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in postcolonial Zimbabwe. In these flnal chapters, we get a clear and more substantive sense of local perspectives and practices and their role in state-making. As suggested, this situation may be the consequence of chronology, rather than individual research: anthropologists working in the ethnographic present have more evidence at hand than historians working on the nineteenth century. Questions regarding methodology therefore remain. Recovering practices and cosmologies and charting them over time is no easy task, particularly from textual sources, and Crais's introduction, despite his skill at synthesizing a range of literature, is often more rhetorical than providing a clearly stated method. His theoretical exuberance also contains slippage: there are moments when vampires are conflated with witchcraft (p. 17), and when fundamental differences hetween scholars—such as Mahmood Mamdani and Jean-Frangois Bayart—are elided for the sake of comprehensive inclusion. These observations aside, Crais and his contributors offer a complex, forceful, and ultimately valuable engagement with developing discussions on how to write new political histories of the region.
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Abrams, Philip. 1988. Some Notes on the Difficulty of Studying the State. Journal of Historical Sociology H:):5S-89. Cooper, Frederick. 1994. Conflict and Connection: Rethinking Colonial African History. American Historical Review 99^5)•.^5^6-^545. CraisX^iftonC.2002.The Politics of Evil: Magic, State Power, and the Poiitical Imagination in South Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press. Crais, Clifton C. 1991. White Supremacy and Black Resistance in Pre-lndustriai South Africa: The Making of the Colonial Order in the Eastern Cape, 1770-1865. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Christopher J. Lee Harvard University
Eltringham, Nigel. 2004. ACCOUNTING FOR HORROR: POST-GENOCIDE DEBATES IN RWANDA. London: Pluto Press. 232 pp. $79.95 (cloth) $24.95 (paper). Umutesi, Marie Beatrice. 2004. SURVIVING THE SLAUGHTER: THE ORDEAL OF A RWANDAN REFUGEE IN ZAIRE. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 258 pp. $65.00 (cloth) $19.95 (paper). Few parts of the world have endured more postcolonial conflict and disorder than the Great Lakes region of Central Africa. In 1994, Rwanda experienced one of the century's worst genocides, following decades of strife since the country achieved independence from Belgium. The eastern regions of the
have been the scene of almost continual chaos and civil war since 1997. who performed doctoral research in Rwanda and among Rwandan exiles in Europe. the majority Hutu and the minority Tutsi. Many in the West viewed the conflict dichotomously. All Rwandans share the same language and culture. in precolonial times they were understood as social distinctions. both countries endured almost perpetual conflict between their two main ethnic groups.\^ O H D "* "T:~ -!^ ^ 8 ^ ^ ^ Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. no 'Hutuland' or 'Tutsiland'" (Umutesi. Juvenal Habyarimana. carried out by the interahamwe militias and regular army units (the Forces Armees Rwandaise [FAR]). Umutesi recalled her youth in postindependence Rwanda by observing. The massacre. aided and abetted by the colonial authorities. Her memoir of the journey. Eltringham and Umutesi offer a more complete picture of tbe level of human suffering experienced in the Rwanda-Congo crisis and a fuller understanding of why it happened. ultimately arriving in Kinshasa. originally published in France in 2000 as Puir ou Mourir au ZaVre. and there is no speciflc region that is identifled with an ethnic group. when the assassination of Rwanda's Hutu president. and explained it as a reversion to tribalism. Nigel Eltringham. from where she secured passage to Belgium. but Umutesi and Eltringham illustrate that the conflict was far more complicated. Surviving the Slaughter. In the past ten years. He suggests that the while the terms Hutu and Tutsi are signiflcant. conflict simmered intermittently until 1994. In Rwanda. As a worker for three years in postgenocide Rwanda with a conflict-resolution NGO. 13). He also seeks to understand the way the genocide is viewed in post-1994 Rwanda. Taken together. as between Hutu and Tutsi. who fled across the DRC on foot from 1994 to 1997. . sparked a conflict that ultimately cost the lives of more than 800. One of them was a Rwandan refugee named Marie Beatrice Umutesi. p. offers a different perspective on the genocide in Accounting for Horror: Post-Genocide Debates in Rwanda. was directed mostly against ethnic Tutsi. Eltringham supports this assertion by demonstrating that ethnicity in Rwanda was a historical construct. "I had to realize that I was Hutu. millions of Africans have suffered predation at the hands of soldiers and rebel militias. translated by Julia Emerson. In 1959. Belgium yielded self-government to Rwanda and Burundi. in particular North and South Kivu.000 Rwandans. reveals the depth of human suffering resulting from the Rwanda-Congo crisis and the political complexities surrounding it. formerly Zaire) that are nearest to and bordering Rwanda. resulting in close to four million deaths. 6). In the years that followed. and only later evolved into ethnic stratifleations: "Both over time and at any given moment in time the terms 'Hutu' and 'Tutsi' were polyvalent—there was no single meaning valid for the whole territory at any one time" (p. he is well suited to offer a scholarly work that examines the historical thought processes in Rwanda that led to the genocide. Umutesi's story reminds readers of the anguish experienced by all sides in the Rwandan conflict and its aftermath.
