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Wildfire Firefighter Respond to wildfire

PUAFIR204A Respond to Wildfire PUAFIR309 Operate Pumps PUATE001A Work in a Team

Learning and Assessment Strategy

Version 1.0 - 26 April, 2006


First published March 2006 in Australia by: CFA Operations, CFA Headquarters, 8 Lakeside Drive, Burwood East, Victoria 3151. CFA 2005 Other than that permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without written permission from the Country Fire Authority Victoria. Enquiries should be addressed to the publisher.

Learning and Assessment Strategy

Table of Contents
Learning Materials Control Sheet ..................................................................................5 Record of Versions ........................................................................................................5 Contact for Enquiries and Proposed Changes ..............................................................5 PUAFIR204A Respond to wildfire..................................................................................7 PUAFIR309A Operate pumps .....................................................................................11 PUATEA001A Work in a team.....................................................................................15 Competency Map PUAFIR204A Respond to wildfire ...............................................18 Competency Map PUAFIR309A Operate pumps .....................................................19 Competency Map PUATEA001A Work in a team.....................................................20

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Learning Materials Control Sheet


Record of Versions
No 1.0 Date 26/04/2006 Nature of Amendment Initial learning and assessment strategy

Contact for Enquiries and Proposed Changes


If you have any questions regarding this learning document please contact the responsible area identified below:

Name Designation

Tony Duckmanton Manager Learning and Development CFA Headquarters, 8 Lakeside Drive, Burwood East, Victoria 3151

Phone Fax Email

(03) 9262 8310 (03) 9262 8576 t.duckmanton@cfa.vic.gov.au

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

PUAFIR204A Respond to wildfire


This unit covers competency for responding to a wildfire when working as a member of a team, under direct supervision. Element 1. Prepare to respond to fire Performance Criteria 1.1 The location of fire and the most effective route to the fire are obtained taking into account local conditions. 1.2 Protective clothing and equipment, food and fluid requirements are identified and relevant preparations undertaken prior to departure. 2. Proceed to fire 2.1 The location of the fire is confirmed on approach. 2.2 Access to the area is gained with minimum injury to personnel or damage to vehicles, equipment or the environment. 2.3 Evidence of fire cause is noted and brought to the attention of the supervisor. 3. Obtain and use extinguishing media and equipment 3.1 Nominated media and equipment are located and obtained. 3.2 Equipment is used to deliver the nominated media in accordance with the organisations and manufacturer's procedures. 4.1 Instructions are received, confirmed and implemented in accordance with the organisations safe work practices and procedures. 4.2 Equipment and extinguishing media used are appropriate to wildfire conditions. 4.3 Control lines are prepared in accordance with the organisations procedures. 4.4 Equipment is positioned, made ready for use and protected from damage in accordance with the organisations procedures. 4.5 Fire is attacked taking into account wildfire hazards as directed and in accordance with the organisations procedures. 4.6 Evidence of fire cause and area of fire origin are protected. 4.7 Communication is maintained at all times in accordance with the organisations procedures.

4.

Combat wildfire

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Element 5. Observe and react to wildfire and weather conditions

Performance Criteria 5.1. Conditions at the fire are observed and their effect on fire behaviour and development are noted and reported to supervisor. 5.2. Weather conditions and changes to fire behaviour are observed and reported to the supervisor. 5.3. Variations in terrain, fuel types and fuel arrangements are observed and the effect on fire behaviour is reported to the supervisor as required. 5.4. A safe escape route or refuge is identified and maintained at all times. 5.5. Communication is maintained with other firefighting personnel and the supervisor throughout operational activities.

6.

Participate in mop-up and patrol activities

6.1. Mopping-up activities are carried out under direction in accordance with the organisations procedures. 6.2. Patrol of the perimeter or sector of the fire is maintained in accordance with the organisations procedures.

7.

Assist in ancillary operations Recover and store equipment

7.1. Activities to complement firefighting operations are carried out as directed and according to the organisations procedures. 8.1. Equipment and consumables are recovered as directed. 8.2. Equipment is stored in accordance with the organisations procedures. 8.3. Cleaning and maintenance are carried out in accordance with the organisations procedures.

8.

RANGE STATEMENT Types of wildfire must include Ground, surface, crown Types of fuel may include Grass crop forest heath plantation scrub Fuel features must include Type size arrangement/distribution quantity moisture content topography local fire conditions Weather factors must include Variations to wind speed and direction, relative humidity, temperature, atmospheric stability Wildfire extinguishing media Water must include and may also include Wetting agent Class A foam fire suppressants (short and long term) earth retardants

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Wildfire extinguishing Tanker hand tools hose and small gear pump equipment must include and may also include Aircraft ropes and lines knap sack chainsaw Types of firefighting Offensive strategy defensive strategy flank attack strategies must include combined strategy direct attack parallel attack indirect attack combination attack Wildfire hazards must include Heat related illness, fatigue, smoke, inhalation, burns, sprain or fracture, snake or insect bite, falling branches/trees, manual handling, trips/falls, disorientation, environmental, lack of visibility, water bombing operations Variations in topography must Elevation slope aspect landscape features include Access may be gained by Vehicle aircraft boat foot Information about access Radio/phone personal contact must be received by and may also include Map reference Personal protective clothing Turnout uniform and gloves eye protection hearing and equipment must include protection respiratory protection and may also include Protective hoods accessories as per organisational standards Ancillary activities may Provision/transportation of food, water and include equipment for an incident working with earth moving equipment such as bulldozer, grader, tractor with blade EVIDENCE GUIDE Critical aspects of evidence For this unit it is essential that competence be demonstrated by: reacting to changing wildfire behaviour due to changes in weather, topography and fuel conditions participating in dry wildfire control use of extinguishing media in wildfire control maintaining health and safety of self, other workers and people in the immediate work area participating in mop-up and patrol, undertaking operational activities safely Interdependent assessment of Pre-requisite units: PUAFIR201A Prevent injury units Co-requisite units: Nil Underpinning knowledge fire behaviour extinguishing media, water, foam, suppressants knapsack operating firefighting equipment, responding to wildfire wildfire control tactics and techniques wildfire hazards, safety
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techniques fuel load, moisture content of fuel, topography, fireground signals, organisations operating procedures effects of wildfire on structures, awareness of health and fitness requirements, Underpinning skills use of wildfire control tools and equipment undertaking dry and wet wildfire attack detection of hot spots, stags, unsecured wildfire perimeter, Resource implications access to controlled or contained fires availability of wildfire control equipment Consistency in performance Evidence should be gathered over a period of time in a range of actual or simulated workplace environments Context of assessment A combination of oral or written presentation, observation, on the job or in a simulated wildfire (grass, crop, scrub, forest)environment

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

PUAFIR309A Operate pumps


This unit covers competency for operating pumps while responding to a wildfire when working as a member of a team, under direct supervision. Element 1. Prepare pump to deliver water Performance Criteria 1.1 Type of pump selected is appropriate to the operation/incident 1.2 Suitability of water supply is determined 1.3 Pump is sited and positioned to receive and deliver water supply in accordance with the organisations requirements 1.4 Pump is engaged in accordance with the manufacturers guidelines and the organisations procedures 1.5 Appropriate agents are prepared for the production of foam at an incident, where required 2. Operate pump 2.1. Pump components, ancillary equipment and principles of operation are utilised to draught water from a static supply, to boost water from a reticulated supply or to deliver water from the appliance tank 2.2. Pump operation is in accordance with manufacturer's specifications, organisations procedures and OH&S guidelines 2.3. Hydraulic requirements of hose lines and branches are calculated 2.4. Pumps are operated to ensure that pressure and flow meet operational requirements and safety to personnel is maintained 2.5. Pump performance is monitored and maintained to ensure maximum efficiency of operation, to detect and correct pumping and safety problems and to take appropriate action in accordance with the organisations procedures 2.6. Pump operations are to be carried out avoiding injury to personnel and damage to equipment and facilities 2.7. Mechanical malfunctions are reported to supervisor according to the organisations procedures

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Element 3. Conclude pump operations

Performance Criteria 3.1. Pump operations are concluded in accordance with the organisations procedures 3.2. Ancillary equipment is collected and stowed in accordance with the organisations requirements 3.3. Maintenance procedures and checks are undertaken to ensure pump and ancillary equipment is serviceable in accordance with the organisations requirements

RANGE STATEMENT Pumps may include Portable pumps positive displacement centrifugal ejector, free-standing, trailer or vehicle-mounted petrol or diesel driven appliance-mounted pumps single-stage centrifugal, multi-stage centrifugal series/parallel centrifugal peripheral water turbine Water supplies may be of the Rectangular spherical cylindrical trapezoidal following shapes Irregular Hydraulic calculations may Friction loss, velocity, discharge and flow rates, jet include reaction, theoretical and effective height of a jet Foam equipment may include Foam-making branch pipes in-line inductors in-line foam generators round-the-pump proportioners pressure-balanced foam systems electronic foam systems, Class A foam systems, Class B foam systems, medium expansion foam, equipment high expansion foam equipment, high back-pressure (sub-surface injection) foam system compressed air foam system pick-up tubes Primers may include Force pump exhaust ejector diaphragm water ring rotary vane rotary gear Concentrates may include Aqueous film forming foam alcohol type foam protein foam Class A foam Operate pumps Static water supply may Dams rivers lakes reservoirs tanks seawater include swimming pools portable dams Reticulated water supply may Trunk mains distributary mains reticulation mains include Ancillary equipment may Hydrant tools and openers standpipes suction include hoses, spanners, strainers, baskets ropes/lines couplings adaptors and matching pieces breechings delivery hose

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Organisations procedures Training manuals manufacturer's specifications may be covered in fireground procedures OH&S guidelines maintenance procedures and checks pumping practices service procedures, standard operating procedures Operation includes Branch operators, where possible pump operators observance of on other units when relay pumping monitoring of gauges and warning lights use of pressure relief valves and transfer valves use of pump performance charts or tables illustrating information such as optimum nozzle pressure and friction loss water levels Suitability factors include Capacity pressure turbidity salinity EVIDENCE GUIDE Critical aspects of evidence It is essential for this unit that competence be demonstrated in: maintenance of water supply to branch operators maintenance of appropriate levels of pressure, responding appropriately to changing circumstances, when using foam, the correct proportion of foam and water is supplied/delivered and supply of foam concentrate is maintained when pumping from an appliance tank, monitoring levels of water remaining in appliance tank to ensure minimum levels for crew protection pumping without injury to personnel or damage to equipment Operate pumps Interdependent assessment of Pre-requisite units: PUAFIR203A Respond to urban units fire, or PUAFIR202A Respond to isolated/remote structure fire, or PUAFIR204A Respond to wildfire or PUAFIR205A Respond to aviation incident (specialist) PUAEQU001A Prepare and maintain response equipment Co-requisite units: Nil Underpinning knowledge Principles of hydraulics (flow and pressure) calculations of water supply capacity hydraulic calculations including friction loss velocity discharge and flow rates jet reaction, theoretical and effective height of a jet types of pumps and primers pump components and their principles of operation pump gauges and controls power train positioning pumps principles of operating pumps relay pumping types of foam concentrate Underpinning skills Prime and operate a pump, operate a pump using gauges and controls, position a pump, supply water to a location using a relay pump Resource implications Access to a range of pumps

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Consistency in performance Evidence should be gathered over a period of time in a range of actual or simulated workplace environments Context of assessment A combination of oral or written presentations, on the job and/or in a range of simulated environments

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PUATEA001A Work in a team


This unit covers competency for responding to a wildfire when working as a member of a team, under direct supervision. Element 1. Contribute to team activities Performance Criteria 1.1. Roles and responsibilities of team members are recognised 1.2. Contribution is made to identifying team goals and objectives 1.3. Activities are completed to required standard within timeframe and in accordance with organisations policies and procedures 1.4. Assistance in the completion of tasks is requested from other team members where appropriate 1.5. Team members are assisted to ensure efficient and safe completion of tasks in accordance with organisations policies and procedures 1.6. Participation by team members is encouraged and acknowledged 1.7. Changes in allocated role and responsibilities are implemented 1.8. Team meetings are attended regularly and punctually 2. Share knowledge and information 2.1. Information relevant to work is communicated effectively with team members to enable efficient completion of tasks in accordance with the organisations policies and procedures 2.2. Knowledge and skills are shared between team members 3. Give and receive support to/from team member 3.1. Feedback/assistance is given to other team members in an appropriate manner 3.2. Team members are supported in achieving workplace goals 3.3. Feedback from other team members is acted upon appropriately RANGE STATEMENT Teams comprise Two or more people working towards a shared purpose Appropriate situation to Difficulty meeting timelines to comply with request assistance may occupational health and safety requirements unsure include of best method to complete task to maximise efficiency

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Assisting other team Own tasks completed. to comply with occupational members may include health and safety requirements, assistance requested, actions of others do not comply with requirements, other team member appears to be having difficulty completing task Contribute to workplace goals completion of task achievement of new may include competencies, development of new skills attainment of new knowledge, personal development Activities may include Working with other members of a team in a work environment or responding in a combat or support role to natural emergencies technological/industrial emergencies, civil/political emergencies and non emergency operations, including community events public relations activities, sporting events parades festivals Conditions under which this Hazardous conditions eg adverse weather after dark competency may be required operations difficult terrain time pressure varying time include frames from immediate/short term to long term response operations varying access to equipment/resources necessitating the use of improvised techniques single or multi organisation responses dealing with human behaviours that result from emergency situations, non-emergency operations and events eg training and community education Appropriate feedback on Acknowledging initiative aptitude ideas performance performance may include and assistance providing constructive criticism Organisations policy and Procedures may vary between sectors and organisations and may include Legislation relevant to the operation/incident/response, legislation relevant to the organisation operational corporate and strategic plans operational procedures, operational performance standards organisations personnel practices policy and procedures organisations quality standards

Communication processes Established organisations procedures for recording may include and reporting the use of logs notebooks pagers radios and telephones team members may be geographically dispersed and require communication systems and technology to remain in contact EVIDENCE GUIDE Critical aspects of evidence It is essential for this unit that competence be demonstrated in the effective communication and contribution to the achievement of tasks consistent with agreed goals

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Interdependent assessment of Pre-requisite units: Nil units Co-requisite units: Nil Underpinning knowledge Composition of workplace teams and roles and responsibilities of team members non operational and operational communication processes techniques for giving and receiving feedback in a constructive manner, techniques for supporting others Underpinning skills Encouraging others/team members following instructions, interpersonal skills listening and using a variety of communication skills providing suggestions and information reporting information Resource implications No special requirements Consistency in performance Evidence will need to be gathered over time in a variety of team situations including regular work group and occasional or one-off work group Context of assessment On the job or in a simulated workplace environment

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Competency Map PUAFIR204A Respond to wildfire


Elements of competency unit addressed in this training program
1 Prepare to respond to fire 2 3 Obtain and use extinguishing media and equipment 4 5 Observe and react to wildfire and weather conditions 6 Participate in mop-up and patrol activities 7 Assist in ancillary operation s 8 Recover and store equipment

Proceed to fire

Combat wildfire

Skills Assessment

Remarks

Sessions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Fire Science Wildfire Behaviour Wildfire Development Equipment recovery and storage Hand tools for wildfire firefighting Hoses for wildfire firefighting Wildfire Extinguishing Agents Pump Operation Preparing for response to Wildfire

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
See Remarks

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

Underpinning knowledge Underpinning knowledge Underpinning knowledge

10. Locating the fire 11. Proceeding to the fire 12. Combating the fire.

Includes map reading

Covered and assessed in Safety on the Fireground

Note: Safety on the Fireground (Covering competencies for Maintain Safety at an Incident Scene and Prevent Injury) is a prerequisite to Respond to Wildfire.

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Competency Map PUAFIR309A Operate pumps


Elements of competency unit addressed in this training program
1 2 Operate pump 3 Conclude pump operations Skills Assessment Remarks

Sessions
1. Fire Science 2. Wildfire Behaviour 3. Wildfire Development 4. Equipment recovery and storage 5. Hand tools for wildfire firefighting 6. Hoses for wildfire firefighting 7. Wildfire Extinguishing Agents 8. Pump Operation 9. Preparing for response to Wildfire 10. Locating the fire 11. Proceeding to the fire 12. Combating the fire.

Prepare pump to deliver water

9 9 9 9 9

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Competency Map PUATEA001A Work in a team


Elements of competency unit addressed in this training program
1 2 Share knowledge and information 3 Give and receive support to/from team member Skills Assessment Remarks

Sessions
1. Fire Science 2. Wildfire Behaviour 3. Wildfire Development 4. Equipment recovery and storage 5. Hand tools for wildfire firefighting 6. Hoses for wildfire firefighting 7. Wildfire Extinguishing Agents 8. Pump Operation 9. Preparing for response to Wildfire 10. Locating the fire 11. Proceeding to the fire 12. Combating the fire.

