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Rajagiri School of Engineering and Technology, Kakkanad, Kochi 682039
D. D. Ebenezer
Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory, Thrikkakara, Kochi 682021 Abstract: A method is presented to determine the properties of thin, lossy, homogeneous coatings that can acoustically cloak plates and cylinders. Flat panels and cylinders are often used as basic building blocks in mathematical models of submarines and are, therefore, of interest. The frequency-dependent sound speed in the coating required to reduce the broadband backscattered pressure to zero is determined by using analytical models. Numerical results indicate that materials with the required sound speed can be developed. The sensitivity of the reflection coefficient to the complex sound speed is also presented to illustrate the effect of variations in sound speed that will occur during production. Keywords: Echo, backscatter, multilayer, internal loss 1. Introduction Rendering a submarine invisible to interrogating acoustic waves would constitute a gigantic leap in stealth technology. An ideal acoustic cloak conceals a submarine by causing the total pressure field to be the same as that due to the incident field alone; without echoes or shadows . Cai  presents multilayer elastic cloaks for cylinders that, unlike the cloak in Ref. 1, do not have any material singularity, but perform very well in the low frequency region where there are no resonances. Cheng et al  present a cloak that is effective against waves with different wave-front shapes. In this paper, a method is presented to design broadband acoustic cloaks for underwater plates and cylinders such that the reflected and backscattered pressures, respectively, are zero. Flat panels and cylinders are often used as basic building blocks in mathematical models of submarines and are, therefore, of interest. The method is used to determine the frequency-dependent properties of a homogeneous cloak for a flat plate – and it is likely that such materials can be developed. The effect of a small difference between the actual and ideal material properties on the effectiveness of the cloak is also studied. A model of a cylinder coated with a thin lossy layer is used to show that coatings without losses can amplify echoes whereas designed ones can reduce the backscattered pressure to zero.
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ω is the angular frequency. A3 . The analysis can be extended to study coated thin cylindrical shells. The complex value of c 2 at which R becomes zero is determined. metal plate with a lossy homogeneous coating immersed in infinite fluid as shown in Fig. The continuity conditions for stress and particle velocity at the first. and third interfaces are used to determine the coefficients A2 . Acoustic Cloaks for Cylinders Consider the solid infinite circular cylinder shown in Fig. Coating reflected. where k2 = ω / c2 and k3 = ω / c3 . It has a thin coating. Acoustic Cloaks for Plates Consider an infinite. The reflection coefficient R = B1 / A1 is a function of the density and the sound speed in each layer and the thicknesses of the metal and coating layers. are known. The objective is to determine the speed of sound in the coating that would make the reflected pressure zero when a broadband wave is normally incident. The method used to find c 2 is presented in a later section. It is assumed that all these properties except the speed of sound in the coating. The thickness and density of the metal plate and the speed of sound in it. c 2 .1. where k 1 = ω / c1 Fig. Pr = B1e j (ωt + k1x ) . second. and t denotes time. and transmitted plane acoustic waves.2. The normal stresses in the coating and the metal plate are expressed as T2 = A2 e j (ωt −k 2 x ) + B2 e j (ωt + k 2 x ) and T3 = A3 e j (ωt − k3 x ) + B3 e j (ωt + k3 x ) . c1 is the speed of sound in water. Page 2 of 6 . and the thickness and density of the coating are known. Plates with several coatings are analyzed using a transfer matrix approach . and A4 when A1 is known. and transmitted waves are expressed Plate as Pi = A1e j (ωt − k1x ) . The pressures due to the incident. 3. Losses in the coating are modelled using complex Lame’s coefficients and the speed of sound is therefore complex. and Pt = A4 e j (ωt − k1x ) respectively. 2. B2 . An infinite coated plate. A plane acoustic wave travelling along the direction perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder is incident on it. 1. The effect of the material properties of the coating on the backscattered pressure is studied. reflected. and incident. B3 . The backscattered acoustic wave is of interest and is determined using a model of a multilayer cylinder . is the acoustic wave number in water. flat. respectively.