and Rwandan refugees killed by the AFDL (possibly with RPA complicity)" (p. 1995. including Umutesi. the Rwandan Hutu refugees. lived at various locales in South Kivu for two years before the Congolese civil war began. and established a government of national unity. and sexual assault. Umutesi. and the small party of women and children in her care. Umutesi recounts that. by not only RPA and AFDL forces. Following the restoration of order in Rwanda and Burundi. lived in fear of attack. As the conflict worsened. Uganda and Burundi also sent forces into eastern Zaire to help topple Mobotu. "Where was the international community that talked about human rights but withdrew when they should ]^ ^' H o "* "3" Jf„ 8 ^ ^ ^ . a sociologist who. Among their number were former perpetrators of genocide. when the Forces Armees ZaVroises arrived in Bukavu to drive the Hutus back to Rwanda. who were often involved in the harassment and killing of innocent Hutu. scores of Hutus committed suicide by drowning themselves in the Ruzizi River (Umutesi. especially those who resisted repatriation back to Rwanda in 1994. ostensibly to protect Rwanda from the perpetrators of genocide in Zaire. Along the way. . . When the RPA secured control of Kigali (in July. and 1996.5 million Hutus fled Rwanda for refugee camps in the Kivu provinces. the RPA intervened by directly invading the country and aiding the anti-Mobotu AFDL forces. Umutesi wondered. a political faction made up of Tutsi exiles living in Uganda and backed by Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni. led by current Rwandan President Paul Kagame. but also former interahamwe. Her story suggests that RPA soldiers. they witnessed untold suffering and experienced a large measure of it themselves. intervened with force. but the overwhelming majority were innocent Rwandan Hutus who feared retribution in the wake of the slaughter. worked to develop assistance programs for Rwandan women. In the face of such hardships. "Reports indicate that countless thousands of people were killed in Zaire/DRC between 1993 and 1997. ultimately resulting in the 1997 overthrow of Mobotu Sese Seko by Laurent Kabila and his Rwandan-backed Alliance des Forces Democratiques pour la Liberation du Congo (AFDL). plumbed the depths of human misery as they struggled to resist starvation. each time departing an area just before a group of soldiers or militia caught up with the refugees. the Rwandan genocide is inextricably linked to the social disorder in Congo. and a myriad of various rebel militias. When the war began. ex-FAR soldiers. Nigel Eltringham supports Umutesi. 89). p. 143). Being unwelcome in Zaire. in the years before the genocide. Umutesi fled across Zaire from one camp or village to another. Her memoir brings to light an often forgotten legacy of the Rwandan genocides. 1994). civil war erupted in Zaire. Umutesi. militia violence. aided the AFDL. Far from separate crises.The 1994 genocide ended when the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA). Rwandan refugees (who wished to return to Rwanda) killed by ex-VAR/interahamwe-. noting. disease. nearly 1. stopped the bloodshed. Victims included . The RPA was the military arm of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). in August 1995.
II Ohio University Gilbert. Tbis approach presents certain cballenges. During the 110 years covered in tbis study. and he warns readers that current efforts to account for the 1994 genocide eontinue to be framed by appeals to absolutist accounts of tbe past. Gilbert's study concentrates on tbeir economic and political role. and navigation of dhows. Tbis would surely be the most fitting memorial to the victims" (p. Wbile giving passing attention to tbe design. Erik.95 (paper). He relies mostly on colonial-era archival sources. but peppers bis narrative witb anecdotes from bis travels and interviews witb merchants and seamen. $49. 1860-1970. comprised of numerous interviews with Rwandans from all sides of the conflict. 182). dhows and tbe commerce they enabled have suffered from neglect and outright hostility at tbe hands of British administrators. and Asia. 147). It was the dbow (a term adopted by Europeans to describe a variety of sailing vessels) that made tbe regional economy possible. sailing. Phillip A. $26. but also to Yemen and Kenya. construction. tbe dhow went . Eltringham's research. for Gilbert must conceptually integrate small-scale trading systems and commercial linkages witb tbe larger patterns of exchange in tbe Indian Ocean littoral. Aeeording to bim. 2004. making an effective case for tbeir centrality to Zanzibar's prosperity during the colonial era. Accounting for Honor offers a more balanced and scholarly account of the social and historical forces that led to the genocide. and bulk cargo among ports in tbe islands. Gilbert is keen to situate Zanzibar in tbe wider western Indian Ocean economic and cultural zone. "If we self-consciously recognize the limits of our own words and refuse to claim absolute clarity[. Tbis book is less about dhows themselves than it is about the uses to wbicb the vessels were put. that "Any survivor has more to say than all the historians combined about what happened" (p. transporting consumer goods. 192 pp. That being said. Umutesi's story is a heartbreaking account of the Hutu exodus from Rwanda and supports Elie Wiesel's claim.] we enact a final rejection of the absolutist basis of the genocidal mentality. DHOWS AND THE COLONIAL ECONOMY OF ZANZIBAR. 166). and historians alike. Eltringham demonstrates that historical narratives have been used countless times in Rwanda to justify the claims of those in power.t^ O -4 0 "* "3" • " ^ „ 8 ^ 1 S have prevented the genocide of the Tutsi by the Hutu militias and when they should have condemned the massacres of the Hutu by the RPF?" (p. passengers.95 (eloth). posteolonial officials. He concludes. Athens: Ohio University Press. Erik Gilbert seeks to set the record straight about dhows. quoted by Eltringham. reveals that historical narratives are never absolute. East Africa. Cantiell. His research took him not only to Zanzibar and Dar es Salaam.
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