Contribute to team activities

Note: Team work is inherent to all CFA firefighting activities.

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Section 1 Learning Strategy Respond to Wildfire Program Introduction Help learners to feel comfortable about attending this Program Welcome participants Introduce yourself; name, background, qualifications to deliver this training program. Conduct site induction and participant registration. Ice-breaker activity (If required) Inform participants that this unit covers competency for responding to a wildfire when working as a member of a team, under direct supervision. Inform learners of Programs aim and objectives: Show OHT 2 - 3 - Program aim/objectives . Explain the outcomes that will need to be achieved. PUAFIR204A Respond to Wildfire Prepare to respond to fire Proceed to fire Obtain and use extinguishing media and equipment Combat wildfire Observe and react to wildfire weather and conditions Participate in mop up and patrol activities Assist in ancillary operations Recover and store equipment PUATEA001A Work in a team Inform learners of Programs timetable: Contribute to team activities Share knowledge and information Give and receive support to/from team member OHT 4 OHT 2 - 3

Aids
OHT 1

Time
15 mins

Show OHT 4 Program Outline. Discuss the program outline (Sessions and timings) and explain how the program will be conducted.

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Section 2 Learning Strategy Session 1: Fire Science Time: 1 Hour Aids OHT 1 Time

Introduce Session:

In this session we look at how materials burn. In order to effectively combat and extinguish a fire it is necessary to understand the combustion process and the methods by which heat transfers to spread fire. Show OHT 2 Session Aims/Objective(s). Read through each of the aims/objectives listed on the overhead. At the end of this session participants will be able to: Name the three components necessary for combustion to occur (the fire triangle) Use the fire tetrahedron to show the chemical reaction associated with the combustion process. Provide examples of methods used to interrupt the chemical reaction, breaking the fire triangle to extinguish the fire. Identify the three ways that heat is transferred, spreading the fire. Clarify participant understanding of aims/objectives as required. Show OHT 3 Session topics. Topics covered in the session are: Combustion and fire The fire triangle The fire tetrahedron Extinguishing fire Heat transfer

Inform learners of Session enabling objectives:

OHT 2

OHT 3

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Session 1: Fire Science Enabling Objective: Combustion and fire Instructional Method Heading Explain Practice/Feedback Assessment Combustion Combustion is a chemical process causing a reaction between a substance (fuel) and a gas (usually oxygen) to release energy in the form of heat. A form of oxidation, combustion can happen easily at normal temperatures. Combustion need not produce flames and light. WBoard WF LM page 7 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Ask participants: What are some common examples of combustion where light and flame are not produced? Answers may include: Rusting of iron, Corrosion of aluminium Aerobic exercise (oxygen in cells releases energy (a form of slow combustion).Etc.

Combustion and fire When oxidation results in the production of heat, light and flames it is referred to as fire.

Ask participants: Using their knowledge of combustion, to describe in words what is fire. Write answer on whiteboard A chemical reaction giving off heat, light and flames. WBoard

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Session 1: Fire Science Enabling Objective: The fire triangle Instructional Method Heading Practice/Feedback Assessment The fire triangle. Used to show the 3 basic components necessary for fire to exist (ignite, burn and continue to burn. WBoard WF LM page 7 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Ask participants: What is needed for a fire to burn? Answers should include: Fuel, oxygen and heat. Oxygen Obtained from air Makes up 1/5 of the atmosphere Causes chemical reaction in fuel Heat Every material has an ignition temperature. Using OHT 4 The fire triangle explain each side of the triangle.

OHT 4

Ask participants: What do we mean by ignition temperature? Answer to include: The temperature at which combustion results in visible light and flame.

Fuel Many different types e.g. wood, bark, forest litter, grass, paper, petrol, LPG.

Stress those fuels which are involved in wildfire.

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Session 1: Fire Science Enabling Objective: The fire tetrahedron Instructional Method Heading Practice/Feedback Assessment The fire tetrahedron A fourth component is also present during combustion. WBoard WF LM page 8 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Ask participants: What else besides fuel, heat and oxygen is required to sustain a fire? Answer to include: Chemical chain reaction. Chemical chain reaction occurs between fuel and oxygen Chemical chain reaction is promoted by heat Chemical chain reaction is essential to sustaining a fire. Using OHT 5 The fire tetrahedron explain each side of the tetrahedron. OHT 5

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 1: Fire Science Enabling Objective: Heat transfer Instructional Method Heading Ask participants for examples of how heat can be transferred. List answers on whiteboard. Answers to include: Radiation Convection Conduction Use OHT 6 Forms of heat transfer (Radiation) to explain the characteristics of each of the methods of heat transfer and how they affect a wildfires behaviour. Practice/Feedback Assessment Heat transfer Transmitted in three ways: WBoard WF LM page 10 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

WBoard

Radiation Radiated heat is the heat you feel from a wildfire. Generated by burning fuel and flames. Radiated heat energy travels in straight lines in all directions from heat source Wildfires radiate large amounts of heat raising the temperature of surrounding fuels (possibly to ignition point). Radiated heat does not require a medium to travel through.

OHT 6

Ask participants: What are the implications of radiant heat for wildfire firefighters? Answer should include: Heat stress, heat exhaustion Assists in heating nearby fuels to ignition point

Recall - Heat stress effect has been covered previously in Safety on the Fireground lesson.

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Session 1: Fire Science Enabling Objective: Heat transfer Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment Convection Transfer of heat through the heating of air (air is the medium). Heated air rises quickly. Cool air moves in toward the fire at ground level to replace the rising air creates wind creating a convection column (supplying more oxygen to feed the fire). Use OHT 7 Forms of heat transfer (Convection) to explain the characteristics of each of the methods of heat transfer and how they affect a wildfires behaviour. OHT 7 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Ask participants: What are the implications of convection for wildfire firefighters? Note Cover any points of answer listed below that are not raised by students Answer should include: Convection columns can carry ashes embers and small pieces of burning fuel to spread the fire. Large fires create strong winds which can alter expected fire behaviour. Fire travels faster up slopes because unburnt fuel comes into contact with convection zone. Explain that the term Spotting refers to fires spread by falling ashes, embers and burning fuels carried aloft by convection columns.

Recall Spotting has been covered previously in Safety on the Fireground lesson.
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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 1: Fire Science Enabling Objective: Heat transfer Fire intensity Use OHT 8 Forms of heat transfer (Conduction) to explain the characteristics of each of the methods of heat transfer and how they affect a wildfires behaviour. Time: WF LM page 11 OHT 8

Conduction Transfer of heat through a solid object from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature. Different substances conduct heat at different rates. In wildfires conduction refers to the movement of heat through the fuel itself.

Ask participants: What are the implications of conducted heat for wildfire firefighters? Answer should include: Very little impact. Explain that in wildfires, conduction is of little significance as it is only a small conveyor of heat. Fire intensity A measure of the quantity of heat released from a section of the fire perimeter. Heading Discuss meaning of definition. WBoard

Ask participants: How can firefighters quickly estimate the intensity of the flames? Answer should include: Intensity can be recognised by average flame height.

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Session 1: Fire Science Enabling Objective: Fire intensity Instructional Method Heading Explain concept of determining fire intensity based on flame heights. Practice/Feedback Assessment Flame heights and fire intensity Low intensity Fires have a flame height less than 0.5 metres Moderate intensity Fires have a flame height of 0.5 1.5 metres High intensity Fires have a flame height of 1.5 3.0 metres Very high intensity Fires have a flame height greater than 3.0 metres

Time: Aids/Refs WBoard

Content Points

As fire intensity increases so does the radiated heat. Ask participants: How can firefighters quickly determine the safe distance from flames to protect themselves from radiant heat? Answer should include: Minimum distance = four x flame height Recall Radiant heat protection has been covered previously in Safety on the Fireground lesson.

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Session 1: Fire Science Enabling Objective: Methods of extinguishing fire Instructional Method Heading Practice/Feedback Assessment Methods of extinguishment To extinguish fire it is necessary to break the chemical chain reaction. WBoard WF LM page 8 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Ask participants: How can we inhibit (stop) this chemical chain reaction? Answer to include: Removing one or more of the components of fuel, oxygen or heat. Use OHT 9 Fire Triangle to emphasise breaking the chemical reaction Cutting off the oxygen supply Ask participants: What methods can firefighters use to cut off the oxygen supply to a fire? Answer to include: Smothering flames with a beater. Shovelling soil onto the fire Laying a blanket of foam over the fire

OHT 9

suitable for small fires only difficult to cut off oxygen supply to large fires out in the open.

Using OHT 10 Cutting off Oxygen Supply, explain limitations associated with this method.

OHT 10

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Session 1: Fire Science Enabling Objective: Methods of extinguishment Instructional Method Ask participants: What methods can firefighters use to reduce the temperature the fuel supply to a fire? Answer to include: Applying water to the fuel Dispersing (spreading apart) fuel.

Time: Practice/Feedback Assessment Aids/Refs WF LM page 9

Content Points Reducing the temperature

Heat causes fuel to give off vapours which burn, creating more heat. Water directed on flames does not cool the fuel so vapours continue to be produced maintaining the flames. Water directed onto burning fuel absorbs heat energy by turning to steam. Water cools the fuel to a temperature below the fuels ignition point preventing the release of vapours.

Using OHT 11 Reducing the Fuel Temperature, explain how water should be applied and why directing water at flames is an ineffective use of available water.

OHT 11

Ask participants: Why is it important for wildfire firefighters to apply water correctly? Answer should include: Water may be in short supply. Ineffective use of water means the fire tanker must leave the scene earlier to replenish its water supply. Steam generated by spraying water onto burning fuel can burn firefighters skin. Applied inappropriately water can damage the environment through erosion.
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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 1: Fire Science Enabling Objective: Methods of extinguishment Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment Removing the fuel Effective method of fighting large outdoor fires. Techniques that involve the removal of fuel rather than the use of water are termed Dry Firefighting. WF LM page 9 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Ask participants to provide examples of dry firefighting techniques. Answers may include: Using hand tools to remove or break up fuel (mineral earth line). Using heavy machinery to create control lines or remove fuels. Burning out

Mineral earth lines Control lines Burning out (burning any unburnt fuel between control line and fire edge) Back burning (removing fuel from path of fire).

Use OHT 12 Removing the fuel to outline the main methods used for fuel reduction when fighting wildfires.

OHT 12

Explain that though discussed separately, in many instances it is a combination of the methods of extinguishment that brings about the safe extinguishment of wildfire.

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Session 1: Fire Science Enabling Objective: Methods of extinguishment Instructional Method Conclude session by having participants read the Chapter summary and completing self assessment questions in the learner manual. Practice/Feedback Assessment Read summary on page 15. Complete self assessment questions 17 on page 19, question 1 a, b and c on page 20. Time: Aids/Refs WF LM page 15

Content Points Summary and revision

WF LM page 19 - 20

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Section 2 Learning Strategy Session 2: Wildfire Behaviour This session can be conducted in a classroom or a suitable outdoor area where fuel types etc can be inspected. Introduce Session: In order to operate safely on the fireground, wildfire firefighters need to understand how and why wildfires behave. In this session we will look at the factors that affect wildfire behaviour and the effect each factor has on the fire. Show OHT 2 Session Aims/Objective(s). Read through each of the aims/objectives listed on the overhead. At the end of this session participants will be able to: Identify the three basic factors that affect wildfire behaviour Describe the general effects of each of the factors Clarify participant understanding of aims/objectives as required. Show OHT 3 Session topics. Topics covered in the session are: Stimulate recall of prior/ prerequisite learning?: Fuel and its effect on wildfire behaviour Weather and its effect on wildfire behaviour Topography and its effect on wildfire behaviour OHT 3 Time: 1 Hour Aids OHT 1 Time

Inform learners of Session enabling objectives:

OHT 2

Ask participants: What did you learn from the Fire Science session? Write their responses on the white board. Answers should include: How fuels burn How heat is transferred How fire can be extinguished The fire triangle The fire tetrahedron WBoard

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Session 2: Wildfire Behaviour Enabling Objective: Fuel and it effect on wildfire behaviour Instructional Method Heading Ask participants: What are the factors associated with fuel that affect wildfire behaviour? List answers on the white board. Answers should include: Fuel type Fuel size and quantity Fuel arrangement Fuel moisture content Activity: Divide participants into two groups (Groups A and B). Distribute Butchers paper and pens to each group. Group A Fuel types involved Affect of fuel size and quantity Group B Affect of fuel arrangement Affect of fuel moisture content Ask Group A to discuss and list examples of the type of fuel usually involved in wildfires and how the size and quantity of these fuels affects fire behaviour. Ask group B to discuss and list how they think the arrangement of fuels and their moisture content affect wildfire behaviour. Allow 10 minutes then have each group report on its findings. Identifying how fuel conditions effect wildfire behaviour. Practice/Feedback Assessment Fuel and it effect on wildfire behaviour WBoard Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

WBoard

Butchers paper Whiteboard pens. WF LM page21-23

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Session 2: Wildfire Behaviour Enabling Objective: Fuel and it effect on wildfire behaviour Instructional Method Ask Group A to report on the types of fuel and how fuel size and quantity affects wildfire behaviour. Group As response Fuel types involved Answers should include: Grass Forest litter lying on the ground Small shrubs and scrub Trees and bark Decomposing humus and fine ground litter (duff) Material remaining after forestry or logging operations (Slash) Plantation prunings Answers should include: Fuels are classified as fine or heavy Fine fuels are less than 6mm diameter Fine fuels burn rapidly and can cause spotting Fine fuels contribute the most to the forward rate of spread of a wildfire. Course or heavy fuels over 6mm diameter (thicker than a pencil) are harder to ignite, burn more slowly and for much longer periods. The more fuel there is the greater the fire intensity. Practice/Feedback Assessment Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Fuel size and quantity

Participants should be given opportunity to investigate fuel types, sizes, quantities and their arrangements in the local area.

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Session 2: Wildfire Behaviour Enabling Objective: Fuel and it effect on wildfire behaviour Instructional Method Ask Group A to report on how fuel arrangements and the fuel moisture content affects wildfire behaviour. Answers should include: Tightly packed fuels smoulder and burn more slowly (e.g. peat, heavy leaf litter or hay bales). Well separated fuels such as sparse forest are harder to ignite than closely grouped collections of same materials. Loosely arranged fuel ignite more easily and burn quickly (e.g. dry grass). Where fuels groups consist of different heights (ladder fuels) the fire may spread quickly into the crown of the trees. Answers should include: The higher the moisture content the harder to ignite the fuel Moist fuels burn more slowly. All fuels take up or give off moisture Fuel moisture content can vary throughout the day. Fuel moisture content is influenced by humidity, rainfall, soil moisture and living vegetation. Fine fuels dry out quicker than heavy fuels. Practice/Feedback Assessment Group Bs response Fuel types involved Group Bs response Fuel arrangements Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Fuel moisture content

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Session 2: Wildfire Behaviour Enabling Objective: Fuel and it effect on wildfire behaviour Instructional Method Heading Discuss practical methods of recognising when fuel moisture content is low that do not require measuring tools. (Note do not cover measuring of moisture content at this time). Practice/Feedback Assessment Participants should be given opportunity to practice assessing the moisture content of various fuels found in the local area. Time: Aids/Refs WBoard

Content Points Assessing moisture content Crushing a sample of fuel in your hand or underfoot. A crackling sound indicates very dry fuel. A lack of smell of decomposition indicates dry fuel. Assessing the curing of grass Observing grasses. Noting that they are limp when moist and brittle when dry. Observing grass heads. Falling heads indicate curing to a level that will assist the spread of fire. Observing the smoke colour and quantity Dark smoke indicates very dry fuel Low moisture content produces less smoke.

Ask participants: Why do wildfire firefighters need to be aware of the moisture content in fuel? Answer should include: The amount of moisture determines whether or not fuel will ignite and burn Moisture levels dramatically affect wildfire behaviour.

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Session 2: Wildfire Behaviour Enabling Objective: Weather and its effect on wildfire behaviour Instructional Method Heading Ask participants: What are the four weather factors that influence a wildfires behaviour? List answers on whiteboard Answer to include: Air temperature Relative humidity Wind speed and direction Atmospheric stability. Air temperature Sun warms fuels and land surface Increased air temperatures reduce relative humidity Reduced FMC Increased ease of ignition Relative humidity Discuss relationship between air temperature and Fuel Moisture Content (FMC) Practice/Feedback Assessment Weather factors and their effect on wildfires WBoard WF LM page 23 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

WBoard

Ask participants: What does the term relative humidity refer to? Answer to include: The amount of water vapour present in the atmosphere Measured as %:(0% very dry, 100% almost raining).