In the azimuthal direction. The change is much more rapid at local minima. The solutions to the equations of motion of the solid cylinder and the coating are determined using the method of separation of variables . The reflection coefficient. the normal and shear stresses. 3 as a function of the real and imaginary parts of the speed of sound in the coating. Young’s modulus 195 GPa. This is easier than a fully automatic search.The pressure in the incident wave is expressed in cylindrical coordinates using Bessel functions of the first kind . and radial and tangential displacements are continuous. Each orthogonal component has two coefficients in the solid cylinder. density 7700 kg/m3. and one coefficient in water. However. Results and discussion Numerical results are presented to illustrate cloaks that render plates and cylinders invisible to monostatic sonars. only the back-scattered pressure is computed because this is of interest when a monostatic sonar interrogates the object. The seven coefficients in the solutions are determined using seven continuity conditions at the interfaces: at the water-coating interface. here. Losses in the coating are modelled using complex Lame’s coefficients in this case also. and Poisson ratio 0. 2. After visually finding the approximate global minimum using the 3D plot. the shear stress on the surface of the coating is zero. four coefficients in the coating. for a coated flat plate is shown in Fig. R does not change very rapidly in this neighborhood indicating that small deviations from the ideal c2 will not result in a large change in R . However. it is seen from Fig. a Fourier Fig. The scattered acoustic pressure is also expressed in terms of a Fourier-Bessel series. A solid elastic cylinder with a thin acoustic coating. at the coating-cylinder interface. The coefficients can be used to determine the pressure in any direction. In the radial direction. Page 3 of 6 .3. A plane wave travelling along the x axis is incident on it. the normal stress is equal to the pressure. 4. Bessel functions are used. at 10 kHz. and the radial displacement is continuous. 3 that R is approximately zero at the global minimum where c 2 = 710+j100 m/s. the search for the ideal sound speed is continued by using 2D plots. The thickness of the coating is 40 mm for the plate and the density of the coating is 1200 kg/m3. It is seen that R has several local minima that are not nearly zero. Results are presented for a steel plate of thickness 6 mm. series expansion with orthogonal terms is used.
92j 34. 4. and 0.65+9. If such a sound speed does not exist. 5. Ideal sound speed in an acoustic cloak for a steel plate. lines at integer values of Im( c 2 ) ranging from 97 to 101 are shown.1.05.05 100 Frequency (kHz) 2 0.53+0.02 0. The feasibility of using an acoustic cloak to conceal a cylinder at high normalized frequencies is illustrated by presenting results for rigid and Titanium cylinders of radius 1 m.2.75 8. 0.7+4.2.3 0. The ideal speed of sound for the cloak is the one corresponding to R =0. Contour lines are shown for R = 0. Page 4 of 6 .5 0.1 Table I.Reflection Coefficient 0.2 0. 150 0. Reflection coefficient at 10 kHz.14+1.02. 0. Contour lines are shown at R = 0.4 0.1. 0. Ideal sound speed (m/s) Re (c) 158 305. the sound speed at which R is minimum is the ideal sound speed. imaginary parts of c 2 at 10 kHz.7 28.5 710 Im (c) 0.3 0. 0.1 (-20 dB) in a region that is approximately elliptical.75 +0.7 60 99 Young’s Modulus (MPa) 1. 4.01j 6.37j 14.3 4 50 600 650 750 700 Re (c2) 800 850 6 8 10 Fig.3.81j 23.1 0 600 650 700 Re(C2) 750 800 850 R as a function of real and Fig. 5. 0.02.3. Five Fig.85j 0. 3. in the neighborhood of the ideal sound speed. This indicates that the cloak will be effective even if the actual sound speed is a little different from the ideal sound speed either due to inability to achieve the ideal sound speed or due to variation during production.05. and 0.5 450 584.2 Im (c2) 0. The sensitivity of R to the sound speed. Contour plot of the amplitude of the reflection coefficient at 10 kHz. Each line is for a constant integer value of Im(c2 ) ranging from 97 to 101. 0. The five lines are nearly the same and cannot be distinguished. 2D graphs are shown in Fig. is illustrated using a contour plot in Fig. It is seen that R < 0.
