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Office of Naval Research Project: Vision-Based Navigation in Riverine Environments
Soon-Jo Chung and Seth Hutchinson at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)

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PI: Soon-Jo Chung Co-PI: Seth Hutchinson Junho Yang, Ashwin Dani, Aditya Paranjape, Kevin Meier, Xichen Shi (Undergrad): Sunil Patel, Shubham Gupta, Martin Miller, Simon Peter University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL

Outline

Review of Prior Work (Mono-vision SLAM) Monocular Vision Based SLAM with IMU and Water Reflection (JFR, GNC 2013) Curve based SLAM using Stereo Vision (IROS 2012) New nonlinear estimator for stochastic systems (IEEE T-AC, IEEE CDC 2012) Visual SLAM using Higher Level Features (IROS 2012, IEEE T-RO) Vision-based path planning for agile flight in riverine/forest environment (GNC 2013, IROS 2013, IJRR) Experimental validate the algorithms on UAS platform

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Develop novel hybrid vision based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithms and path planning/control strategies that can be implemented in a small unmanned aerial system (UAS) flying in a complex riverine environment.

Design a hybrid vision architecture that hierarchically combines monocular depth perception and feature correlation with stereopsis (Tasks 1-4). Integrate the vision perception principles with 3D feature extraction, probabilistic feature mapping, segmentation, and tracking algorithms (Tasks 2-3).

Develop computationally efficient and stable vision-based SLAM algorithms (Task 5).

Path planning, guidance, and control algorithms for complex 3D riverine environments (Task 6) Experimental validation by using the UIUCs helicopter and fixed-wing UASs (Task 7).

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J. Yang, D. Rao, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Monocular Vision based Navigation in GPS Denied Riverin e Environments, AIAA Infotech at Aerospace Conference, St. Louis, MO, Mar. 2011, AIAA-2011-1403.

Objective

Use feature image points and their reflection on the river Overcome the drawback of the inverse-depth parameteri zation

Generate the trajectory of the UAS Navigate a UAS inside a riverine environment

River border marked with red and reflections shown on river surface

Approach

Steps for Navigation in Riverine Environments Measure MAV attitude by using epipolar geometry Extract coplanar features around the river surface Measure landmark range and bearing Navigate MAV with FastSLAM algorithm

Results

SLAM Results

Initial camera attitude was determined from the FOE Rotation in later frames was determined relative to this orientation

Results

Utilize the structural commonalities of diverse environments Estimate a path of an MAV

Compensate angular drift with FOE Track map features for consistent measurement

Results (contd)

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Indoor Results

Algorithm works in diverse range of environments that has a path with planar surface

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Beckman Institute

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Inertial-Aided Vision-Based Localization and Mapping in a Riverine Environment with Reflection Measurements

Junho Yang, Ashwin Dani, Soon-Jo Chung, and Seth Hutchinson University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL

J. Yang, A. Dani, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Nonlinear Observer Design for UAS Navig ation in Riverine Environments, Journal of Field Robotics (to be submitted), 2013. J. Yang, A. Dani, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Inertial-Aided Vision-Based Localization a nd Mapping in a Riverine Environment with Reflection Measurements, AIAA Guidance, Nav igation, and Control Conference, Boston, MA, August 2013.

Outline

Navigation System Overview of our system Dynamic model / Measurement model Reflection matching algorithm Observability / Nonlinear estimator Results Numerical simulations Experiments Conclusion

Introduction

Motivation

Operation in diverse environments with UAVs Our goal: navigation in riverine environments

Riverine environments

Reflections: important aspect of riverine environments Forest canopy: GPS might not always be available Navigation using local onboard sensing and reflections

http://youtube.com/watch?v=Oqgz1PLRmM8

Introduction

Contribution

Observable system

SLAM system: known to be unobservable. Our system: observable with multiple view using reflections and onboard sensor measurements

Robot-centric mapping

Position of each landmark are estimated w.r.t. the UAV body frame: closest frame to the landmarks Normalized coordinates are used to alleviate the nonlinearity.

Localization and mapping models are derived particularly for GPS-denied riverine environments with light weight sensors. First result of localization and mapping by exploiting multiple views with reflections in a riverine environment to our knowledge.

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Introduction

Related Work

Filter-based SLAM with inverse depth parameterization

J. Civera, A. Davison, and J. M. M. Montiel, Inverse depth parametrization for monocular SLAM," IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 932-945, 2008. J. Sola, T. Vidal-Calleja, J. Civera, and J. M. M. Montiel, Impact of landmark parametrization on monocular EKF-SLAM with points and lines, The International Journal of Computer Vision, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 339 368, 2012.