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Session 2: Wildfire Behaviour Enabling Objective: Weather and its effect on wildfire behaviour Instructional Method Using OHT 4 Daily trends in RH, explain the effect of Relative Humidity (RH) on FMC and how this effect varies over the course of a day. Practice/Feedback Assessment Relative humidity (continued) When RH is high, fuels absorb moisture from the air. When RH is low, fuels release moisture into the air (desorption). During day time temperatures rise, RH falls, FMC falls and fire intensity increases. At night temperatures drop, humidity increases (dew may form), FMC rises and fire intensity is reduced. Wind OHT 4 WF LM page 24 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Explain that the effect light rainfall has on wildfire behaviour is similar to the night time effect. Using OHT 5 Effect of Wind, as a prompt for participants, revise the effects of wind on Wildfire by asking participants: How does wind speed and direction affect wildfires? Answer to include: Wind removes smoke and ash supplying oxygen for the combustion process Wind slants flames to preheats fuels Convection columns (hot winds) lower FMC some distance from the fire Convection winds cause spotting The stronger the wind the faster the fire spreads Wind shifts change fire direction. Recall Wind effect has been covered in session Fire Science Heat convection. Recall Effects of Wind speed and wind direction on wildfire shape and direction has been covered extensively in session Safety on the Fireground. OHT 5

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Session 2: Wildfire Behaviour Enabling Objective: Weather and its effect on wildfire behaviour Instructional Method Discuss each point ensuring participants understand what is meant by the term atmospheric stability. Practice/Feedback Assessment Atmospheric conditions The normal movement of air masses of different temperatures (such as a warm air mass moving over a colder air mass) can result in a phenomena known as an inversion layer. An inversion layer effectively "shuts off" convection currents. With the ceasing of convection, which is normally present in the atmosphere, the air becomes stiller, dust and pollutants are no longer lifted from the surface. Vertical air movement can affect local wind development and cloud formation. Atmospheric conditions are generally referred to as stable or unstable An inversion layer is present early in the morning when ground-level air temperatures are cool, and high level air temperatures are warmer. Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

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Session 2: Wildfire Behaviour Enabling Objective: Weather and its effect on wildfire behaviour Instructional Method Using OHT 6 Stable Atmospheric Conditions explain how to identify stable conditions and why fire behaviour will generally be predictable. Practice/Feedback Assessment Stable atmospheres fire behaviour is generally predictable. Visual indicators: Indicated by presence of stratus type clouds (clouds in layers) Fog layers may be present. Smoke column disperses after rising only a short distance as vertical movement of air is limited Winds are generally light and predictable. Unstable atmospheres fire behaviour is generally unpredictable. Visual indicators: Presence of cumulus (cotton wool) clouds. Smoke columns can rise to great heights Winds gusty and unpredictable Potential for thunderstorms and lightning. Dust whirls may occur. OHT 6 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Using OHT 7 Unstable Atmospheric Conditions explain how to identify unstable conditions and why fire behaviour will generally be predictable.

OHT 7

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Session 2: Wildfire Behaviour Enabling Objective: Topography and its effect on wildfire behaviour Instructional Method Heading Ask participants: What does topography refer to? Answer to include: The slope of the land The lay of the land or The features of the land (hills, gullies etc., Slopes Use OHT 8 Effect of Slopes to revise behaviour of fire advancing uphill by asking participants: How does an uphill slope effect fire behaviour? Answers to include: Fire travels quicker Radiation and convection heat unburned fuel in front of flames.

Time: Practice/Feedback Assessment Aids/Refs WBoard WF LM page 26

Content Points Topography and its effect on wildfires

Recall Covered in Safety on the Fireground (Dead Man Zone video)

OHT 8

Emphasise danger of trying to outrun a fire For every 100 of uphill slope double the travelling toward you on an uphill slope. rate of spread of fire. 0 For every 10 of downhill slope halve the rate of spread of fire. Give an example Fire travelling at a forward rate of 2 kph on flat ground accelerates to 8 kph on a 200 slope

Safety revision

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Session 2: Wildfire Behaviour Enabling Objective: Topography and its effect on wildfire behaviour Instructional Method Explain that aspect refers to direction that a feature or slope faces (Northerly aspect - facing North). Practice/Feedback Assessment Aspect Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Northerly or Westerly aspects generally warmer (hot north winds, sun sets in the west) Southerly or Easterly aspects generally cooler and more shaded. Ask participants: How does vegetation or fuel on a Northerly and Westerly aspect differ from that on a Easterly or Southerly aspect? Answers should include: Northerly and Westerly aspects are drier and warmer. Vegetation cures earlier. Fuels will have a lower FMC Fires will usually burn more fiercely on a northerly or westerly aspect.

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Session 2: Wildfire Behaviour Enabling Objective: Topography and its effect on wildfire behaviour Summary and revision Instructional Method Using OHT 9 Terrain and Wind explain how wind interacts with terrain. Practice/Feedback Assessment Terrain and wind Wind speed increases on exposed faces or ridges Wind speed generally decreases on less exposed or sheltered (lee) areas. Lee areas may have dangerous turbulent wind that draws fires back to lee slopes. Winds generated by terrain create complex fire behaviour Local features may change speed and direction of winds. OHT 9 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Emphasise danger of wind turbulence on lee side of slopes. Using OHT 10 Features and Wind explain how features influence wind direction. Emphasise danger to firefighters of shifting wind speed and direction caused by features such as hills and gullies. Conclude session by having participants read the Chapter summary and completing self assessment questions in the learner manual.

Safety point

OHT 10

Safety revision

Summary and revision

Read summary on page 29 Complete self assessment questions 110 on page 31 and questions 1 and 2 on page 32

WF LM page 29

WF LM page 31 - 32

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Section 2 Learning Strategy Session 3: Wildfire Development Time: 1.5 hour Aids OHT 1 Time

Introduce Session:

In this session we look at the three types of wildfire, each of which creates its own particular hazards that require constant monitoring to ensure safe work practices are carried out at all times. Show OHT 2 Session Aims/Objective(s). Read through each of the aims/objectives listed on the overhead. At the end of this session participants will be able to: Identify the types of wildfire Name the parts of a wildfire Describe the development of a wildfire.

Inform learners of Session enabling objectives:

OHT 2

Clarify participant understanding of aims/objectives as required. Show OHT 3 Session topics. Topics covered in the session are: Types of wildfire Surface fires Ground fires Crown fires Parts of a wildfire (Point of Origin, Head, Flanks, Rear and Fingers) Causes and effects of spotting

OHT 3

Stimulate recall of prior/ prerequisite learning?:

Write the terms Fuel, Weather and Topography on the whiteboard and ask participants to identify how each factor influences wildfire behaviour

WBoard

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Session 3: Wildfire Development Enabling Objective: Types of wildfire Instructional Method Heading Using OHT 4 Surface Fires discuss the characteristics of surface fires Practice/Feedback Assessment Surface fires Most common type of fire Travel across the surface Burns in fuels lying on ground Consumes litter and low vegetation such as grass, crops, stubble, low shrubs and forest litter Does not extend into the tops (crowns) of trees. WBoard OHT 4 WF LM page 11 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Ask participants: What are the implications of surface fire for wildfire firefighters? Answer to include: Can change behaviour rapidly (intensity, direction, rate of spread) with changes in wind. Ground fires Can smoulder with no flame and little smoke Can burn unnoticed and rekindle surface fires Generally occurs only in peat areas (Western Vic) and Coal areas (Latrobe Valley). May also occur in organic materials in the soil layer, rip lines in plantations, humus, roots and tree litter. Heading Using OHT 5 Ground Fires discuss the characteristics of ground fires

Recall Wildfire hazards have been covered previously in Safety on the Fireground lesson.

WBoard OHT 5

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Session 3: Wildfire Development Enabling Objective: Types of wildfire Instructional Method Ask participants: What are the implications of ground fire for wildfire firefighters? Answer to include: Need to take care to avoid stepping into undetected hot spots in the ground.. Crown fires Fast travelling because of wind exposure Highly destructive Usually followed by intense surface fire Usually accompanied by spotting Falling material starts new surface fires Heading Using OHT 6 Crown Fires discuss the characteristics of crown fires WBoard OHT 6 Practice/Feedback Assessment Recall Wildfire hazards have been covered previously in Safety on the Fireground lesson. Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points Ground fires (continued)

Ask participants: What are the implications of crown fires for wildfire firefighters? Answer to include: Unpredictable fire behaviour (e.g. Linton fires 1983) resulting in entrapment and loss of life.

Recall Wildfire hazards have been covered previously in Safety on the Fireground lesson.

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Session 3: Wildfire Development Enabling Objective: Parts of a wildfire Instructional Method Heading Use OHT 7 Parts of a wildfire to identify and name the parts of a fire. Discuss each part. Practice/Feedback Assessment Parts of a wildfire Point of origin Area where fire started If possible should be left undisturbed WBoard OHT 7 WF LM page 13 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Ask participants: Why should firefighters avoid disturbing the point of origin? Answer to include: To preserve evidence of the fires cause for fire investigators. Head (or fire front) Where the fire is making progress Usually downwind or upslope Measured by its forward rate of spread Intensity and height of flames greatest Influenced by wind, fuel and topography Heel, Rear or Back Least intense part of fires perimeter Lowest flames Slowest rate of spread Usually opposite to, downwind or down slope from the fire head

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Session 3: Wildfire Development Enabling Objective: Parts of a wildfire Instructional Method Use OHT 7 Parts of a wildfire to identify and name the parts of a fire. Discuss each part. Practice/Feedback Assessment Flanks Sides of fire between head and rear. Fire is less intense than at head Identified by geographic location, compass point or orientation as viewed from point of origin or rear of fire. Fingers Long and narrow slivers of advancing fire Caused by varying wind or changes in fuel or topography Unburnt pockets (or islands) Areas within the fire where fuel remains unburnt Spot fires (ahead of main fire) New fires ignited ahead or away from the main fire. Lit by burning embers (firebrands) carried by convection currents. OHT 7 WF LM page 13 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Ask participants: What are the implications for wildfire firefighters of fires spotting? Answer to include: Unpredictable fire behaviour. Multiple fires which can entrap firefighters.

Recall Wildfire hazards have been covered previously in Safety on the Fireground lesson.

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Session 3: Wildfire Development Enabling Objective: Causes and effects of spotting Factors impacting on Spot Fires Instructional Method Heading Revise how spotting can occur. Practice/Feedback Assessment Causes and effects of spotting Causes Hot convected air from main fire lifts and carries burning embers. Embers may travel several kilometres Wind at higher levels often moves in different direction and spotting may not be ahead of the fire. Effects of spotting Defeats fire control efforts by taxing available resources. Fires rate of spread may accelerate rapidly if spots fires start ahead of it. Winds of varying direction and strength makes spread of spot fires unpredictable. Spot fires may start close to the main fire entrapping firefighters. Recall Was briefly mentioned in convection columns session. WBoard WF LM page 14 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Discuss the effects/problems caused by fires spotting

Emphasise danger to firefighters of unpredictable fire conditions caused by spot fires. Heading Using OHT 8 Factors impacting on Spot Fires discuss each factor.

Safety point

Factors impacting on Spot Fires Atmospheric conditions How vigorous the convection current is How easily it can carry embers aloft

WBoard OHT 8

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Session 3: Wildfire Development Enabling Objective: Factors impacting on Spot Fires Factors that affect wildfire behaviour Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment Low fuel moisture content Fuel ignites more easily Burns more rapidly. Breaks in the forest canopy Creates turbulence Types of fuel being burnt Stringy bark eucalypts associated with short, mass spotting (up to 2 km). Candle bark eucalypts associated with long distance spotting. Fire intensity Hotter fires produce more fire brands. Conclude session by having participants read the Chapter summary and completing self assessment questions in the learner manual. Read summary on page 15 - 16 Complete self assessment questions 817 on page 19. WF LM page 15 16 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Summary and revision

WF LM page 17 - 19

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Section 2 Learning Strategy Session 4: Equipment and Recovery Storage May be conducted as a practical session using local brigade tanker. Introduce Session: In a emergency Wildfire firefighters need to know what equipment is carried on their tanker, and where to find it. This session looks at equipment typically carried on a 2500 litre tanker and where it is stored. Stowage and equipment carried may vary from brigade to brigade according to each brigades risk profile. Show OHT 1 Session Aims/Objective(s). Read through each of the aims/objectives listed on the overhead. At the end of this session participants will be able to: Identify and access wildfire firefighting equipment typically carried on a tanker. Restow wildfire firefighting equipment in the appropriate locker or storage space. Clarify participant understanding of objectives as required. Show OHT 2 Session topics. Discuss the topics that will covered in this session: Topics covered in this session: Locker stowage Top deck stowage tray area Rear crew area Cabin Stimulate recall of prior/ prerequisite learning?: OHT 3 Time: 1.5 Hours Aids OHT 1 Time

Inform learners of Session enabling objectives:

OHT 2

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Session 4: Equipment and Recovery Storage Enabling Objective: Equipment Stowage on a Tanker Instructional Method Heading Identify and show items carried on shelf, floor and walls of tanker storage areas. Practice/Feedback Assessment Locker Stowage Contents of front locker (Left hand side) 64 mm service hydrant/standpipe Blank cap 9 kg Dry chemical extinguisher Contents of side locker (Left hand side) Locker floor Hose (25mm, 38mm and 64 mm) on Locker shelf Miscellaneous equipment box and chemical splash suits on shelf (Brigade to fit out) Contents of rear locker (Left hand side) Locker floor Storz suction hose strainer Coupling adapters 38mm Y piece Dead hose rewind handle Live hose rewind handle 38 mm jet spray shut off branch Fog nozzle Class A aspirated foam medium expansion branch WF LM page 71 Equipped Tanker Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Identify and show items carried on shelf, floor and walls of tanker storage areas.

Identify and show items carried on shelf, floor and walls of tanker storage areas.

WF LM page 72

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Session 4: Equipment and Recovery Storage Enabling Objective: Equipment Stowage on a Tanker Instructional Method Identify and show items carried on shelf, floor and walls of tanker storage areas. Practice/Feedback Assessment

Time: Aids/Refs WF LM page 72 Equipped Tanker

Content Points Locker shelf Warning triangle set Toolbox Tyre inflation kit Suction float Wire basket strainer 20m x 12mm synthetic rope line. Wall (left hand side) Storz coupling spanner L- Type hydrant spanner Wall (right hand side) Assorted coupling washers (38mm/64 mm) Wall (Back) Class A aspirated foam low expansion branches

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Title Session 4: Equipment and Recovery Storage Enabling Objective: Equipment Stowage on a Tanker Instructional Method Identify and show items carried on shelf, floor and walls of tanker storage areas. Practice/Feedback Assessment Contents of CABA locker (Where fitted) Locker shelf Rubber boots Spare cylinders BA equipment Chemical splash suits BA control board Main guide line Contents of front locker (Right hand side) Locker floor Sharps and hazardous materials container Pickup tube Foam branch pipe

Time: Aids/Refs WF LM page 73

Content Points

Identify and show items carried on shelf, floor and walls of tanker storage areas.

Locker shelf Class A foam PPE

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Session 4: Equipment and Recovery Storage Enabling Objective: Equipment Stowage on a Tanker Instructional Method Heading Identify and show items carried on shelf, floor and walls of tanker storage areas. Practice/Feedback Assessment Top Deck Contents of Auxiliary equipment bin. Axe Spade Rakehoe Vehicle jack Jack handle and wheel not spanner 4.5 L Explosafe fuel container Plastic fuel funnel Broom Pinch bar Washing detergent Tray area Contents of bottom left (under tray) Live hose reel (25mm rubber delivery hose and fog nozzle). Contents of bottom right (under t ray) Dead hose reel (3x30 metres of 38mm reinforced rubber lined (RRL) and couplings). WF LM page 73 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Heading Identify and show items carried on shelf, floor and walls of tanker storage areas.

WF LM page 74

Identify and show items carried on shelf, floor and walls of tanker storage areas.

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Session n: Title: Session 4: Equipment and Recovery Storage Enabling Objective: Equipment Stowage on a Tanker Instructional Method Heading Identify and show items carried on rear deck of tanker. Practice/Feedback Assessment Crew Area Rear Deck 4x3 m of Duraline extruded delivery hose complete with two diffuser nozzles and two shut off branches Crew protection (blankets and miscellaneous protection Under ROPS seat Tote bins (Smoke masks Spare gloves, Helmets) Flood light (mounted) Extension ladder Drip torch 3x2.5 m suction hose/couplings 2x20L foam drums Cabin 60 cm bolt cutters Tote bins Behind driver and passenger seats Emergency ration packs and water. First aid kit Map light Map holder with maps Blankets WF LM page 74 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Identify and show items carried in cabin of tanker.

WF LM page 74

Discuss need for safe food handling and correct storage of any perishable food items.

