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Prof. B.S. Thandaveswara
22.1 Lining the Canals
It is always assumed that seepage losses would be reduced from the theoretical calculations as between 3.7-1.8 cumec per million square metres (cumec/Mm2) for an unlined canal in the sandy or clayey loams to 0.6 cumec/Mm2 for a lined canal. In 1988 a field study of the performance of lined distributaries were losing 3.5 cumec/Mm2 and watecourses were losing 3.7 cumec / Mm2. Why is there such a gap between assumptions at the feasibility stage and what happens in practice? Old earthen irrigation channels in permeable soils can lose a lot of water through seepage. Large losses through the bed and sides of canal lead to low conveyance efficiency; that is, (the ratio of water reaching farm turnouts to that released at the source of supply from a river or reservoir). Earthen canals also get clogged up with weeds which reduce the water-carrying capacity. These two factors combine to disadvantage of the tail end farmers. Therefore Unlined canals are inefficient, inadequate from the point of view of equitable performance. In Punjab, the expected saving by brick lining is of the order of 20% . The brick linings have 25 years of life. Total losses from unlined watercourses are known to be more than those from the main system, but they dont get the same attention during a lining programme. Lining programmes are divided into main system lining and watercourse lining. The main system canals (main, distributaries, and minors) are large channels supplying several watercourses. A typical value for the seepage rate in an unlined channel in clayey loam is 1.8 m3/s per M m2 and through a rendered brick line water course or canal reduces to 0.1 m3/s per M m2. However, if the impervious canal lining has few crack what would happen? The experiments indicate it as good as that of the original unlined case when the ground water level is high. Inspite of the above observation, lining can significantly reduce conveyance losses. Lined channels have a smaller surface area for a given discharge than unlined
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
S. the effects of lining watercourses is still to be established. When estimating the reduction in losses from a lining programme. A sample of 15 out of 130 watercourses were tested on the 30. In one 26-year lining test.4 m3/s per Mm2 but others has losses of up to 11. However. At the Kraseio Scheme in Thailand.5 m3/s per Mm2. The design life of concrete and brick lined channels is generally assumed to be 25-50 years. B.000 ha Mudki subsystem of the Sirhind Feeder in Ferozpur district using ponding tests and inflow-outflow methods. Overall conveyance losses were significantly greater than seepage losses alone. The variability of conveyance losses was observed to be related to the condition of the channels. Lining of the distributary canal seemed to have had a beneficial effect on the equity of supply between watercourses. Therefore even at the same loss rate per unit area there will be a saving in water. this should be based on the combination of a reduced cross-section and a reduced seepage rate per unit area. Major repairs of lined channels are sometimes required within a few years of construction. The mean and variability of seepage losses increased dramatically for lining more than four years old. Losses from raised watercourses with cracked or broken linings appeared as surface leakage causing waterlogging of adjacent fields and localised crop damage. This was due to poor quality control during construction. with losses as low as 0. particularly earth compaction behind sidewalls. Thandaveswara channels.Hydraulics Prof. and a lack of subsequent maintenance. Some lining older than four years performed as well as new linings. long lengths of the concrete lined main canals have needed to be replaced each year. whilst seepage rates from watercourses were highly variable. a complete repair of the drained test channel was required every 22 months. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . measurements on lined distributaries and watercourses between four months and seven years old showed that seepage rates from the distributaries rapidly became comparable to seepage rates from unlined canals. Typically a lined channel will have 40% of the unlined surface area for a given discharge. In the Indian Punjab. completed in 1981.
