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2, 1977

**SHARPNESS IN YOUNG'S INEQUALITY FOR CONVOLUTION
**

JOHN J. F. FOURNIER

Let p and q be indices in the open interval (1, oo) such that pq < p + q; let r — pql(p + q — pq). It is shown here that there is a constant Cp,q < 1 such that, if G is a locally compact, unimodular group with no compact open subgroups, P q and if g and / are functions in L (G) and L (G) respectively, then

\\g*f\\r^CPιq\\g\\p\\f\\q

here g*f denotes the convolution of g and /. Thus, in this case, Young's inequality for convolution is not sharp; this result is used to prove a similar statement about sharpness in Eunze's extension of the Hausdorff-Young inequality. The best constants in these inequalities are known in many special cases; the methods used here do not yield good estimates for these constants, but they do lead to the first proof of nonsharpness for general unimodular groups without compact open subgroups. 1* Introduction* Throughout this paper, we assume that G is a locally compact, unimodular group. We call a pair of indices (p, q) internal if p > 1, q > 1, and — + — > 1. p q

Given an internal pair of indices (p, q), we denote by r the index such that r p q

It is known [17, pp. 54-55; 8, Theorem 20.18] that if geLp(G) and feLg(G), then the convolution g*f is finite almost everywhere, and measurable; moreover, (1) llff*/llr^llflf||,ll/ll ff .

This inequality was first proved, for the circle group, by W. H. Young [18]. Given a group G, and an internal pair of indices (p, q), we let (2) cp,q(G) = BVLv{\\g*f\\r:geL>(G),feL<(G), \\g\\, £ 1, | | / | | , ^ 1} .

**Inequality (1) states that cp>q(G) ^ 1.
**

383

In Theorem 1 of § 2 of this

In Theorem 3 of § 3. and [10]. let ||L/||«> be the norm of this operator. Kunze's extension of the Hausdorίf-Young theorem. Peetre and Spaar [11] have used the real interpolation method to give a second proof of inequality (4). Recently. because ||L/||P/ is equal to the usual ZΛ-norm of the Fourier transform of / in this case. If Lf is a bounded operator on L2(G). To prove inequality (4). and an index p in the interval (1. for each internal pair of indices (p. that is. and equality holds in inequality (1). [9]. we must recall a few facts from the theory of noncommutative integration. we show that a pair of functions (g. this theory is developed in [15]. we let (5) bp(G) = . and a continuous homomorphism χ of H into the circle group. such that φ vanishes off H. almost everywhere. and φ coincides with χ on H. operator on L\G) given by convolution on the left with / . We call a pair of measurable functions (g. In [9].^\\f\\p. otherwise. f) is maximal if and only if there is a subcharacter φ such that g and / coincide. To discuss R. q) such that 0 < II^UI/H^ < °°. 2). pf denotes the index conjugate to p. A function φ on G is called a subcharacter if there exists a compact open subgroup H of G. FOURNIER paper. if 1 ^ p ^ 2. by nonzero constants. 1/p + l/pr = 1. that is. Given a group G. then (4) \\Lf\\p. as in the rest of this paper. then cp. Kunze used complex interpolation to this end. this functional m can then be extended [15] to a canonical gage on an appropriate set of positive operators so that (3) m(|L / r) = | | / | | ϊ . there exists a constant Cp>q < 1 such that. Here.384 JOHN J. § 31.21].q(G) <: Cp>q. f) maximal if there is an internal pair of indices (p. with multiples. Lf:h\-*f*h. Let feLp(G) for some p. It follows from these definition that and \\Lf\\2 = | | / | | 2 . for all / in L\G). q). Finally. If Lf is a projection. if G has no compact open subgroups. let ||Z//||oo = ©°. Now Kunze showed that. define m(Lf) to be the extended real number ||/||1. [16]. this inequality is just the usual Hausdorίf-Young inequality [8. F. one must interpolate between the known cases where p = 1 or p = 2. When G is abelian. let \\Lf\\q = m(\Lf\q)ι/q. we show that. possibly unbounded. of left and right translates of φ respectively. for all / . and let Lf be the. for each index q with 1 ^ q < oo.