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Section 2 Learning Strategy Session 5: Hand tools for wildfire firefighting This session may be conducted in a classroom or suitable outdoor location. Introduce Session: In this session we look at the range of hand tools and their operation. In some locations the use of hand tools may be the only option because of terrain. Hand tools play an important role in both controlling and extinguishing wildfires. Procedures for the use of hand tools have been developed and are based on efficient and effective use and safety for the operator. Wildfire firefighters must be able to recognise and maintain the hand tools on their appliance, and be proficient in the safe and effective use of the hand tools. Show OHT 1 Session Aims/Objective(s). Read through each of the aims/objectives listed on the overhead. At the end of this session participants will be able to: Identify four basic applications for hand tools and power tools on the fireground. Describe and demonstrate the safe handling and use of wildfire firefighting hand tools carried on the appliance. Clarify participant understanding of objectives as required. Show OHT 2 Session topics. Discuss the topics that will covered in this session: Topics covered in this session are: General Hand tool safety Use of the axe, Use of the Rakehoe (McLeod tool) and constructing a mineral earth control line Use of the Knapsacks Use of the Drip torch Stimulate recall of prior/ prerequisite learning?: Ask participants: From your knowledge of wildfire development provide an example of how hand tools can be used to assist in preventing or extinguishing combustions. Answers to include: Removal of fuel (mineral earth control lines using rakehoes) Dispersal of fuel e.g. splitting stumps with an axe (mopping up/blacking out activities)
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Time: 2 Hours Aids OHT 1 Time

Inform learners of Session enabling objectives:

OHT 2

OHT 3

Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 5: Hand tools for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: General Hand tool safety Instructional Method Heading Briefly describe some of the general applications for hand tools used on the fireground. Practice/Feedback Assessment Hand tools Applications Constructing control lines and fire breaks. Controlling a backburn. Containing a fire. Patrolling a fire. Types Axes. Chainsaws. Rakehoes. Slashers Knapsacks. drip torches. Risks associated with hand tool use Sharp edges Weight involved in lifting and carrying. Usually used in vicinity of heavy equipment. Used on uneven ground. Reduced visibility. Risk of falling branches or trees. Risk of fire. Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Ask participants: Provide some examples of the hand tools most commonly found in use on the fireground. Answer to include: Axes, chainsaws, rakehoes, knapsacks, drip torches. Ask participants: What are the hazards associated with using these hand tools on the fireground? Answer to include: Sharp edges on tools Weight involved in lifting and carrying Usually used in vicinity of heavy equipment Used on uneven ground Smoke and dust Risk of falling branches and trees Risk of fire

Recall Covered in Working Safely on the Fireground

Recall Covered in Working Safely on the Fireground

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Session 5: Hand tools for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: General Hand tool safety Instructional Method Emphasise need to exercise extreme caution at all times. Remind participants of the need to use the Dynamic Risk Assessment process to identify and reduce risks. Ask participants: What are the 5 steps in the Dynamic Risk Assessment process that will help you to manage risks on the fireground?. Answer to include What is going on and what are the hazards. What do I plan to do. What are the risks associated with my plan What can I do to make it safer What do I need to monitor Use OHT 4 DRA process to assist participants in recalling the DRA process. Carrying hand tools Close to body. Carry at side. Carry on downhill side. Using OHT 5 Carrying Tools Safely demonstrate how tools such as axes as rakehoes should be carried. OHT 4 Practice/Feedback Assessment Safety point Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Safety point

Recall Safety concept of DRA covered in Working Safely on the Fireground

OHT 5

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Session 5: Hand tools for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Use of the axe Instructional Method Ask participants: What dry firefighting tasks are axes used to perform on the fireground? Discuss each point to ensure all participants understand the nature of the task performed. Answers should include: Felling trees Removing branches and limbs Cleaning bark from trees Breaking open burning logs and stumps Discuss and demonstrate safe use of axe. Axe Practice/Feedback Assessment The axe Used for Dry firefighting Felling trees. Removing branches and limbs. Cleaning bark from trees. Breaking open burning logs and stumps. Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Safety Use axe head covers. Carrying the axe. Care when swinging. PPE required. Maintenance considerations Head secured to handle. Blade sharp.

Demonstrate how to check that the head is securely attached to the handle. Demonstrate correct method for maintaining a sharp edge on an axe.

Axe

Axe

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Session 5: Hand tools for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Use of the Rakehoe Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment The Rakehoe (McLeod tool) Used for Dry firefighting Chipping fire control lines. Raking litter. Scraping bark from tree trunks. Rolling and dragging burnt timber. Chopping roots and sticks. Covering with dirt or sand to smother the fire. Ask participants: What dry firefighting tasks are axes used to perform on the fireground? Discuss each point to ensure all participants understand the nature of the task performed. Answers should include: Chipping fire control lines Raking litter Scraping bark from tree trunks Chopping roots and sticks Rolling and dragging burnt timber Covering with dirt or sand to smother the fire. Discuss the purpose of the Rakehoes design. Explain requirement for long handle and purpose of Head with two working sections. Rakehoe Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Rakehoe design Long Handle. Head with two working sections. Prongs for raking. Cutting edge for scraping.

Maintenance considerations Head secured to handle. Handle free of splinters and cracks. Blade sharp.

Demonstrate how to check the condition of the Rakehoe Demonstrate how to lightly sand and oil handle. Demonstrate correct method for maintaining a sharp 300 edge on a Rakehoe.

Rakehoe File Sandpaper Wood Oil

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Session 5: Hand tools for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Use of the Rakehoe Constructing a mineral earth fire control line Instructional Method Demonstrate carrying the Rakehoe and using both sides of the Rakehoes head. Practice/Feedback Assessment

Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points Safely using the Rakehoe Carry Rakehoe in hand at the side. Keep side of head with rake toward body. Carry Rakehoe on downhill side, grasping handle just below metal head. Do not chop too close to your feet. Keep a safe working space (3 metres) between yourself and fellow firefighters. Care when swinging.

Constructing mineral earth control lines Step up method Members spaced at intervals in a line. Each person commences. First person finished calls step up. Head of line moves one step onto unprepared section. Everyone moves one step to follow. Each person commences and the process is repeated.

Explain the procedure for constructing a mineral earth control line using the step up method.

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Session 5: Hand tools for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Constructing a mineral earth fire control line Instructional Method Demonstrate Demonstrate the procedure, showing initial position, clearing action and step up process. Activity: Form participants into a line and have them practice the procedure. Continue the activity until satisfied that participants have grasped the principle

Time: Practice/Feedback Assessment Aids/Refs

Content Points

Step up method (continued)

Practice working as part of a team to create a mineral earth fire control line using a Rakehoe

One lick method. Suited to larger crews or less experienced crews. Members spaced at intervals in a line. Each person commences. Line moves forward at slow walking pace. Each crew member builds on the work of the person ahead of them. No one member completes their section. The last member acts as the polisher. Polisher ensures no spots missed and trail wide enough.

Explain the procedure for constructing a mineral earth control line using the one lick method and role of polisher Demonstrate Demonstrate the procedure, showing initial position, clearing action and continual movement of the line. Activity: Form participants into a line and have them practice the procedure. Continue the activity until satisfied that participants have grasped the principle Practice working as part of a team to create a mineral earth fire control line using a Rakehoe

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 5: Hand tools for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Constructing a mineral earth fire control line Use of the Knapsack Instructional Method Using OHT 6 - 7 Considerations for Mineral Earth Control Lines discuss each of the points listed and explain why they should be considered when constructing control lines. Practice/Feedback Assessment Considerations for mineral earth control lines Make use of natural fire breaks Keep line as straight as possible Keep length of line to a minimum Widen corners to prevent spot-over's at these points Avoid areas with heavy fuel loads Cut saplings and small trees at ground level Keep line clear of dead trees or stumps Rake and scrape unburnt surface fuels away from the fire Remove rough bark and ladders from trees adjacent to the control line Be sure that fuel is removed down to mineral earth. OHT 6 - 7 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

The Knap sack Uses for knapsacks: Make a direct attack on low intensity flank fire Support and crews constructing fire lines close to fire edge Assist in mopping up operations Patrol a hose lay

Heading Discuss applications suitable for knapsacks.

Knapsack

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 5: Hand tools for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Use of the Knapsack Instructional Method Display a knapsack and explain the main parts and their function. Practice/Feedback Assessment Parts of a Knapsack: Tank. Filler cap. Hose. Pump. Nozzle. Straps. Making a direct attack on low intensity flank fire: Start from a safe anchor point. Work in pairs (step up or one lick method). Work from inside burnt area. Use water wisely. Be aware of quantity remaining. Guidelines for use Check operation of sprayer Check condition of shoulder straps Ensure full and no leaks Nozzle pattern adjusted to suit situation Unit pressurised correctly Knapsack Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Using OHT 8 Direct attack on Low Intensity Flank Fire explain the procedure to be flowed when carrying out a direct attack on a low intensity flank fire.

OHT 8

Using OHT 9 Using a Knapsack discuss guidelines for using knapsack sprayers.

OHT 9

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 5: Hand tools for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Use of the Knapsack Instructional Method Demonstration Explain and demonstrate the use of the knapsack. Exercise care when lifting a knapsack that is full of water Emphasise need to direct water spray at base of the fire. Activity: Participants are to practice filling, pressurising fitting adjusting and using a Knapsack. Continue the activity until satisfied that participants have grasped the principle Maintenance considerations Keeping it clean Lubrication Checking straps Checking strainer Demonstration Explain and demonstrate the maintenance of the Knapsack. Safety point Practice/Feedback Assessment Using the Knapsack Placing on back Use of pump Use of fan or straight jet Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Recall Wildfire behaviour. Practice correct use of Knapsack.

Activity: Participants are to practice checking the Knapsack Continue the activity until satisfied that participants have grasped the principle

Practice maintaining the Knapsack

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 5: Hand tools for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Use of the Drip torch Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment Uses for Drip torch: Solely for controlled lighting of fire Ask participants: Under what circumstances would firefighters use a drip torch to light a fire? Answer to include: Backburning Controlled burn offs Parts of a Drip torch: Fuel Tank. Flammable mixture 4-9 litres Filler cap. Wand (note coil to prevent flashback) Transfers fuel to wick Air vent screw Allows continuous flow when inverted Close when not in use or transporting Tap Controls fuel flow to wick Wand nozzle and wire gauze covered wick. Provides a continuous flame when lit Display a drip torch, identify and name each part and explain its function. Emphasise need for extreme caution when using a Drip torch as it drops burning fuel. Safety point Drip Torch Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 5: Hand tools for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Use of the Drip torch Instructional Method Demonstrate and explain the correct method for lighting a drip torch. Emphasise that a burning torch must not be waved around and must be carried carefully to avoid splashing burning fuel. Safety point Practice/Feedback Assessment Lighting a Drip torch Procedure: Fill with fuel Loosen air vent (1/4 turn) Turn on tap Tilt unit and allow wick to soak up fuel Return unit to upright position and ignite the wick Using a Drip torch to light vegetation Procedure: Carry in upright position to point of lighting Lower wand toward ground, adjusting air vent to allow fuel to drop past the wick lighting the ground vegetation Raise wand to stop lighting ground vegetation. When operations completed, extinguish flame, turn off tap and close air vent before stowing the drip torch. FGP? Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Demonstrate and explain the correct method for preparing and using a drip torch to light vegetation.

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 5: Hand tools for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Use of the Drip torch Summary and conclusion Instructional Method Activity: Participants are to practice using a drip torch for strip lighting on bare ground only, during non fire danger period. During wildfire danger periods approval must be obtained from the operations manager. Continue the activity until satisfied that participants have grasped the principle Conclude session by having participants read the Chapter summary and completing self assessment questions in the learner manual. Practice/Feedback Assessment Practice safe use of a drip torch Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points Using a Drip torch to light vegetation

Summary and revision

Read summary on page 75 Complete self assessment questions 12 on page 79.

WF LM page 75

WF LM page 79

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Section 2 Learning Strategy Session 6: Hoses for wildfire firefighting Time: 2 Hours Aids OHT 1 Time

Introduce Session:

Inform learners of Session enabling objectives:

In this session we look at the range of hoses and fittings used in wildfire firefighting. Firefighters need to be able to identify and select the correct hose to use for the particular situations encountered when responding to a wildfire. Show OHT 2 Session Aims/Objective(s). Read through each of the aims/objectives listed on the overhead. At the end of this session participants will be able to: Identify and locate types of hoses and fitting used in fighting wildfires Lay hose to a fire Replace damaged hoses Clarify participant understanding of objectives as required. Show OHT 3 Session topics. Discuss the topics that will covered in this session: Topics covered in the session are: Suction hose and couplings Delivery hose and couplings Care when laying and using hose Laying/Bowling hose Replacing a damaged length of hose Dividing/Collecting hose lines Preparing hose for stowage Stowing hose

OHT 2

OHT 3

Stimulate recall of prior/ prerequisite learning?:

Ask participants where the following hoses are usually stowed on a tanker appliance: Suction hose? Live hose reel? Dead hose reel? Answers: Suction hose stored on top tray under the extension ladder; Live hose reel stored at rear of appliance on LHS; Dead hose reel stored at rear of appliance on RHS

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 6: Hoses for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Hose and fittings Instructional Method Heading Ask participants: What key components used to make up a complete hose system to deliver an reticulated water supply to a fire? List answers on the whiteboard. Answers to include Hose couplings (including adapters) Hose Dividing breechings Branch and nozzle Standpipes Hydrants Heading Show participants samples of the various couplings and adapters, outlining their differences and features. Practice/Feedback Assessment Major components of hose systems WBoard Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Hose couplings (including adapters) Hose Dividing breeching Branch and nozzle Standpipes Hydrants

WBoard

Couplings and adapters Screw or threaded British instantaneous Storz hermaphrodite External lug Breechings Dividing Collecting

WBoard Samples of coupling and adapters

Heading Explain purpose of breechings types and why they are used. Show examples of various breechings.

WBoard

Samples of Breechings

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 6: Hoses for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Suction hose and couplings Instructional Method Heading Explain difference between suction and delivery. Practice/Feedback Assessment Two types of hose Suction Delivery Suction hose Range of sizes 50 75 mm on tankers 38 50 mm on Slip On units Uses filling appliances relaying water WBoard WF LM page 61 Tanker appliance WBoard Suction hose (various sizes) Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Heading Show participants the different types of suction hose.

Ask participants: When would firefighters need to use suction hose? Answer should include: Filling appliances Relaying water

Construction reinforced thermoplastics and rubber

Ask participants: Why is suction hose reinforced to withstand external atmospheric pressure? Answer to include: So that it will maintain its round shape and not collapse when draughting

Show cross section of suction hose

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 6: Hoses for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Suction hose and couplings Instructional Method Show types of ancillary equipment used with suction hoses and explain their use and function. Practice/Feedback Assessment Ancillary components Suction coupling spanners Strainer Strainer basket Float assembly Ancillary equipment for drafting with suction hose. Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Demonstrate: Show participants correct method of attaching two lengths of suction hose to a tanker pump and attaching strainer, strainer basket and float assembly to other end of suction hose in accordance with FGPs.

FGP 3.1 3.3 Tanker appliance Suction hose Ancillary fittings.

Rope line Clove hitch knot Round turn and two half hitches

Using OHT 4 -5 Knots for Drafting, show participants how to tie the knots commonly used with rope lines. Demonstrate: Show how to attach and use rope line to control and manoeuvre hose and strainer while relieving load from hose and couplings. Activity: Participants are to practice connecting a suction hose and ancillary fittings, including rope lines. Continue the activity until satisfied that participants have grasped the principle. Practice skills associated with setting hose and ancillary equipment for drafter from a static water supply

OHT 4 - 5 Short lengths of rope line

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 6: Hoses for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Delivery hose and couplings Instructional Method Heading Show types of delivery hose and outline where they would be used. Point out that 32 mm is being phased out. Practice/Feedback Assessment Delivery hose Range of sizes 19 mm 25 mm 38 mm Delivery, longer distances 64mm Tank filling from quick fill or hydrant Four types of delivery hose construction Percolating Synthetic jacket Water weeps through Protects from hot embers Used in forest firefighting

Time: Aids/Refs WBoard Delivery hose (various sizes)

Content Points

Show participants the differences between each hose type and explain the reasons for the differing constructions.