Practice Adopted practice Ql = 1 / 200 ( B + D ) width and depth. This means a reduction in shear strength after a few drying and wetting cycles. Without adequate supervision. poor construction of channels will lead to reduce life and higher maintenance costs. Shear strength of clays depends on cohesion between particles.S. 19. Appendix (i) Table . Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 21. and losses can be up to 25% of the water diverted into the system. Q = Main discharge in the canal. shrinkage and settlement leads to progressive bank deterioration. Earthen watercourse in the Bikaner area of Rajasthan discharge an average 28.P. B.No 1 State U. Reference World Water.Hydraulics Prof. These cracks and the slow movement of shallow water favours developement of thick aquatic weeds.1 Salient Aspects of Seepage through Lined Canals : Sl. The cracks opened in dry periods do not close fully when saturated by water flows. The reinforced concrete lining would reduce the seepage loss drastically and has lower operation and maintenance costs. especially of water courses which must withstand a great deal of wear and tear.3 l/s. If lining goes ahead.9Q1 / 6 2 Punjab & Haryana K l = Seepage loss in cumecs / 106 sq. but begin to seep and leak badly after little more than a year. 2/ 3 Ql = Seepage losses in cumecs/km length B and D are bed Kl = 1. Thandaveswara There is no watertight case for or against lining. the cracks appear and close up again on wetting. a high standard of construction is essential. In a newly-formed compacted clay masses the interparticle cohesion is high. pp 16. The cycle of swelling. On first drying. and strcuturally weaken the banks. which encourages the drying and the cracking process. but do not regain their original interparticle cohesion. This obviously adds significantly to the cost of maintenance.mof wetted area. April 1989. heaving.
if it is to be available when and where it is required. Without cracks III i. from year to year and from season to season. sub-canal. stored and transported. distributary.00928Q 0.S) lined canal: Ql = 0.20% of head discharge 5 CBIP Table-2 Salient Aspects of Seepage through Lined Canals (After Yu.136 * 10-7 0.694 * 10-10 Soil film lining 0.575 * 10-6 0.7% of head discharge Distributory and minors . M. Smooth ii.295 * 10-3 IV V Plastics as a lining material Introduction Water suitable for human consumption.331 * 10-6 0. Since precipitation is the only source of all fresh water and since it varies from place to place.40 cumecs / 106 m 2 of wetted surface and 20% extra for distributory system.652 * 10-9 / 0. Protective layer of local soils ii.221 * 10-11 / 0.367 * 10-7 0.245 * 10-8 0.60 cumecs / 106 m 2 of wetted surface Unlined canal: Ql = 1. livestock and irrigation is limited in many parts of the world.981 * 10-9 / 0.318 * 10-6 / 0. Protective layer of compacted clay Soil Membrane Unlined channel Type of lining and character of disturbance Permeability Kl m/s Concrete-film lining 0. water course and finally during application in the Indian Institute of Technology Madras .334 * 10-4 / 0. Smooth ii.590 * 10-11 / 0.85 to 2.556 * 10-7 1.114 * 10-9 Concrete lining 0.752 * 10-10 0.344 * 10-7 / 0.137 * 10-9 / 0. The loss of irrigation water in a canal system occurs during its conveyance through canal.5265 (M. I i. Crack with rough walls iii.516 * 10-4 0.388 * 10-7 0.705 * 10-9 / 0.423 * 10-6 / 0. B.087 * 10-6 0.Hydraulics Prof.K. Silted cracks iv.189 * 10-7 0. Silted cracks iv. Main canal . Kosichenko ): Sl.156 * 10-7 0.867 * 10-9 / 0.228 * 10-8 / 0.425 * 10-10 1 * 10-8 seepage loss Q m3/sec/m2 0.S. water must be collected.665 * 10-5 0. Without cracks II i.318 * 10-8 / 0.706 * 10-10 / 0.P.685 * 10-5 0.8% of head discharge Water surface .76 * 10-7 0.127 * 10-9 / 0. No.25Q 0.243 * 10-6 / 1. minor.141 * 10-7 0. Thandaveswara 3 4 Bhakra Nangal Andhra Pradesh Lined canal Kl = 1.225 * 10-8 / 0.564 * 10-7 / 1.056 (F.982 * 10-4 0.202 * 10-6 0. Crack with rough walls iii.S) Unlined canal ql = 0.
