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Basic coordinate Geometry
October 7, 2009
Still have to add lot of diagrams rest is perfectly done!
This sheets contains notes on basic coordinate geometry which starts with
introduction to coordinate geometry and gets you into points, straightlines,
collinearity, A pointline properties, two line properties, linear combination.
Flow of lectures :
Lecture I : We start with introduction of coordinate geometry, how its
related to algebra or a nice use of algebra for geometry. We study all properties,
structures with respect to when we have a single point, two points (collinear,
noncollinear), three points, we study equation of a line, and its diﬀerent forms,
Transformations  shift of origin & rotation of coordinates axes
Lecture II : We study structure a line and a point, begin with origin side
of a line, short distance of a point from a line, Foot of perpendicular, image of
a point in a line, And how that is helpful for getting the reﬂection of a line in
another line.
Lecture III : Study two lines, angle bisector  angle bisector containing
origin, angle bisector of an acute angle, locus
Lecture IV : Linear combination & problem solving to complete the topic.
Lecture V : Problem solving
1
CONTENTS CONTENTS
Contents
1 Motivation 4
2 A point 4
2.1 Polar representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3 Two points 4
3.1 Distance formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.2 Section formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2.1 External section formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4 Three points 5
4.1 Three points are Noncollinear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.1.1 Area of triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.1.2 Points of a Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.2 Three points are Collinear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5 Equation of a line 8
5.1 Forms of a line equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.1.1 Slope point form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.1.2 Two point form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.1.3 Double intercept form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.1.4 Slope intercept form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.1.5 Parametric form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.1.6 Normal form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.1.7 General form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.1.8 Special case of line equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6 Transformations 11
6.1 Shift of origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.2 Rotation of axes about origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.2.1 Using Matrix approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
6.2.2 Using Complex Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7 Point & A line 12
7.1 Origin side of a line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7.2 Distance of a point from a line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7.3 Foot of the perpendicular from a point to a line . . . . . . . . . . 12
7.4 Image of a point in a line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
7.4.1 Reﬂection of a line in another line . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
8 Locus 13
9 Two lines 14
9.1 Lines are parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9.1.1 Slopes of parallel lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9.1.2 Distance between parallel lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9.2 Lines are intersecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9.2.1 Angle between the lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
9.3 Angle bisector equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2
LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF FIGURES
9.3.1 Angle bisector containing the origin . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
9.3.2 Acute or obtuse angle contains origin . . . . . . . . . . . 16
9.3.3 Bisector of the Acute/obtuse angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
10 Linear combination of lines 18
List of Figures
1 Demonstrates the region containing the origin and angle bisector equation
lying in that region. The green region contains the origin and red region
doesn’t contain the origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2 Origin lies in Acute or Obtuse Angle, How we decide ? . . . . . . . . . . 17
3
3 TWO POINTS
1 Motivation
Coordinate Geometry or Cartesian coordinate geometry or Rectangular coordi
nate geometry was a major step forward in the direction of geting algebra and
geometry together. But can be said as a set back for beauty of Pure geometry.
Though this was a setback for pure geometry( which is not everybody’s cup of
tea), turned out to be boon for anybody who wanted geometry problems to be
approachable.
What amazing thought of relating geometrical point to an algebraic point.
A point is denoted using a coordinate pair denoted as a tuple (x, y) where x−is
called the xcoordinate and y−is called the ycoordinate. xcoordinate is the
distance of the point (x, y) from the yaxis and ycoordinate is the distance of
the point from yaxis.
To move to a point (x, y) we need to start from origin (intersection of the
xaxis and yaxis which are perpendicular to each other) and move x distance
along xaxis and y distance parallel to yaxis.
2 A point
A point in cartesian coordinate geometry is denoted as (x, y). So inorder to
denote a point uniquely, algebraically we need the x − coordinate called the
abscissa and y −coordinate called the ordinate.
2.1 Polar representation
A point coodinate geometry can also be represented using a polar form.
i.e. (x, y) → (r, θ) where r is the distance of the point from origin and θ is
the angle made by the point with positive x −axis.
How to convert from coordinate to polar.
Use : r =
_
x
2
+y
2
and tan θ =
y
x
(this is similar to ﬁnding argument of a
complex number x +iy )
Problem 1. Given the points A(8, −120
0
) and B(8, 120
0
) in polar form calcu
late the coodinates of the midpoint of the segment joining A and B.