Percolating hose Non percolating hose Extruded hose Rubber hose

Non percolating Synthetic outer jacket Lined inside Outside remains dry Used in ? Extruded Synthetic jacket is encapsulated (layered) between an inner lining and outer coating Rubber (used on live hose reels)

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 6: Hoses for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Delivery hose and couplings Care when laying and using hose Instructional Method Discuss situations in which each type of hose would be used. Practice/Feedback Assessment Uses 19 mm and 25 mm used on live rubber hose reels, useful for small fires such as skip/bin fires or fires close to appliance. 38 mm used on tankers for delivering water, more suitable for pumping over longer distances. 64 mm used for relaying water or tank filling from a quick fill or hydrant. Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

WBoard Care when laying and using hose Flame, heat and ember damage Heading Using OHT 6 Hose Care Guidelines identify common forms of damage and discuss practices that can help to minimise damage to hose during use. Ask participants: What steps can firefighters take to protect hose from flame, heat and ember damage? Answers to include: Avoid heavy fuel areas when laying hose Clear vegetation Wet path for hose Patrol hose (knapsack sprayer) OHT 6

Avoid heavy fuel areas Clear vegetation Wet path for hose Patrol hose (knapsack sprayer)

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Session 6: Hoses for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Care when laying and using hose Instructional Method Ask participants: What steps can firefighters take to protect hose from abrasion damage? Answers to include: Avoid dragging hose If moving hose maintain positive pressure to avoid kink abrasion damage. Ask participants: What steps can firefighters take to protect hose from puncture damage? Answers to include: Avoid dropping couplings on hose Avoid standing on hose Avoid driving over hose (use hose ramps) Ask participants: What steps can firefighters take to protect hose from being cut? Answers to include: Avoid dragging hose over roofing iron, broken glass, barbed wire fences or other sharp objects. Practice/Feedback Assessment Abrasion damage Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Avoid dragging hose Should hose need to be moved, maintain positive pressure to avoid kink abrasion damage.

Puncture damage

Avoid dropping couplings on hose Avoid standing on hose Avoid driving over hose (use hose ramps)

Cutting damage

Avoid dragging over sharp objects.

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 6: Hoses for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Care when laying and using hose Instructional Method Discuss effects of chemicals on hose linings, jackets and or outer covers and potential for major decontamination problems. Practice/Feedback Assessment Chemicals damage Avoid hose coming into contact with chemical or petrochemical substances. Shock damage (water hammer) Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Relate to household water hammer when taps are turned off suddenly. Explain that water hammer can cause a fivefold increase in water pressure. Ask participants: What may happen to the hose if water pressure is instantaneously increased by 500%? Answer should include: Hose may burst and water supply at the branch will be lost endangering the lives of the firefighters.

Fivefold increase in pressure.

Causes of shock damage Sharp bends in hose lay Twists and kinks in hose Shutting off branches too quickly Sudden increase in mains or pump pressure Turning hydrant on/off too quickly

Explain causes of shock/water hammer. Stress importance of laying hose properly and opening/closing control valves steadily, avoiding sudden changes in flow rates. Safety point

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 6: Hoses for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Laying hose to a fire Dividing/Collecting hose lines Instructional Method Heading Show participants how to remove hose from the hose reel and lay to a fire with excess laid in S bends to avoid kinking and to provide for ease of movement Show participants how to add or remove lengths of hose and explain the steps involved in accordance with appropriate and current FGPs. Discuss reasons for dividing and or joining hoses. Show participants how to divide a single line hose to dual line and vice versa using breeching and explain the steps involved in accordance with appropriate and current FGPs. Activity: Have each participants practice dividing/collecting hose under supervision. Correct faults as you see them and continue activity until satisfied with proficiency.

Time: Practice/Feedback Assessment Aids/Refs WBoard FGP ? Hose on hose reel

Content Points Laying hose to a fire Removing hose from the hose reel Laying hose S bends Excess hose Adding extra lengths Coupling Uncoupling Splitting a hose line Dividing Breeching Collecting Breeching

Extra lengths of hose

FGP?

Practice to develop proficiency in dividing and collecting hose lines.

Restowing the hose on the reel

Using appropriate and current FGP explain and demonstrate how to restow the hose on the reel. Activity: Have each participants practice the laying and restowing hose under supervision. Correct faults as you see them and continue activity until satisfied with proficiency. Practice to develop proficiency in laying hose to a fire and recovering hose.

FGP?

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 6: Hoses for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Hose rolled on the bight Instructional Method Heading Using FGP 1.7 explain and demonstrate the steps involved in bowling out a length of 38mm hose rolled on the bight. Using FGP 1.8 explain the steps and show participants how to roll hose on the bight. Discuss the advantages/disadvantages of rolling hose on the bight. Practice/Feedback Assessment Hose rolled on the bight Bowling out WBoard FGP 1.7 Length of 38 mm hose rolled on the bight FGP 1.8 Length of 38 mm hose Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Rolling hose (on the bight) Fold in half Roll from fold Fitting finish on outside of roll Advantages Easier to unroll Able to bowl out Easier to re roll

Disadvantages Can end up with tangles Practice to develop Activity: proficiency in bowling 38 Have each participants practice bowling out the mm hose. hose under supervision. Correct faults as you see them and continue activity until satisfied with proficiency. Activity: Have participants practice rolling hose on the bight under supervision. Correct faults as you see them and continue activity until satisfied with proficiency. Practice to develop both team work and individual proficiency in rolling 38 mm hose on the bight. FGP 1.7 Length of 38 mm hose rolled on the bight

FGP 1.8 Length of 38 mm hose

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 6: Hoses for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Hose rolled in Figure Eight roll Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment Hose rolled in Figure Eight roll Unrolling hose (Figure Eight)

Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Explain the steps and show participants how to unroll a hose rolled in Figure Eight Explain the steps and show participants how to unroll a hose rolled in Figure Eight

Length of 38 mm hose rolled in Figure Eight Length of 38 mm hose Hose rewinder

Rolling hose (Figure Eight) Advantages Very good for unrolling No need to bowl out. Disadvantages Need a winder to re-roll the hose

Practice to develop Activity: proficiency in rolling Have each participants practice rolling out the hose. hose under supervision. Correct faults as you see them and continue activity until satisfied with proficiency. Activity: Have participants practice rolling hose in figure eight roll under supervision. Correct faults as you see them and continue activity until satisfied with proficiency. Practice to develop both team work and individual proficiency in rolling hose in Figure eight roll.

Length of 38 mm hose rolled in Figure Eight

Length of 38 mm hose Hose rewinder

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 6: Hoses for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Hose rolled in straight roll Instructional Method Explain the steps and show participants how to roll out a straight rolled hose Explain the steps and show participants how to roll out a straight rolled hose Practice/Feedback Assessment Hose rolled in Straight roll Rolling out the hose

Time: Aids/Refs Length of 38 mm hose rolled straight. Length of 38 mm hose Hose rewinder

Content Points

Rolling hose (Straight roll) Start with male end Roll Female end finishes on outside of roll.

Advantages None to mention Disadvantages Tangles when unrolling Difficult to bowl out Need a winder to re-roll the hose

Discuss the advantages/disadvantages of rolling hose on the bight.

Activity: Practice to develop Have each participants practice rolling out the proficiency in bowling 38 hose under supervision. Correct faults as you see them and continue activity until satisfied with mm hose. proficiency. Activity: Have participants practice straight rolling hose under supervision. Correct faults as you see them and continue activity until satisfied with proficiency.

Length of 38 mm hose straight rolled.

Practice to develop both team work and individual proficiency in rolling 38 mm hose on the bight.

Length of 38 mm hose Hose rewinder

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 6: Hoses for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Flaked hose Instructional Method Show participants a hose that has been flaked loose in locker. Show fittings on outside, one at either end of flaked hose.

Time: Practice/Feedback Assessment Aids/Refs Hose rolled in a flake

Content Points Hose Flaked

Running out the hose

Explain the steps and show participants how to run out a flaked hose Explain the steps and show participants how to flake a hose

Flaking the hose Advantages No need to bowl out Disadvantages Tricky to flake

Activity: Have participants practice running out a flaked hose. Correct faults as you see them and continue activity until satisfied with proficiency Activity: Have participants practice flaking a hose. Correct faults as you see them and continue activity until satisfied with proficiency

Hose rolled in a flake

Length of hose

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 6: Hoses for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Replacing a damaged hose length Instructional Method Using FGP 1.9 explain the steps and show participants how to replace a damaged section of hose. Charged hoses not essential for this activity. Practice/Feedback Assessment Replacing a damaged hose length Process Provide a new length of hose Roll out alongside damaged section Water off signal Layed hose Length of replacement hose Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Ask participants: Why must care be taken when shutting off the water supply? Answer to include: Lack of care may result in water shock (hammer) resulting in damage to hose.

Recall Covered earlier in session

Layed hose Length of replacement hose

Break couplings and reconnect new length Water on signal Identify and label damaged section Ask participants: Why do we need to label damaged hose? Answer to include: To ensure it is not returned to service until repaired. Activity: Have participants practice replacing a section of layed hose. Correct faults as you see them and continue activity until satisfied with proficiency. Practice to develop both team work and individual proficiency in replacing a length of hose
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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 6: Hoses for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Preparing hose for stowage Instructional Method Heading Discuss each of the steps taken to maintain hose after use. Practice/Feedback Assessment Preparing hose for stowage After use care and maintenance Washing (avoid chemical solvents) Removal of oil or similar residues Drying (textile hose) Draining extruded hose Inspection for damage to hose and coupling points. Reporting damage Preparing hose for stowage Methods of stowing On hose reels Dead hose reel Live hose reel Straight roll Rolled on the bight Flaked Figure of Eight Care when stowing hose Steps to avoid damage from objects on the appliance or in storage lockers. WBoard Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Heading Explain and demonstrate each of the methods used for preparing hose for stowage.

WBoard

Explain precautions that need to taken when stowing hose on tanker.

Access to appliance Range of hoses in different lengths and sizes.

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Session 6: Hoses for wildfire firefighting Enabling Objective: Stowing hose Instructional Method Demonstrate correct method for stowing each type of hose in the various locker bins and storage reels on the appliance Practice/Feedback Assessment

Time: Aids/Refs WBoard Tanker appliance Lengths of hose

Content Points Stowing hoses on appliance Hose on reels 38 mm Rolled on the bight 38 mm and 63 mm Coiled on hangers 25 mm rubber Figure of Eight

Activity: Have participants practice retrieving various hose from the tanker and then restowing the hose. Correct faults as you see them and continue activity until satisfied with proficiency

Practice to develop both team work and individual proficiency in locating, identifying, retrieving and restowing various types of hose and fittings on a tanker

Summary and revision

Conclude session by having participants read the Chapter summary and completing self assessment questions in the learner manual

Read summary on page 76 Complete self assessment questions 614 on page 81.

WF LM page 76

WF LM page 81

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Section 2 Learning Strategy Session 7: Wildfire Extinguishing Agents Theory Session 2 Hours Practice (2 x 1.5 Hours) Introduce Session: In this session we will look at the types of extinguishing mediums used by firefighters to suppress wildfire and how to access and use those mediums. The session has been divided into theory and practical application of extinguishing mediums used by firefighters while under supervision. Show OHT 2 Session Aims/Objective(s). Read through each of the aims/objectives listed on the overhead. At the end of this Session, participants will be able to: Describe the use of extinguishing agents to suppress wildfire, including: Water Class A foam Fire retardants Wetting agents Time: 5 Hours Aids OHT 1 Time

Inform learners of Session enabling objectives:

OHT 2

OHT 3

Clarify participant understanding of objectives as required. Show OHT 3 Session topics. Discuss the topics that will covered in this session: Topics covered in the session are: Water sources and application As an extinguishing agent Wetting Agents and precautions when using, and Retardants and precautions when using Class A Foam As an extinguishing agent Equipment for use Safe storage and use Stimulate recall of prior/ prerequisite learning?: Referring to fire triangle ask participants how extinguishing agents work to extinguish combustion. Answer should include: Removal of heat

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 7: Wildfire Extinguishing Agents (Theory) Enabling Objective: Water as an extinguishing agent Instructional Method Heading Ask participants: Recalling your knowledge of the fire triangle, how does water act to extinguish a fire? Answer to include: Extinguishes combustion by removing heat from the fuel. Heat is reduced below ignition point and combustion ceases. Benefits of water as an extinguishing agent Ask participants: What do you think are the benefits of using water to suppress wildfires? Answers to include. Readily available Cheap Plentiful (subject to weather patterns) Emphasise that CFA recognises that water supply may be a problem in the future due to population growth and changing weather patterns. WF LM page 83 Recall - Covered in Fire Sciences session Practice/Feedback Assessment Water as an extinguishing agent WBoard Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Availability Cost Volumes

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 7: Wildfire Extinguishing Agents (Theory) Enabling Objective: Sources of supply Instructional Method Heading Explain that water supplies used by CFA firefighters are referred to as either Reticulated or Static. Ask participants: What water supplies are available in your local area? List answers on white board under heading Static and Reticulated. Answers should include: Mains supply Dams, Lakes, Rivers, Tanks, Swimming pools etc Activity: Ask participants to identify the major static water supplies in their area and find out how to calculate approximately how much water is in them. Answers should be brought to the drafting practical session. Practice locating feature on maps and improving knowledge of local area. Practice/Feedback Assessment Water supplies WBoard Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Static supplies Dams, Lakes, Rivers, Tanks, Swimming pools Reticulated supplies Mains supply

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Session 7: Wildfire Extinguishing Agents (Theory) Enabling Objective: Sources of supply Instructional Method Explain the purpose of the equipment and demonstrate how it is used. Emphasise need for care when fitting standpipe Ask participants: What risks may firefighters encounter when reaching down to clear a hydrant before fitting the standpipe. Answer should include: Venomous spiders Venomous Snakes Syringes that have been inappropriately disposed of. Using OHT 4 Hydrants identify each of the three types of hydrant that firefighters may encounter . Refer participants to FGPs and explain how each of the three types are operated. Using OHT 5 Hydrant Markers, discuss use of various systems to identify the location of hydrants. Activity: Participants are to investigate the methods used to identify hydrants in there local areas. Answers should be brought to the hydrant practical session.
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Time: Practice/Feedback Assessment Aids/Refs WF LM page 90

Content Points Hydrant Equipment Hydrant key Hydrant standpipe Safety awareness

Safety point

Types of Hydrants Milcock L-Type Ground Ball

OHT 4

Hydrant FGPs.

Hydrant markers Types Locations

OHT 5

Developing local knowledge to aid in firefighters in locating hydrants.

Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 7: Wildfire Extinguishing Agents (Theory) Enabling Objective: Sources of supply Applying water to suppress fire Instructional Method Ask participants: How do firefighters gain access to the two different types of water supplies (Static/Reticulated)? Answer to include: Drafting from static supplies Hydrants on a reticulated water supply. Explain the meaning of the terms drafting and hydrant. Explain that participants will learn how to use hydrants to access reticulated water supplies and to draft draft water from a static supply in following practical sessions. Branches and nozzles Types Sizes Holding correctly Show samples of the various types and sizes of branches and nozzles. Discuss their application and demonstrate the correct method of holding them. Advise participants that they will have an opportunity to use the various branches and nozzles in the practical session. Samples of various types and sizes of branches and nozzles. Practice/Feedback Assessment Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

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Session 7: Wildfire Extinguishing Agents (Theory) Enabling Objective: Applying water to suppress fire Instructional Method Discuss the various patterns that can be produced and the circumstances in which they would be used. Ensure participants are aware of the advantages and disadvantages of each type. Practice/Feedback Assessment Spray patterns Jet When used Advantages and disadvantages Spray When used Advantages and disadvantages Fog When used Advantages and disadvantages WF LM page 84 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Using water effectively to suppress fire

Heading Discuss using OHT 6 Conserving Water Ask participants: When directing water onto a fire what part of the fire should be attacked, and why? Answer should include: Water should be directed on the fuel in order to reduce the heat of the fuel below ignition point, and to reduce the emission of vapours that would promote further combustion Using OHT 7 Applying Water Effectively explain how to suppress burning fuel using a combination of Jet (knockdown) and spray. Recall Previously covered in Fire Science.