Only Canal 4 7 25 30 lined. Canal and Distributary 4 2 26 32 lined. in a completely unlined canal irrigation system the loss of irrigation water is as much as 71%. This loss is attributed to both evaporation and seepage losses. Irrigation and Power Research Institute at Amristar has particularly conducted intensive research in this field and a suitable lining technique has been evolved for existing earthen canals and channels. have been used for prevention of seepage losses. Total Loss 71 66 64 54 Net Utilization 29 34 32 46 It may be observed that. Thandaveswara field. seepage losses could be effectively minimised by the use of an impervious medium between the porous soil and the water flowing in the system. evaporation losses are a function of temperature. However. Conventional materials like clay. This technique is known as "Combination Lining" and in this. Whole system 4 2 6 42 lined. This technique has many advantages over the other methods of lining such as laying new lined parallel channels which involve construction of new Indian Institute of Technology Madras . the losses during the various phases of water conveyance was found to be as shown in Table Water use efficiency in percentage System Number of Water Field Characteristics Canals courses Losses Distributaries Entire system 15 7 22 27 unlined. This method can be conveniently adopted for lining distributaries during short closures. cement-concrete.Hydraulics Prof. B.S. It is not practicable to prevent evaporation loss (in some reservoirs this loss has been prevented by floating a thin PE film on the water surface) in running water. Table 2 shows the state wise break-up of irrigation resources and the length of major irrigation canals operating in each state. humidity and wind velocity. In a study made by the Central Water and Power Commission (1967). tiles. Most of the conventional methods are either too expensive or not very effective. a low cost Polyethylene film is laid at the bed of the canal or distributary whereas the sides are lined with pre cast brick-tile blocks.
B.7 501. efficient and quite suitable for lining the existing distributaries. regulators.666. a 400 gauge (100 microns) thick black LDPE film is used to line Indian Institute of Technology Madras .9 238. P. The behaviour of this lining laid in different channels in Punjab has been studied and it has been found that this low cost lining is durable. (b) Included in Punjab. 123 1480 Maharashtra 106 1427 Orissa 153 1149 Punjab 64 2888 Rajasthan 46 2132 Tamil Nadu 97 2592 U.2 2.437.4 561.S.Not Available (a) Includes Harayana. To render the canals seepage proof.2 869.4 2. 174 1489 All India 161 31207 Name of State/ Union Territory Percentage of net area irrigated in 1970-71 by various sources Canals 48 63 NA 38 17 62 98 37 49 48 22 23 45 35 34 48 65 40 Tanks 34 NA 8 2 32 17 9 16 51 13 35 34 20 14 Wells 15 NA 25 80 38 1 23 1 38 57 4 55 51 30 15 1 38 Others 3 37 100 100 100 NA 100 29 1 99 2 8 33 5 5 22 1 1 3 14 8 Length of major canals in km 1.683.098.3 32. Gujarat State Irrigation Department is also using Combination Lining.8 137.242.2 NA NA 906. Moreover.949. regime and stability of the channel are not changed. 117 7190 W.2 1.Hydraulics Prof. * Source : Irrigation Commission (1972).6 491. the existing section.9 NA. Average Net irrigated rainfall area in cm '000 hectares 1970-71 Andhra 900 3313 Assam 240 572 Meghalaya 241 37 Nagaland 193 12 Manipur 193 65 Sikkim 355 NA Tripura 193 22 Bihar 132 2160 Gujarat 81 1209 Haryana 76 1532 H.0 17.P. B.546.4 1. falls and outlets.924. Thandaveswara bridges. 184 91 J&K 102 279 Karnataka 104 1137 Kerala 267 431 M. Table 2 Statewise distribution of Irrigation area under major irrigation canals.1 613.5 1. P. in case of combination lining.0 2. Irrigation supplies are also not interrupted as lining is done during short closures. Nearly 30 to 80 percent cost saving could be achieved by using combination type of lining as compared to double tile lining.
