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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT 400 level SIWES

DONE AT JULIUS BERGER NIG. PLC

(Berger junction,Utako-Abuja) BY IBE BENEDICT TOCHUKWU (20011115293) DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OWERRI.

CERTIFICATION This is to certify that this report has been written by Ibe Benedict Tochukwu (20011115293) of Civil Engineering Department, School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Owerri. This report reflects the experience acquired during the Industrial Training (SIWES).

DEDICATION This is dedicated to God Almighty.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My gratitude goes to God in Heaven, who has brought me thus far. Much thanks to the worlds greatest parents, Mr. and Mrs B. Ibe for their love, encouragement and support. Appreciation to my industrial based supervisors Mr. John Agwunedu and Mr Julius for their patience and help. I say a big thank you to my departments coordinator Dr Onwuka and all my lecturers for their academic support. I also want to appreciate Elijah Ochimana, Cynthia Yero and all my friends, too numerous to mention for their psychological support. God bless you all.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page Crtification Dedication Acknoledgement Abstract CHAPTER ONE
Introduction(SIWES) Brief history of Julius Berger Nigeria PlC Organsational chart of company

CHAPTER TWO
Piling works experience Preliminary site investigation Onsite tests

CHAPTER THREE
Laboratory

CHAPTER FOUR
Quarry

CHAPTER FIVE
Drainage works and Precast section

CHAPTER SIX
Superstructure and Bridge finishing

CHAPTER SEVEN
Conclusion

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION:

Industrial Attachment is a training acquired during the fourth year of a five-year technical course. It is one of the requirements for the fulfillment of B-Tech, Quantity Surveying, school of Environmental Technology in Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. It is usually for a period of six months. A student is attached to a company, industry depending on his/her discipline. This enables the student to learn and have an experience of what goes on in the professional setting of his/her career. For my industrial training, I was attached to a construction company, Julius Berger Nigeria Plc, situated at Utako District Abuja, FCT. I was posted to AAR-Abuja Additional Roads, Abuja. Other projects under this department are the AJA Abuja Jabi Addendum and the ARA Abuja Roads Addendum.
BRIEF HISTORY OF JULIUS BERGER NIGERIA PLC

Julius Berger Nigeria Plc is an affiliated company of Biltinger + Berger Bauktiegesellschaft in Germany. The Bilfinger + Group is active in all five continents and half of its volume of work is generated outside Germany. The company came into Nigeria in 1965 in response to an international tender to build the Eko Bridge in Lagos State of Nigeria.

Julius Berger Nigeria Plc was at first owned 60% by the parent company, Bilfinger + Berger Bauaktiengesellschaft in Germany while 40% stake in it being held by Lagos, Benue and Plateau States which were the main areas in which the company was initially active. The company relied on the parent company on expertise, logistics and other resources. The company came into limelight in construction Industry after handling the Eko Bridge (longest pre-stressed concrete bridge in Africa at that time) project and further major projects like roads, bridges, dams, infrastructural projects. All these helped to shape the development of Nigeria as a whole and of Abuja the Federal Capital. Julius Berger Nigeria Plc consist of mainly Nigerian and German employees. Based on the experiences in Nigeria, they have expanded their foreign activities. The company became registered in 1970 in Nigeria. The companys logo the Big B is meanwhile an integral part of the visual culture of this Nation. Julius Berger Nigeria Plc started out as a bridge building company by early 70s but along the way transformed into a major roadbuilder. The company concentrated on Lagos State where it handled projects such as Badagry Express way (first dual carriageway of its kind in the country). Badagry to seme pogi Road to the Border of the Republic of Benin, four-lane motorway 33km long. Julius Berger Nigeria Plc now has a massive permanent yard,

workshops, reconditioning facilities, a type retreating plant and quarry for aggregates. Prior to moving operation beyond just Lagos State, Julius Berger Nigeria Plc undertook a task that symbolized the shift in emphasis, it founded a football team which was originally on expatriate side. Before the company could spread out across the country, the necessary transportation and communication links had to be kept to update the headquarters at Lagos on progress enabling respective site managers to order equipment for their various yards. The first step was to create radio shacks, a radio control and telex network had to be set up and operators trained in using short-wave and VHF bands. In the 80s, Julius Berger Nigeria Plc decided to run its own small air-fleet of cessna turboprop aircraft ensuring that leading executives could visit site far a field while remaining based in Abuja or Lagos. In 1979, the expatriate in charge started training his first new mechanic, a diver who had shown impressive intuitive mechanical skills. When the Federal Capital was moved to Abuja from Lagos, Federal Capital Development Agency (FCDA) was given the mission of handling the design, planning and construction of the Federal Capital Territory which is about 8000km . In 1980, Julius Berger Nigeria Plc was awarded the contract to create the entire

infrastructure for the Wuse Residential District which has the following statistics. Development Area Four-lane roads Kerbstones Conduits for telephone electricity ,water Concrete pipes = 85km 120km 12,500m 140000m 8,500 tones = = 220 tones 135,000 tones Covered U-channels = Driven piles diameter = Concrete Prestressing steel Asphaltic concrete = Reinforcement steel = = = 640ha 11km 60km = = 260km 325km

Two-lane feeder road =

Some other Abuja projects Julius Berger Nigeria Plc handled are: Infrastructure for 3 main district in Maitama, Wuse I, Wuse II. Residences inhabited primarily by senators, government officials, ministries, chief Judges. Ministry prototype Building.

The presidential and vice presidential seats of government. National Assembly Annex. The better life centre to foster rural arts and crafts which is now known as National Women Centre, was designed by Nigerian architects but built by Julius Berger Nigeria Plc.

Airport Roads, bridges and retaining walls in central Area.

Julius Berger Nigeria Plc has been engaged in so many high quality Civil Engineering projects, from roads, bridges, port facilities, industrial plant, residential and administrative buildings. The company has special business units such as: * Quarry and Granite Product Unit For quarrying and processing granite into wall or floor cladding, granite flooring, stairs, tiles and special products for household building materials such as terrazzo and files, famed red concrete roof tiles. * * * facility. Concrete construction products unit. Furniture production unit. Aluminum product unit.