Curve based localization and mapping

D. Rao, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, CurveSLAM: An Approach for Visionbased Navigation without Point Features, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, Oct. 2012, pp. 4198-4204.

A. Dani, G. Panahandeh, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Image Moments for Higher-Level Feature Based Navigation, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Tokyo, Japan, November, 2013, to appear. (Also, to be submitted to the International Journal of Robotics Research) A. P. Dani, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Observer Design for Stochastic Nonlinear Systems via Contraction-based Incremental Stability, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, conditionally accepted (regular paper)

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Introduction

Calibration of a camera with known points

J. Hesch, A. Mourikis, and S. Roumeliotis, Mirror-based extrinsic camera calibration, Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics, vol. 57, pp. 285299, 2009.

G. L. Mariottini, S. Scheggi, F. Morbidi, and D. Prattichizzo, Planar mirrors for image-based robot localization and 3-D reconstruction, Mechatronics - Special Issue on Visual Servoing, vol. 22, pp. 398409, 2012.

Monocular vision with planar ground assumption

J. Yang, D. Rao, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Monocular vision based navigation in GPS denied riverine environments, in Proc. AIAA Infotech at Aerospace Conference, AIAA-2011-1403, St. Louis, MO, March 2011. S. Scherer, J. Rehder, S. Achar, H. Cover, A. Chambers, S. Nuske, and S. Singh, River mapping from a flying robot:state estimation, river detection, and obstacle mapping, Autonomous Robots, vol. 33, no. 1-2, pp. 189214, 2012.

Navigation System

Quadcopter UAV

Sensors: camera, IMU, magnetometer, and an ultrasound altimeter Dedicated dual-core single board computer for vision

Location of landmarks and UAV are estimated simultaneously

Magnetometer IMU Camera UAV Motion Propagation Vision System Propagation Measurement Update World Frame Representation

Altimeter

Quadcopter

Autopilot

UAV

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Quadcopter Video

Navigation System

Motion model

World-centric model for UAV localization Robot-centric model for landmark mapping

Measurement model

Camera projection of landmarks from multiple view Altitude measurements from the river surface

Navigation System

Dynamic Model

World-centric model composed of location and linear velocity of the UAV

Mapping of landmarks

Robot-centric model of normalized image coordinates and inverse depth parameterization

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Navigation System

Vision Measurements

Camera / unit sphere projection of current view Transformation to UAV body frame

Normalized coordinates when the feature appears Representation in terms of UAV and landmark state

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Navigation System

Measurement of reflections

Camera projection of reflections Representation in terms of UAV and landmark state

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Navigation System

Reflection Matching

Algorithm 1 Matching of Reflections in the River Input Output 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Camera orientation and image data Matching of a real object point and its reflection If no reflection match do Select features with Shi Tomasi corner detector Slide a flipped image patch and compute a correlation coefficient Find a location that has high matching probability Compute a matching region using UAV orientation data Reject the match using the search region Track the center of matched image patches with pyramid KLT end if

Matching of reflections

Use template matching with correlation coefficients

Reject outliers: set a region across the source image.

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Navigation System

Observability

Observability of SLAM

Typically, SLAM is known to be unobservable. Exploit available measurements from the UAV in a riverine environment. attitude, altitude from river surface, current view, initial view and reflection projection of features Observability matrix becomes full rank starting from measurements of only two features and UAV altitude.

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Navigation System

EKF Estimator

Estimated state

Location and linear velocity of the UAV Normalized coordinates and inverse depth of landmarks

Motion prediction

Prediction of state and covariance estimates

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Navigation System

Measurement update

Update of mean and covariance estimates

Measurement model

Landmark mapping

World-centric representation of estimated landmarks

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Navigation System

SDC Estimator

Nonlinear function can be written in the form Convex optimization to combine the predicted covariance by using the criteria of minimizing its trace.

sensor measurement

SDRE estimator 1

SDRE estimator 2

SDRE estimator n

A. P. Dani, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Observer Design for Stochastic Nonlinear Systems via Contraction-based Incremental Stability, IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, conditionally accepted. also, IEEE CDC 2012. 17

Navigation System

Motion prediction with multiple SDC forms

where with , , and

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Results

Numerical Simulations

Simulation setup

UAV starts from the origin Twenty landmarks are randomly distributed All the landmarks and their reflections are measurable