Minors. tar-felt. 600 gauge (150 microns) PE film was used in the canal bed overlaid with 45 cm soil cover. the progress is as much as 90 m. For further reduction of cost. This could be still further increased by using LDPE film lining with 60 cm to 90 cm soil cover. B. Gujarat. the total time involved in lining work can be substantially reduced. Distributaries. Thandaveswara the bed of the canal which is then covered with single layer brick masonry. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .65 meter has stayed water tight for about 15 years. In Government Canals. Permeability tests by IPRI showed that a 400 gauge PE film subjected to a hydraulic head of 3. Permeability tests on this type of lining.S. thus facilitating wider coverage during short closure of canals. tiles. The Anand Irrigation Division. have found that with double tile lining. By using this type of lining. Irrigation and Power Research Institute (IPRI). Distributaries: A Canal Irrigation system comprises of a network of Canals. A similar trial was also carried out in Azamgarh District of Uttar Pradesh by the UP State Irrigation Department. soil cover varying from 60 cm to 90 cm could be tried. Sub-Canals. etc. (c) Another advantage of this type of lining is the speed with which it can be laid at site. The water courses fall under the jurisdiction of the individual cultivators. The advantages of Polyethylene (PE) film lining are: (a) Cost factor is very much in favor of PE lining in comparison with conventional lining methods. with water courses forming the last link.Hydraulics Prof. (b) The PE film lining has the advantage of being a superior moisture barrier than any other construction material including cement-concrete. the work progress is around 30 m of canal length a day (15 m canal width) whereas for the combination type of lining using PE film with a cover of single tile masonry. the jurisdiction of the Irrigation Department is generally up to the minors. In this trial. at Amristar and Central Building Research Institute at Roorkee have conducted extensive trials on this type of lining.
Thandaveswara Use of Plastics for Lining of Canals Introduction Canal lining with LDPE film was undertaken in the country in 1959.C. LDPE film is susceptible for puncturing by uneven soil surface. weed growth etc. resistance to microbiological attacks. and to increase the velocity for reduction in canal sectional area due to smooth lined surface. In using P. will be able to provide the adequate supply of this plastic film for lining of canals. The LDPE films presently available are too smooth and glossy to hold mortar below blocks. as a measure to reduce seepage losses. are the plastics used for canal lining.C. mostly LDPE film has been used for canal lining. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). It is costly but suitable for both bed and sides.. chemically inert. Sand with a little silt content or sand wetted would stand well on slopes. Cover. flexibility. The purpose of the canal lining which helps in reduction in seepage to save water for additional irrigation. Punjab and Gujarat States were first to use this type of lining during 1959 to 1962 followed by other states subsequently. Cover/ P. impermeable to liquids and gases. C.. ease of transportation and installation etc. The characteristics of the plastic film are: Light in weight. cracks etc. Lining with bricks tiles etc.C. Black LDPE film lining over laid with soil cover or protective hard cover had been widely used during the last three decades. B. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Linear Low Density Polyethylene etc. P. In India. The LDPE film is used with soil cover/ C.C. A layer of sand would help as a leveling course. If the surface of the film is rough. in-situ is less costly and suitable for bed but not for sides. The Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE).S. pointing needs special attention. IPCL's Petro-Chemical Industry in Maharashtra. ensures quality control in case of canal lining on large scale. impact of feet. The hard cover over the film is meant to be the load over the film to keep it in position and also to be smooth surface for better flow conditions. is fraught with the problem of seepage through the joints.C.C. This naturally leads us to the use of impermeable plastic film to use as a cut-off. tile or brick lining indicating the necessity of developing rough or serrated films.C.C. it would keep the mortar in position.Hydraulics Prof. High Molecular High Density Polyethylene (HDPE).
If LDPE film is used. Therefore canal lining is obligatory and the use of LDPE film is bound to spread once its efficacy commensurate with economy is realized. the cost of lining would be 25 .S. Lined canal costs 20 . This additional cost due to canal lining using LDPE film is rather a wise investment as the benefits of water saved. additional irrigation and food production. Films of different thickness varying from 100 to 250 micron are used in bed or on sides. and 1:1 on Malaprabha canal.3:1 on Ravi Canal (J&K). Cement concrete cover over LDPE has been used on canals as steep as 1. The easy and practicable solution is a sand layer. B. Thandaveswara Vandalism with regard to LDPE film is due to lack of awareness of the farmers as to the value of water.Hydraulics Prof. and reduced canal section would more than offset that additional cost.30% (an increase of 5% due to film cost). A burrow does not stand in sand.25% more relative to cost of unlined canal. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Burrowing by rodents is a menace. and the hole gets closed.