3 Two points
Given two points in cartesian coordinate system. We study what all structures
and operation we can work out. There are 2 new quantities we deﬁne on these
points. Namely distance formula and section formula.
3.1 Distance formula
Given two points, A(x
1
, y
1
) and B(x
2
, y
2
) the distance
1
AB between the points
is given as
AB =
_
(x
1
−x
2
)
2
+ (y
1
−y
2
)
2
1
Note : Distance is an invariant formula. Later we see even if we change shift the origin
or rotate the axes about the origin, the coordinates of those points will change but distance
between the points remain invariant.
4
4 THREE POINTS 3.2 Section formula
3.2 Section formula
Given two points A(x
1
, y
1
) and B(x
2
, y
2
), if a point C(¯ x, ¯ y) divides
2
the line
joining A, B in the ratio m : n. And C is given by (this can be very easily
derived using Basic proportionality theorem)
C = (¯ x, ¯ y) =
_
mx
2
+nx
1
m+n
,
my
2
+ny
1
m+n
_
This is the internal section formula.
A special case is Mid point formula, given as
M =
_
x
1
+x
2
2
,
y
1
+y
2
2
_
3.2.1 External section formula
If a point C divides line joining A and B externally in the ratio m : n then the
coordinates of point C is given as
C =
_
mx
2
−nx
1
m−n
,
my
2
−ny
1
m−n
_
This can be derived by seeing that if C externally divides AB means B divides
AC internally.
Fact 2. If we are given three points A, B, C and we need to ﬁnd the ratio in
which C divides the segment joining A & B. Better we assume
AC
CB
=
λ
1
rather
than
AC
CB
=
m
n
(as this introduces two unknowns m,n in place of single λ
Problem 3. The straight line joining the points A(a, b) and B(c, d) is divided
into n equal parts. Show that the coordinate of r
th
point of subdivision from A
is
_
a +
r(c −a)
n
, b +
r(d −b)
n
_
4 Three points
Given three points A, B, C they will be collinear or noncollinear.
4.1 Three points are Noncollinear
If three points are noncollinear then they represent the vertices of a triangle.
Hence we ﬁrst see the area of a triangle formed.
2
We deﬁne sum/diﬀerence & scalar multiplication for coordinates (actually this is using
vectors)
1. (x
1
, y
1
) ± (x
2
, y
2
) = (x
1
± x
2
, y
1
± y
2
)
2. c(x
1
, y
1
) = (cx
1
, cy
1
)
5
4.1 Three points are Noncollinear 4 THREE POINTS
4.1.1 Area of triangle
Given three points A, B & C then area of this triangle is given as
A(∆ABC) =
1
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
1
y
1
1
x
2
y
2
1
x
3
y
3
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
1
2
_¸
¸
¸
¸
x
1
y
1
x
2
y
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
2
y
2
x
3
y
3
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
3
y
3
x
1
y
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Second formula is called the polygon formula
3
Problem 4. FInd the area of the quadrilateral whose vertices are (−3, 2), (7, −6), (−5, −4)
and (5, 4)
4.1.2 Points of a Triangle
We will use a general form as
_
m
1
x
1
+m
2
x
2
+m
3
x
3
m
1
+m
2
+m
3
,
m
1
y
1
+m
2
y
2
+m
3
y
3
m
1
+m
2
+m
3
_
to denote these points
4
1. Centroid (G) : Use (m
1
, m
2
, m
3
) ≡ (1, 1, 1)
2. Circumcenter (O) : Use (m
1
, m
2
, m
3
) = (sin 2A, sin 2B, sin 2C)
3. Orthocenter (H) : Use (m
1
, m
2
, m
3
) = (tan A, tan B, tan C)
3
Given a nsided regular polygon A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
n
the area is given as
A(poly) =
1
2
x
1
y
1
x
2
y
2
+
x
2
y
2
x
3
y
3
+ · · · +
x
n
y
n
x
1
y
1
Note the points are chosen in anticlockwise or clockwise as they appear in the coordinate
system. i.e. A quadrilateral, should be fed into the formula in the order of the vertices
A, B, C, D
4
Figure representing the various important points in a triangle.
6
4 THREE POINTS 4.2 Three points are Collinear
4. Incenter (I) : Use (m
1
, m
2
, m
3
) = (a, b, c)
5. Excenter (I
1
) : (excenter opposite to A ) Use (m
1
, m
2
, m
3
) = (−a, b, c).
