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Machining Machining Processes Processes Machining Machining Processes Processes

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Machining Machining Processes Processes

Fundamentals Fundamentals of of Machining Machining

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Fundamentals Fundamentals of of Machining Machining


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Advantages Advantages and and Disadvantages Disadvantages


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Machining is a general term describing a group of processes that consist of the removal of material an modification of the surfaces of a workpiece after it has been produced.

Advantages
Good dimensional accuracy Good geometry, sharp edges Economical

Disadvantages
Wasted material More time than some other processes

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Elements Elements of of Machining Machining


Machine (machine tool) Material z Cutting tool z Operational plan and settings
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Examples Examples of of Machining Machining

feeds, speeds, etc.


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Environment (coolant)

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Figure 21.1 Some examples of common machining operations.


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Machine Machine Tools: Tools: Lathe Lathe

Milling Milling Machine Machine Tools Tools

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Cutting Cutting Material Material with with Tool Tool

Turning Turning

Schematic illustration of the turning operation showing various features. R. Jerz


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Chip Chip Making Making Video Video

Chips Chips Formation Formation

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Chip Chip Examples Examples In In Class Class

Cutting Cutting Tools Tools

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Tool Tool Types Types


Tool steels z High-speed steel z Ceramics (aluminum oxide) z Coated carbides
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Some Some Properties Properties of of Tool Tool Materials Materials

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Characteristics Characteristics of of Tool Tool Materials Materials

Relative Relative Cutting Cutting Time Time of of Tool Tool Materials Materials

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Select Select Proper Proper Tool Tool Video Video

Wear Wear Patterns Patterns on on Tools Tools

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Machined Machined Steel Steel Surfaces Surfaces

Applying Applying Cutting Cutting Fluids Fluids

Figure 22.12 Schematic illustration of the proper methods of applying cutting fluids (flooding) in various machining operations: (a) turning, (b) milling, (c) thread grinding, and (d) drilling.

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Turned Turned Surface Surface Feed Feed Marks Marks


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Surface roughness:
f2 8R where f = feed R = tool - nose radius Ra =

Terminology Terminology
Independent Variables
Material (machinability) Cutting tool Speed (sfpm) Depth of cut (in) Feed (ipr or ips) Cutting conditions
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Dependant Variables
Metal removal rate Cut time Horsepower Temperature Surface finish

Figure 21.23 Schematic illustration of feed marks on a surface being turned (exaggerated). R. Jerz
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Feed Feed and and Speed Speed Selection Selection

Factors Factors Influencing Influencing Machining Machining

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Energy Energy Requirements Requirements

Tool Tool Life Life Economics Economics

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Tool Tool Life Life


Taylors tool life model Fredrick Taylor 1907 (ASME) z VTn = C (.08<n<.7)
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Taylor Taylor Tool Tool Life Life Equation Equation


Taylor Equation:

VT n = C VT nd xf y = C

Where V = surface speed (in/min) T = tool life in minutes n = value based on material and tool C = a constant

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Buying Buying Tools Tools -- Companies Companies


Carboloy Kennemetal z Many others
z z

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