Again.SHARPNESS IN YOUNG'S INEQUALITY FOR CONVOLUTION 385 Inequality (4) states § 2. then. having been proved for the circle group by Hardy and Little wood [5. and such that equality holds in inequality (4). In [13]. for all compact. for all locally coihpact. there < 1 such that. we settle a conjecture due to Russo [13]. if G has no compact open subBp. and if G has no compact open subgroups. The basis for this conjecture was the theorem of K. Russo [13]. the only cases of equality in inequality (4) are the trivial ones where ||/||p = 0 or oo. it does not follow immediately. if p' is even. In Theorem 4 of § 3. however. although special cases of it follow easily from Theorem 4. abelian groups by Hewitt and Hirschmann [7]. or is a semidirect product of an abelian group A and a compact group K acting on A. by a nonzero constant. we reduce matters to the and then. We now comment on the connections between these results and the work of other authors. Consider the case of Theorem 2. following Young's original proof [18] the circle group with p = 4/3. Babenko [1] asserting that. for instance. by Theorem 4. with a multiple. if the group G is central. and 1 < p < 2. Theorem 1].16]. In Theorem 2 of for each index p in the interval (1. of inequality (4) for that bp(G) ^ 1 in any case. I. First. we derive this statement from the corresponding assertion about maximal pairs of functions for convolution. then bp(G) ^ bp(R).2) such that 0 < | | / | | p < o o . 2). and in general by B. almost everywhere. A measurable function / is called maximal if there is an index p in the interval (1. exists a constant Bp groups. Theorem 4 is not new. while the second proof uses Theorem 4. other instances where this inequality holds are described in [12]. . Theorem 3 does not seem to have been stated before. then (6) bp(R) = lpv*/(p'y<*fγ'' it follows easily that bp(R) < 1 whenever 1 < p < 2. Theorems 1 and 2 do not seem to follow easily from Theorems 3 and 4. nonabelian groups by Hewitt and Ross [8. of a translate of a subcharacter. the first proof is direct and elementary. we show that. Theorem 43. If G has no compact open subgroups. that bp(G) < 1 in this case. Russo showed that. but the proof that we give here is new. then bp(G) ^ case where p = 4/3. we show that the desired result then follows from Theorem 1. By proving Theorem 2. we show that a function is maximal if and only if it coincides. and [14]. In proving this. because it is not known whether the supremum in formula (5) must always be attained. We give two proofs of Theorem 3.

Let /eL 4 / 3 (G). 2). the adjoint of the operator Lf. FOURNIER Recently. In the same paper. The methods of the present paper do not yield this inequality. and by Brascamp and Lieb [3]. bp(G) = bp(R)n for some integer n. It is shown in [9. It seems likely.386 JOHN J. we THEOREM 1. Again. Beckner used this result to compute bp(G) for all locally compact. Let 1 < p < 2. in every case. then bv{G) <I Bp. Let (p.q(G) ^ • / J>>9" THEOREM 2. The constants cp>q(Rn) have recently been computed by Beckner [2]. the methods of the present paper do not give us the exact values of the constants cPtq(G). By this calculation. but they do permit us to prove Theorem 2 for all unimodular groups. and they yield the conclusion of Theorem 1 for all unimodular groups. The calculation above is just Young's original argument [18] adapted to this setting. 2 Upper bounds for cPtQ(G) and bp(G). is just L(/*). F. q) be an internal pair of indices. if G is a locally compact. then cp. then . if G is a locally compact unimodular group with no compact open subgroups. Theorem 4] that (I//)*. ^ c 4/3 . denote by / * the function given by the rule that f*(x) = fix'1) for all x in G. Both theorems follow easily from the special case of Theorem 1 where p = q = 4/3. In this section. unimodular group with no compact open subgroups. Proofs. Beckner [2] has shown that Babenko's formula (6) holds for all indices p in the interval (1. 4/3 (G) 1/2 . that bp(G) ^ bp(R) whenever G has no compact open subgroups. abelian groups. Then there exists a constant Bv < 1 such that. by relation (3) since G is unimodular. We first show how to derive Theorem 2 from this case of Theorem 1. but these methods are elementary. If G has no compact open subgroups. W. prove the two theorems stated below. Thus LfY) = m([L{f*uf]2) = ll(/*)*/||ϊ. Then there exists a constant Cp>q < 1 such that. therefore.