Similarly for I
2
, I
3
Fact 5. Circumcenter(O), Centroid(G) and Orthocenter(H) are always collinear
in a triangle. And the centroid divides the line joining Orthocenter and Circum
center in the ratio 2 : 1
Problem 6. Find the circumcentre and circumradius of the triangle whose
vertices are (6, 6), (5, −1), (−1, 5)
Problem 7. The vertices of a triangle are A(x
1
, x
1
tan θ
1
), B(x
2
, x
2
tan θ
2
),
C(x
3
, x
3
tan θ
3
). If the circumcentre of ∆ABC coincides with origin and H(¯ x, ¯ y)
is the orthocenter show that
¯ y
¯ x
=
sin θ
i
cos θ
i
Problem 8. In a ∆ABC, A = (6, 3), B = (−3, 5), C = (4, −2) P any point
(x, y) show that
∆PBC
∆ABC
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
x +y −2
7
¸
¸
¸
¸
Problem 9. Find the orthocenter of the triangle formed by the lines x = 0, y =
0, x +y = 1
4.2 Three points are Collinear
If three points are collinear then they hold some properties, we rather use the
converse of these properties. If these properties are true then the corresponding
three points are collinear.
Points A, B & C are collinear if
1. A(∆ABC) = 0
2. l(AB), l(BC), l(CA) are such that sum of any two is equal to the third
3. Slope of any two points of A, B, C taken at a time are equal (this we
investigate in some sections)
Problem 10. Show that the points (0, 0), (h, 0), (0, k) are collinear if
1
h
+
1
k
=
1
3
Problem 11. If the points
_
a
3
a −1
,
a
2
−3
a −1
_
,
_
b
3
b −1
,
b
2
−1
b −1
_
,
_
c
3
c −1
,
c
2
−1
c −1
_
are collinear for three distinct values of a, b, c then show that
abc −
ab + 3
a = 0
Solution : This problem can be easily solved using (though lot of calculations)
using the A(∆ABC) = 0 if the vertices are collinear. Though we need some
properties of solving determinants which we still are not aware of. So we use a
diﬀerent approach of involving theory of equations for this problem.
These points lie on a line Ax + By + C = 0 i.e. a, b & c are roots of the
equation
A
_
x
3
x −1
_
+B
_
x
2
−3
x −1
_
+C = 0
Ax
3
+B(x
2
−3) +C(x −1) = 0
7
5 EQUATION OF A LINE
So
a +b +c =
−B
A
ab +bc +ca =
C
A
abc =
C + 3B
A
Now consider the LHS of the term to prove
abc −
ab + 3
a =
C + 3B
A
−
C
A
+ 3
−B
A
= 0
Fact 12. Point lies on the line or that point coordinates satisfy the
equation of the line means what?
A line is geometrically represented as a collection of points that are collinear.
And algebraically its represented by a linear equation ax + by + c = 0. Now
in geometry, a point (x
0
, y
0
) lying on this line means it satiﬁes the algebraic
equation of that line i.e. ax
0
+by
0
+c = 0
Deﬁnition. Slope of a line
A slope of a line is that quantity that signiﬁes the direction of the line. It is
the deﬁned as change in y for a change in x where (x, y) satisﬁes the equation
of the line. Given two points (x
1
, y
1
) & (x
2
, y
2
) lies on a line then slope of that
lines is given as
m =
y
2
−y
1
x
2
−x
1
5 Equation of a line
A line means a straight line.
Equation of a straight line is of the form ax +by +c = 0 a, b not both equal
to zero.
5.1 Forms of a line equation
For determining the equation of a line is any of the forms mentioned below we
need to given information about the line.
5.1.1 Slope point form
Here slope (m) and a point (x
1
, y
1
) is known. Hence the equation of the line is
given as
m =
y −y
1
x −x
1
y −y
1
= m(x −x
1
)
8
5 EQUATION OF A LINE 5.1 Forms of a line equation
5.1.2 Two point form
Here two points (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
) lying on the line are known. Then the
equation of the line is
y −y
1
x −x
1
=
y
1
−y
2
x
1
−x
2
Deﬁnition. xintercept
xintercept is the xcoordinate of the point where a line intercepts (cuts) the
xaxis.
Deﬁnition. yintercept
yintercept is the ycoordinate of the point where a line intercepts (cuts )
the yaxis
Example 13. What are the x & y intercepts in the adjoining ﬁgure?