Others are steel products Assembly unit and oxygen production

The company has a well-equipped clinic, it has staff members (doctors, nurses, laboratory, assistants, x-ray experts, orderlies etc). The maintenance services are not left out for the repairs take many forms from general servicing to special repair work.
SOME MAJOR FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PROJECTS HANDLED BY JULIUS BERGER NIGERIA PLC (1965-1997).

1) Bridges: Niger River Bridge, Jabba. Carter Bridge, Lagos. Ajaokuta Railway Bridge, Ajaokuta. Third Mainland Bridge, Lagos. Tuga Niger Bridge, Kebbi state.

2) Fly Overs: - Eko Bridge Extension, Lagos. - Lagoon Inner Ring Road, Lagos. 3) Roadwork/ Infrastructural Works: Lagos- Badagry Expressway, Lagos. Mary land- Ojota Road, Lagos. Minna Kakaki Road, Niger State. Greek Road, Apapa Lagos.

4) Municipal Work:

Development of Wuse I, Wuse II, Maintama, Jabi Districts, Abuja.

5) Dredge work Sand Fill for land Reclamation: Lagos Inner Ring Road, Lagos. Warri Steel Plant, Warri Ajaokuta Steel Plant, Ajaokuta. Bar Beach, Erosion Control, Lagos. Jos Rolling Mill, Jos. Civil Works for Warri Steel Plant, Warri Floor Mill of Nigeria Limited, Lagos. Liquefied Natural Gas Project, Bonny Island. Office, National Assembly Complex, Abuja. Ports Administration Building, Lagos, Warri, Sapele Cultural Centre, Minna. Abuja International Conference Centre, Abuja. Government Residential Building, Abuja. Ajaokuta Camp, Ajaokuta. Main Mosque, Minna.

6) Industrial:

7) Building:

8) Residential Houses:

9) Community Facilities: - German School, Lagos.

J U L IU S B E R G E R N IG E R IA P L C O R G A N IZ A T IO N A L C H A R T

M A N A G IN G D IR E C T O R

D IR E C T O R C o m m e rc ia l

D IR E C T O R T e c h n ic a l

D IR E C T O R p e rs o n n e l

D IR E C T O R S p e c ia l D u tie s

P R O JE C T M A N A G E R (S ta te ) C O M M E R C IA L MANAGER

P R O JE C T M A N A G E R (A b u ja ) T E C H N IC A L MANAGER

P R O JE C T M A N A G E R (S ta te ) PERSONNEL MANAGER

C H IE F E N G IN E E R

C H IE F Q U A N T IT Y S U R V E Y O R

C H IE F SURVEYO R

C H IE F A R C H IT E C T

S E N IO R Q U A N T IT Y S U R V E Y O R

S E N IO R Q U A N T IT Y S U R V E Y O R

Q U A N T IT Y SURVEYOR

Q U A N T IT Y SURVEYO R

Q U A N T IT Y SURVEYOR

CHAPTER TWO

SITE WORK EXPERIENCE


The six months programme was done in this order: June 2005: Pilinq works July 2005: site investigation August 2005:Laboratory and Quarry September 2005:Drainage(storm water/foul sewer) October 2005: Precast section November 2005: Superstructure, quantities and bridge calculations PILE FOUNDATION Piles are essentially giant sized nails(of concrete,timber or steel) that are either driven into the soil in their place) or are placed in after boring holes in subsoil(in which case they replace the soil in their place. These giant sized nails can be square ,rectangular, H-shaped or circular in section(20 to 200cm or more in diameter) and can range in length from about 4 to 40m or more.A group of piles is capped together at the top(usually by a reinforced concrete cap) to support the pier or abutment. It is necessary to employ piled foundations for bridge works where ground/soil nearer the surface is too soft to sustain spread(acceptablesized) footings and is hence susceptible to substantial settlement, as is partially the case with the soil nature at the site of construction,based ofcourse on relevant soil test results. In short three basic factors determined the application of piling in the foundation process: Availability of good founding strata below large depth of soft soil. Need to have very deep foundations beyond the limit of pneumatic operations(usually depth beyond 35m and thereabout).

Economic factors(expense and accessibility of technology and resources required) deciding the use of piles for the construction as compared to wells.

For working out safe load carrying capacity of pile , a factor of safety of 2.5 may be adopted.
a) Structural strength of the pile-this was assessed based on its axial load and moment(caused by lateral loads) based on short or long column action,depending on on the location of upper and lower points of fixity in it. b) Spacing of piles: generally: 2.5 times the bigger dimension of pile section in pile. c) Size of concrete piles: In this particular case a diameter of 1.4m was applied. Generally not less than 0.4m in diameter or equivalent section for other locations is acceptable. d) Rake in piles: the maximum rake normally should not be more flat than 1 in 8 for pile diameter 0.75 and above Pile classification There are various classes of piling applicable in pile foundation erection, which ultimately depend on the nature of soil available at assigned site locations, desiring pile foundation as the acceptable construction method.These are: The Precast driven piles(soil displacement type) The Driven cast insitu piles(soil displacement type) The Bored cast insitu piles(soil replacement type) The Bored precast piles(soil replacement type) The Driven steel piles (soil displacement type) It is however necessary to note that these various types can be employed based on a vast number of determining factors of which include: Required depth, quality of concrete, etc.

Bored cast insitu piles(soil replacement type) In this case the soil is first excavated and removed before casting of the piles or as the name implies, replacement of the excavated space with concrete. Advantages Very large depths can be achieved Larger diameter piles possible,achieving higher load carrying capacity No disturbance of the surrounding mass of soil and hence no reduction in soil resistance. Specially suited where harder and stiffer strata have to be penetrated (e.g., stiff clay). Easy for keying into rock. In view of larger load carrying capacity the number of piles can be reduced under each foundation, which may reduce construction time.