Clearly. that 1 < p < 4/3. by Theorem 1. Suppose. that is. and 0 ^ g*f ^ 1. thus the case of Theorem 2 where p = 4/3 holds with -°4/3 — V ^4/3. [s(x)g](y) = gfr-'y). then G must have a compact open subgroup. letting h = {g*f)u\ and φ = 1 — g*f. We now turn to the proof of Theorem 1 when p = q = 4/3. because ||#||4/3 = 1. is equal to 1. 1) for which there exist functions g and / in Lm(G) such that (7) | | 0 | | 4 / 8 = | | / | | 4 / 8 = if and ||<7*/||2>λ. then 64/3(G) ^ B4/3. let s(x)g be the left translate by x of the function g. p. We will show that if λ is sufficiently close to 1. We also consider two auxiliary functions. and If G has no compact open subgroups. and = ί g*f(χ)dχ JG JG ί Given two sets E and F9 denote by E ~ F the set of all elements of E that do not belong to F. say. and show later that matters can be reduced to this case. the argument when 4/3 < p < 2 similar. Then μ(K). Then . Now = μ(xK Π K) . then i x - θ + θ + p 1 4/3 * By Riesz convexity [4. Suppose that g is the characteristic function 1# of a set K. Let θ = 4(1 — 1/p). the Haar measure of K. Then g*f <* h. g*f is continuous.SHARPNESS IN YOUNG'S INEQUALITY FOR CONVOLUTION 387 bm(G) ^ (C 4/3 . Appendix E]. For each element x of G. We begin with a very special case. for instance. bp(G) £ (B</9γ = Bp. 4/3 ) .4/3/ 1/2 The other cases of Theorem 2 follow by convexity arguments. and that f=g*. 8. 143. for all y in G. Now b^G) ^ 1 in any case. Let λ be a number in the interval (0.

It follows from the triangle inequality for L\G) that (8 ) φ(x) . . Outside the set Hlf therefore. Given an integer j between 1 and 5. &(x2 . the inequalities ^ ^ 1 / 6 .5 ί fe 2 ^ ί A2 ^ 6 ( 1 . h2> since h2 ^ 1 in any case. for all x and y in G. and g*f^5/6 hold.λ 2 ) since /ι2 = 1 — 0 ^ 1/6 on the set Hδ ~ Hu (10) μ(H5 . let Hό = {x 6 G: φ{x) < i/6} . (9) Second. F.λ2) .388 JOHN J.5 . FOURNIER φ{x) = μ(xK ~ K) = \\\Λx)g . (^*/) 2 + ( G/*/)2 6 JG~H1 jHt 6 Jo 6 JΛΊ + 6 fc 6 JHl l 6 This has two consequences concerning the measures of the sets First.g\l .—) = 6 λ 2 . (g*f)2 £ \(g*f) b and = -| f e 2 b o u t s i d e H » [ ( JG~H1 Then by relation (7) and t h e fact t h a t ||Λ.) ^ 6λ2 .||2 = 1. μ{H.φ(y) ^ φ{xy) ^ ψ(x) + φ(y) .i ϊ j ^ 36(1 .

H2a H2. contrary to our assumptions. Then by Fubini's theorem. by relation (8). so that (H2)~l = H2. φ{x~ι) = φ{x) for all x. if x e H4 ~ H2.SHARPNESS IN YOUNG'S INEQUALITY FOR CONVOLUTION 389 Now suppose that λ2 > 41/42. Indeed. H2. h. applying this inequality again. let h = (<74/3*/4/3)1/2. In this situation. We claim further that H2 is a compact open subgroup of G. and we merely suppose that the relation (7) holds. because φ is continuous. The proof of Young's inequality for convolution in this case consists in showing that g*f ^ h. This proves the claim.λ2). because φ(e) = 0. since H4 ~ H2 is empty. by relations (9) and (10). so that there exist points a in G such that . since g*f> 2/3 on H2i and | | # * / | | 2 < °°. For instance. replace the pair of functions (g. then. H2 is open. Furthermore. we have that because G is unimodular. without loss of generality. Now H2Ή2cz H4. Finally. the fact that g and / are nonnegative. 6λ2 . Indeed. when it is convenient. we may.5 ^ 36(1 . Next. by relation (7). f) by another pair for which these relations hold. g*/ <. Thus 0 <. the open subgroup H2 has finite Haar measure. and the normalizations in relation (7). and λ2 ^ 41/42. the set xHx is included in Hh ~ Hx. We claim that the set H4 ~ H2 must be empty. however. First. = JG =ί JG We used the Schwarz inequality in the third line above. by relation (8). We now drop the assumption that g and / have the special forms prescribed above. H2 contains the identity element e. and \\g*f\\2 On the other hand. since | # | * | / l ^ \9*f\t we can assume that g ^ 0 and / ^ 0. Thus H2 is a subgroup of G. and is therefore compact. Hence μ(Hδ ~ Hγ) ^ K&i)> s o that. | | # * / | | 2 > λ||Λ|| 2 .