Deﬁnition. xintercept is 2 and yintercept is 2
5.1.3 Double intercept form
Given both the xintercepts and yintercepts a, b for a line then the equation of
this line is given as
x
a
+
y
b
= 1
this can be produced using the two point form as we have (a, 0) and (0, b) lying
on required line.
5.1.4 Slope intercept form
when we say slope intercept form we mean “slope  yintercept form”. Slope x
intercept form doesn’t come very simple hence we always prefer the ﬁrst. The
slopeintercept form is given as
y = mx +c
where m is the slope and c is the yintercept.
Deﬁnition. Angle of inclination of a line
The angle θ made by a line with positive x − axis is deﬁned as angle of
inclination. And note θ ∈ [0, π) why??
5.1.5 Parametric form
Given θ is the angle made by the line with positive x −axis and a point on the
line (x
1
, y
1
) then equation of the line is given as
x −x
1
cos θ
=
y −y
1
sin θ
= r
where r is the distance between the points (x, y) and (x
1
, y
1
)
9
5.1 Forms of a line equation 5 EQUATION OF A LINE
5.1.6 Normal form
Given perpendicular distance of a line from origin and α angle made by the
perpendicular with positive xaxis. Then the equation of the line is given as
xcos α +y sin α = p
5.1.7 General form
General form of a line is
ax +by +c = 0
where
1. x −intercept =
−c
a
2. y −intercept =
−c
b
3. slope =
−a
b
5.1.8 Special case of line equation
1. Line parallel to y axis is x = α
2. Line parallel to x axis is y = β
3. Line passing through origin is y = mx where m ∈ and undeﬁned for
line parallel to yaxis
4. xaxis is y = 0
5. yaxis is x = 0
10
6 TRANSFORMATIONS
6 Transformations
There are two transformations that can be applied to origin. Shift of origin &
rotation of axes about origin.
6.1 Shift of origin
Shift of origin is like moving the coordinate system and that ways the origin to
a new point (h, k) keeping the axes parallel. Let any point in the old coordinate
system be (x, y) and that point’s coordinate be (X, Y ).
The origin is shifted from (0, 0) in old coordinate system to (h, k) in the old
coordinate system. Now since (h, k) will become the origin in the new system
we need to subtract (h, k) from (h, k) to make it become (0, 0). Hence we see
that (h, k) →(0, 0) So we subtract (h, k) from each point. Therefore
(X, Y ) = (x, y) −(h, k)
(x, y) = (X +h, Y +k)
6.2 Rotation of axes about origin
On rotation of the axes about the origin by some angle theta the coordinates
change. But the amazing thing is that the distance of any point from origin
does not change. There are two methods to ﬁnd the coordinates of any point
(x, y)
6.2.1 Using Matrix approach
_
X
Y
_
=
_
cos θ −sin θ
sin θ cos θ
_ _
x
y
_
Coordinates of the point P in the old coordinate system is (x, y) and in
the new coordinate system is (X, Y ), θ is the angle through which the axes are
rotated.
Example 14. Find the new coordinates of a point (1, 1) on rotating the axes
by
π
2
.
_
X
Y
_
=
_
0 −1
1 0
_ _
1
1
_
=
_
−1
1
_
6.2.2 Using Complex Numbers
Any point whose coordinates on rotation of the axes by an angle θ is required
write (x, y) as x +iy and to get the new coordinates (X, Y ) ≡ X +iY write
X +iY = (x +iy)e
iθ
= (x +iy)(cos θ +i sin θ)
= (xcos θ −y sin θ, xsin θ +y cos θ)
11
7 POINT & A LINE
7 Point & A line
Given a point (x
1
, y
1
) outside the line ax+by+c = 0 then what are the diﬀerent
structures we can study using them.
7.1 Origin side of a line
A line divides the plane into three parts, one set of points that lie on the line,
others which lie on either side of the line. Now each of these will represent some
algebraic condition signifying its diﬀerence from the others.
1. ax +by +c = 0 represents all points that lie on the line
2. ax +by +c < 0 and represents one of the half planes created by the line
3. ax +by +c > 0 and represents the other half plane created by the line
For example a line has origin side positive if the line x + y = 1 is written
as −x − y + 1 = 0 and origin side is negative if the same line is written as
x +y −1 = 0. So the origin is positive side or negative side of the line depends
on the way we write the equation. So lets follow the convention of keeping the
line equation such that constant term is chosen to be positve i.e. the given line
equation as −x −y + 1 = 0
Now we know that if we keep the constant term positve then the origin
side is always going to be positive. So using this sense we can talk about a
point whether it lies on the origin side or nonorigin side of a given line. This
understanding is further required for our understanding of the subject.
