chemically reactive Hence unstable

Wire Wound Resistors:

These are constructed from a long fine wire of Nickel- Chromium wound on a ceramic core Wire Wound Resistors are of two types 1. 2. Power Wire Wound Resistors Precision Wire Wound Resistors

Advantages: Can be produced with highly accurate Resistance values with very low Tolerance (0.01%) Can withstand large power dissipation Can be used in high temperatures Capable of carrying very large currents Have very stable resistance value.

Disadvantages: Very large in size and weight


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Basic Electronics

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Very costly The wires can break leading to the breakdown of the circuit in which these are used Power type wire wound resistors are not suitable beyond 200 KHz.

Table: Comparison of Various Types of Resistors: S.No 1. 2. 3. Size Power Rating Accuracy Resistance 5. 6. 7. 8. Resistance range Tolerance Operating Temperature Working voltage Feature Carbon Composition Small Low (1/8 W to 2W) Low Negative 1 to 22 M 5% to 10% -550C to 1500 C 150V to 750V
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Carbon Film Small Low (1/4 W to 2W) Low Negative 10 to 10 M 1% to 5% -400C to 1200C Up to 500V

Wire Wound Large High(1W to 1000W) High Zero 0.1 to 1 M 0.5% to 1% 550C to 3650C <300V
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4. Temp. Coeff. of

Basic Electronics

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9.

Applications

Used in power amplifier and all general purpose applications

Used in High Stability circuits like computers, telephones, high fidelity amplifiers

Power supplies, control circuits, TV receivers, bridges and various instruments

Carbon and Wire Wound Potentiometers: In the Carbon Potentiometer, the resistive material used is Carbon composition (i.e. mixture of carbon and resin binder). In the Wire wound Potentiometer, the resistive element used is Nichrome wire (i.e. alloy of Nickel and Chromium). The resistance value of Carbon Potentiometer is very high. (Varies from 100 to 25 M ) The resistance value of Wire wound is very low (0.1 to 150 K ) The power rating of Carbon Potentiometer is low ( 1/4 watts to 2 Watts) The power rating of Wire wound is high (1.5 watts to 4 watts) It is easy to obtain a taper in a Carbon Potentiometer. It is very difficult to obtain a taper in case of Wire wound Potentiometer. The stability of Carbon Potentiometer is very less. The stability of Wire wound Potentiometer is more due to its rugged construction. Carbon Potentiometer is widely used in the volume control of Radio and TV receivers. The Wire wound Potentiometer is widely used in the voltage control in various electronic equipment. Table: Comparison of Carbon and Wire Wound Potentiometers: S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. PARAMETER Resistive Element Resistance value Power rating usage Obtaining Taper CARBON POT Carbon composition mixture High Low Used in low current circuits Easy
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WIRE-WOUND POT Nichrome wire Low High Used in high current circuits Difficult
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Basic Electronics

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6. 7. 8.

Stability Application Operation

Less Volume controllers Silent

More Voltage Controllers Noisy

Potentiometers:

Carbon Potentiometer Tapering in the Potentiometers:

Wire - wound Potentiometer:

In the potentiometer , the manner in which the resistance R varies with the rotation of the shaft, is known as Tapering Tapering is effected in order to obtain different values of resistance. Tapering can be done in two ways a. Linear tapering b. Non - Linear tapering

Linear Tapering: In Linear tapered Potentiometers, the width of the resistive element is uniform throughout its length. Width of Resistive element is constant In Linear tapered Potentiometers, the resistance value changes in direct proportion to the shaft rotation.

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Basic Electronics

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Non Linear Tapering: In Non Linear tapered potentiometers, the width of the of the resistive strip changes in a nonuniform manner. Width of resistive element decreases In Non-Linear Potentiometers, the resistance does not change proportionately to the rotation of the shaft.

Applications of tapering: Linear tapered potentiometers are used for TV receivers to adjust the Picture height and width on the screen. Non-Linear tapered Potentiometers are used as Volume and Tone controls in Audio equipment, Radio and TV receivers.

Rheostat: A rheostat is a variable resistor, with one terminal fixed and the other terminal connected to a wiper arm. Rheostats are used to vary relatively large values of current.

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Basic Electronics

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Various Rheostats:

A High Power Toroidal Wire Wound Rheostat

Rheostat with Various Ratings and Sizes

Rheostat Construction & Working: A rheostat is constructed by winding a resistance wire (nichrome) around a former. The former can be circular or cylindrical in shape. The former is made of ceramic or cement.
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A wiper blade or slider is then arranged to touch the surface of the resistance wire, and is made to be moveable. Power is supplied to both ends of the resistance wire, and a wire is attached to the slider. The voltage at the slider wire is determined by the position of the slider on the resistance wire. By moving the sliding connection along the winding, the resistive wire is made effectively longer ( or shorter). This increases (or reduces) the resistance in the circuit to which it is attached. If both ends of the winding are used and the central slider (tapping) is still connected then a voltage or potential divider is formed.