Initial conditions

Location of the UAV Linear velocity of the UAV State of landmarks

Disturbance in motion

Gaussian white noise Linear acceleration and angular velocity: = 0.01 Attitude and altitude: = 0.001

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Results

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Results

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Results

Estimation error: converges towards zero Uncertainty: bounded since the system is observable

v (m/s)

estimation error

3 standard deviation

estimation error

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Results

Location of the UAV: 0.1435m Linear velocity of the UAV: 0.0644m/s Inverse depth of landmarks: 0.0019 (1/m)

Average estimation error of point feature

estimation error 3 standard deviation

RMSE

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Results

Experiments

Demonstration at a creek

Data collection Boneyard creek at the UIUC Engineering quad Measurements from our UAV quadcopter Data processing Processed the data offline

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Results

Experiments (Cont'd.)

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Results

Experiments (Cont'd.)

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Results

Experiments (Cont'd.)

UAV motion model: attitude, angular velocity, linear acceleration, altitude data are used

UAV attitude readings 10 5 0 -5 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

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Results

Experiments (Cont'd.)

Location and linear velocity of the UAV are estimated. Measurement model: altitude and vision measurements

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Results

Experiments (Cont'd.)

Normalized coordinates: directly measureable Depth of landmark: estimated in terms of its inverse

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Conclusion

We presented an inertial-aided vision-based localization and mapping algorithm for riverine environments. Reflection is an important aspect of riverine environments, which we can exploit to fully constrain the system. We made the system observable by deriving a vision measurement model with projection of features, their initial observation, their reflections, and onboard sensor readings. We estimated the position of the features with respect to the UAV body frame which is the closest to the features. To our knowledge, we report the first result of performing localization and mapping by exploiting multiple views with reflections of features in a riverine environment.

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D. Rao, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, CurveSLAM: An Approach for Vision-based Navigation without Point Features, IE

EE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, October 7-12, 2012 D. Rao, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, CurveSLAM: An Approach for Vision-based, International Journal of Robotics Res earch, to be submitted

Motivation

Objective

Develop a novel curve-based algorithm to perform SLAM utilizing only the path edge curves from stereo data. Benefits of curve-based SLAM:

Can represent more structure in the environment Much smaller state space and uncluttered map More useful semantic information for planning and control

Can we perform SLAM in these environments purely by exploiting the path / river edge structure?

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Approach

Overview

Observing a planar world curve in two different images, we can determine the curve parameters and the plane orientation. Can eradicate stereo matching of points; instead use a model fit to find the curve parameters to minimize reprojection error.

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Approach

Curve Parametrization

We utilize planar cubic Bezier curves, defined by 4 control points, with t in [0, 1 ]

=

=0

[0, 1]

Affine transformation on the curve is the same as transforming the control points

Projected curve in image is approximately equivalent to projection of control points.

Can project each control point to the image using the stereo projection equations:

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Approach

Curve Fitting

Nonlinear model fit to estimate planar curve parameters ( ) and planar orientation (, , ) in the world frame directly. Levenberg-Marquardt optimization

Iterate:

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Approach

SLAM

and

Observations of out-of-plane pose and curve control points: EKF-based SLAM Curve correspondence? Need to find t values and split curves

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Approach

Data Association

Curve splitting

Using De Casteljaus algorithm, control points of split curve are a linear transformation of the original

Curve correspondence

Track end points of map curves in images

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Results

Vision Results

Stereo vision data on various paths of length up to 100m. SLAM estimate based purely on path edge curves. Algorithm can also recover from a series of poor curve measurements (below).

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Results

Simulated two loops of the three environments shown (total lengths of 160m, 250m, and 400m). Normalized Estimation Error Squared (NEES) used as a measure of filter consistency (95% Confidence Interval).

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Results

NEES plots are over 50 Monte Carlo runs; 95% CI shown in red Improvement in consistency over previous work.

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Conclusions

Can produce more structured maps of the environment, especially when point features arent meaningful landmarks

Could provide useful cues for planning / control

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A. P. Dani, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Observer Design for Stochastic Nonlinear Systems via Contraction-based Incremental Stability, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Conditionally accepted in 2013. A. P. Dani, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Observer Design for Stochastic Nonlinear Systems using Contraction Analysis, Proc. IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Maui, HI, December 2012, pp. 6028-6035.

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SDRE

SDRE

SDRE

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SDRE

SDRE

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A. Dani, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, SLAM using Higher Level Feature Representation, IEEE Trans. Robotics (to be submitted), 2013. A. Dani, G. Panahandeh, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Image Moments for Higher-Level Feature Based Navigation, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Tokyo, Japan, November 3-7, 2013, to appear.