In summary. whenever the original value of λ is sufficiently close . Letting 7 be the ratio of inner products (k. and | | ( / * ) 2 / 3 . g by c~3/4g. This is the very special case considered above. By replacing g by g'lWg'Wm and / by /711/ΊL/s and by passing to an equivalent Haar measure. the functions g and / * are both close to a constant multiple of the characteristic function of a certain set. ll/IL/s. The near sharpness of the first application of the Schwarz inequality implies that ||fe2 .|| 4 / 3 are both at most 4(1 + τ/"2~)ε1/2. Consider the proof that g*f(e) ^ k(e) = 1.8(1 + l/Y)ε 1 / 2 = 1 . by passing to an equivalent Haar measure on G. as is the ratio g*f(e)/h(β). Let ε = 1 — λ.δ 1 | a + 6 1. then ||fe .δ .g*f\\2 ^ 8(1 + 1/2 )ε1/2.k/a\\2 ^ (2ε)1/2. | | # * / | | 2 . ||0 2 / 3 . hence G must have a compact open subgroup 2 if (1 .(/*) 2 / 3 || 2 are both a t most 2ε1/2. we have that \\g . and g*f by c~l/Xg*f).390 JOHN J.δ. Using the inequality | a .gm\\2 and ||fe . say. L e t t i n g gf = Ύ3/21K a n d / ' = (g*)*f w e h a v e t h a t \\g'*f . To do this. we can arrange that g = lκ.lκ). Moreover. we can assume that that g S 0 and / ^ 0. and \\h\\2 are unaffected by this change. The near sharpness of second application implies that ||0 /8 _ (/*)»/»112 ^ 2ε1/2. the two applications above of the Schwarz inequality must be fairly sharp. The norms ||#|! 4 / 3 . Since g*f(e) > 1 — ε.lκ)/(lκ.7 l x | | 2 ^ 2(2ε)1/2. and that Il#*/H2>λ. 3/2 and Holder's inequality. > 1 .{lja)lκ\\2 ^ 2(2ε)1/2.b \ ^ \ α . Let K be the set where fe > l/2α. By replacing g by an appropriate left translate of itself. the identity element of G. in the metric of Z//3(G).δ) > 41/42. we also have that ||fc . we replace dx by cdx. Thus. and / = g*. that is. This inequality holds whenever ε sufficiently small. FOURNIER 0 <Xh(a) < g*f(a) < o o. and renormalizing g and /. F. and that relations (7) hold with λ = 1 . if ε is sufficiently close to 0. The idea now is to show that.ε .Ύ^lxWm and ||/* -7 l A . Letting fe = {gfΎ\ we have that ||fe . then. then h is replaced by c~1/2h. we can arrange that h(e) = 1.71*11. we can arrange for this relation to hold with a = e. and / by c~3/4f.Ύlκ\\2 are both at most 1/2 2/3 2/3 ι/3 1/3 2(1 + 1/2 )ε . Let a = ||fc||2. This will allow us to reduce matters to the very special case considered earlier in the proof. so that ||flf'*/'||. and that ||τ:U|| 2 ^ _ 1 . and g*f(e)>X.