WBoard OHT 6

OHT 7

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Session 7: Wildfire Extinguishing Agents (Theory) Enabling Objective: Fire Retardants Instructional Method Heading Ask participants: What is the purpose of a fire retardant when used in combating a wildfire and where is it applied? Answer to include: To reduce the intensity and or rate of spread. Applied on or ahead of the flame front. Emphasise that retardants are not used to suppress combustion. Long term retardants Ammonium salts Water/chemical slurry Effect continues after water evaporates (>24hrs) Applied by specialised tankers or aerial bombing Short term retardants Class A foam Water/chemical aerated solution Ineffective after water evaporates (20-40 mins) Applied by tankers or knapsack. Using OHT 8 Fire Retardants, identify the categories of long term fire retardants and provide examples of each category. Discuss how retardants operate to extinguish combustion. OHT 8 Practice/Feedback Assessment Fire Retardants WF LM page 89 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

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Session 7: Wildfire Extinguishing Agents (Theory) Enabling Objective: Fire Retardants Instructional Method Discuss the methods used to produce foam solution and aspirated foams. Provide examples of where each method (solution/aspirated foam) would be used. Practice/Feedback Assessment Production and application of Class A foam Foam solutions (0.1 - 1.0%) mixtures Conventional nozzle application Foam making branches (aspirated foam) application Benefits of use CIIPS acronym Visibility helps with correct application Extends useful life of water Speeds up extinguishment Reduces mop up time Safety precautions

Time: Aids/Refs WF LM page 87

Content Points

Using OHT 9 CIIPS Acronym explain how firefighters can remember the key benefits offered by using Class A foam

OHT 9

Storage Firefighter safety precautions

Emphasise that fire retardants such as Class A foam are chemical in nature and must be stored and handled with extreme care by trained and qualified personnel. Using OHT 10, Safety Precautions identify precautions that firefighters should take when working around Class A foam. (Refer participants to relevant FGPs) Using OHT 11 Environmental issues, identify precautions that firefighters should take to minimise the effects of Class A foam on the environment OHT 10 FGP Foam Use

Environmental issues

OHT 11

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 7: Wildfire Extinguishing Agents (Theory) Enabling Objective: Wetting Agents Instructional Method Heading Using OHT 12 Wetting Agents, describe how wetting agents effect application of water to fuels. Discuss the advantages Discuss practical benefits realised on the fireground. Practice/Feedback Assessment Wetting Agents Reduces water surface tension allowing it to cover a greater area WBoard OHT 12 WF LM page 89 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Benefits of use More economical use of water Better penetration of compacted fuels Firefighter safety precautions

Using OHT 13 Firefighter safety precaution identify precautions that firefighters should take to minimise the risks associated with use of chemical wetting agents and fire retardants Emphasise

Safety point

OHT 13

Never drink water from tankers or backpacks

Safety point

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 7: Wildfire Extinguishing Agents (Theory) Enabling Objective: Wetting Agents Instructional Method Using OHT 14 Environmental issues, identify precautions that firefighters should take to minimise the effects of wetting agents on the environment Using OHT 15 Minimising Environmental Damage, discuss need to consider and weigh up environmental impact associated with use of extinguishing agents in general Practice/Feedback Assessment Environmental issues with wetting agents OHT 14 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Minimising environmental damage associated with use of extinguishing agents. Need to consider Run off of chemicals (foam , retardants, wetting agents Capacity of drafting supplies Salination from salt or brackish water Water alkalinity (Blue/Green algae) Hazard to flora/fauna Cultural/heritage damage

OHT 15

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Session 7: Wildfire Extinguishing Agents (Theory) Enabling Objective: Environmental issues associated with use of extinguishing agents Summary and revision Instructional Method Explain to participants that they are now ready to practice accessing and using water from a reticulated supply, and seeing how class A foam is used. Remind participants to bring a list of major static water supplies in their area and how they could calculate the volume of water these hold to the next session. Conclude session by having participants read the Chapter summary and completing self assessment questions in the learner manual. Read summary on page 97 Complete self assessment questions 110 on page 99. WF LM page 97 Practice/Feedback Assessment Summary and revision Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

WF LM page 99

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Section 2 Learning Strategy Session 7: Wildfire Extinguishing Agents (Reticulated water supply - Practical Activities ) 2 x 1.5 Hrs Introduce Session: In this session participants will observe a demonstration of obtaining reticulated water from different types of hydrants and refilling a tanker. Participants, operating under supervision, will then practice each activity. Activities must be carried out in accordance with SOPs and FGPs where written. Show OHT 16 Session Aims/Objective(s). Read through each of the aims/objectives listed on the overhead. At the end of this session participants will be able to: Describe and demonstrate how to access a reticulated water supply and apply it to suppress a wildfire. Clarify participant understanding of objectives as required. Show OHT 16 Session topics. Discuss the topics that will covered in this session: Reticulated water supplies Standpipe construction and use Application Accessing Hydrants Refilling a tanker Environmental considerations Stimulate recall of prior/ prerequisite learning?: Use a range of questions to ensure participants can recall from the theory session: Types of hydrants All the safety factors associated with opening below ground hydrants Equipment required to access hydrants Operating procedures for each hydrant Environmental considerations when using reticulated water supplies OHT 16 Time: 3 Hours Aids FGPs (1.11.6) Time

Inform learners of Session enabling objectives:

OHT 16

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Session 7: Wildfire Extinguishing Agents (Reticulated water supply - Practical Activity 1) Enabling Objective: Accessing reticulated water supplies Instructional Method Activity Show participants a standpipe, identify the parts and explain how it is used. Practice/Feedback Assessment Standpipe Parts Handle Spindle and Spindle Bell Head Handles Barrel Collar Lugs Washer Time: 1.5 Hours Aids/Refs

Content Points

Ask each participant to identify one of the parts of the standpipe.

Obtaining water from a Ground Ball Hydrant

Demonstration: Demonstrate the task following the Fire Ground Practice (FGP 1.1) and explaining each stage of the process. Activity: Provide each participant with the opportunity to practice the procedure under supervision until they are proficient. Practice obtaining water from a Ground Ball Hydrant

FGP 1.1

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 7: Wildfire Extinguishing Agents (Reticulated water supply - Practical Activity 1) Enabling Objective: Accessing reticulated water supplies Instructional Method Demonstration: Demonstrate the task following the Fire Ground Practice (FGP 1.1) and explaining each stage of the process. Emphasise safety points Activity: Provide each participant with the opportunity to practice the procedure under supervision until they are proficient. Demonstration: Demonstrate the task following the Fire Ground Practice (FGP 1.1) and explaining each stage of the process. Activity: Provide each participant with the opportunity to practice the procedure under supervision until they are proficient. Practice obtaining water from a Safety point Practice obtaining water from a Milcocks Hydrant Practice/Feedback Assessment Obtaining water from a Milcocks Hydrant FGP 1.1? Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Needle sticks Venomous spiders and insects

Obtaining water from a L Type Hydrant

FGP 1.1?

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 7: Wildfire Extinguishing Agents (Reticulated water supply - Practical Activity 2) Enabling Objective: Using reticulated water supplies to refill a tanker Instructional Method Activity: Participants while under supervision are to demonstrate connecting to a hydrant following the Fire Ground Practice (FGP 1.1) and explaining each stage of the process. Demonstration: Demonstrate how to refill a tanker water tank from a reticulated supply. Follow the Fire Ground Practice (FGP ?) and explain each stage of the process. Note use of pump to fill tank will be covered in Operate pumps session. Activity: Provide each participant with the opportunity to practice the procedure under supervision until they are proficient. Note: Refilling a tanker water tank from a static water supply (Drafting), and pumping or boosting a reticulated water supply will be covered later as part of operate pumps. Practice to develop proficiency in fill tanker water tank from a reticulated water supply. Practice/Feedback Assessment Review - Practice skills developed in earlier activity. Time: 1.5 Hours Aids/Refs FGP 1.1

Content Points Obtaining supply

Refilling a tanker water tank from a reticulated supply. Delivery hose (Hydrant to tank fill inlet) Fill levels

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Section 2 Learning Strategy Session 8: Pump Operation Theory Session 1 Hour ( Practical Activity 2 Hours may be run separately) Introduce Session: A pump is one of the most basic and important items of firefighting equipment. In this session we look at how pumps operate to provide a pressurised source of water in sufficient volume to suppress wildfire. Show OHT 1 Session Aims/Objective(s). Read through each of the aims/objectives listed on the overhead. At the end of this session participants will be able to: Describe the characteristics of centrifugal and priming pumps Demonstrate the operation of the pump on a tanker used for wildfire suppression Describe open and closed circuit relay pumping. Clarify participant understanding of objectives as required. Show OHT 2 Session topics. Discuss the topics that will covered in this session: Topics covered in this session: Types of pumps Pump Construction Pumping from an appliance Pumping or boosting from a reticulated water supply Drafting from a static water supply OHT 3 Time: 1 Hour Aids OHT 1 Time

Inform learners of Session enabling objectives:

OHT 2

Stimulate recall of prior/ prerequisite learning?:

Ask participants: Where can firefighters obtain sources of water for pumps to use? Answer to include: Reticulated water supplies Dams, Swimming pools and lakes

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 8: Pump Operation Enabling Objective: Types of pumps Instructional Method Explain that pumps fall into two broad categories Practice/Feedback Assessment Two broad categories Priming pumps (diaphragm) Self priming Main (Centrifugal) pumps Non Priming WF LM page 92 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Liken priming to siphoning, where air must be sucked out of the tube before liquid flows.

Priming pumps Explain need for main (non priming) pump Self priming needing to have air removed from inlet side Removes air from within casing and suction before water can be drawn in hose Mechanical diaphragm Positive displacement movement of diaphragm displaces (moves) air in the case. Valves prevents air being drawn back in. Using OHT 4 Diaphragm pump explain how mechanical diaphragm pump removes air to prime the pump. OHT 4

Ask participants: Can anyone give an example of a commonly used positive displacement pump that is used to move air? Answer to include: Bicycle pump, or Mechanical car tyre (foot or hand) pumps.

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Session 8: Pump Operation Enabling Objective: Pump Construction Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment Main pumps Centrifugal pump Cant pump air (only fluids/water) Features Two main parts housing and impeller Only one moving part (impeller) Simple to maintain Can be driven by: motors (petrol, diesel and electrical) power take off from vehicle engine Can run with all deliveries closed Operation Housing filled with water (primed) Impeller rotated forcing water outwards and into casing passage that gradually increases in size. Lower pressure created at centre inlet by movement of water toward edges drawing in more water, maintaining the flow. Casing acts to convert energy from movement of water (kinetic energy) into pressure energy Using OHT 5 and 6 centrifugal pumps discuss construction and features of centrifugal pumps. OHT 5 - 6 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Using OHT 7 Centrifugal Pump Operation, explain principle of operation of centrifugal pumps. Refer to centrifuge hub used by astronauts. Spins slowly at the centre but at very high velocity at outer edge due to centrifugal forces.

OHT 7

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Session 8: Pump Operation Enabling Objective: Pumping from an appliance Instructional Method Discuss importance of understanding pump characteristics and their effect on water delivery pressure. Explain use of gauges to monitor inlet and outlet pressures. Practice/Feedback Assessment Characteristics of centrifugal pumps Pressure is maximum and flow minimum when all deliveries are closed. Pressure is minimum and flow is maximum when all deliveries are wide opened. Pressure drops as deliveries are opened (given constant pump speed) Pressure and flow vary with pump speed. Pressure and flow vary with size of delivery nozzle. Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Ask participants to describe how these characteristics impact on firefighters. Answer to include Pump operator and branch operator need to work in unison to ensure required pressure is maintained under varying conditions. Summary and revision Conclude session by having participants read the Chapter summary and completing self assessment questions in the learner manual. Explain that this concludes the theory component and that participants will be given opportunities to practice using the pump. Read summary on page 98 Complete self assessment questions 11-18 on page 99.

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Section 2 Learning Strategy Session 8: Pump Operation (Practical Activities) Time: 2 Hours Aids Introduce Session: This session provides opportunity for participants to practice using the appliances priming and main pumps to draft and pump water in a variety of different scenarios. Show OHT 8 Session Aims/Objective(s). Read through each of the aims/objectives listed on the overhead. At the end of this session participants will be able to operate pump to: Pump from an appliance tank Pump or boost from a reticulated water supply Draft water from a static supply Draft water from a reticulated supply Clarify participant understanding of objectives as required. Show OHT 9 Session topics. Discuss the topics that will covered in this session: Drafting from a static supply Pumping from a static supply Pumping from an appliance tank Pumping from a reticulated supply (boosting) Open and closed circuit relay pumping Stimulate recall of prior/ prerequisite learning?: Ask participants: a) When does the main pump produce greatest pressure? b) What is the relationship between pressure and flow when all deliveries are wide open? Answers to include: a) When deliveries are all closed b) Pressure is minimum and flow is maximum when all deliveries are wide opened. OHT 9 OHT 8 Time

Inform learners of Session enabling objectives:

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Session 8: Pump Operation (Practical Activity 1) Enabling Objective: Drafting Water from a static supply Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Time: Aids/Refs FGP 1.1-1.3

Content Points Refilling a tanker water tank from a static supply (Drafting). Coupling hard section hose Couplings correctly tightened Strainer, Basket and float connected Depth below surface (3 times suction hose diameter) Vortices (cause and effect) Strainer not touching bottom Suction hose supported with a rope line Padding on hard ground as required to protect hose and rope line. Starting the pump Pump output Inlet/Outlet pressure Flow Stopping the pump

Assessment Recall Covered in Ask participants to explain the process and demonstrate the task in accordance with the Fire Hoses for Wildfire firefighting Ground Practice (FGP 1.1-1.3).

Explain that vortices may occur if depth not sufficient causing pump to lose it priming. Explain that too deep and pump may struggle to lift the water. Demonstrate effect of vortices.

Demonstrate starting the pump and priming the main pump. Explain use of gauges to monitor inlet and outlet pressures. starting the pump Demonstrate shutting the pump down. Activity: Provide each participant with the opportunity to practice the procedure under supervision until they are proficient. Practice to develop proficiency at drafting from a static supply. Access to suitable static water supply

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Session 8: Pump Operation (Practical Activity 2) Enabling Objective: Pumping from a static supply Instructional Method Ask participants: When would it be necessary to pump from a static supply? Answer to include: Water tank is empty and fire endangers appliance while drafting. Process Set up for drafting

Time: Practice/Feedback Assessment Practice to develop proficiency at pumping from a static supply. Aids/Refs

Content Points Pumping from a static supply

Explain the process and demonstrate the task in accordance with the Fire Ground Practice Show how the tank can be filled while drafting water by redirecting a portion of the pump output to a delivery hose for fire suppression.

Check correct valves opened (particularly tank supply valve if pumping while refilling tank) Start and operate pump according to FGP Monitoring tank water level Constantly monitor gauges to ensure inlet pressure does not drop to zero Close pump and hydrant valves slowly to avoid shock/water hammer. Shut down pump according to FGP.

Activity: Provide each participant with the opportunity to practice the procedure under supervision until they are proficient.

Practice to develop proficiency at drafting from a static supply.

Access to suitable static water supply

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Session 8: Pump Operation (Practical Activity 3) Enabling Objective: Pumping from an appliance tank Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment Pumping from an appliance tank

Time: Aids/Refs FGP

Content Points

Check tank level Check correct valves opened (particularly tank supply valve) Start and operate pump according to FGP Monitoring rate of use of tank water Constantly monitor gauges to ensure inlet pressure does not drop to zero Close pump and hydrant valves slowly to avoid shock/water hammer. Shut down pump according to FGP.

Explain the process and demonstrate the task in accordance with the Fire Ground Practice Explain how wetting agent or foam concentrate may be added (it is not necessary to actually add foam or wetting agents at this point).

Activity: Provide each participant with the opportunity to practice the procedure under supervision until they are proficient.

Practice to develop proficiency at pumping from an appliance tank.

Appliance

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Session 8: Pump Operation (Practical Activity 4) Enabling Objective: Drafting water from a reticulated supply Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment Refilling a tanker water tank from a reticulated supply Process Connect supply line from hydrant to tank inlet Ensure hydrant/standpipe is opened slowly to avoid shock/water hammer. Monitor water fill level indicator Ensure hydrant or standpipe is closed slowly to avoid shock/water hammer. Explain the process and demonstrate the task in accordance with the Fire Ground Practice Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Activity: Provide each participant with the opportunity to practice the procedure under supervision until they are proficient.

Practice to develop proficiency at drafting water from a reticulated supply.

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Session 8: Pump Operation (Practical Activity 5) Enabling Objective: Pumping from a reticulated supply (boosting) Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment Pumping from a reticulated supply (boosting) Adequate volume, insufficient pressure Explain issues associated with lack of reticulated water supply pressure and use of tankers pump to boost pressure. Explain how larger size hose or twin lines can minimise pressure loss due to friction. Explain the process and demonstrate the task in accordance with the Fire Ground Practice Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Hose line size requirements

Process Connect supply line from hydrant to pump inlet Ensure hydrant/standpipe is opened slowly to avoid shock/water hammer. Operate pump according to FGP Constantly monitor gauges to ensure inlet pressure does not drop to zero Close pump and hydrant valves slowly to avoid shock/water hammer. Shut down pump according to FGP.

Activity: Provide each participant with the opportunity to practice the procedure under supervision until they are proficient.

Practice to develop proficiency at pumping from a reticulated supply.

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 8: Pump Operation (Practical Activity 6) Enabling Objective: Water relay (Optional) Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment Water relays Open circuit relay pumping Explain distances from water source to fire usually too great for this process to be practical at a wildfire. Water tankers are used instead. Explain the process and demonstrate the task in accordance with the Fire Ground Practice Two appliances Portable dam or tank Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Connecting source to inlet on first tanker (drafting or hydrant) Connecting outlet first tanker to inlet on second tanker Setting flow and pressure rates for delivery on both tankers.

Activity: Provide each participant with the opportunity to practice the procedure under supervision until they are proficient. Explain the process and demonstrate the task in accordance with the Fire Ground Practice

Practice to develop proficiency at pumping from a reticulated supply.

Closed circuit relay pumping Connecting source to inlet on first tanker (drafting or hydrant) Connecting outlet first tanker to portable dam Drafting from second tanker using portable dam as drafting source Setting flow and pressure rates for delivery on both tankers.

Activity: Provide each participant with the opportunity to practice the procedure under supervision until they are proficient.