1 Reflection Coefficient = 0. It is seen that the backscattered pressure is nearly independent of frequency if frequency > 1 kHz.1 0. Magnitude of pressure backscattered Fig. 9 for a Ti cylinder. 8. coated with lossless layer. Magnitude of pressure backscattered by a rigid cylinder of radius 1 m.1) GN/m2.5 kHz band and the backscattered pressure is very nearly the same as that from the rigid cylinder. In contrast to the rigid 0. The Young’s modulus.800 700 600 500 Reflection Coefficient = 0 Reflection Coefficient = 0.06 Rigid cylinder with rubber coating(losses not included) Rigid cylinder with rubber coating(losses included) Backscattered pressure (Pa) 0. the pressure oscillates about the pressure scattered by a rigid cylinder. Re(c2) corresponding to R = 0.03 0. When a layer with loss is used and frequency > 500 Hz. and density of Ti are 110 GPa.2 kHz and the coating is a cloak at this frequency. 8 for three cases: without coating. respectively. 6.01 0.2 80 Re(C2) 400 300 200 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Im(C2) 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Frequency(kHz) Frequency(kHz) Fig. At large distances from the cylinder.48(1-j0. The Young’s modulus.06 Rigid cylinder without coating 0.03 0.05 0. Poisson’s ratio. is shown in Fig. Im(c2) = ideal value at each frequency. 0.2 100 Reflection Coefficient = 0 Reflection Coefficient = 0. respectively. at a distance of 500 m from the cylinder. and coated with lossy layer.04 Ti cylinder without coating Ti cylinder with coating (losses not included) Ti cylinder with coating (losses included) 0. the pressure varies inversely with square root of radial distance. and 4533 kg/m3. Im(c2) corresponding to R = 0. However.02 0.5 – 8. There are no oscillations at frequency > 3 kHz. Poisson’s ratio. 9. Re(c2) = ideal value at each frequency. The backscattered pressure is shown in Fig.01 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Frequency(kHz) 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Frequency(kHz) Fig. there are no oscillations in the 3.04 Backscattered pressure (Pa) 0. 0. 7. There is a minimum at about 7.2.11(1-j0. The pressure backscattered by a rigid cylinder.02 0. 0.1).1 Reflection Coefficient = 0. At high frequencies. The thickness of the coating is 50 mm. Using a coating without losses causes rapid oscillations and higher backscattered pressure in several narrow frequency bands. 0.3.05 0. and 910 kg/m3. by a titanium cylinder of radius 1 m Page 5 of 6 .1 and Fig. the backscattered pressure is less than that when there is no coating. and density of the rubber coating are 0.2. and 0.
L. C. Schurig. E. R. D. M. “Effect of multilayer baffles and domes on hydrophone response. P. M. 2923. Models of multilayered flat plates and cylinders with lossy coatings. and X.” New Journal of Physics 9. Coppens and J. Y. 92.-W. “A multi layered structured acoustic cloak with homogeneous isotropic materials. Sound and Vibration. Junger and D. are used to compute the backscattered pressure at high normalized frequencies. 1972). Morse and K. Ingard. A thin coating without loss does not significantly affect the backscattered pressure. F. It is feasible to compute the frequency-dependent characteristics of the ideal coating by using the method used for plates. based on exact equations of motion. “Response of a multi-layered infinite cylinder to twodimensional pressure excitation by means of transfer matrices. (MIT Press. Liu. It is shown that the frequencydependent complex sound speed in the coating can be suitably designed to achieve zero reflection. Structures. “Optimizing imperfect cloaks to perfection. S. Cummer and D.1972). pp 1-8 (2007). Kinsler. L. 151913 (2008). Let. Theoretical Acoustics (McGraw-Hill. The coating is nearly an ideal cloak at approximately 7 kHz.” J. 2. 209. B. there are several oscillations even at high frequencies. 5. 7. References 1. Page 6 of 6 . 8. NPOL are gratefully acknowledged. 1883-1893 (1996). 4. Acoustical Soc. 123-142 (1998). Cambridge. 5. 6. Acknowledgement Facilities to do the work provided by Director. A.2931 (2012) 3. Sanders. The effect of a small difference between the ideal and actual sound speed on the reflected pressure is also presented to assist in setting production tolerance. Sastry and M. U. L. MA. America. A. Cheng. Acoustical Soc. oscillations are still present but the pressure is considerably reduced. Sound. J. S. Ebenezer and Pushpa Abraham. New York. D. However. J.” J. Y.1968). and their Interaction. Munjal.132. Feit. 4th ed. when there is loss in the coating. 99. Fundamentals of Acoustics (John Willey & Sons. A. “One path to acoustic cloaking. Xu. America.cylinder case. Conclusions Analytical models are used to show that it is feasible to acoustically cloak plates and cylinders such that the backscattered pressure is zero. V. Frey. Yang. J.” J.” Applied Phy. Cai.
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