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Conclusions

introduced a new vision-based SLAM algorithm which incorporates higher-level structures, such as planar surfaces in visual navigation by using the variation of the image moments of the plana r regions in 2D images. The map is represented by using regions instea d of a large number of feature points. We have derived a camera-IMU SLAM formulation which represents the scene using a minimal set of par ameters. The RMSE and NEES comparison shows that t he proposed estimator outperforms EKF in term s of accuracy and consistency.

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Outline

1 2 3 4

Motivation and problem formulation Numerical optimization Time delay-based motion primitive Closed-loop simulations and experiments

Paranjape et al

ONR Project

Motivation

High speed ight through a dense, unstructured, unknown eld of obstacles Collision-free ight guaranteed below a critical speed (Karaman and Frazzoli) How do we ensure collision-free ight in a practical setting at high speeds?

Paranjape et al ONR Project

Flight Modes

Forward Flight

Reversal

Aggressive Turn

Perching2

Forward ight: motion primitive continuously parametrized in the control input space Perching: only in the event of an absolutely unavoidable collision Aggressive Turn Around (ATA): addressed in this paper

1. Paranjape, Chung, and Kim, Novel Dihedral-based Control of Flapping-Wing Aircraft with Application to Perching, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 2013, to appear. 2. Paranjape, Meier, Shi, Chung, and Hutchinson, Motion Primitives and 3-D Path Planning for Fast Flight through a Forest, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2013

Paranjape et al

ONR Project

Objective the objective is to get the aircraft to reverse heading () while minimizing the volume required for the reversal.

tf

min

u 0

(x x 2 + y y 2 + h h2 + u T Qu ) dt

subject to |(tf ) (0)| = (turn around) u [umin , umax ], Q > 0 (bounded control inputs) (tf ) = 0 (recover to level ight)

Paranjape et al

ONR Project

Aircraft Model

Dene a characteristic length and specic thrust (per unit mass): k= Equations of motion = V sin x = V cos cos , y = V cos sin , h 2 V = T cos kV CD () g sin = = g cos T sin + kVCL () cos V V T sin sin + kVCL () V cos (2) S Thrust , T = 2m m (1)

Control inputs: Thrust (T ), angle of attack (), and wind axis roll angle () Actuator dynamics = aT (Tc T ), T = a (c ), = a (c ) (3)

Paranjape et al

ONR Project

Immelman Turn (in the vertical plane)

Immelman turn: in the vertical plane (narrow turning volume) Level turn: in the horizontal plane (very little altitude change permissible) Optimal solutions in this paper will be in the form of 3-D turns

Paranjape et al ONR Project

Aircraft Model

Dened two constants k= Actuator dynamics = aT (Tc T ), T = a (c ), = a (c ) aT = 1, a = a = 2 Aircraft data for simulations

2 CL = 0.4 + 2.5, CD = 0.035 + 0.36 CL + CD ,spoil after ipping

(4)

Paranjape et al

ONR Project

Analytical Solution

Dene the Hamiltonian

2 H = x x 2 + y y 2 + h h2 + T Tc + 2 c + x V cos cos + y V cos sin

+h V sin + V (T cos kV 2 CD g sin ) + g cos T sin + kVCL () cos + V V + a (c ) + T aT (Tc T ) + a (c ) T sin + kVCL () V sin cos

The control inputs are found by solving H / u = 0 Ignoring T sin /V gives c = stall sign( ) Determine control inputs numerically (using Gpops-II)

Paranjape et al

ONR Project

Tight constraint on the altitude: x = y = 1 and h = 5

0 0.5 1 Time [s] 1.5 2 , [deg] 60 40 20 0

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Paranjape et al

ONR Project

Narrow volume: x = h = 1 and y = 5

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Paranjape et al

ONR Project

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, [deg]

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Bank

40 30 20 10 0 0 0.5

The wind axis roll angle command c can be split into three segments

Segment 1 (0 t d ): c = 0; the aircraft pulls up and decelerates Segment 2 (| (0)| < 150 deg): c = c ,max (rapid turn) Segment 3: c = 0 (recovery to level ight)

Design of a motion primitive

The time delay d depends on the shape of the turning volume A three segment motion primitive, parametrized by d crit can be approximated analytically

Paranjape et al ONR Project

2.5

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(k) x y projection

(l) x z projection

Figure : Plots showing the aggressive turn trajectory for d [0, 1] (dark curves denote a larger time delay) in the x y and x z planes.