Practice to develop proficiency at pumping from a reticulated supply.

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Section 2 Learning Strategy Session 9: Prepare for response to Wildfire Time: 1.5 hrs (plus 2 hrs self study) Aids OHT 1 Time

Introduce Session:

Preparation to respond to a wildfire begins with active participation in routine Brigade activities. Routine Brigade activities provide opportunity for firefighters to develop and hone team work, communication skills and fire control strategies and tactics that will greatly enhance each firefighters capacity to respond effectively to a wildfire incident. During the session we will identify a broad range of activities that can assist in preparing firefighters prior to a call out as well as the actions that must be taken when responding to a wildfire callout. Show OHT 1 Session objectives. Read through and explain each of the aims/objectives listed on the overhead and At the end of this session participants will be able to: prepare prior to a fire by participating in normal Brigade activities, followed correct response procedures when alerted to a fire locate the fire observe and note information about the fire as they approach. Clarify participant understanding of objectives as required. Show OHT 2 Session topics. Discuss the topics that will covered in this session: Normal Brigade activities Wildfire response activities Brigade response procedures Brigade call out procedures Personnel responding to call out

Inform learners of Session enabling objectives:

OHT 2

OHT 3

Stimulate recall of prior/ prerequisite learning?:

Explain that during the session we will be drawing on their knowledge and experience of their involvement in local brigade activities.

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Session 9: Prepare for response to Wildfire Enabling Objective: CFA Brigade activities that prepare firefighters for wildfires Instructional Method Heading Using OHT 4 Normal Brigade Activities, discuss concept of normal duties providing development opportunities for wildfire firefighters. Practice/Feedback Assessment Brigade activities Normal Brigade activities Can involve: Hazard reduction Prescribed burning/pasture improvement Assisting local Community (training etc) Other activities? provide firefighters with opportunities to develop the skills required to respond effectively a wildfire incident. Skills development takes place over a period of time. OHT 4 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Activity: Divide participants into two groups. Give each group butchers paper and a pen. Ask participants to list activities carried out by their brigade and for each activity list the key skills associated with the activity. Allow 5 minutes then have each group present there responses. Skills listed should include: communication, use of extinguishing media, use of firefighting equipment, time management, risk assessment, planning, tactics, etc
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Identifying skills associated with normal Brigade activities

Butchers paper Whiteboard pens

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Session 9: Prepare for response to Wildfire Enabling Objective: Brigade response procedures Instructional Method Explain that response to a wildfire is immediate and firefighters must be well prepared at all times for the tasks involved. Practice/Feedback Assessment Wildfire response activities Response to a wildfire is immediate and firefighters must be well prepared for the tasks involved. Preparation involves: Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Using OHT 5 Preparation, discuss each point ensuring participants understand the importance of good preparation. Ask participants: What are the potential risks to self and others if responding when unwell? Answer to include: Personnel who are affected by illness, injury, alcohol or fatigue may be at risk to themselves and others on a fireground. Ask participants: What can firefighters do to ensure a reasonable level of wellbeing. Answer to include: Maintain a healthy lifestyle. Exercise, healthy diet and rest. Emphasise if responding in private vehicle you MUST obey all road rules and drive safely. Safety point

OHT 5

Physical well being

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Session 9: Prepare for response to Wildfire Enabling Objective: Brigade response procedures Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points Pre fire check

Assessment Recall - Covered in pre Ask participants: What items of protective clothing are required for requisite training Working Safely at an wildfire firefighting? Incident. Answer to include: Gloves, helmet, goggles, boots, wildfire coat, over pants, dust mask Discuss requirement for PPC to be maintained and in good working order.

Protective clothing Safety checks: Overalls/over pants/coat clean, no tears, fraying or broken clips Gloves clean, no holes or rips. Helmet in good condition, straps firm. Safety boots serviceable, adequate sole grip, no holes in soles. Safety goggles clean, good working order, straps not perished.

Ask participants: What sorts of things can cause eye injuries or irritation when fighting wildfires? Answer to include: Airborne particles, heat, impacts (small branches and hand tools) water and chemical splashes.

Recall - Covered in pre requisite training Working Safely at an Incident.

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Session 9: Prepare for response to Wildfire Enabling Objective: Brigade response procedures Instructional Method Discuss checks carried out. Notes the application of extinguishing media will be covered in detail in another session. Activity: Ask participants to check an appliance water tank and foam containers to determine content levels. If they are unsure of the procedure, demonstrate how the checks are done.

Time: Practice/Feedback Assessment Aids/Refs

Content Points

Extinguishing media and equipment: Appliance tank water level ok Foam containers filled sufficiently

Practice checking extinguishing media supply levels

Powered tools checked, fuelled, adjusted, stowed and ready for use.

Emphasise that only trained operators wearing appropriate PPE are permitted to operate power tools e.g. chainsaws, brush cutters, portable pumps Activity: Demonstrate how the checks are done then ask participants to practice check procedures for power tools e.g.. Oil, fuel, water as appropriate. Continue until satisfied all are proficient.

Safety point

Practice locating and identifying tools

Equipment maintenance sheets, FGPs

Hand tools stowed and ready for use.

Activity: Ask participants to locate and identify by their correct name hand and power tools carried on tanker. Notes to trainer: Maintenance and safe use of hand and power equipment will be covered in detail in another session.

Practice check procedures for power tools

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 9: Prepare for response to Wildfire Enabling Objective: Brigade response procedures Instructional Method Recap on the food and fluids that should be taken when responding to a call out. Practice/Feedback Assessment

Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points Food and fluids Sufficient ration packs for immediate crew needs. Food should be hygienically stored (sealed and kept cool). Drinks should be plain water or water with electrolyte additive.

Ask participants: What snacks and drinks are suitable for firefighters responding to incidents? Answer should include items such as: Dried fruit, muesli bars, fresh fruit. Ask participants to identify and list the fireground risks associated with lack of food or fluids. Allow several minutes then have them read out responses. List responses on the whiteboard. Responses should include: Heat stress, heat exhaustion, lack of energy, headaches. Recall - Covered in pre requisite training Working Safely at an Incident. Whiteboard

2 way radio checks, operating and on correct channel Aerial connection battery check and replacement reporting faulty equipment

Discuss simple checks that should be carried out to ensure radios are operating correctly.

Explain fault reporting process

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Session 9: Prepare for response to Wildfire Enabling Objective: Brigade call out procedures Instructional Method Heading Explain sequence of events that lead to a call out and how crews are alerted. Practice/Feedback Assessment Method of calling out a brigade Sources of callouts VICFIRE Other sources How crews are alerted Use of pagers Brigades response to a callout Local operating procedures Responding Responding crews assemble at the nominated primary assembly point which may be either a Station or Staging Area. Responding to a station Personnel are assigned to crews and appliances for response direct to the fire Wboard Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Heading Refer to role of Brigade Standing Orders in determining response actions. Discuss two different ways that personnel may be expected to respond to a call out.

Brigades Operational Guidelines/Standing Orders for responding to a Wildfire Incident.

Explain that OIC is responsible for ensuring appliances are crewed at a level appropriate for maintaining safety standards. Safety point Emphasise that individuals should advise OIC if they lack training to undertake assigned tasks so that appropriate supervision can be provided.

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Session 9: Prepare for response to Wildfire Enabling Objective: Brigade call out procedures Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment

Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points Firefighters responding to station should: don protective clothing, check equipment Prepare and start truck Follow instructions given by Crew Leader/Incident Controller

Responding to a staging area

A staging area is a safe assembly/staging point near the fire, where resources are identified, crews assigned and strategies and tactics for control are communicated to all relevant personnel. On arriving at a staging area crew leader should report to the staging area manager or a nominated officer.

Recap staging area purpose and what to do on arrival.

Recall - Covered in pre requisite training Working Safely at an Incident.

Recap procedures to be followed

Ask participants: How does CFA track arrival and departures from staging areas? Answer to include: Personnel are tracked using T cards. Summarise key points Grass fire tanker tactics CD Clip 1 Use OHT 6 Considerations When Responding to a call to summarise response actions. View Clip 1 Responding to the fire

Recall - Covered in pre requisite training Working Safely at an Incident.

OHT 6 Grass fire tanker tactics CD

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Section 2 Learning Strategy Session 10: Locating the Fire Time: 2.0 hours Aids OHT 1 Time

Introduce Session:

The ability to read maps, accurately locate positions and determine routes to positions is a critical skill for firefighters. This session looks at the use of local knowledge and map reading skills in order to locate the fire and identify the most effective route to reach the fire. Show OHT 2 Session Aims/Objective(s). Read through each of the aims/objectives listed on the overhead. At the end of this session participants will be able to use maps to: locate a fire Select a suitable route to the fire Identify the location of static water supplies Help in planning fire suppression activities by identifying topographic feature that could affect fire behaviour Communicate the location of the incident and your own location by the use of a 6 digit grid references. Clarify participant understanding of objectives as required. Show OHT 3 Session topics. Discuss the topics that will covered in this session: Maps, their use and care Marginal information Map scales Map Grid lines and grid references Locating points on a map Ground shape information

Inform learners of Session enabling objectives:

OHT 2

OHT 3

Stimulate recall of prior/ prerequisite learning?:

Ask participants whether they have used a street directory such as a Melways. Explain that reading maps is very similar to reading a street directory as they also use grid coordinates systems to locate features. Explain that participants who have not used a street directory before will learn how to during the course of this session.
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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 10: Locating the fire Enabling Objective: Locating the fire Instructional Method Heading Use OHT 4 Your Local Area to discuss how local knowledge can assist in identifying the best method of locating the fire and selecting the safest route to it. Practice/Feedback Assessment Locating the fire Benefit of local knowledge

Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

OHT 4

Names of landmarks and prominent features Roads and tracks and how weather affects them (e.g. 2WD/4WD, surfaces, access gates, narrow bridges, causeways.) Topography (lie of the land) including hills, gullies creeks. Specific hazards such as rail crossings, road intersections Traffic conditions (e.g. days/times when local user traffic increases)

Activity Provide students with a list of local places and landmarks (about 20 will do) and have them write down a description of their location e.g.. Smiths old house Smiths old house is at the corner of the highway and Blooms lane. Answers are to be brought to next training session.

Improving knowledge of local area and its features.

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 10: Locating the fire Enabling Objective: Maps, their use and care Instructional Method Heading Using OHT 5 Benefits of Maps discuss how maps can aid in fighting fires by providing firefighters with information about the lay of the land and land use. Practice/Feedback Assessment Maps and their use Maps are a vital tool used to aid fire operations. They can assist in identifying: Your present location Location and effective route to a fire Land use and boundaries Location and numbers of properties that may be at risk. Man made and natural features that may affect fire behaviour Terrain and likely effect on fire behaviour Map Editions or versions WF LM page 157 OHT 5 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Ask participants: Why is it important to ensure that the map being used is a current edition? Answer should include: Old maps may not show recent developments New towns or housing estates may have been built. Boundaries may have changed. Roads may have been redirected or new roads built.

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 10: Locating the fire Enabling Objective: Maps, their use and care Instructional Method Ask participants: What are the names of all the different types of maps? List their responses on the whiteboard. Responses may include: Topographical Local map books ESMAP Street directories Vic Roads state maps Specialist maps (fire history, geology Cadastral maps Topographical maps Provides a detailed picture of area represented

Time: Practice/Feedback Assessment Aids/Refs

Content Points Types of map

Explain where and why they are used and any special information they contains.

Samples of local maps

Shows man made and natural features

Ask participants: What are examples of man made features? Answers should include: Roads Structures (farm houses, churches, halls, bridges etc) Railway lines Telephone and power lines Dams Air strips

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 10: Locating the fire Enabling Objective: Maps, their use and care Instructional Method Ask participants: What are examples of man made features? Answer should include: Hills, Ridges, Forests, Rivers, Creeks Swamps Local map books Maps produced for CFA Region, Brigade, local council, DSE or Police to suit their specific needs. ESMAP Combines details usually found in either topographical maps or street directories Includes information a specific to fire services Emergency services locations Water sources etc Refer to local map book in Brigade tanker and discuss their use. Local map book Practice/Feedback Assessment

Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points Shows natural features

Explain where and why they are used and any special information they contains. Show participants a sample of an ESMAP ESMAP

Ask participants: What ESMAP stands for? Answer: Emergency Services Map
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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 10: Locating the fire Enabling Objective: Maps, their use and care Instructional Method Explain where and why they are used and any special information they contains. Practice/Feedback Assessment Metropolitan street directories Less topographical detail than maps previously discussed. More suited for navigating on streets and roads. Vic Roads State maps More generalised than an ESMAP Good town index at back of map book. Specialist maps (fire history, geology) Street directory Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Explain where and why they are used and any special information they contains.

Vic Roads State maps

Explain where and why they are used and any special information they contains. Explain where and why they are used and any special information they contains.

Specialist maps

Cadastral maps Show ownership boundaries Boundaries may be fenced meaning: Need to consider best point for entry Which property owners may need to be contacted

Cadastral maps

Activity. Ask participants to identify and locate the various maps used by their Brigade including those carried in firefighting vehicles. Caring for maps Handling Folding Heading Demonstrate how to care for and correctly fold/unfold maps to reduce risk of damage.

Practice locating and restowing Brigades local maps.

Topographical map

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 10: Locating the fire Enabling Objective: Marginal information Instructional Method Heading Explain that information printed outside the map face is referred to as marginal information and that the information and its position may vary from map to map. Ask participants: What are some common examples of marginal information that may be found on nearly all maps? List answers on white board. Answer may include: Index to adjoining maps Magnetic variation Map legend or key Map scale Map title Sheet number Grid reference numbers Ground shape (Contour intervals) Activity: Ask participants to locate examples of each type of marginal information on their maps. Explain that we will be utilising this information as we proceed through the session. Practice identifying location and types of marginal information on maps Wboard Practice/Feedback Assessment Common marginal information Wboard WF LM page 161 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Local maps

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 10: Locating the fire Enabling Objective: Marginal information Instructional Method Use OHT 6 Index to Adjoining Maps to explain how adjoining maps are indexed. Practice/Feedback Assessment Index to adjoining maps OHT 6 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Activity: Participants to demonstrate use of index when moving from one map position to a position on an adjoining map by measuring distance between two points on adjacent maps. Magnetic variation True north (direction of geographic north pole) Grid north (lines on map) Magnetic north (earths magnetic pole) Show each type of North on map and explain relationship between them. Explain purpose and location of true north arrow on map and need to orientate the map to get bearing.

Local maps

Local map

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 10: Locating the fire Enabling Objective: Marginal information Map scales Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment Map Legend Symbols Colour coding Using OHT 7 Map Legend discuss the use of symbols and colour coding in map legends to depict objects and features that cannot be drawn to scale e.g. Buildings, railway lines, rivers etc Activity: Using a topographical map of the local area ask participants to locate an example of each item listed in the maps legend. Map Scales Relationship between distance on the map and distance on the ground

Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

OHT 7

Using a map legend to identify objects and features.

Local map

Explain function and use of scales found on maps.

Local maps

Can be expressed three ways In words As linear scale or bars In numbers A scale of 1:250 000 indicates one unit on the map (e.g. 1 CM) is equal to 250 000 units on the ground (250 000 CM or 2.5 KM).

Use OHT 8 Map Scales to show examples of each method of expressing map scales

OHT 8

Explain exactly what the term scale means when used in relation to maps.

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 10: Locating the fire Enabling Objective: Map scales Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment Common map scales Available in a range of scales that provide different levels of detail. Large scale maps show small area in high detail e.g. 1:25,000 Small scale maps show large areas with less detail e.g. 1:100,000 Measuring distances on maps Points in a straight line Discuss the effect of scale on the level of detail shown. Use OHT 9 Common Map Scales to show commonly available scales and discuss how to convert measurements between scales OHT 9 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Use OHT 10 Measuring a Straight Distance to demonstrate how to measure distances between points on a map and then calculate actual distance between the points using the using maps scale. Activity: Participants to determine the distance between several straight line points on a map.

OHT 10

Points along a curve

Use OHT 11 Measuring a Curved Distance to demonstrate how to measure distances between points on a map and then calculate actual distance between the points using the using maps scale. Activity: Participants to determine the distance between several curved points on a map.

Measuring distances between points on a map. Repeat activities until participants are confident in ability to measure distances.

Local map

OHT 11

Local map Paper, string

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 10: Locating the fire Enabling Objective: Map Grid lines and grid references Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment Map grid systems Geographic coordinate system Geocentric Datum of Australia 1994 (GDA94) coordinate system. Locations represented by latitude and longitude. Cartesian coordinate systems Uses Map Grid of Australia 1994 (MGA94) coordinate system. Locations represented by Eastings and Northings within 6 Zones. 6 figure Easting, 7 figure Northing (Vic covered by Zones 54 & 55). Map Datums System that determines the position of the grid overlay on a map. Datums are updated occasionally. Different datums will give slightly different positions for same location reference (200 metre variance. Current datum is GDA94 for geographic maps and MGA94 for Cartesian maps.