Let us say that two pairs (g. and each function / on G. It is easy to check that maximality is preserved by this notion of equivalence. Let us say that two functions / and /'. and the operations that preserve maximality. below. for each element a of (?.9999999. we characterize the maximal pairs of functions for convolution. JG Let H be the compact open subgroup that is the support of χ. f) is maximal if and only if there is a subcharacter χ such that (g. This completes the proof of the case of Theorem 1 where p = q = 4/3. Our methods do not lead to optimal values for the numbers Bp and cp. we show that a pair of functions (g. This is much larger 3* Maximality• In this section. of a right translate of /. f) and (g'.937. of functions on G. then the pair (χ.4/3 — 1 1/2 O X 10 Our value for Bi/3 is then (C4/3)4/3) < . almost everywhere.q. and nonzero constants c and d such that gr and / ' coincide. are equivalent if there exist elements a and b of G. We can therefore let ^4/3. χ). In Theorem 3. Then the product χ{z~xy)χ{z) vanishes unless both z and z~]y belong to H. We now do this for C4/3. Before stating our results. The other cases of the theorem follow by simple Riesz convexity arguments. and the individual functions that are maximal for the Hausdorff-Young inequality. /'). The inequality (1 — δ) > 41/42 holds if δ <i 1/84. and χ{z~1y)χ{z) = χ(y). Thus χ*χ = &H)χ. Recall that. and the latter inequality holds if ε = 3 x 7 10~ . by a nonzero constant. with c/(a)g and d*(b)f respectively. we consider the basic examples. y e H also. than &4/3(i2). because the restriction of x to H is a character. the left translate of f by a is the function s(a)f defined by letting /(a)f(y) = fia^y) for all y in G\ similarly the right translate of f by a is the function *(α)/ defined by letting +(a)f(y) = f{ya~ι) for all y in G. Now r κ\V) ~ \ Jί\Z yjJCyZjaz . on G. It follows easily that the pair (χ. are equivalent if / ' coincides. which is approximately .SHARPNESS IN YOUNG'S INEQUALITY FOR CONVOLUTION 391 to 1. however. χ) is maximal for all internal pairs of indices. First. almost everywhere. which we omit.4/3. with a multiple. we check that if χ is a subcharacter. but we can specify values for 2 these numbers. f) is equivalent to (χ. χ) is maximal for all internal pairs of indices. It is easy to check that equiva- . in that case.

We can assume that Horn. THEOREM 3. o < 11/11. F. Indeed. then this functions is maximal for all indices in the interval (1. In the course of the proof. 2).< oo. we consider the case where g ^ 0 and / ^ 0. in Theorem 4. First. χ) is maximal for all internal pairs of indices. and ||flr*/||r = we then have to find a subcharacter χ such that the pairs (g. <oo. To prove the converse. We have already seen that if χ is a subcharacter. f) by an equivalent pair whenever this is convenient.(a~ )χ\ then χ' is a subcharacter. χ) are equivalent. / ) . let χ' be the function /(a)*. 2). then this pair of functions is maximal for all internal pairs of indices. and it may be surprising that this operation does not have to be included in the characterization of maximal functions. Indeed = ί /(iΓ'a Jo = ( }G [f(y-1χ)qg(y)ψrf(y~ιχy-q/rg(yy-1>/rdy. however. It is shown in [13] that a function is maximal if and only if it is equivalent to a subcharacter. . in this case. we may. because every left translate of a subcharacter is also a right translate of a possibly different subcharacter. then ||Λ||r = l. This omission is possible. FOURNIER lence preserves maximality. below. if a pair of functions is maximal for one internal pair of indices. = ||/|| f f = 1. with support group aHa~\ and s(a)χ = *(α)χ\ The following two theorems imply that. ι and an element a of G. given a subcharacter χ. f) is maximal if and only if there is a subcharacter χ such that the pair (g. Now left translation also preserves maximality. then every pair of functions that is equivalent to the pair (χ. consists in showing that g*f^h everywhere. Proofs. we start with a pair of measurable functions (g. without loss of generality. The proof of Young's inequality for convolution. and if a single function is maximal for one index in the interval (1. f) is equivalent to the pair (χ. with support group H. A pair of functions (g.392 JOHN J. we give a new proof that every maximal function is equivalent to a subcharacter. and an internal pair of indices (p. A function is maximal if and only if it is equivalent to a suhcharacter. χ). q) such that (10) 0 <||flr||. replace the pair (g. Let h = (gp*fq)ί/r. THEOREM 4. f) and (χ.

