Inspiration and Expiration: Yoga Practice through Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of the Body Author(s): James Morley Source

: Philosophy East and West, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Jan., 2001), pp. 73-82 Published by: University of Hawai'i Press Stable URL: . Accessed: 01/05/2011 10:50
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I shall distinguish existentialfromtranscendental phenomenologyand then proceed to show how this other version of phenomenology can make a fruitfulcontributiontoward providing a frameworkfrom within the Western philosophical traditionfor understanding the practiceof yoga. and not only in the context of a series of academic debates.V. I have approachedyoga as an experience or phenomenon. Academic discoursethat is centered entirelyon the theoreticalconcepts of yoga philosophies must to some extent remain incomplete.In so doing. Number 1 January 2001 73-82 ? 2001 by University of Hawai'i Press 73 .K. Earlier comparative studies have been concerned with the thought of Merleau-Ponty's philosophical predecessor. Edmund Husserl.1 While I will not contest the validity of these comparisons.Desikachar. The academic discussion of yoga can answer certain pedagogical goals. My approachto yoga will be less concerned with a comparisonbetween MerleauPonty'sthoughtand the texts of classical yoga than with the elucidationof the actual experience of breath control through the constructsprovided by Merleau-Ponty's philosophyof the lived body. Patanjali'sYogaSutrasis itself a manual of practice.ratherthan a more the commentaryof the scholar-practitioner exclusively theoreticalcommentary.these studies have taken a differentdirectionfrom the presentstudy. While comparisonshave been made between yoga and phenomenology.INSPIRATION AND EXPIRATION:YOGA PRACTICE THROUGH MERLEAU-PONTY'S PHENOMENOLOGY OF THE BODY JamesMorley in Psychology.The AmericanInternational SeniorLecturer Universityin London Introduction of the yoga practiceof pranayama Thisessay offersan interpretation (breathcontrol) that is influenced by the existential phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. It is for this reason that I have chosen to take as the basis of my study T. but it can never finally be severed from doing yoga. just as transcendental phenomenology has alreadyprovideda means for establishinga common conceptual ground.Thus. between ClassicalYogaConcepts Summaryof ConceptualConcurrences and Transcendental Phenomenology Phenomenologyin general seeks to comprehendthe perceived or lived world prior to metaphysicalcategorizations. I wish to offer another perspectiveon the yoga-phenomenologycomparisonthat is less idealisticor transcendental and more existentialor concrete in orientation.This is made possible by a method of radical re- Philosophy East & West Volume 51. and the consonance between the transcendental aspects of his earlierthoughtand thatof the more idealistschools of classical yoga.

neitheran internality contributionwas to tighten the concept of tiotemporalopenness.that is. self-evidentknowledge.Husserldistinguishesthe "hidden 'I"' of transcendental subjectivityfrom the psychological ego that is still immersed within the subject-object bifurcation. typically translatedas "being-in-the-world. or. but a spaworld.forto do so would be to turnthe experience into an practitioner and hence distortits meaning. which lies beyond the psychological mind (chitta)and envelopes the division between perceiverand perceived. Hence. Heidegger'sconcept of dasein (literally is that of a historically "there-being"). or any kind of precomparative suppositionabout the existence of the world and its objects. object In a remarkably similarmanner. doubt.he advocates a transformation of the mental structuresthat inhibit clear perception in order to develop a reflexive "witnessconsciousness"towardour own process of perceivingthe world.5 rehabilitation 74 PhilosophyEast& West .Heidegger'sdasein is always already "in and of" the world. in existential phenomenology. Individualhuman beings are immersed within and arise out of existence generally."4 the convention Western Rejecting thoughtto thinkin termsof binaryantonyms. rigorous technique the goal of which is a purifiedperception (purusa)untaintedby mental conditioning or habits such as present passions. Merleau-Ponty's dasein throughan existential-phenomenological of the humanbody. futuredesires. perhaps best explained as an absolute suspensionof belief. Existential of PureSubjectivity Phenomenology:TheCritique "Existential" phenomenology appeared through Heidegger'scritique of the metadualism cast in binaryopposiphysical implicitin the idea of a "puresubjectivity" in tion to a "puremateriality. converphenomenology.2As pure. "chittavritti approachclosely Husserl'sepoche. or past impressions(karma).neithersubject nor object. human existence is adhered to the nor an externality.this is especially evident in Patanjali's where the Sanskrit term nirodahacan be shown to YogaSutras of yoga. towarddeath.Heideggerassertedthatthere can be no subjectivity apart fromthe world. Builtinto both theories is the ideal of a pure consciousness that remainsas a residue of this methodologicalcleansing process: an a priorior pure subjectivitydistinctfrom an externalobjective world.Certainaspects of the yoga literature consonance with the epoche of transcendentalphenomenology. to put it anotherway: it is the relationbetween subjectand world that is priorto their categorical division. samadhican only be occupied by the but neverdescribed.3Like Patanjali."roughlytranslatesas "Yoga is the suspension (nirodaha) of thought (chitta). Nirodahais the routeto attaininga pureconsciousness (samadhi). Pataijali'sclassic summary of the fluctuanirodaha." is tions (vritti) nirodaha a meditation Thus. show a gent with yogic meditativepractices. Earlier studies of yoga and phenomenology have rightlystressedthis particular aspect of out in Husserl's transcendental as first set early approach. As a developmentaway from Husserl'searlierphenomenologyof transcendentalsubjectivity." situatedexistence that is aware of itselfas existing in a finite temporalhorizon.flection that is widely known as the "phenomenologicalreduction"or epoche.