Problem 15. Find whether (5, 4) lies onn the origin side or nonorigin side of
x +y = 5
7.2 Distance of a point from a line
Distance of the point P(x
1
, y
1
) from the line ax +by +c = 0 is
PM =
ax
1
+by
1
+c
√
a
2
+b
2
7.3 Foot of the perpendicular from a point to a line
Foot of the perpendicular M from a point P(x
1
, y
1
) is given by
x −x
1
a
=
y −y
1
b
= −
_
ax
1
+by
1
+c
a
2
+b
2
_
7.4 Image of a point in a line
Image of a point P(x
1
, y
1
) in the line ax +by +c = 0 is given by
x −x
1
a
=
y −y
1
b
= −2
_
ax
1
+by
1
+c
a
2
+b
2
_
12
8 LOCUS
7.4.1 Reﬂection of a line in another line
Given a line ax + by + c = 0 and we want to ﬁnd the reﬂection of another line
a
1
x +b
1
y +c
1
= 0 in it.
1. STEP 1 : Solve both the equations to ﬁnd the intersection point of both
these lines.
2. STEP 2 : Take a point (out of observation) in the equation a
1
x+b
1
y+c
1
=
0 and ﬁnd its reﬂection in line ax + by + c = 0 (using the image of point
formula). Now we have two points that are lying on the reﬂection line.
Use two point form and ﬁnd the equation of the required reﬂection line.
Problem 16. A ray of light is sent along the line x−2y+5 = 0. Upon reaching
the line 3x − 2y + 7 = 0, the ray is reﬂected from it. Find the equation of the
line containing the reﬂected ray.
8 Locus
What is locus? locus is any point (x, y) which moves under some constraint to
map a curve or region. Its like a ink ball that start rolling freely under some
constraint resulting of it mapping the location of all possible points making the
curve, satisying its algebraic equation.
Lets study some cases for a ink–dip point (x, y)
• The locus point is free to move anywhere what is the locus of this point
– the whole 2D plane
• The locus point is free to move anywhere under the constraint that its
distance from the center is always less or equal to some r
– then the locus is a circle of radius r
• The locus point is free to move anywhere under the constraint that its
distance from the center is always equal to r
– then the locus point lies on the circumference of circle of radius r
Problem 17. If the coordinates of a variable point P be
_
t +
1
t
, t −
1
t
_
where
’t’ is a variable quantity, then ﬁnd the locus of P
Problem 18. Find the equation of the locus of point P such that AP+PB = 10
where A ≡ (−3, 0) and B ≡ (3, 0)
Problem 19. A variable line is at constant distance
p
from the origin and
meets the coordinate axes in A and B. Show that the locus of the centroid of
∆OAB is x
−2
+y
−2
= 9p
−2
Problem 20. Two ends of A and B of a straight line segment of constant length
c slides upon the rectangular axes OX, OY respectively. If the rectangle OAPB
is completed then show that the locus of the foot of the perpendicular drawn
from P to AB is x
2/3
+y
2/3
= c
2/3
13
9 TWO LINES
Problem 21. FIdn the equation of the striaght line whose intercepts on X −
axis and Y −axis are respectively twice and thrice of those by the line 3x+4y =
12
Problem 22. A line through A(−5, −4) meets the lines x+3y = −2, 2x+y+4 =
0 and x −y = 5 at the points B, C and D repectively, if
_
15
AB
_
2
+
_
10
AC
_
2
=
_
6
AD
_
2
FInd the equation of the line.
Problem 23. A straight line L through the origin meets line x + y = 1 and
x +y = 3 at P and Q respectively. Through P and Q two straight lines L
1
and
L
2
are drawn, parallel to 2x −y = 5 and 3x +y = 5 respectively. Lines L
1
and
L
2
intersect at R. Show that the locus of R as L varies is a straight line
Problem 24. A line intersects X −axis at A(7, 0) and Y −axis at B(0, −5).
A variable line PQ which is perpendicular to AB intersects X −axis at P and
Y −axis at Q. If AQ and BP intersects at R then ﬁnd the locus of R.