Then (13) (14) f{y~ι)qg{yY . Now g and / both belong to L\G) Π L°°(G) so that g * / and Λ are both continuous. qf < oo. Observe that μ(K) — 1. and that / = lκ — 1 everywhere. this condition is necessary for sharpness when 1 < r. because the pair (p. p'. because | | / | | . by passing to an equivalent Haar measure on G. (1 — q/r)p' = q. with indices r. we can arrange that eeH. these func- . and we must have that g*f=h almost everywhere. Apply Holder's inequality. moreover. q) is internal. p. for al- Let K = {yeG: g(y) > 0}. and (1 — p/r)q' = p. we can assume that g = lκ. since g*f—h almost everywhere. almost everywhere. the application above of Holder's inequality is sharp. = ||flr||. for almost all y . the condition for sharpness [6. g = lκ. = Since the pair (g. because ||flr||p = 1. a n d g*f(x) = h(x)} . we can arrange that h(e) = 1. also. and K! = {y e G: f(y) > 0}. Since ||/|| f f = ||g\\p = 1. p'. for almost all Hence f = g* almost everywhere. and Similarly. ) ^ ! . For each x in H. which is the case here. Then. Let H= {xeG:0 < h(x) < oo . 140] is that (12) \ fiy^ygjyy = fiy^Y = g(v)p \ g(y)pdy JG for almost all y in G. h(x)r By translating g appropriately. and g(y) = f{y~ψ* = 1 in particular. most all y in K.f(y~Ύ = g(y)p. and renormalizing g and /. f(y~γ = 1. y in K'.SHARPNESS IN YOUNG'S INEQUALITY FOR CONVOLUTION 393 The definition of r implies that 1/r + 1/p' + \\q' = 1. To be precise. we can rewrite condition (12) as f(y~ιx)qg(y)p = f^y-^y =g(yy9 for almost all y . f) is maximal. and q\ to obtain the estimate ΓC -\i/p g* f(x) ^ Λ(θ|J/( W J = Λ(s).

then. h(x) = 1. g*f = h — lπ. Then g(x~ιy) = 1 for almost all x in J5Γ. Thus ^ = /(j/)l^. because ||fc|| r = 1. f) is equivalent to the pair (φ9 φ). so that the pair (g. then. in fact. we have equality in the inequality . That is. Fix an element y oί K for which this relation holds. To complete this proof of Theorem 3. and g = lκ. then 9*f(x) > 0. then h(x) — g(x~ιy)ι/r. and | | ^ * / | | r = 1 = \\ \g\ *\f\ || r . Since μ(Hy) = 1 = μ(K). for all x in H. Since / = g*. so that H is open. for almost all x in H . Since | # * / | ^ | # | * | / L the pair of functions (\g\. Since |<7*/|<^|*|/l. Let φ = g*f. F. by formula (15). That is. \f\) is also maximal. Finally. we conclude that 1£ is essentially the right coset Hy of H. and that the pair (g. but we continue to assume that they form a maximal pair for the internal pair of indices (p.. q). If xeH. and xeH. K = ίfy. since μ{H) < ©o. where H is a compact open subgroup with μ(H) = 1. we can assume that \g\ = | / | = lπ. /{x)g = # almost everywhere. if s(x)g = g almost everywhere. f) is equivalent to the pair (1^. and / = *(y~ι)lH. Hence μ(H) — 1. we have that. h(x)r y = Q(x~ιy) = 9(v)f for almost all y . Consider relation (16).394 JOHN J. As noted above. Fix x in H. By Fubini's theorem. Let i f = y~Ήy\ then ^ = yH'. for almost all y in K. Fix x in if.. we can assume that. Since h(x) Φ 0 and g takes the values 0 and 1 only. In particular. the open subgroup H is compact. φ is continuous and supported by H. and i ϊ is a subgroup. conversely. (16) Thus H = {#: s(x)g(y) = g(y) for almost all ?/ in G} . and therefore coincide everywhere. by the analysis above. FOURNIER tions coincide everywhere. But the functions I fir*/1 and | # | * | / l a r e continuous. \g*f(e)\ = \g\*\f\(e) = l. and so that g(y) Φ 0. almost all elements of the set Hy belong to K. Then H is simply the set where g*f > 0. because \g*f(x)\ — |0|*|/|(aO. 1H). and we may assume that g*f(e) — 1. and choose 7 / in G so that these relations hold. Now we drop the assumption that g and / are nonnegative. we have that \g*f\ = | ^ | * | / | almost everywhere. we will show that φ is a subcharacter.. formula (13) now reads that. g{x~ιy) — g(y).