Central Board of Irrigation and Power. May 1987 Venkatasubramanian K. New Delhi.S. 7-8. B.N. Government of India undertaking. Kamal Nanavaty. august 1968. Vadodara. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Role of plastics in water management published by Indian Petro chemicals Corporation Limited.S 1 1 1 1 LDPE Film Free board LDPE Film Single tile lining in Cement Mortar LDPE Film LDPE Film Lining of Canal with LDPE film Reference "Proceeding of the workshop on Use of Plastics for Lining of Canals". Thandaveswara F.Hydraulics Prof. Prasanta Misra .
Performance of different Canal Linings The details regarding the design. Soil Cement Lining.P) Gandak Canal (U. Cement Concrete. Precast Blocks. Lime Concrete Lining. Brick Tile Lining. Cement Concrete and Pattanamkal Main Canal ( Tamil Nadu) Metal. Cement Concrete and Rethapuram Channel (Tamil Nadu) Metal. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sandwiched Brick Tile Lining. Peechi Irrigation Rubble Masonry in Cement Scheme (kerala) Mortar.S. Brick Lining. S. In situ Cement Concrete Manniaru Canal (Tamil Nadu) Lining. Precast Cement Concrete Left Bank Canal. Cement Concrete Lining. Kuthanur Branch (Kerala) Bitumen and Cement.Hydraulics Prof. Beas Project (Punjab) Yamuna Power Channel (U. Cement Concrete Lining. Left Bank Canal (Kerala) Precast Slabs and Blocks. Concrete. Lime Surkhi Concrete Lining. B. Sandwiched Brick Lining. Right Bank Low Level Canal (Karnataka) Krishnarajasagar Right Bank Low Level Canal (Karnataka) Type of lining Concrete and Tile Lining.P) Kosi Feeder Channel (U. Cement Concrete and Rubble Masonry. specifications and performance of various types of linings as provided in the case of the following projects. Kuttiady Irrigation (Kerala) Slabs. Right Bank Main Canal.P) Rajasthan Feeder Channel (Rajasthan) Banaskantha Left Bank Main Canal of Dantiwada Project (Gujarat) Banaskantha Left Bank Main Canal of Dantiwada Project (Gujarat) Mahi Right Bank Canal (Gujarat) Shetrunji Canal Project (Gujarat) Shetrunji Canal Project (Gujarat) Karad Project Canal (Gujarat) Tungabhadra Project (A. Single tile lining in bed and double tile lining in the side. Masonry Lining. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Canal Nangal Hydel Channel (Punjab) Sundernagar Hydel Channel. Pamba Irrigation Project and Cement Concrete (Kerala) Lining. Thandaveswara Table 3 .P) Lower Ganga Canal-Link Canal (U.P) Krishanarajasagar Canal (Karnataka) Krishnarajasagar. Random Rubble Masonry Left Bank Main Canal. Tiles Lining with plasting. Cement Concrete Tile Lining. Brick and Concrete Tile.No.
Less than 10 percent. Sand .OMC ± 1.45 . Thandaveswara KERS. 22. Bombay after conducting field studies with various types of backing materials in swelling soil (especially black cotton soil) area in Karnataka has suggested that a 1 m thick cohesive non-swelling (CNS) layer covered with P.30 . Backing Material for Swelling Soil I. B.25 percent Compaction .C.0.C.T. The minimum specification suggested for backing material is Gravel . slabs would suffice the need for lining in swelling soil.Hydraulics Prof.96 percent of standard proctor density.5 cm and 30 cm murrum lining without any protective cover for small channels only.I..40 percent Silt . Krishnarajasagar had conducted experiments with different lining materials. viz. Moisture content . (2) Rough stone pitching over 15 cm thick layer of murrum backing. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .4 km distributory of Visveswaraya Canal and reported about 90% reduction in seepage losses when compared with unlined reaches. Krishnarajasagar had tried HMHDPE film (Tuflene) covered with 1:4:8 or 1:5: 10 Cement Concrete in a length of 140 m on 38. Shear Parameters . The size stone pitching and rough stone pitching have functioned well and have recommended size stone pitching for small channels in view of lower rugosity coefficient and lesser maintenance cost though it is slightly costlier initially.5 percent. Likewise Fibre glass Reinforced Plastic Tissue Asphaltic Canal Liner had been experimented.20 .2 kg/cm2 25° to 0.5 thick layer of murrum backing.5 kg/cm2 for 2 to 15° KERS.S. and (3) 15 cm. in layers not exceeding 20 cm.50 percent Clay . (1) Size stone pitching over 22.