9 Breathcontrol is JamesMorley 75 .His term sens antonyms connotes both "sense experience" and "meaning. Althoughwe will remain with the term "lived body" for the purposes of this essay.that crosses subjectivityand objectivity."on the other hand. a nexus between the twin roles of the active agent of perceptionand the passive object of perceptionby others. the goal of yoga is to achieve a cosmic "homology"between the body and the world. which refusessubject-objectdistinctions. TheLivedBody and Yoga A concept of the lived body. The body is understood as a microcosm of the external universe." philosophical "being"is not only laden with centuries of traditionbut is itself an abstractand overly intellectualized term. but employs the perceptualrelationbetween the self and the world as the means of meditationpractice. Merleau-Ponty's deliberately the where term replaces Heiddeger's"being-in-the-world. human body . he turns convention around to view the external world in termsof the body's elemental corporeality.Controlof the body is equated with the masteryof externalnature.The nexus may not be separated into subject and object or self and world. betterserves Merleau-Ponty's goal of bringingphilosophy "down to earth"."6 The lived body is the embodied consciousness.embodied characterof human life. expresses elemental.Merleau-Ponty's Conception of the Lived Body than a Buildingon Heidegger'srevisionof subjectivityas a self-worldrelationrather focused on the "zero point" of consciousness apartfromthe world. The Visibleand the Invisible.7it capturesthe intimate. flesh is a way of describingnot only the but the basic substance of the world. in Eliade'sterms. To Merleau-Ponty. raw dimensionthat is a crossingpoint between subject and object. innew phrase "flesh-of-the-world" ternal and external."The lived body. grounds personal life as well as the impersonalor "Now we mustthinkof the objective dimensionof natureof which it is a participant.8 Where "body"could suggesta "flesh" better an (chair) complex system.and this control is achieved throughfocusing the senses. but is an irreducible foundation. The "lived body" of the earlier or elemental writingsis recastas "flesh" in the laterwork. of inanimate materialelements. The focus on sense experience grants primacy to the body. Merleau-Ponty this relation: the lived body is this especially relevantfor the experience of yoga. in contrastto the medical or physical body. Yoga not only affirmsthe existence of the externalworld. Merleau-Ponty adopts the term "flesh" to express the continuitybetween the surfaceand depth of the world and that of the body. Merleau-Ponty highlightshumansensoryexperience as emblematicof metaphysical such as subject and object or interiority and exteriority.personal. "Flesh.Flesh contains the ambiguous interplaybetween subject and object.which he shows to be the pre-categorical ground sought by Husserland Heidegger. body and world. it should be mentioned here that in his final work.. as that which perceives naturewhich it also inhabits. then describingthe body in terms Rather body. or. to capture its primordial character.