p. g. and use the fact that g{y~ι) = l/f(y) to conclude that φ{x) = φ^ for all x and y in H. and suppose that \\Lf\\p. with y = e./* = /(*)** = /(Φ This completes the proof of Theorem 3. By Fubini's theorem. Suppose first that p = 4/3. we have g . and z belong to H. then / is continuous. Next. We now consider the proof of Theorem 4. it follows that every function that is equivalent to a subcharacter is maximal for all such indices.SHARPNESS IN YOUNG'S INEQUALITY FOR CONVOLUTION 395 I \/(y. let feLp(G). by relation (17). that (17) f{y~ χ)g{y) = Φ{χ) ι for almost all y in H. Again. and φ are all continuous. for each x in H. that / = f(e)φ. so that g — f*. g(y) = Φ{e)if(y-*) = " for almost all y in H. the product z — s/" ^ also runs through H. It is shown in [13. We can modify / so that this relation holds for all z in H. Fix 1 such a point y.χ)9(v)dy\ 1 ^ \\f{y~ χ)g{y)\dy . Then. Then f(e) Thus ^ is a subcharacter. Since \g\ = \f\ = 1H. as x runs through H. we can modify g so that this relation holds for all y in if. and relation (17) holds for all x and y in H. ι This can happen only if the integrand on the left has essentially constant argument on its support. for almost all z in H. We replace y by y~x in this relation. f(y) Let a. let l<p<2. To prove the converse. Then /. Then f{z) f(e) (18) By relation (18). with x = e. and we conclude that f(z) = Φ(yz)/g(y) . this argument must then be the same as that of g*f(x). Then Young's argument. as presented . 2). = | | / | | p Φ 0. 295] that every subcharacter is maximal. for all indices in the interval (1. there exists a point y in H such that relation (17) holds for almost all x in H. we conclude. that is.

the function s(x)lκ must be a constant multiple of 1H. χ) are equivalent. hence so are the pairs (g. then / is equivalent to the same subcharacter. f) is a maximal pair of functions. hence. This means that the subgroups H and K coincide. of Young's inequality for convolution in this case. that there are no maximal pairs of functions on the real line [6. by Theorem 3. and ||/'|| 4 / 8 Φ Q./) is maximal for the pair of indices (4/3. Theorems 3 and 4 suggest the following questions. so. for the internal pair of indices (p. 4/3). Hence the only way for the pair (χ. the function / is equivalent to subcharacter. q).^0? 2. F. f) and (χ. the functions / ' and (g')* are both maximal in L4/3(G). we can use it to conclude that there exist subcharacters χ and φ such that (g')* is equivalent to χ. as in the proof of Theorem 1. Let H and K be the support groups for χ and φ respectively. The second application of the Schwarz inequality there must be sharp for almost all x in the support of ljj*l x . Now suppose that p Φ 4/3. pp. The problem of characterizing maximal pairs of functions has received less attention than the problem of characterizing functions that are maximal for the Hausdorff-Young theorem. there exist functions g and / such that (20) 3. 1. 4/3). then χ * φ = 0.c For what functions do relations (19) and (20) hold? . Evidently. pp. Consider the proof. . lκ) is maximal for the indices (4/3.396 JOHN J. 295-296] shows that \\Lf. Suppose that (g. then the maximum modulus theorem can be used. ψ) are equivalent. as in [13. By Young's argument. shows that the pair of functions (/*. /') is maximal for the pair of indices (4/3. Thus the pairs (g. for each internal pair of indices (p. It has been known for a long time. Inequality 280].||4 = H/ΊL/s Hence /' is equivalent to a subcharacter. 4/3). We now outline a second proof of the difficult half of Theorem 3. q).|/| 3 * / 4 sgn/. however.(^)11/11. Let gr = \g\3p/4 sgng. then the pair of functions (1H. φ) to be maximal is for the two characters to coincide. This completes the proof of Theorem 4. 2) that there exist functions / in L (G) such that (19) 11^/11^ = 6. φ). Is it also true that. Then the pairs (g'9 /') and (χ. This fact implies that if χ Φ φ. in § 2. 0 < ||<7*/||. for such x. /'eZ/ / 3 (G). and / ' is equivalent to ψ. and /' = \f\3q/i sgn/. 295-296] to show that the pair of functions (gf. Now Theorem 4 is already known [13]. the argument in [13. Is it true for all unimodular groups G and all indices p in P the interval (1. f) and (χ. and let / ' . FOURNIER in the proof of Theorem 1.