Level turns dont usually require stall and c ,max commands Immelman turns require a rather intricate Tc - c schedule

Paranjape et al ONR Project

Experiments: Platform

No direct roll control device (for c ; increases time constant) Rudder used for lateral-directional and roll control

Paranjape et al

ONR Project

Constant thrust and elevator: Tc = 5 and e = 20 deg (maximum up-position) typically involves an interplay between roll and yaw (roll angle + zero sideslip) Hierarchical control for

t

pc r

= =

kp , (c ) + kI ,

0 t

(c ) dt (pc p ) dt

0

kp ,p (pc p ) + kI ,p

Paranjape et al

ONR Project

Experimental Results

Comparison of simulations and experiments

1.3 1.2 Turn radius [m] 1.1 1

Simulations Experiments

0.1

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Optimum time delay for minimum turn radius: 0.2 s (experimental) v/s 0.4 s (simulations) Eect of adding a control law

Paranjape et al ONR Project

d' d

Inaccessible

Inaccessible

Motion planning algorithm based on model predictive control Each step a motion primitive employing constant control inputs Algebraic formula to calculate the control inputs from the equations of motion Finite aircraft agility modelled as a time-delay between successive control inputs

Paranjape et al ONR Project

Conclusions

Numerical optimisation of the ATA maneuver ATA primitive: c = stall and c = c ,max

Time-delay d between stall and c ,max commands depends on the shape of the turning volume

Experimental demonstration and eect of adding a control law

Paranjape et al

ONR Project

UAS Platform 1

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UAS Platform 1

RC Receiver Ardupilot

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UAS Platform 2

On-board Capabilities: - Autopilot (Ardupilot) - Inertial Measurement Unit - 3-axis Magnetometer - Ultrasound altimeter sensor - FPV CCD Camera - GPS (for measuring ground truth data)

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Vision Computer

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Flight Result

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Conclusions

Developing a fixed-wing unmanned aerial platform with onboard autopilot, IMU, GPS sensors, ground control station and communication channel Developed an unmanned helicopter with on-board autopilot, IMU, GPS, magnetometer sensors

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J. Yang, D. Rao, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Monocular Vision bas ed Navigation in GPS Denied Riverine Environments, AIAA Infotech at Aerospace Conference, St. Louis, MO, Mar. 2011, AIAA-2011-1403. D. Rao, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, CurveSLAM: An Approach for Vision-based Navigation without Point Features, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Vilamoura, Algar ve, Portugal, October 7-12, 2012, in preparation for International Journal of Robotics Research. A. P. Dani, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Observer Design for Stoch astic Nonlinear Systems using Contraction Analysis, Proc. IEEE Confer ence on Decision and Control (CDC), Maui, HI, December 2012. A. P. Dani, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Observer Design for Stoch astic Nonlinear Systems via Contraction-based Incremental Stability, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Conditionally accepted. A. A. Paranjape, K. Meier, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Optimum S patially Constrained Turns for Agile Micro Aerial Vehicles, AIAA Guidan ce, Navigation, and Control Conference, Boston, MA, August 2013.

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J. Yang, A. Dani, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Nonlinear Observer Desi gn for UAS Navigation in Riverine Environments, Journal of Field Robotics (to be submitted), 2013. J. Yang, A. Dani, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Inertial-Aided Vision-Bas ed Localization and Mapping in a Riverine Environment with Reflection Meas urements, AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, Boston, MA , August 2013. A. Dani, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, SLAM using Higher Level Feature Representation, IEEE Transactions on Robotics (to be submitted), 2013. A. Dani, G. Panahandeh, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Image Moments f or Higher-Level Feature Based Navigation, IEEE/RSJ International Confere nce on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Tokyo, Japan, November 3-7 , 2013, to appear. A. A. Paranjape, K. C. Meier, X. Shi, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Motio n Primitives and 3-D Path Planning for Fast Flight through a Forest, The Int ernational Journal of Robotics Research, (to be submitted), 2013. A. A. Paranjape, K. C. Meier, X. Shi, S.-J. Chung, and S. Hutchinson, Motio n Primitives and 3-D Path Planning for Fast Flight through a Forest, IEEE/R SJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Toky o, Japan, November 3-7, 2013, to appear

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Concluding Remarks

Developing a hybrid observer-based navigation algorithm for UAS in riverine environment Developing a motion planning algorithm for agile flight in the riverine environment

Our results will play a key role in enhancing the Navy's int elligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions held at GPS-denied riverine environments.

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