Disadvantages Larger equipment cost Reduced skin friction(since pile is not driven into soil). Precise constructional control on procedure,concrete mix, etc PILING WORK As defined earlier, a piles could be refered to as a column inserted in the ground to transmit the structural loads to a lower level of subsoil. Bridges and highly separated interchange(flyover) requires very solid foundations so as to first withstand its own dead load and also all live loads and transient loads to be imposed on the superstructure when finally put in use. hence a very solid foundation is imperative for a bridge or flyover to serve its

intended use. It is required that a pile foundation be used for this purpose. At unit 28 and unit 17 bored piles of 1300mm diameter cast insitu is used. The depth of the pile is to the bedrock and where no bedrock is found before 31m below the ground surface it is agreed that the piling be done bearing mind that dead loads will be transmitted at that depth considering the principle of pore pressure. At certain pile points the bedrock is below 10m and excavation is most economical for such areas instead of piling. No mindless boring is to be contemplated. Bearing the huge financial implication of boring in the afore mentioned disparity a preliminary site investigation is required to ascertain the exact position of bedrock and hence determine the practices to be carried out per pile point if piling or excavating. Table 2.0 shows a preview of this preliminary investigation. The result obtained from site investigations is useful for piling works. At unit 17 (mabushi roundabout) for instance the result obtained are as indicated in table 2.0 below.

bore hole No. 11 12 13 14

Depth of Core barrel sample boring (meter) 30.00 Rock(fresh gneissic rock, laminated fine grained ,gray and black) 4.90 Rock(fresh gneissic rock, laminated fine grained ,gray and black) 10.80 Rock(fresh gneissic rock, mottled, fine grained ,light gray) 44.40 Slightly weathered rock(slightly weathered granite, laminated, fine grained, gray and black)

15

45.40

Slightly weathered granite, discoloration indicates weathering of rock materials and discontinuity of surfaces, mottled gray, black and white.

The cost of piling a depth up to 10.8m is highlighted below: Cost of hydraulic drill to bore the pile point plus operation cost. Cost of motorized crane and equipment to remove soil samples and slime from excavated pits Cost of reinforcement bars for insitu cast pile Cost of concrete to be used in casting Other contingency cost. On the other hand, the cost of excavation to the point of bedrock will include: Cost of excavation operation Cost of moving earth materials from the site to the stock pile. It is most economical to excavate than to pile such small depths. However the results from borehole 14 band 15 shows that the exact depths to a more solid bedrock is not too close to the surface and hence agreements between the client and contractor to reach 31m will just be alright.

PILING ARRANGEMENT OF THE 5 AXIS OF THE DUAL CARRIAGE BRIDGE WITH A TOTAL OF 44 PILES OF DIA. 1300MM BORED PILES AND CAST INSITU OF UNIT 28(APO JUNCTION BRIDGE) IS AS FOLLOWS: Date of cast Pile no Cutoff Drilli Pile length (m) ng (m) Dept h (m) 3.40 34.65 31.25 3.40 33.20 29.80 3.40 34.10 30.70 3.40 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 3.55 3.55 3.55 3.55 33.10 29.70 27.50 22.45 29.90 24.85 27.80 22.75 31.90 26.85 26.70 23.15 26.60 27.80 26.50 27.40 28.40 27.00 25.70 23.05 24.25 22.95 27.40 28.40 27.00 25.70 Vol of Length of Concre rebar te (m3) 42. 40 41 40 30 33 30 36 31 31 31 31 36 38 36 34 34.25 32.80 33.70 32.75 25.46 27.86 25.76 29.86 26.15 26.05 27.25 25.95 30.40 31.40 30.00 28.70

15/6/2005 6 17/6/2005 8 20/6/2005 7 21/6/2005 9 23/6/2005 10 24/6/2005 12 27/6/2005 11 28/7/2005 13 1/7/2005 14 2/7/2005 4/7/2005 5/7/2005 6/7/2005 7/7/2005 8/7/2005 11/7/2005 16 15 17 18 21 19 20

13/7/2005 22 25.90 25.90 15/7/2005 39 3.55 28.90 25.35 16/7/2005 37 3.55 29.50 25.95 18/7/2005 38 3.55 27.80 24.25 19/7/2005 36 3.55 28.20 24.25 20/7/2005 43 26.60 26.60 21/7/2005 40 26.00 26.00 22/7/2005 41 26.70 26.70 25/7/2005 44 28.10 28.10 26/7/2005 42 28.30 28.30 27/7/2005 32 5.05 27.10 22.05 28/7/2005 34 5.05 28.80 23.75 30/7/2005 33 5.05 28.40 23.35 1/8/2005 35 5.05 33.20 28.15 2/8/2005 28 3.40 33.50 30.10 4/8/2005 30 3.40 32.70 29.30 NB:see attached leaflets for piling distribution

34 34 34 32 33 35 35 36 37 38 29 32 31 37 40 39

28.90 28.35 28.90 27.20 27.60 29.60 29.00 29.70 30.10 30.30 25.05 26.75 26.35 31.15 33.10 32.30

8/8/2005 29 3.40 30.90 27.50 1/8/2005 31 3.40 32.40 29.00 12/8/2005 23 24.10 24.10 13/8/2005 24 21.30 21.30 15/8/2005 25 21.20 21.20 18/8/2005 26 22.20 22.20 19/8/2005 27 26.70 26.70 20/8/2005 1 26.80 26.80 21/8/2005 2 27.70 27.70 22/8/2005 3 27.10 27.10 24/8/2005 4 26.40 26.40 25/8/2005 5 26.60 26.60 EQUIPMENT USED IN PILING WORK Piling crane

37 31 32 28 28 29 35 36 37 36 35 35

30.50 32.00 27.10 24.30 24.20 25.20 29.70 29.80 30.70 30.10 29.40 29.60

This is the main equipment upon which all other tools are attached to which allows for the vertical displacement of earth.It is controlled by the controller just like in any other crane.