74 1 m thick CNS layer IP 2.04 3.74 15 cm thick CNS layer 1 m thick CNS layer 2.74 Full Supply Depth Typical section in cutting at MRBC kilometer number 35.103 m PCC lining 3.82 2.43 Black Cotton soil 30 cm thick CNS 1m 30 cm thick CNS 2 m and below B __ + 2y 2 L Rock toe 30 cm thick sand blanket 2.74 FSD Typical section in deep cutting of Malaprabha Right Bank Canal kilometer number 35.74 below 2 m bed filling 60 cm thick CNS 2 m and above B __ + 2y 2 L 60 cm thick CNS Rock toe 1m 30 cm thick sand blanket Bed filling 2 m and below (b) Canal section in embankment Construction of Malaprabha Right bank Canal in expansive soil area using Cohesive Non-swelling Soil (CNS) layer of 1 m thickness as suggested by IIT-Bombay Indian Institute of Technology Madras .S.74 Bed filling 2 m and below PCC slab lining 2:1 SR 4.04 3. B.65 3. Thandaveswara PCC lining with drainage arrangement 3.74 FSD 2.04 2.354 (a) Canal section in cutting (a) Canal section in cutting PCC slab lining 2:1 FSD 2.04 3.43 15 cm thick CNS layer 1 1 2 __ 2 3.43 Black Cotton soil 30 cm thick CNS 2.04 1.Hydraulics Prof.74 SR 4.354 2.04 FB 3.26 1 m thick CNS IP 2.26 1 m thick CNS 2.04 2.
The thickness of the LDPE film depends on whether it is the primary water barrier constituent of the lining (in that case the thickness varies from 150-250 micron) and the rigid cover is provided to protect it against damage and heaving. Below the cover a LDPE lining is provided underlain by a graded sand filter normally placed to account for planned drainage. A B C D Details of Sandwitched Brick Lining Index: A = Top layer of 50.H.8 mm Flat Brick (C.525 mm thick Red Cement Mortar layer (1:5) E Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The top is usually a lining cover of either concrete slabs or brick tiles. Film of 175 micron thickness has been used in the bed lining of Indira Gandhi Main Canal in Rajasthan.875 mm layer of (1:3) Red Cement Mortar D = 50. B. in India the lining systems adopted generally consist of three components.1:3) B = A layer of (1:3) Red Cement Mortar 6.35 mm thick C = 15. Figure shows typical details of LDPE lined canal system used in India.S. depending on suitability.8 mm thick Flat Brick layer with joints of Red Cement Mortar of proportion (1:3) E = 9. Thandaveswara Geo synthetic Reinforced Canal Lining Currently. The rigid cover may also be provided as the main lining and the film is provided as a secondary back up specification (generally 100 micron film is provided for this purpose). Sometimes flagstone or soil as cover has also been used.Hydraulics Prof.
S.30 m centre to centre in cement concrete 1:3:6 with 10 mm metal rod FLAGSTONE LINING 40 to 50 mm thick on a bed of cement mortar 1:6 and pointing with 1:3 cement mortar 100 MICRON LDPE FILM AND GAUGE 20 mm THICK BEDDING IN CEMENT MORTAR 1:6 FLAGSTONE LINING LDPE 600/800/1000 Gauge Brick lining 76. B.2 mm thick in cement mortar 1:3 Dressed sub grade Brick Lining Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Hydraulics Prof. Thandaveswara TRANSVERSE SLEEPERS .
80 Percentages savings in water due to lining compared with unlined canal 81 93 60 68 State a) Unlined canal b) Conventional lined canal without LDPE film c) Lined Canal with LDPE film 2.5 mm a) Unlined Canal b) Lined Canal without LDPE film c) Lined Canal with LDPE film Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Thandaveswara Tenax Mint 100 Composite membrane as laid in profile HDPE Membrane 30 mm thick concrete size in flush point or brick lining for counter weight Geotextile filter Graded soil slope Tenax Mint 100 Composite liner and Drainage Perforated drainage pipe wrapped in Geotextile (Pressure relief drainage with laminar drainage path) SECTIONAL VIEW SHOWING DETAILS OF CANAL LINING It has been ascertained through field seepage tests that lined canals save a considerable amount of water loss as shown in Table Average seepage loss m3/s/million sq.Hydraulics Prof. B.43 0.25 0.S.00 0.16 GUJARAT 2.50 1.m Haryana 2.