Specifications: Resistance value : 1 to 10 K Power rating : 100 watts Temperature: withstand up to 300 degrees : centigrade

Applications: Used in heater and oven controls Used in light dimming controls Used in speed control of DC motors Used in arc welding process Table: Comparison of Potentiometers and Rheostats: S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameter Number of terminals It is used to These are connected Types of variation Power rating 3 Taps off voltage In parallel to the circuit Linear and Non- linear Low Carbon and wire wound Potentiometer 2 By sliding wiper Vary the current In series with the circuit Linear High Only wire wound Rheostat

Variation of resistance can be obtained By rotating a shaft

7 Types Effect of Temperature on resistance:

The effect of temperature on resistance is different in different materials. The resistances of pure metals like Al and Cu increases with increases in temperature.
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Basic Electronics

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It means that all metals exhibit Positive Temperature Coefficient of Resistance. In alloys the increase in resistance with temperature is very small and is irregular. The resistance of semiconductors and insulators decreases with increase in temperature. The insulators and semiconductors exhibit negative temperature coefficient.

Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (): It is the change in resistance per ohm original resistance per degree centigrade change in temperature The unit of is per 0C Let a metallic conductor having a resistance of R0 at 00 C, be heated to t0 C . Let the resistance at t0C be Rt The change in resistance (Rt - R0) depends directly on its initial resistance and rise in temperature and on the nature of the material of the conductor.

Resistors in a circuit:
Resistors connected in Series: A series circuit is a circuit in which resistors are arranged in a chain, so the current has only one path to take. The current is the same through each resistor. The total resistance of the circuit is found by simply adding up the resistance values of the individual resistors: Equivalent resistance of resistors in series: R = R1 + R2 + R3 +... Resistors are said to be connected in series when they are connected end to end as shown in figure.

Equivalent Resistance of Resistors Connected in Series

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Basic Electronics

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Consider three resistors R1, R2 and R3 are connected in series across a battery of V volts as shown in fig.2 There is only one path for current I that is the current is same throughout the circuit. By applying ohms law, the voltage across each resistor is V1 = IR1 V2 = IR2 V3= IR3

We have V = V1 + V2 + V3 = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 = I (R1+R2+R3) V = I (R1+R2+R3) V/I = R1+R2+R3

But V/I is the total resistance (R) R is called total or equivalent resistance of the three series connected resistors. R=R1+R2+R3 When a number of resistors are connected in series, the total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual resistances. In general, if n number of resistors having resistances R 1, R2, R3..Rn are connected in series, then the total resistance or equivalent resistance R = R1+R2+R3+Rn

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Resistors Connected in Parallel:

The resistors, as joined in above figure are said to be connected in parallel. When resistors are connected in parallel Potential difference across each resistors is same Current in each resistor is different and is given by Ohms Law The total current ( I ) is the sum of the three branch currents ( I1+I2+I3 )

Equivalent Resistance of Resistors Connected in Parallel: Consider three resistors R1, R2 and R3 are connected in parallel across a battery of V volts as shown in fig.1 The total current I divide into three parts I1, I2 and I3 as shown in figure.

The voltage across each resistor is same. By applying ohms law, the current flowing through each resistor is I1 = V/R1 I2 = V/R2 I3 = V/R3 Total Current, I = = =
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= I1+I2+I3 V/R1 + V/R2 + V/R3

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But we know that V/I = Equivalent resistance R

Therefore, I/V = 1/R

If number of resistors is connected in parallel are n, then the equivalent resistance is

Example Problems: 1. Three resistors 10 ohms, 15 ohms and 20 ohms are connected in parallel. What is the equivalent Resistance. (Ans: Req = 4.6 ohms.) 2. Three resistors of 10, 15, 20 ohms are connected in parallel across a supply of 20V. Calculate a) The Equivalent resistance of the circuit. b) The current through each resistor. c) Total current of the circuit. (Ans: 4.6ohms, 2 amps, 1.33amps, 1 amp, 4.33 amps) 3. Three resistors 3, 2 and 5 ohms are connected in parallel across 20 Volt d .c supply. Find the current in all the three branches of the parallel circuit and the total circuit current.

(Ans: Req = 0.98 , It = 20.4 A, I1 = 6.66A, I2 = 10A, I3 = 4A)

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