Power pack (turn table)


This equipment is connested to the crane, since both work together. It is controlled in a different control room from that of the crane. The first well caisson is inserted btw the arms of the powerpack with the help of the crane. The caisson usually having a diamond bit bottom end to allow for an easy displacement, is driven gradually into earth. Eventually a second caisson is attached for

continuity and so is a 3rd,4th and so on depending on the depth to be covered.

Side view

front view

Well caissons Weight: Function: The well caisson serves as withholding tool against collapsible soil during boring. With a diameter of 1300mm it also acts like a direct formwork or the concrete cast, though it is removed almost immediately after concrete is poured in.

caisson showing diamond bit end. Grapa


Weight: Function: It serves as the excavating tool in this process. It is attached to the crane and dropped from great heights into the caisson. When lifted out, it brings with it large cut-out portions of earth. It is done repeatedly to achieve required depth.

Lying on ground

In use,going into caisson

Cubic Grapa Weight: Function: Same as in grapa, only this case it is used towards tail point of excavation where mud and wet soil is encountered.

Lying on ground

In use,depositing.

Bailer Weight: Function: Specifically for the removal of excess ground water and mud from well.

Chisel Weight: Function: Attached to the crane, it is allowed to drop into caisson at great heights to achieve its required effect.It is used to chisel(crush) the natural existing rock up to 1.0m, for the reinforcemet cage to have a firm footing.Also used to crush through hard obstacles preceeding bedrock.

Diamond bit end of chisel.

Reinforcement cage: All reinforcement are shown in the working drawings attached to this report. The cages where formed using many different diameter bars such as8mm,12mm,14mm,16mm,20mm etc.

Concrete: concrete of compressive strength 25N/mm2 was used. B25-beton 25(German).casting takes a few minutes with the concrete pump being used.

Concrete mixer(80m3) at Quarry site.

mobile concretemixer Connected to concrete Pumping machine for Pile casting

Concrete mixer backing into concrete pumping machine

concrete transfer from mixer to pumping machine.

Blinding A flat layer of concrete which acts as a platform upon which the pile cap is erected. In this case 10cm in height, check drawings for confirmation.Ofcouse the only material needed for this construction is concrete. CONCRETE CLASS Concrete grade: B15(BETON 15) Max. size of aggregate: 8mm. W/C ratio: 0,95 Cement content: 220kg/m3 Water content: 210 litre/m3 PILE CAP These are reinforced concrete, with fixed sizes taking into consideration the allowable tolerances metioned above. In this case a cap of 14m * 5.2m *1.2m was constructed. Concrete piles were stripped off at the top so that their reinforcement is exposed and anchored into the cap. About 70mm of the pile itself projected into the pile cap, and the bottom reinforcement of the cap was suitably adjusted so as to accommodate it. Pile caps should be designed against shear as well as bending due to pile forces. CONCRETE CLASS Concrete grade: B25 Max. size of aggregate:16mm W/C ratio: 0,57 Cement content: 350kg/m3 Water content: 200 litre/m3 River sand( fine agg): 532kg/m3 Crushed stone (8-16)mm:470kg/m3 , (4-8)mm: 343kg/m3

In general view, the concrete used in piles shall not be leaner than 1:1.5:3 or equivalent controlled with cement content not less than 350kg/m3 of concrete from durability considerations. Equipments involved in the construction of the pile cap, include: Panels and planks which serve as support for the formwork Reinforcement which ofcourse is part of the pile cap Concrete biscuits for spacing between reinforcement and formwork. Concrete mixer or concrete pump for pouring fresh concrete into the formwork. A vibrator for effective disposition of concrete.

PRELIMINARY SITE INVESTIGATION SOIL INVESTIGATION This is usually the first step in the series of steps towards the execution of any land construction.
NB: This is meant to be carried out before actual piling work starts off. Hence the presentation of this aspect now, is only due to the nature of job execution at the different sites I was posted to. This was carried out to determine the nature of the soil, In terms of strength, load bearing capacity and in this case(bridge construction) to be able to ascertain possible depths to be attained in piling operation, thereby giving a projection of the extent and expence involved. Equipments involved:
NORDMEYER DRILL RIG MACHINE

These was used during the soil investigation. It is the machine which controls all the soil investigation equipment, in the

execution of borehole drilling. It was used to control all the functions of the soil investigation equipment. Spiral equipment: This is the first tool attached to the drill rig, used for drilling the earth for the collection of the soil samples. When drilling starts it reaches a time when the soil starts changing, the spiral equipment is then removed out of the drill rig to allow the SPT equipment collect soil samples using the SPT spoon. Before the SPT equipment is connected to the drill rig, water is introduced into the excavated area to enable the SPT spoon collect the soil samples without any problems. SPT(Standard penetration test) equipment/SPT spoon: The simple penetration test is meant to have soil samples in to ways. One is when the soil changes physically and the other is when the spt equipment is blowing50 times with interval range of 1.50m. When the SPT equipment has finished its work it is removed out from the drill rig and the spiral equipment is allowed to continue drilling until it reaches the water level(i.e water started flowing out) which is usually about 12m below ground level. When the water started pumping out with force it is found that it is difficult for the spiral equipment to continue drilling at that level we removed the spiral equipment out from the drill rig and connected the case that has a diamond bend to the Nordmeyer drill machine for drilling continuation. Casing Equipment: Casing equipment is used when we encounter water pumping out of the drilling borehole. It is used because it has a diamond bit for drilling ease. When the water inside the drilling borehole is getting too much the bailer equipment is connected to the drill rig to filter out the water inside the borehole.