Problem 25. A variable line xcos θ + y sin θ = 2 cuts the X and Y axes at A
and B respectively. Find the locus of the vertex P of the rectangle OAPB, O is
the origin.
9 Two lines
Given two lines ax + by + c = 01a
1
x + b
1
y + c
1
= 0 , a
2
x + b
2
y + c
2
= 0, we
discuss what further structures we can build from these
9.1 Lines are parallel
9.1.1 Slopes of parallel lines
Two lines if they are parallel ⇔
a
1
a
2
=
b
1
b
2
=
c
1
c
2
9.1.2 Distance between parallel lines
Distance between two parallel lines is
c
1
−c
2

√
a
2
+b
2
9.2 Lines are intersecting
9.2.1 Angle between the lines
If two lines are intersecting then the acute angle between them is given by
cos θ =
a
1
a
2
+b
1
b
2

_
a
2
1
+b
2
1
_
a
2
2
+b
2
2
• Special case
14
9 TWO LINES 9.3 Angle bisector equation
– If the lines are perpendicular ⇒a
1
a
2
+b
1
b
2
= 0
– They are parallel ⇒a
1
a
2
+b
1
b
2
 =
_
a
2
1
+b
2
1
_
a
2
2
+b
2
2
• Equation of the line that is perpendicular to the given line ax+by +c = 0
is bx−ay +d = 0 where d can be evaluated with another given condition.
Problem 26. What is the equation of the family of lines that are parallel, and
perpendicular to the line 2x + 3y = 6
Problem 27. FInd the acute angle between the lines 2x − y + 3 = 0 and
x −3y + 2 = 0
9.3 Angle bisector equation
Equation of the angle bisector is
a
1
x +b
1
y +c
1

_
a
2
1
+b
2
1
=
a
2
x +b
2
y +c
2

_
a
2
2
+b
2
2
a
1
x +b
1
y +c
1
_
a
2
1
+b
2
1
= ±
a
2
x +b
2
y +c
2
_
a
2
2
+b
2
2
One of these would be acute angle bisector and the other is obtuse angled
bisector
9.3.1 Angle bisector containing the origin
In both the line equations once we make the constant term positive i.e. c
1
, c
2
> 0
we can identify easily that the region between both the lines containing the origin
will be positive.
Let us understand the following conclusions in steps
1. The lines intersecting divides the region in 4 parts,
(a) Region 1 is the origin containing region hence for any (h, k) lying on
the angle bisector the equation is a
1
h+b
1
k +c
1
> 0 and a
2
h+b
2
k +
c
2
> 0
(b) Region 2 is the just vertically opposite region to region 1 and here if
(h, k) lies on the angle bisector contained in this region (that is same
as the one in region 1) we have a
1
h+b
1
k+c
1
< 0 and a
2
h+b
2
k+c
2
<
0.
(c) Region 3 if has a angle bisector then (h, k) lying on it will obey
a
1
h+b
1
k +c
1
> 0 (as (h, k) is on origin side ) and a
2
h+b
2
k +c
2
< 0
(other side of origin)
(d) Region 4 has a angle bisector then (h, k) lying on it will obey a
1
h +
b
1
k+c
1
< 0 (as (h, k) is on other side of origin ) and a
2
h+b
2
k+c
2
> 0
(same side of origin)
15
9.3 Angle bisector equation 9 TWO LINES
Figure 1: Demonstrates the region containing the origin and angle bisector equation lying
in that region. The green region contains the origin and red region doesn’t contain the origin
Hence the equation of the angle bisector containing the origin is
a
1
x +b
1
y +c
1

_
a
2
1
+b
2
1
=
a
2
x +b
2
y +c
2

_
a
2
2
+b
2
2
⇒
a
1
x +b
1
y +c
1
_
a
2
1
+b
2
1
=
a
2
x +b
2
y +c
2
_
a
2
2
+b
2
2
As in the region 1 and region 2, we have either a
1
x +b
1
y +c
1
& a
2
x +b
2
y +c
2
are both positive or both negative
Similarly the angle bisector equation not containing the origin is
a
1
x +b
1
y +c
1
_
a
2
1
+b
2
1
= −
a
2
x +b
2
y +c
2
_
a
2
2
+b
2
2
(as the regions 3 and 4 are negative for atleast one a
1
x+b
1
y+c
1
or a
2
x+b
2
y+c
2
9.3.2 Acute or obtuse angle contains origin
Our task in this section is to identify whether the acute or the obtuse angle
contains the origin. For this we will need the normal form of the equation.