Pranayama. habituallyexperienced as an "outer body" in contact with the external world. that is. We experience the expansionof the chest in inhalation.psychical space. his explication of interiority Used conventionally. in our awareness of our bodies.the emblem or mastermetaphorof this goal. breathcontrol. is to separate the "outer"body in contact with the externalworld fromthe "inner"body-that which we carry around inside ourselves. The experience of pranayamapoints us to a central aspect of Merleau-Ponty's and exteriority. which is relegatedto the marginsof our ordinaryexperience. prevailsagainstthis alienation:it is the concrete experience of the body as a relationbetween inside and outside. heart and cavities. We come to live the opening and closing of tendons. or inhabit. we take up what is involuntary and pranayama appropriateit into what Husserl would call "the sphere of ownness. valves. ratherthan outwardto the world. our perception is alienated from the sentient mass of our or bodies. as being also an "inner body. Inthe context of asanawe focus only on breathingrhythms. is broughtinto focus by yoga practice.perceptionbecomes directedto the source of discomfort. as images observablefrom an externalpoint of view.Thissimple experience. integralto the practiceof yoga." not just occupying physical space. in the case of illness. outside the context of illness.terms like "outside" and "inside" are inimical to Merleau- 76 PhilosophyEast& West .and the blood's flow throughthe course of the arteries.We thinkof ourselvesin termsof our mirrorimages. Unfortunately.I am made aware of the body. To breathe is to pull external air into ourselves and rhythmically to release outward somethingof ourselves.10The centralplace of the body in the thesis of the theoryand practiceof yoga suggestsa comparisonwith Merleau-Ponty's of the and could serve as a of mutual clarification. of enclosed or encircled corporealspace. When we fall ill or experience extraordinary body sensations. The objects of external sense become the focus of our experience. Ill health makes us acutely aware of our potentialfor perceptualinversionperceptiondirected inwardto the hollow of the body.the perceptionof the deep tissues of the Proprioception body. we develop an invertedsense of our muscles.We note how the lungs change tide between contractionas expirationmoves outwardonly breaths."11 In psychoanalytic languagewe "cathect. so common to us all.We incorporate the autonomic nervoussystem into the realm of the voluntary.the quickenedtempo of the heart.the corporealspace that is otherwise habituallyrelegatedto the zone of external nature. is invertedperception. lung these corporealzones as we do with externalvisible limbs. so that we tend to privilegethat aspect of our body that is accessible to the external-observer perspective. philosophy of the lived body.and the movementof interior to pause between breathsbefore beginningthe cycle again. that is."occupy.on the contrary. but as inhabited. Throughthe practiceof posgives us proprioception tures (asana)togetherwith pranaya-ma. Such a separationtends to an alienation that we habituallyexperience in relationto our bodies. distance ourselves or "defend" ourselves from the traumaof pain. primacy body point Our habitual tendency. this is such an unpleasantexperience that we tend to "depersonalize"our bodies. Correspondingly. The yogic practice of pranayama.

Strikingly. this differentiation differentiates is what also permits an empathy with the surface of the objects. to understand the experientiallyfullspace of sentientflesh.As much as the surfaceof my body me fromthe objects aroundme. but is closer to the traditional concept of "element"-earth. or dimension surmounts this difficultyby framinginteriority and exteriorityin a way that is distinct fromthe Newtonianconcept of abstractspace. air. to the view that the body and the world are a continuum:"whereare we to put the limitbetween the body and the world.and not. allows the "outside" to be drawn entirelywithin it: "In any case. fire.depth. The enclosed space of the body is. as Merleau-Ponty uses it. and is used in relationto inorganicmatter. which is purgedof subjectivity.that is. throughwhich we experience exactly this corresponhis use of the metaphorof breathingto explain the self-worldredence. JamesMorley 77 . by makingmyselfa world and makingthem flesh. In traditional philosophy. Yet.but as an exemplarsensible.'3 naturally uses the words "thickness"and "corporeity" as synonymsfor Here. Corporeity. is not matterin the Newtonian sense.the idea of differencewithin identity.there is a ramification of my world and a correspondence between its inside and my outside. since the world is flesh?"12"Outside"and "inside" seem to world imply the exactly rigid demarcationbetween the thing and the surrounding that Merleau-Pontyis arguing against. focus on the human body as a mass of consciously occupied flesh Merleau-Ponty's recasts the meaning of space. Merleau-Ponty "The of the far thickness body space. from rivallingthat of the world. between my inside and its outside. to see a visible world is also to maintaina distance. He continues: body. which combine qualitywith substance. the active power of seeing is also interwovenwith one's passive enclosure within the world of visible things..The perceivingor sentientbody bringsobjects into visibilityas much as it is itselfbroughtinto visibilityby the seeing power of othersentientbeings. It is thatthe thickness of the fleshbetweenthe seerandthe thingis constitutive forthe Itis forthe samereason as forthe seerof hiscorporeity. This is exemplified in the phenomenonof sight. a homology with and microcosm of the world."15 and exteriorityis immediatelyrelevant Merleau-Ponty's explicationof interiority to the practiceof pranayama. not seen as matter. crucially. the terms "inside" and "outside" become semantically necessary when we engage with the body's spatiality. then.. Merleau-Ponty's descriptivelanguage of spatiality. The body."14The concept of "flesh"expresses. or inhabitedclosure is itselfthe means throughwhich configuration I apprehendthe depth of the objects and entities aroundme as co-enclosures. At the same time. Thus. is on the contrarythe sole means I have to go into the heartof the things.. So it is with depth: my body's spatial as an occupied. Seeing and being seen are not collapsed into one another.Ponty'sprojectof collapsing the subject-objectdistinctions. almost in yogic terms. once a body-worldrelationship of my body and a ramification is recognized. Mass is the continuum of interiorand exteriorthat defines human embodiment. thatI am thingof itsvisibility andis thereby of thevisibleandthatIamfarfromit:becauseit hasthickness at the heart destined to be seen as a body.