Bailer Equipment: Bailer equipment was used when drilling to filter out water from the excavated hole to avoid collapse of the borehole. The bailer equipment has a rolling iron ball inside it, the rolling ball opens up when it wants to collect the water, then after collecting the water the ball closes to avoid water coming out before reaching place of discharge. The bailer equipment is removed when it finishes its work and the casing equipment having diamond bit, is used to drill out the rock up to 1.50m. The diamond bit is sharp: it is used to drill out the rock sample up to 1.50m depth. Chisel Equipment: It is used when the when the diamond bit is not functioning very well to drill out work. Just like that of used in piling but only it has a smaller diameter

ONSITE TESTS Some of the test carried out usually during site construction involving either earthwork or asphalt works, include; Insitu density test-(densometer bottle) Aim: to determine the level of compaction/dry density achieved on site by compacting machine.

Apparatus used: densitometer flask,manometer(in a flask like form), polyveriser(two balls inside the manometer, spoon, meter rule, a string weighing balance,a balance, calcium crbide and bag. Procedure followed:The densometer flask was setup and the balloon filled with water was pumped to the required level(ie btw the two gauging point). The reading at which it was pumped to was recorded ie the level surface. Excavation of hole(15cm or 150mm) followed and the weight of the material (wet material was recorded. Small part of the sample collected and weighed.. A sample was poured into a flasklike manometer with a small bottle of calcium carbide and the manometer was closed. You shake it for about 5 mins and with the help of the polyveriser the moisture content is gotten. The excavated material is weighed on a balance and recorded likewise all calculation was carried out. NB: check out attached leaflets for executed test.

Densometer test being carried out on compacted laterite.

Plate bearing test Aim: to determine the bearing capacity of a compacted pavement layer(subgrade,subbase-FL,basecourse) Apparatus used: tripod stand, pressure pump(works with hydraulic), 3 dial gauges, plunger, m.c tester box. Procedure: o mount tripod, on spot underneath a heavy vehicle preferably o place dial gauges on arms of tripod. o pump pressure into the plunger.The resistance of that layer(subbase or basecourse) to vertical pressure at 3 different points is recorded by 3 different manometers is shown. o The test reflects the extent of compaction achieved ut in situations where maximum compaction has been given and it still fails, it simply shows that the material is unsuitable.

CHAPTER THREE LABORATORY This section is the most important aspect of every construction company. The laboratory serves as a place for design of concrete, asphalt, testing laterite and every other thing related to it.

SOIL SECTION Under these section are various scientific test which aid the classification and determination of various soil sample strengths, hence situating them for such specific purposes based on their suitability. Determination of moisture content Atterberg limits test Sieve analysis Compaction test California bearing ratio test(soaked and unsoaked) Specific gravity and water absorption. Moisture content Aim: to know the natural existing water content in a sample soil. Apparatus: scoop or shovel, sack or airtight container,weighing scale,oven,weighing cups. Procedure: collect sample from different spots seal up in sack or container In lab put soil n about 4 cups and weigh.
Put in oven till completely dry Bring out and weigh Difference in weight gives moisture content(in grammes) Atteberg limit The aim of this experiment is usually to determine the liquid limits(l.l) and plastic limits(P.l) in percentage of a soil sample. the difference between this two parameters gives us the plasticity

index which in turn helps us in classifying that soil for suitability purposes. Apparatus involved include a spatula, scraper, casagrande tumping device which determines the number of tumping blows attained before separated sample meets up, glass surface on which soil is placed and weighing cups, oven for drying to obtain water content. Procedure: obtain the finest portion of soil by sieving. Put some of the sample on the glass platform and proceed as reflected in attached leaflet. NB: SEE leaflet for presentation. Sieve analysis Aim: to obtain particle distribution of soil. These aids the classification of that soil under the general soil classification code. Apparatus used: Vibrating sieve machine with standard BS sieves. Procedure followed: obtain sample, crush and weigh(like 500g) Sun dry or oven dry(24hrs,) Soak in water and wash of organic dirt. oven dry till dry sieve with various BS sieves as specified or preferably use soil sieve machine for about 30mins.

Note percentage passing last sieve(200mm),is that used in the soil classification process.
Compaction Compaction test(max. dry density/optimum moisture content) (Wasc/BS method)

Aim: to obtain the maximum dry densities(MDD) and optimum moisture contents (OMC) of a soil sample. NB: this values are deducted from graph. Apparatus: compaction machine, griffel box, cbr mould, 4.5kg wasc ramma/2.5kg BS ramma, calibrated tube, water, pan, weighing scale, covering sheet, scoop, gloves, spanner, hammer, cups-moisture content, Procedure: obtain sample from site like 10000g e.g lateritic soils Take to lab, crush to smaller sizes and pass it through a griffel box for shuffling-thorough mixing. weigh like 6000g of sample, perhaps firm clay. Put in pan and moiturise with about 8-12% of sample weight(6000g) depending on how dry sample may be. Mix thoroughly. Collect little qty in saucers weigh and note, after which u ovendry. Split into 5 parts. Put Ist part into mould in about 5 layers giving 25 blows(WASC) for each layer. Weigh, note & pour back in pan. Introduce 2% water into pan and mix again. Repeat as above, 4 more times at least. Now for each of these 5 parts, the following would/should be determined: a)Weight of wet soil+mould b)Weight of wet soil c)Wet density(g/cm3): b)/mould volume d)Dry density(g/cm3): weight of water/(mc+100)

plot gragh of dd against mc, and deduce mdd and omc.

California bearing ratio(cbr) test. Aim : to determine the bearing capacity of a sample(soil, stonedust etc). Ability to carry load at a particular layer-subgrade, subbase or basecourse. Apparatus: compacting machine, cbr mould, pan, cbr machine,surcharge, Procedure: obtain sample from site like 10000g e.g lateritic soils Take to lab, crush to smaller sizes and pass it through a griffel box for shuffling-thorough mixing. weigh like 6000g of sample, perhaps firm clay. Put in pan and moiturise with about 8-12% of sample weight(6000g) depending on how dry sample may be. Mix thoroughly. Compact immediately, BS mould. Take mould with compacted soil and introduce into the CBR machine where it is subjected to both top and bottom Bearing pressure with the aid of a piston, at slow and monitored rate. Obtain pressure(kp/cm2) for a list of specified mm intervals.