Math. 18. A. and its generalization to more than three functions. 8 9 (1958). 5. Brascamp and E. Sparr. 9. 839-852. Soc. Pacific J. Littlewood. I. W. Inequalities. Math. Theorem 13]. Hardy and J. Actualites Sci et. Some new properties of Fourier constants. It is also known. W. 1934. Lieb. CANADA V6T 1W5 . 5 7 (1953). 6. Ser. Polya. Babenko. V Integration dans les groupes topologiques et ses applications. Ind. 14. On the Hausdorff-Young theorem for integral operators. of Math. 519-540. Weil. 241-253. W. 401-457. transform on unimodular groups. English translation. 8 7 (1912). Math. E. Kunze. Roy.SHARPNESS IN YOUNG'S INEQUALITY FOR CONVOLUTION 397 The results in this section provide answers to these questions when bp(G) = cP}q(G) = 1. 187-207. 16. Topics in Harmonic Analysis. Soc. and multiplying it by a nonzero constant [3. E. Abstract Harmonic Analysis. E. Russo. SSSR. H. 331-339. Hirschman Jr. 1963. Cambridge University Press. E. Ann.. Hewitt and K. 15. 1977. 115-128. 1145. Amer. I. Advances in Math. 595-596. K. A. Notes on non-commutative integration. Hewitt and I.. 151-173. A. REFERENCES 1. 11.. It is known [2. On the multiplication of successions of Fourier constants. F. of Math. Lp Fourier transforms on locally compact unimodular groups. open subgroup. Hermann et Cie. J. The norm of the Lp-Fourier transform II. A. R. 192 (1974). correction. 3. that relation (20) holds if and only if the functions g and / are both obtained from a gaussian function h and a character χ by translating the product χ h.. Peetre and G. Interpolation and non-commutative integration.. Dunkl and D. Ross. 6 8 (1977). A maximum problem in harmonic analysis. Appleton-CenturyCrofts. Ser. Ann. Math. Trans. 76 (1954). 7. Trans. 1121-1131. and p' is even. of Canada grant number 4822. 102 (1975). 1970. 159-209. J. 2. Math. Functional Anal. Soc. J. New York.. 869. Amer. Amer. B. Mat. C. H. Transl. 8. J. On an inequality in the theory of Fourier integrals.. Math. 2 8 (1976). J. 4. f The norm of the L -Fourier Amer. Soc. J.. Integration theorems for gages and duality for unimodular groups. 25 (1961). p 13. E. 103-116. Isz. 1941 and 1951. Ann.. 12. H. Heidelberg. 10. Math. Soc. 5 8 (1953). (2) 44.. 17. 1971. Young. 3] that the first two questions also have n n affirmative answers when G = R .. London. Pura Appl. that is. Proc. Springer-Verlag. Math. Ramirez. 531-542. when G has a compact. A non-commutative extension of abstract integration. 15 (1974). Received January 27. Trans. two volumes. Beckner. Akad. Littlewood and G. 2 0 (1976). E. . Inequalities in Fourier analysis. Nelson. G. Hardy. E. when G = R . This in turn leads to the same characterization of the functions for which relation (19) holds. its converse. I. Stinespring. Research partially support by National Research Council THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER. first edition. 15-56. H. 293-305. G. (4) 104 (1975). Amer. H. Segal. Ann. Canad. 9 7 (1927). 9 0 (1959). in the special n case where G = R . Math. F. Best constants in Young's inequality. Nauk. 159-182.

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