" writes. we must turn to Merleau-Ponty's appropriationof gestalt psychology's conception of the The dynamic. never disappears. the most primarybeing that of field phenomena or the figure-ground.. In his manual The Heartof Yoga:Developing a PersonalPractice..In his last publishedpaper. this totalitycan invert: we can particular. deep within our being.Desikachar asks the practitioner to recallthat "yoga is the practiceof observingoneself without and he as "somethingwe experigoes on to define yoga informally judgement. lation applies preciselyto the experience of pranayaima. Visibility is possible through its invisiblefield. the life aroundit. . it sustains the formof the object. In a working note to The Visibleand the Invisible."18 ence inside. between the interiority of the world and my body's exterior. it is intrinsicto his understandingof the self-world relation.."16 literally.however.That is the mind.there is a reversiblerelationbetween the body as it actively senses and the body as it is passivelysensed by. figure-ground gestalt psychologistsposit that all perception is bound within certain perceptuallaws. background."17 Thus. Yoga is not an externalexperience. MerleauPonty takes from Husserl the term "interwoven" (verflockten)and "within one another"(ineinander) to preservethe distinctionbetween sensing and being sensed while also maintaining the mutuallyconstitutiverelationbetween these active and passive aspects of the humanbody. this reversal. Ifwe do not pay attentionto ourselves in our practice."19It is disbeforean audience because "We do it only for tinguishedfromotherartsperformed ourselves.Merleau-Ponty writes. We focus on an object at the cost of losing our focus on its This background. The important of figureand ground is point here is that the structure itselfa totality.the figure and groundback and forthat will. speak 'inspiration' the word should be taken "Eye and an expirationof Being.may be seen to underlie Desikachar'sdescriptionof yoga practice. reversibly.. We are both observerand what is observedat the same time. of the active and passive aspects of the humanbody as co-constitutive. he of and "We and Mind. There is a "correspondence between" my body's inside and the outside of the world and. Graspthis chiasm. Reversibility is at the heartof the figure-ground relationand is fundamentalto Merleau-Ponty's philosophicalproject.. The backgroundis presentthroughholdingthe object or offering the field throughwhich it may come into focus.or reverse."21 78 PhilosophyEast& West .Moreover. The notion of reversibility. obverse and reverse."If one wants metait would be better to say thatthe body sensed and the body sentientare as the phors.20The state of yoga is described by Desikachar in terms not only of the observing "witness consciousness" but also of "what is observed.In fact.Therereallyis an inspiration Yogaand Reversibility To graspfully the natureof corporeityas a relationof inside and outside."The identityof the practitioner is not extractedfromthe observablebut is experienced as a totality thatjoins the observerand the observed. then we cannot call it yoga" (emphasis mine). and vice versa. "The true philosophy" is to "apprehendwhat makes the leaving of oneself be a retiring into oneself.