KERS Minimum value of seepage after two years in m3 / s / M m2 0.94 20. The ill achieved compaction of side slope of a canal in most cases give rise to local shear failure due to lining overburden.0057 0.25 mm) HMHDPE 700 gauge (0. Tuflene with concrete cover (1 : 4 : 8 proportion) Before reconstruction 2.34 to 6.0008 0.63 m3 / s / M m2 After reconstruction 1. consequently.S.0008 Sl.1 mm) LDPE 1000 gauge (0. the membrane gets ruptured on many occasions.5 kg / m2) Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Under steep slope conditions and high flow discharge in the canal stringment reinforced cover specifications are required which often makes the construction process of the lined canal very tedious and time consuming. In such case of slope stability failure the unreinforced concrete slab cracks.Hydraulics Prof. or dead load and live load on cover or hydrostatic pressure. the unreinforced weak LDPE liner also gets damaged.1 mm) Inspite of the advantages offered by conventional lining system with and without LDPE film lining.30 rocky strata 0. For example.00 0. in case of lined canals with PCC concrete tiles as cover complete impermeability is not ensured as construction joints are a must between two concrete panels.12 rocky strata 90 96 Seepage studies . 1 2 3 Type of lining material Tuflene with brick in cement mortar cover. B.Ponding method Semi field Studies . LDPE membranes do not possess suffficient strength and hence under sub grade reaction. Fibre glass Reinforced Plastic Tissue Reinforced asphaltic canal liner (2. with excessive slope settlement. they have several shortcomings.53 m3 / s / M m2 LDPE 400 gauge (0. Thandaveswara WEST BENGAL a) Unlined Canal i) in rocky strata ii) in lateritic strata b) Conventional lined Canal without LDPE film c) Only LDPE film with soil cover 2. where the LDPE film below serves the lining purpose. No. Tuflene with earth cover.
geo composites.5 kN/m to 23 kN/m which can adequately resist soil pressure on slopes and distribute concentrated forces preventing local shear failure conditions from developing. The textile layer provided in these composites prevents the fines from interfering with the drainage path. Reference Som. Geo composites have strength ranging from 6. membrane-grid or grid-textile sandwiches which can be used depending on the requirement of the project. increasing canal capacity of discharge. Sarkar and Ranjana Majumder. The lining geo composites are found in combinations of membrane-grid-textile. The Geo composites are used in canal lining system with the water proof membrane in contact with the cover (required to weigh down the geo composite on the slope) and the geo textile is laid against the well graded slope. India. Proceedings Water Energy 2004. pp 262 to 274. geo drains. B. The grid eliminates the requirement of graded filter for drainage resulting in considerable reduction of time and costs.S. geo grids. New Delhi. The Geo net with its high drainage capacity prevents high pore pressure development on the slope and provides an efficient flow line. geo textiles. They include geo membrane. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Geo synthetic Canal Lining and Drainage As a fabric layer this system is extremely easy to install. In case of the canal lining systems Geo composites having HDPE membrane-gridtextile combination is the most suitable. S. Saving Geo synthetic lining vs Conventional lining 19%. Gabions are constructed using bi-oriented geo grids. International R&D Conference 1995. a few millimetres thick have the same capacity of drainage water as a graded sand layer a few hundred millimetres thick. gabions and mattresses. HDPE membranes composites now available in India. Geo composites are available in light weight roll form which can be easily laid on slopes as well as on prepared canal beds.Hydraulics Prof. Geo synthetic Reinforced Canal Systems and Irrigation Structures. Thandaveswara Geo synthesis for Irrigation Structures A wide range of Geo synthetic products find application in irrigation structures. eliminates the shortcomings of the LDPE lined canal systems. Drainage Geo nets.
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