In the case of the soaked CBr test, sample is simply left for 24hrs in a water bath. This aspect of the test gives an insight to the bearing pressure withstandble under logged conditions. NB: Check tendered leaves for executed tests.

AGGREGATE SECTION This section gives an overview of the quality of coarse and fine aggregates. Tests such as the ACV and L.A Abrasion, determine the direct strength of aggregate, thus projecting their suitability. Aggregate crushing value(ACV) test Aim: to determine the resistive strength of an agg. Sample to compression and wearing. Apparatus used: mould, mould clip/cover, hammer, compression machine, pan, mould base, sieve(2.36mm BS sieve), weighing scale. Procedure: Weigh mould(e.g 10066g) Placemould on base in pan Fill mould with agg. In 2 layers giving each layer 25 blows Cover with clip & hammer clip to lap with mould. Subject to compression(400kN peak in 10mins) Weigh after removing to obtain crushed rock agg weight Sieve with sieve no. 7(2.36mm BS sieve) Obtain weight of passed agg. & % subsequently. Carry this experiment twice to obtain an average(accuracy purpose) Max. acceptable % = 30%

NB: see attached leaflets for practical presentation Los angeles Abrasion test

Aim: to determine the rate of wearing(abrasion withstandable by the aggregate sample Apparatus used: los angeles abrasion machine, metal balls(in machine), sieve, weighing scale, pan, agg(8-16mm) type B. Procedure : the following basic steps Weigh 5000g of agg.(8-16mm) Put into machine Revolve 500 times Remove sample & sieve out with sieve no. 12 Weigh residue. NB: see attached leaflets for practical presentation Specific gravity & water absorption test Aim: to determine the specific gravity(density) and water absorption capacity of aggregate sample to be used for concrete production. Apparatus used: weighing scale, calibrated water jar, pectometer-density bottle, metal funnel, water basins, wash bottle Obtain sample size(e.g 4-8mm) Weigh like 600g(4-8) or 1200g(16-32) Soak in water for 24 hrs Bring out and allow to air dry

NB: see attached leaflets for practical presentation

CHAPTER FOUR QUARRY


AGGREGATES PRODUCTION

Aggregates production deals with the process as which aggregates are produced for construction works or purpose. It is carried out in a Quarry. DEFINITION OF TERMS. GELATIVE EXPLOSIVES: This is an explosives which have a tellylike texture but contain no gelatine. All contain nitroglycerin, some contain ammonium nitrate. They can be used in wet boreholes but must be treated with great care when they are frozen as they are then liable to detorate if dropped or broken. DETONATOR: DR (Cap): It is a small Copper or aluminium tube, at one end containing an explosive mixture, usually fired electrically by a blasting machine, but in small scale work by a ssafety fuse inserted into the detonator. DETONATING FUSE: OR CORDEX (PRIMACORD): It is a fuse used in Quarrying in well holes and similar types of rock or stone blasting where several distant charges must be fired (for secondary blasting) BLASTING (SHOT FIRING): It is the breaking of rocks or stones by boring in it a hole which is filled with an explosive, and detonated or other wise fired. QUARRYING PROCEDURES The portion of soil was sunged, and overburdened of soil/ unsituable top rocks were cleared (at least 20+ 30 ft back from the working face) to prevent useful rocks that can be blasted from been contaminated. The changes for drilling was given and the level (depth) of drilling was also given by the surveyor after proper survey analysis.

After the commencement of the drilling for the placement of gelativre explosive (dynamite) Noble). The gelative explosive was connected to its components before been dropped into the drilled holes. Gelative explosive was connected to a charge called a DETONATOR which electrically fired the detonator was sealed at the factory with two copper wires coming out of it which are connected to the exploder through out the neighboring denotators in series. It was inserted into a PRIMER which fires all the other cartridges in the drilled holes. The two copper wires were connected out to the power source (i.e. electrically powered, or a battery or any safer sonec of power) for the blasting, and it was blasted. The above explained procedures of blasting is known as a PRIMARY BLASTING The pieces of rocks that are too large for the cruchers are reduced by secondary blasting, which may be done either by drilling and charging the holes (pop-shooting) or by placing the charge on the surface of the rocks and conveying it with plaster cling (plaster shooting) or through the use of dynacord or cordtex (primacord), it is a fused used for blasting large rocks into smaller pieces for easy crushing. CRUSHING To produce light quality aggregates, it is necessary to employ at least two stages or more of crushing in order to reduce the rocks from the quarry face to suitable size. The secondary blasting, the tocks were tipped mechanically into trucks and conveyed to the primary crusher. From the primary crusher to the scalping screen to remove fines, then to the secondary crusher. From the secondary crusher to the granulators

of different sizes (granders) and was well checked to know if the screen and granders are accurate. ASPHALT PRODUCTION PROCESS / PROCEDURE HOPPERS/BENS: There are large rigid containers like an inverted cone (pyramid) through which the aggregates are stored and passes to the COLD FEEDER. The cold feeder is opened and the aggregate which is needed is been conveyed to the DRYER where all the aggregates required in the design are properly dried to meet its required standard. The dried aggregates are then conveyed by the conveyoy belt and through the ELEVATOR TUNNEL from here to the ELEVATOR. The elevator consists of the SCREEN (sieve) where the aggregates are properly screened to meet the required size and the unwanted ones are sent to the rubbish pit through the two long pipes from the screen. Below the screen is the mixing box which has the Mixer for mixing of the aggregates, bitumen and filler. DESIGN OF WEARING COURSE The BITUMEN TANK is a separate tank which is not among the elevator chamber likewise the filler tank. They are opened and the required percentage of filler and bitumen is taken. A combination of these constituents is properly mixed by the mixer to meet the required standard. The asphalt is conveyed with the ASPHALT CONVEYOR to the soli 1, 2 or 3 which all have an outlet beneath, filling into a waiting truck. The control of these production process is done at the MARINI CONTROL ROOM which is automated and well equipped.