the body in a foregrounds which has manner not sufficientlyacknowledged in Husserl'stranscendentalism."Throughpratyahara in a switch between terms. I focus on breath to put the rest of the perceived world into the background. object. without rejectingHusserl.In much the same vein. translatedby Desikacharas "to (vairagya).The subject engages with the point of focus until he or she is joined with and assumesthe positionof the point of focus (samadhi). Conclusion At the beginning of this essay.12. "While the termpraprocess centralto Merleau-Ponty's in construed terms of in is we withdrawal. pure consciousness or samadhi. I offered a brief summaryof how the goal of yoga practice.The significance or value of the comparisonbetween Merleau-Ponty's thought and yoga is not that it framework for an established nonto a Western attempts impose philosophical Westerntradition: such an attemptwould do less than justice to the integrity of the I yoga tradition. figure-ground general world and single In the relation. may be approachedtheoreticallythrough Husserl'stranscendentalphenomenology. In this context.But in yoga I paradoxicallywithdraw my senses to achieve control over my sensory processes: I diminish my senses to strengthenthem.But when consideringthe concrete yoga practices requiredfor the attainmentof samadhi. concentrateon one sense object (of any sense) to exclude external distractionsor one develops an ability to push them into the background. that yoga is an importantresource for phenomenologistsundertaking future research in the JamesMorley 79 .K. of existential with its the lived manifests key concept Ponty's body.Rather. tyahara literally practisingpratyahara. hope to establish.Once accomplished. T. and a linkor relationis developed between self and object.Desikachar. gestalt perform." lends itselfto comparison to the figure-ground thesis. "The state of yoga is achieved by simultaneouslystriving(abhyasa)and lettinggo The yogic technique of pratyahara."22 withdrawoneself fromthat which nourishesthe senses. phenomenology. I mentioned the theoretical convergence between the concept of samadhi and Husserl'sconcept of transcendental subjectivity. concentrationis held and sustained(dharana) by holdingthe point of focus. My perception becomes heightened once I learn to withdraw perception.the key practice.deliberatelyadopted by the practitioner. commenting on Yoga Sutra 1. Specifically.V. a concurrencewith yoga practicethattakes greateraccount of the centralrole of the and exteriorityand his thesis of body in that practice.The classical yoga traditioncalls this ekagrataor "one pointedness"to describe this yogic concentration. figure-ground any will of focus do (such as an image or sound) but breath is the most parapoint digmatic point of focus. this is meditationproper (dhyana).we might productivelyturn to Merleau-Ponty's Merleaudevelopmentof Husserl'slateramendmentsof his own transcendentalism. Desikachar observes. In breath extension. His explication of interiority resonate with the reversibility phenomenologicaldescriptionsof yoga as exemplified in the writings of the scholar-practitioner.pranayama. hithertobeen the sole basis for the comparisonof yoga and phenomenology. even throughthis brief study.

EdmundHusserl. and Ramakant Sinari. 1962).2d trans.1988). is in some kind of spatiotemporal orientation to the perceiver'sbody. Studiesin the Phenomenologyof Constitution. He states that every object. real or imagined." Yoga Praxisand the Transformation in Journalof IndianPhilosophy25 (1997): 1-67."Nirodaha. vol.Inthe less-knowntext of IdeasII. Puligandla. we can see how Husserlhimselfbegan to focus on the lived body. Notes I wish to thankthe National Institute of Advanced Studies. Rieber(New York: Ho. ogy. and Robert Paranjpe."Phenomenological Reductionand Yogic Meditation.which was only publishedin Germanin 1951 and translatedinto Englishin 1989."PhilosophyEastand West 20 (1) (January 1970): 19-33." PhilosophyEastand West 15 (3-4) (July-October1965): 217-228. This was without the author'sknowledge or permissionand after the author had grantedcopyrightto Universityof Hawai'i Pressfor publicationin -PhilosophyEastand West. to Dr.In Martin Heidegger."The Method of PhenomenologicalReduction and Yoga. Hanson. F. 701.Ideaspering world of the ego has its relationto the body" (Edmund a to Pure a and to taining Phenomenology PhenomenologicalPhilosophy. Only through the body does the world become real:"all that is thingly real in the surroundHusserl.India. Y. 5 . 215-231. Whicher providesa detailed etymological and philosophical analysis of the term nirodaha. San Francisco:HarperSanFrancisco. he claims the conventional translationof nirodahaas "stoppingthe mind" does not do justiceto the subtletyof the termand to yoga philosophyand practicein general. SundarSarukkai A version of this paper was published in the newsletterof The Transpersonal Psychology Review. Being and Time. R. 80 PhilosophyEast& West ."Phenomenology.namely to bring Western thought ongoing project prescribedby Merleau-Ponty: "down to earth"by focusing on the lived human body as philosophicaland psychological ground." in Asian Contributions to PsycholAnand ed. 3 .Bangalore. pp. of the Mind. Thanksare particularly due for many prolongedand enjoyable academic discussions. 4 . PraegerPublishers.RichardRojcewicz book. John Macquarrieand Edward Robinson (New York:Harperand Row.See A. 2 .for the researchfellowshipthat enabled me to begin this essay. 1 . 17. All of the above focus exclusively on the earlywritingsof Husserlas the point of comparisonbetween phenomenologyand Patahjali'sYogaSutras. trans. David W.See lan Whicher."in EncyclopaediaBritannica (1951). Paranjpeand K. "On Dealing with the Streamof Consciousness: A Comparisonof Husserland Yoga. C. In brief. p.