Given the normal form
xcos α +y sin α = p
where α is the angle made by the normal to the plane with positive x − axis
and p is the distance of the line from origin (length of the normal )
Given line equations (assuming c
1
, c
2
> 0) a
1
x+b
1
y+c
1
= 0 can be converted
to the normal form as
−a
1
_
a
2
1
+b
2
1
x +
−b
1
_
a
2
1
+b
2
1
y =
c
1
_
a
2
1
+b
2
1
So we see that
compariing this with the normal form we have cos α
1
=
−a
1
_
a
2
1
+b
2
1
and sin α
1
=
−b
1
_
a
2
1
+b
2
1
where α
1
is the angle made by the normal to the line with +ive xaxis.
Similarly for the other line a
2
x + b
2
y + c
2
= 0 we have cos α
2
=
−a
2
_
a
2
2
+b
2
2
& sin α
2
=
−b
2
_
a
2
2
+b
2
2
And we see that the angle between the normal α
1
−α
2
 is equal to
the angle .
16
9 TWO LINES 9.3 Angle bisector equation
Figure 2: Origin lies in Acute or Obtuse Angle, How we decide ?
We see from the ﬁgure, If α
1
−α
2
is acute then the origin lies in the obtuse
angle
5
and viceversa.
i.e. If cos(α
1
−α
2
) < 0 then α
1
−α
2
 is obtuse angle and if cos(α
1
−α
2
) > 0
then α
1
−α
2
 is acute. So we make use of this fact.
cos(α
1
−α
2
) = cos α
1
cos α
2
+ sin α
1
sin α
2
=
a
1
a
2
+b
1
b
2
_
a
2
1
+b
2
1
_
a
2
2
+b
2
2
So
a
1
a
2
+b
1
b
2
=
_
positive then origin lies in Obtuse Angle
negative then origin lies in Acute Angle
9.3.3 Bisector of the Acute/obtuse angle
We can use both the previous sections to ﬁnd the equation of the acute/obtuse
angle bisector.
To ﬁnd the equation of the acute or obtuse angle bisector we just need to
ﬁnd where the origin lies. When we ﬁnd where the origin lies (acute/obtuse
angle) we choose the angle bisetor taking + sign in the equation of the angle
bisector.
So like let us discuss some cases. Suppose we want to ﬁnd the equation of
the angle bisector of the acute angle between two lines. If the a
1
a
2
+ b
1
b
2
< 0
we see that origin lies in the acute angle and hence the equation of the acute
angle (since it contains the origin) will be
a
1
x +b
1
y +c
1
_
a
2
1
+b
2
1
=
a
2
x +b
2
y +c
2
_
a
2
2
+b
2
2
and taking a negative sign for the obtuse angle bisector.
Problem 28. Find the equation of the bisector containing the origin, and
bisector of the acute angle between the lines 3x−4y+7 = 0 and 12x+5y−2 = 0
Problem 29. FInd the equation of the line which bisects the obtuse angle
between the lines x−2y +4 = 0 and 4x−3y +2 = 0 , does this bisector contain
the origin.
5
cos θ is positive in the ﬁrst quadrant and negative in the second quadrant. Hence if
cos θ > 0 then θ lies in the ﬁrst quadrant (or fouth quadrant) and if cos θ < 0 then θ lies in
the second ( or third ) quadrant.
17
10 LINEAR COMBINATION OF LINES
10 Linear combination of lines
Given two lines P : a
1
x + b
1
y + c
1
= 0 and Q : a
2
x + b
2
y + c
2
= 0, we are
interested in ﬁnding out what is the linear combination of these two lines.
A linear combination can be represented as
P +λQ = 0
(a
1
x +b
1
y +c
1
) +λ(a
2
x +b
2
y +c
2
) = 0
1. If the lines P = 0 and Q = 0 are intersecting then P +λQ = 0 represents
a family of lines passing through the intersection of P = 0 and Q = 0
2. If the lines P = 0 and Q = 0 are parallel then P + λQ = 0 represents
family of lines that are parallel to these two.
Problem 30. Prove that all lines represented by the equation
(2 cos θ + 3 sin θ)x + (3 cos θ −5 sin θ)y −(5 cos θ −2 sin θ) = 0
pass through a ﬁxed point for all values of θ. Find the coordinates of this point
and its reﬂection in the line x +y =
√
2
18