SUMMARY DATA OF BITUMEN GRADES. TYIE GRADE %OF OPERATING 80/100 TEMPERATUR E 60/70 140- 150c APPLICATION

ASPHAT

HOT MIX Surface dressing (e.g) for road shoulder

80/100

100

CUTBACK

S 125

86 88 100 -120c 68 72 AMBIENT 58 65 COLD PATCHING MIX TRACK COAT PRIME COAT

EMULSION Rs 2 Ms 2

CUTBACK

Mc 1

60 66 50 70c

Quantity for one mix: 1600kg Aggregate distribution in percentage

AGGREGATE HOPPER No. and nominal sizes Crushed stone 4-8mm Crushed stone 16-32mm Crushed stone 16-24mm Crushed stone 8-16mm River sand 0-5mm Stone dust 0-4mm

FIXING OF COLD FEED % 27 0 0 26 17 30

Quantity for one mix: mix design Contents comp amount sort elz Control weight Bitumen 1 5.3% 1 1 84.8kg Aggregate 94.7% 1515.2kg Filler 6.0% 96.0kg Coarse>16mm 4 4 1 0 Med.(8-16mm) 3 22.7% 3 1 363.2kg Sand (0-4mm) 1 40.0% 1 1 640.0kg Fine (4-8mm) 2 26.0% 2 1 416.0kg Total 100% 1600.0kg

CALCULATION OF OUTPUT TONNAGE E.g. What is the tonnage of a length of road 100m and breadth 14.5m with a thickness of 15cm? Solution L = 100m

B = 14.5m H = 15cm = 0.15 Where L = length, B = Breadth and H = height (thickness) Converting Cubic meters to tonnage = LxBxHx compaction rate (2.35) The 2.35 is constant. i.e Tonnage = 100x14.5 x 0.15x 2.35 = 511Tons Therefore the tonnage for a road of 100m length =511Tons

CHAPTER FIVE DRAINAGE WORKS AND PRECAST SECTION


Drainage work of 2km road in jabbi area of the F.C.T

o Clearing of area and excavation of first section of drainage trench already executed. o Execution of 1st ground slope which was designed to be 0.8%(0.8cm or 8.0mm), with the aid of an infra red laser machine. o Introduction of granite into trench to curtail effect of water effluence due to proximity of drainage trench from discharge stream. o 10cm blinding, still with the aid of the slope executing machine. o Installation of 1200mm diameter concrete pipes from point of already existing manhole to 1st manhole. o The pipes are kept in place with the assistance of little planks by the sides. o Use of gasket rubber rings during insertion of pipe into pipe. o Gulley polyvinylchloride(PVC) pipes inserted in drilled holes on storm water pipe, purposely for the transfer of surface runoff into gulley pots and then into the SWP. o Placement of concrete on both sides of pipes to at least half way up size of pipe. o Filling with laterite and subsequent compaction with suitable compactors such as the handheld vibrator and sheep foot compactor, roller compactor for surface finish compaction. SWP(Storm water pipes) used are made of reinforced concrete and are manufactured in various standard diameter sizes: 400mm, 450mm,.800mm, 1000mm, 1200mm. It is important to note that the use of these pipes depend on some factors such as: o Depth of excavation o Pressure, which is usually identified with areas closer to discharge point. PVC (Polyvenylchloride) pipes are used for the Foul Sewer and are usually of dia. 200mm, running alongside the SWP, and of a certain predefined slope.

Manholes of various sizes used, they come in at areas of curvature to ensure a smooth continuity in flow. Fling and compaction proceeds after manhoes have been covered.The compaction test is then carried out using the insitu densometer test to get the degree of compaction. A compaction of 99% is just good enough for the compaction rate. Laterite to be used must have CBR of above 60% else it would not meet the specification.

SWM with rings

SWM close to potable water pipe

PRECAST SECTION
In construction situations demanding very early execution precast construction methods do come in very handy and that automatically calls for an organised system of precast member supplies. The precast yard of JBN plc located at Idu area of the capital city is a central and vital section since reinforcement bars are here formed, filigram slabs cast, T and L beams of precast bridge formed, storm water pipes of various sizes formed, box culvert and any precast element that are relevant. Large transporting vehicles,trucks and lifting equipment at their disposal allow for an easy transfer of these members to any site of construction.

Over 1500 workers and several enabling machines, tools and equipment bring about the consistent production of precast members.

NB: see attached leaflets for diagrammatic illustrations

CHAPTER SIX SUPERSTRUCTURE AND BRIDGE FINISHING

PIERS (BRIDGE PILLARS) The bridge supports in-between the abutment-supports are refered to as piers. The choice of construction of the bridge deck will dictate the choice of type of pier. These piers where all 1.4m in diameter with different lengths depending on their positions. . CONCRETE CLASS
Construction type: Cast insitu Formwork type: Steel form Concrete grade:B35 Diameter: 1400mm max. size of aggregate: 8mm W/C ratio: 0,53 Cement content : 400kg/m3 Water content : 210 litre/m3 Fine agg (Stone dust(0-4mm)>397kg/m3, River sand(05mm)>711kg/m3) Crushed stone(4-8mm)>611kg/m3 Concrete Cover = 4cm spacing. Reinforcements(Iron rods) of grade of about Bst 500s Reinforcement cage dia.: 1060mm

Reinforcement cages

Formwork for fair finished cast. Beside it is a pier undergoing curing

Finished pier, with drainage pipe inserted.