10 . Northwestern with an introd.and Politics. out of which the pure ego intuitsspace and the whole world of the senses. 1987). 1989]. ImmanuelKant.The Critiqueof PureReason. 61). 13.1914. and this refersnot only to what actuallyappearsbut to each thingthat is supposedto be able to appear"(ibid. trans. See also M. 17 (Cambridge: Harvard University MotilalBanarsidass.49-55. Glossary Keywords(Berkeley:Universityof California Press.trans. Dorian Cairns (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Routledge KeganPaul. p. (1945. T. 22). CartesianMeditations. Yoga:Discipline of Freedom:The A Translation to Patanjali: of the Text. Yoga:Immortality Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress.Willard R.K.Themesfrom the Lecturesat the College de France: 1952-1960. Colin tion."supposethat objects mustconform convention piricist to our knowledge" (1781.MauriceMerleau-Ponty.Desikachar(Madras:Affiliated East-West Pressin associationwith Rupaand Co. 6 .1964). History." which is "the bearerof the here and now..V.which was only extended by Merleau-Ponty." Fromthis we can see how Husserlwas moving in a direction. John O'Neill (1968. Evanston:NorthwesternUniversity Press.trans.the bearerof the here and now.. The Primacyof Perceptionand Other Essayson Phenomenological Psychology. Trask(1954.Called Yoga-sutras. 97. Phenomenologyof Percepand Smith London: trans.and Andre Schuwer [Dordrechtand Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. and Freedom. Varanasi: a popular style is by Barbara Stoler Miller. ed. p.with a commentarydirected toward practiceand rooted in a living yoga tradition. Yoga SutraAttributed of and Introduction. 7 . 11 . in 1966). with an introd. Harvard Oriental Series. 9 .JamesM. 1962).Edmund Husserl. trans.even a fantasyexists in relationto the corporeal "zero point. p. Thus for the later Husserl. Merleau-Ponty. The translationI have preferred.NormanKempSmith[New York:Macmillan.with Commentary. 92-99.1977). vol. 1996). The Yoga-systemof Pataijali: Or. The standardacademic translationis by JamesHaughton Woods..YogaSutra2.trans. 1970).is Patanijali's Yogasutras: An Introduction. and comment. A more recenttranslation Press. Thus each thing that appears has eo ipso an orientingrelationto the body.. pp.. 128. Edie(Evanston: UniversityPress. p. 200-273). 8 .Merleau-Ponty's reversalof convention here is akin to Kant'sreversalof emin his famous premise. 1969).Maurice Merleau-Ponty. The Ancient Hindu Doctrine of of Mind. JamesMorley 81 .Mircea Eliade. groundedon corporealexperience and not the transcendental ego that is the basis of the comparativestudies cited above. 61). the Philosophy of Art. Concentration of Patainjali. obviously connected with this is the distinctionthe body acquires as the bearerof the zero point of orientation. He even goes so far as to say: "Furthermore. p.1929]. Eliade'sscholarly discussion of hathayoga and tantrismis especially helpful(pp. p. Embracing the Mnemonic Rules.

Ibid.Ibid.The Heartof Yoga:Developing a PersonalPractice(Rochester. 167. p.Desikachar. Merleau-Ponty.V.M. Claude Lefort and trans. ed.Desikachar. 135. 21 . 199.p.Merleau-Ponty. 19.12 .1964). 23. 14. The Visibleand the Invisible:Followedby Working Notes. 113 n.Merleau-Ponty. 138.TheHeartof Yoga.Alphonso Lingis(Evanston: Northwestern UniverLe Visibleet l'lnvisible: sity Press.p.Ibid.Merleau-Ponty. p. 1968). 138. 1995). 15.. Vermont:InnerTraditions International. 18 .p. 16 .p. Also see M. 82 East &West Philosophy . The Visibleand the Invisible.Merleau-Ponty.ed. Primacyof Perception.T. Merleau-Ponty.Ibid. Claude Lefort (Paris: Gallimard.p. 13 .K. The Visibleand the Invisible. 136 n. 17 . The Visibleand the Invisible. 22 .p. 20 . Suivi de Notes de Travail.

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