Equipments employed in its erection Curved Metal plate encircled/encaged by planks bound together(formwork)

Cylindrical reinforcement cage which is to be attached into reinforcement of pile cap. Theodolite(T-16), which enables an accurate vertical positioning. Adjustable chain attached to the fixed formwork to enable its proper positioning as dictated by the Theodolite. Concrete pump equipment,which consist of Concrete valve, pump-hoist and a hose. An electronic vibrator, which allows for proper disposition and compaction of concrete. ABUTMENTS These are the first and last supports(i.e., the end supports) of a bridge. Upstanding cantilevered reinforced concrete walls used for these project are probably the most widely used form of construction for typical highway bridge abutments. It is important to note that is also reinforced concrete structure. A condition where the ground is rising away from the bridge, such as in the case being discussed, a hollow abutment is used. This consist of four walls forming a box in plan and supporting a deck of simple cast in situ reinforced concrete beam-and-slab construction. The front and side walls simply act as supports to deck, while the rear wall retains the earth fill of the approach embankment.

Abutment Data The 2 abutments exist at axis 0 and axis 40. Resting comfortably on pile-caps of 25N/mm2 concrete strength, they feature the following: Construction type: Cast insitu Formwork type: Polished Plywood(Brazil)
Concrete grade: B35 max. size of aggregate: 8mm W/C ratio: 0,53

Cement content : 400kg/m3 Water content : 210 litre/m3 Fine agg. (Stone dust(0-4mm)>397kg/m3, River sand(05mm)>711kg/m3) Crushed stone(4-8mm)>611kg/m3

Dimensions : Check working drawing for details. Surface finish: Bitumen(mc-1) and a vertical layer of aggregates before filling to prevent drainage water deterioration.

Materials used in the erection of the abutment. Just like in all other parts of this construction, Concrete but of a particular class/grade is required. Reinforcements(Iron rods) of grade of about Bst 500s Expansible metal, used for the purpose of shrinkage joints in the abutment. Foam, used temporarily fill the joint. Equipments employed in its erection Formwork Concrete pump equipment, which consist of Concrete valve, hoist etc An electronic vibrator, which allows for proper disposition and compaction of concrete.

Quantity of concrete used The concrete mixer used by JBN is usually of a standard cubic qty (9 cubic metre). Based on this standard, it was realised that the abutment alone used up about 12 concrete mixers and extra 3 cubic metres of concrete. Analysing mathematically, a total of (12*9)+3=111m3 (cubic metre) of concrete was used for each abutment. BRIDGE SLAB

The entire deck structure feature the following: Construction type: Pre-cast i.e the beams both L beams(outer beams) and the Inverted T beam(inner beams). These beams already pre-tensioned and grouted at the precast yard to allow for a safe lifting, transfer and installation and then post-tensioned again on location together with the cross beams to make it one member. NB: Some terms associated with pre-stressing include Pre-stressing tendons, pre-stressing jack machine, prestressing shells, anchore, anchore plate etc The Cross Beams, that is those lying directly on the Columns and abutments into which the pre-cast beams are perpendicularly fixed, are however cast insitu. This constitutes part of the concrete finishing process, alongside reinforcement work and concrete placement.

reinforcement work on bridge beams

Final concrete work on filigran slabs.

PARAPETS This can be of many shapes and of variable sturdiness. They were designed to prevent a fast moving vehicle of certain mass from shooting off the roadway ( in the event of an accidental hit).Upon the parapets, the railings are fixed.

The parapet are precast members with reinforcement bars projecting out.This projected area is the part used to link it with the bridge slab.strength of conrete is 45N/mm2
height - 1.15m thickness/width 0.30m

GENERAL BACKFILLING After backfilling the back of the abutment with aggregates and laterite, the backfilled laterite was sloped to enable vehicles operate from bridge to road. During filling, compaction is carried out at every 25cm fill with suitable compactors such as the Sheepfoot compactor, vibrating rolling machine. Various test such as Insitu density, plate bearing are carried out to ascertain the quality of compaction achieved and the ability to withstand the load imposed on it.

It is necessary to note that surface water flowing on bridge slab from rainfall, after been collected into gulley pots, and into PVC pipes in the cast columns and abutments eventually have to be collected into storm water pipes in drainage trenches.

Sheepsfoot

Steel-pnematic

tamping roller

TRANSITION SLABS

The 6.0m extension is a slab leading out from the slab. The reinforcement of the transition slab, was linked with the abutment and was cast before spreading of macadam binder course and wearing course making the use of the paver machine. After spreading, the pavement was found to be okay. The transition slab is the name does imply allows for vehicles at whatever speed transit from road to bridge and vice-versa without rendering destructive impact load at the bridge edges.

CONCLUSION The calculation of the quantities of materials used were executed. This included volume of concrete at various points and the reinforcement bars being calculated. Unfortunately, time factor came against my full participation in this aspect. This industrial report brings to the fore, practical work of civil engineering, the results achieved from the design of asphalt were used to carry out the road construction while the results achieved from the preliminary site soil investigation was also applied in the construction of the bridge substructure.
Industrial problem Civil Enginnering as a professional course is based on theoretical and practical knowledge. The ignorance of any of these factors will be detrimental to producing a professional Civil Engineer. The industrial Training is a scheme that helps the young Engineers to appreciate their profession and to learn and acquire the practical know how, but sometimes, due to company policies of restrictions and limitation in access to various departments or sites which actually might or might not be justified and with no makeup arrangement for those unacquired experiences, the purpose of the industrial attachment is not fully realized.

Some site Hitches/Observations


Huge surface runoff caused by rain, during the drainage works at, Jabbi: Trench became flooded with water but thanks to the water pumping machine which sucks out large volumes of water at a very fast rate. Casting in rain: situation where concrete had already been ordered for placement to hold SWpipes in place, and suddenly it started raining. It was observed that concrete was still placed else it

would set in the mixer by following day. However the idea of using ERHC for concrete during rainy season made it convenient. Late Erection of Piers of Axis 10 of APO bridge falling very close to already existing traffic, due to limitation in the extent of road diversion suitably achievable. These brought about a compulsory delay in entire execution of superstructure, but not exceeding speculated construction duration. (Foresight analysis including room for any unforeseen circumstance, very vital).

Completion of pavement(wearing course)at the jabbi area of phase 2, which is usually busy during weekdays, was done on a Sunday. Night time construction is a very common practice.