Time: Aids/Refs OHT 12

Content Points

Using OHT 12 Geographic Coordinate systems discuss how locations can be represented using a grid systems overlayed onto a map.

Using OHT 13 Cartesian Coordinate systems discuss how locations can be represented using a grid systems overlayed onto a map.

OHT 13

Explain the meaning and function of the term map Datum.

http://www.ga.gov.au/ geodesy/datums/

Ask participants: What grid reference points did we just say were used on a Cartesian grid system? Answer should include: Eastings and Northings within a Zone
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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 10: Locating the fire Enabling Objective: Map Grid lines and grid references Locating points on a map Instructional Method Ask participants: Why is it important to know which Datum is used on a map? Answer should include: They may not be able to find the feature or landmark at the point where you say it is located. When communicating coordinates, if the person receiving the coordinates is using a map with a different datum to the sender, the location specified by the coordinates will point to a different location on their map. Locating points on a map Using OHT 14 Eastings/Northings Grid, demonstrate how the location can be specified using a 6 figure grid reference. Activity: Give participants a variety of location references (say 10 different references) and have them identify and record the name of the place or feature at each given location. Allow 10 mins then have participants take turns in naming the locations they have identified. Repeat activity until participants are comfortable using grid references to locate points. Locating points on a map using grid references. OHT 14 Practice/Feedback Assessment Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Topographical map

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 10: Locating the Fire Enabling Objective: Ground shape information Instructional Method Ask participants: Why is it important for wildfire firefighters to know the shape of the ground when responding to wildfires? List answers on whiteboard and discuss each response. Answers may include: Predict the perimeter of the fire Indicate suitable positions for fire breaks Indicate suitable locations for observation points and look outs. Indicate suitable forward control points. Indicate suitable locations for water points Indicate suitable locations for helicopters landings Indicate suitable access routes to an incident and safe escape or evacuation routes. Help to determine where you are. List terms on white board. Using OHT 15 Ground Shape information, explain the meaning of each term and ask participants how the information can assist wildfire firefighters. WBoard OHT 15 WBoard Practice/Feedback Assessment Ground shape Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Fire perimeter Fire breaks Observation points/lookouts Forward control points Water points Heli pads Access and egress

Ground shape information present on maps Ridge lines Aspect Position of slope Vegetation and density

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 10: Locating the Fire Enabling Objective: Ground shape Instructional Method Using OHT 16 Contour Lines, explain the use of contour lines on a map. Practice/Feedback Assessment Contours on a map Lines represent height above sea level Patterns represent shape of ground Line run across the slope Ground shape terms Spur Crest Undulating ground Knoll (Knob) Saddle Ridge line Gorge Plateau OHT 16 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Using OHT 17 Physical Features, explain the meaning of some common terms used to describe ground shapes.

OHT 17

Activity Ask participants are to identify a selection of physical features on their local maps, and have them record the coordinates of each location. Allow 10 mins and then ask participants to state a set of coordinates for each of the ground shapes listed.

Practice identifying, locating and recording terrain information from topographical maps. Repeat activity until participants are comfortable identifying features and their positions.

Topographical map

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 10: Locating the Fire Enabling Objective: Reporting a location Instructional Method Heading Discuss and demonstrate requirements for reporting a location. Practice/Feedback Assessment Reporting a Location Speak clearly Avoid confusion (write it down first) Sequence of information Use of pro word Grid WBoard Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Activity: Select several participants and ask them to report the location of a feature or place. The remaining of the participants are then required to locate the feature or place on their map using the reported information.

Practice reporting locations.

Topographical maps

Read summary on page 171 - 172 Complete self assessment questions 117 on page 173, and questions 1-5 on page 174. Provide further opportunities for participants to practice skills e.g. Navigation exercises.

WF LM page 171-172

WF LM page 173-174

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Section 2 Learning Strategy Session 11: Proceeding to the fire Time: 0.5 Hrs Aids OHT 1 OHT 2 Time

Introduce Session:

The fireground can be a dangerous workplace. This session looks at the procedures that should be followed on approach to and arrival at a fire to ensure a safe and effective response. Show OHT 2 Session Aims/Objective(s). Read through each of the aims/objectives listed on the overhead. At the end of this session participants will be able to : Select a safe and effective route to the wildfire or other incident location. Confirm the location of a wildfire or other incident. Observe and report on wildfire or other incident conditions and their likely cause. Clarify participant understanding of objectives as required. Show OHT 3 Session topics. Discuss the topics that will covered in this session: Selecting a safe and effective route Initial observations on approaching a fire Approach Size-up Evidence of fire cause

Inform learners of Session enabling objectives:

OHT 3

Stimulate recall of prior/ prerequisite learning?:

Ask a range of questions to ensure participants understand how to interpret information on maps. e.g. Ask participants: What are the meaning of the terms used to describe various types of terrain and how are these features represented on maps? Answers should include: Crests, Spurs, Saddles, Gorges, Knolls, Spurs, Plateaus or undulating ground? Ask participants: What features would influence the selection of a route to a wildfire and how are these features identified on maps. Answers should include: Different types of terrain, boundaries, fences railway lines, roads etc.

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 11: Proceeding to the Fire Enabling Objective: Selecting a safe and effective route Instructional Method Heading Ask participants: What is the best route to or from an incident? Answers should include: One that get you to your destination quickly, safely and with the least effort and stress on firefighters and their appliance. Ask participants: What factors would you consider when studying your map to select a route to the incident: Form of travel. Vehicle dimensions and weight. Types and sizes of access roads Vegetation types Water features Ground shape Other traffic Threat from incident Others? List answers on whiteboard and discuss how each factor influences selection of route taken. Answers should include: Form of travel used (2WD/4WD Tanker, foot, heli. Vehicle dimensions and weight. Types and sizes of access roads Vegetation types Water features Ground shape Other traffic Threat from incident WBoard Practice/Feedback Assessment Selecting a safe and effective route WBoard WF LM page 167 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 11: Proceeding to the fire Enabling Objective: Selecting a safe and effective route Instructional Method Activity: Divide participants into two groups. Separate the Groups. Provide each Group with the coordinates of a Wildfire (coordinates should be the same however Groups are not to know this). Ask each group to select a safe and effective route to the location of the incident. The selected route should then be recorded on butchers paper along with the factors that influenced the selection (there assumptions about the mode of travel and why that route was chosen). Allow 10 minutes then have each group present their chosen route, and explain there reasons for selecting the route. Route selection chosen by each group may be different depending on the Groups assumptions e.g. Type of vehicle used for response however the route is to be safe and effective. Complete activity by asking participants to comment on safety and effectiveness of choices made by other group. Practice/Feedback Assessment Practice selecting and plotting access and egress routes. Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points Selecting a safe and effective route (contd)

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 11: Proceeding to the fire Enabling Objective: Initial observations on approaching a fire Instructional Method Heading Use OHT 4 What to look for on the way to a fire to identify factors firefighters should note on route to the fire. Emphasise need to remain alert. Practice/Feedback Assessment Initial observations Vehicles and people leaving the scene Access to areas (gates, fences, blocked tracks) The nature of the fire Fire behaviour on arrival. Confirm and report location of fire Location Type of fire Fire activity WBoard OHT 4 Time: 1 Hour Aids/Refs

Content Points

Heading Explain that once fire has been physically located, Crew Leader (following radio protocol) will confirm details back to base radio or VicFire Operator. Demonstrate correct protocol and explain that radio communication protocols will be covered in Communication Systems Sessions)

Approaching the fire

Heading Ask participants: On approaching the fire what are the factors that must be considered to ensure firefighter and appliance safety? Answer to include: Positioning of vehicle Terrain and its effect on fire movement Wind direction Emphasise need to approach from upwind avoiding a frontal approach

WBoard Recall - Covered in pre requisite training Working Safely at an Incident, and Wildfire Behaviour

Safety point

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 11: Proceeding to the fire Enabling Objective: Sizing up the situation Instructional Method Heading Discuss how firefighters can assist their Crew Leader in Sizing up the incident by acting as the eyes and ears of the crew leader. Emphasise need for facts not opinions. Ask participants: What sorts of questions should be asked when sizing-up at a wildfire? List answers on the white board and discuss the relevance of each point. Answers should include: How big is the fire How intense is it? What colour is the smoke? What is the direction of the fire spread? What is the rate of spread? What is the size of the area already burnt? What lives or property are under threat? What condition is the fuel? Dry? High loads? What assistance or resources are required? What water supplies are available and where are they located? Are there any environmentally sensitive areas? Others? WBoard Practice/Feedback Assessment Size up Firefighters are the eyes and ears of the Crew Leader Facts and not opinions Information collated to get full picture of fire. WBoard Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Fire size Fire intensity Smoke colour Fire direction Fire rate Fire area Threats Fuel load and condition Assistance or resources required Water supply and location Environmental considerations Others?

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 11: Proceeding to the Fire Enabling Objective: Evidence of cause Instructional Method Heading Discuss need to protect point of origin for fire investigators and explain how this can be done. Practice/Feedback Assessment Evidence of cause Preserving the point of origin Avoid driving over the area Keep firefighting activity to a minimum Cordoning off the area to seal off access Recording evidence for investigators Any people in the area Vehicles in the vicinity (rego, type and colour) Note vehicle tracks, litter or other materials that may have been used to start the fire Note horse tracks, motor bike tracks and camp fires WBoard WF LM page 106 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Ask participants to identify the key points learnt during this sessions. Answers should include: How to get to the fire safely and quickly with a minimum of stress to firefighters and appliances. How to confirm the location of the fire What to do on arrival Questions to ask when crew leader sizing up Need for preserving point of origin and how to accomplish this Evidence that may be useful for firefighters.

Summarise session

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Section 2 Learning Strategy Session 12: Combating the fire Theory 2 Hours, Practical Activities 2 Hours. Introduce Session: In the earlier sessions on wildfire behaviour and wildfire development we learnt how weather, fuel and topography affected wildfires. In this session we look at the strategies and tactics employed to suppress wildfire under different weather, fuel and topographical condition. Show OHT 2 Session Aims/Objective(s). Read through each of the aims/objectives listed on the overhead. At the end of this session participants will be able to explain and demonstrate the: Basic wildfire firefighting techniques Grass fire attack from a tanker Hose streams for wildfire suppression Clarify participant understanding of objectives as required. Show OHT 3 Session topics. Discuss the topics that will covered in this session: Topics covered in this session: Importance of teamwork on the fireground Use of anchor points Watchouts Briefings Command and communication Communication on the fireground Strategies and tactics Mopping up and blacking out Stimulate recall of prior/ prerequisite learning?: OHT 3 Time: 4 Hours Aids OHT 1 Time

Inform learners of Session enabling objectives:

OHT 2

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Importance of teamwork on the fireground Instructional Method Heading Discuss reliance on team work for safety and achieving effective outcomes Using OHT 4 Team Leader Responsibilities, discuss crew leaders responsibilities to team members Emphasise that in a response, these responsibilities continue until the team/crew are demobilised (NOT just in the response phase) OHT 4 Practice/Feedback Assessment Teamwork Teamwork and firefighting Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Team (Crew) leader responsibilities Develop and mentor team members Ensure members understand team goal and tasks required Provide necessary resources Encourage cooperation Keep team focussed Duty of Care to team members Appraise results Acknowledge achievement

Question participants to ensure that they understand the meaning of each of the points listed. Questions to ask might include: What does your crew leader do to ensure that you are trained and adequately prepared to fight wildfires? How do you know what you tasks you are required to do and why they must be done? What does your crew leader do to encourage the team and keep them focussed on what needs to be done? How are your efforts appraised and acknowledged by the crew leader?

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Importance of teamwork on the fireground Instructional Method Discuss team member responsibilities to crew leader and other team members Using OHT 5 Team Member Responsibilities, discuss team members responsibilities to crew leader and other team members Question participants to ensure that they understand the meaning of each of the points listed. Questions to ask might include: What should you do if you are unclear as to what is expected of you, or you are asked to do something that you are not sure how to? What are some examples tasks where cooperation is essential to achieving the desired outcome? What can happen if team member dont cooperate in achieving the teams goal? Why is it important to other team members that you follow the procedures laid down for completing tasks? Give an example of when you or another team member had to ask for help what happened? What are some of the ways that you recognise and acknowledge the efforts of your team mates? How would you feel if you thought that you couldnt rely on your team members?
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Time: Practice/Feedback Assessment Aids/Refs

Content Points Team member responsibilities Understand your task and how it fits in with teams goals. Work cooperatively to achieve common goal Follow procedures Ask for help when it is needed Recognise and acknowledge each others achievements. Be supportive Duty of Care to others

OHT 5

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Importance of teamwork on the fireground Use of anchor points Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment Working on the fireground View Clip 7 Firefighter Safety Safe work practices Heading WBoard Grass fire tanker tactics CD Recall Covered in Working Safely on the Fireground WBoard Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Ask participants: What are some examples of safe work practices on the fireground? List answers on the whiteboard Answers should include: Never work alone Know where team members are and what they are doing Ensuring crew leader and team knows where you are and what you are doing Follow procedures Apply safety person approach and DRA. Work from an anchor point Heading Using OHT 6 Anchor points explain how they offer safety to firefighters. Ensure all participants can identify a safe anchor point and fully understand the importance of safe work practices. Ask team members: Why is it important to stay in touch with crew leader and other team members when working on the fireground?

Never work alone Knowing where team members are and what they are doing Ensuring crew leader and team knows where you are and what you are doing Apply SPADRA Work from an anchor point

Anchor points Anchor points include: Bare ground Blacked out by fire areas Areas with little fuel Non flammable areas

Safety point

OHT 6

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Use of anchor points Watchouts Briefings Instructional Method Answer to include: Conditions can change rapidly, feedback and prompt responses are essential to safety. Watch Outs Acronym Heading Using OHT 7 WATCHOUT, explain the meaning of the acronym WATCHOUT. Explain the purpose of watchouts (safety prompts) Explain meaning and relevance of each word in the acronym Activity: Handout copies of latest WATCHOUTs and have participants familiarise themselves with their content. Briefings Purpose of a briefing Types of briefings Heading Revise the purpose of a briefing, mentioning incident situation and task to be performed.. Using OHT 8 Types of Briefings, discuss each form of briefing and ensure that participants understand the purpose of each type. Watch out handouts WBoard OHT 7 Practice/Feedback Assessment Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Use as a danger warning prompt

WBoard

OHT 8

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Briefings Command and communication Instructional Method Ask participants to recall Safety on the Fireground lesson by asking: What format do briefing take? Answer should be: SMEACS

Time: Practice/Feedback Assessment Recall Safety on the Fireground (staging area briefings.) Aids/Refs

Content Points Format of briefings

SMEACS acronym Meaning of words used

Using OHT 9 SMEACS, explain the meaning of the acronym SMEACS. Explain meaning and relevance of each word in the acronym Heading Participants need to understand the command structure and communication systems used on the fireground and comply with them at ALL times Using OHT 10 AIIMS structure explain the roles and relationships of the structure for a large incident.

OHT 9

Command and communication

Safety point

AIIMS Incident Management structure Incident controller Planning section Operations section Logistics section

OHT 10

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Command and communication Strategies and tactics Instructional Method Discuss need for communications plan agreed to by all parties. Explain need for Operations communication plan and the purpose it serves Using OHT 11 Radio channels, explain that channels are allocated for specific uses and give examples. OHT 11 Practice/Feedback Assessment Communications Operations communications plan Purpose Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Use of different radio channels Operations point Staging area Division or Sector commanders Strike team leaders Crew leaders

Emphasise importance of Crew selecting and using channel allocated in communication plan. This way team members can remain in touch with crew leader and other team members Strategies and tactics Heading Explain concept of achieving objectives using strategies, tactics and tasks. Use the example on OHT 12 - 13 Strategies and Tactics to explain the differences between each of the terms used OHT 12 - 13

Objectives (the GOAL) Strategies (DO WHAT?) Tactics (HOW we do it) Tasks (JOBS to be done)

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Fire suppression strategies Instructional Method Heading Explain each point and emphasise need for alternative strategies to cover changed circumstances. Introduce and explain the variations of strategies used to suppress or contain a wildfire. View Clip 2 and 3 Grassfire attack methods and Tanker tactics Heading Explain that a direct attack is used where fire can safely and effectively be attacked. Ask participant: What factors would have influenced the Incident Controllers decision to go with a direct attack? Answer to include: Fire is low intensity Weather fuel and topography will not cause unexpected fire behaviour Ask participants: What are some of the methods used to attack a fire directly? Answer to include: Knapsacks, tankers, hose lies from static or reticulated water supplies. Heavy machinery (graders, dozers. Hand tools rakehoes, axes etc.
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Time: Practice/Feedback Assessment Aids/Refs WF LM page 111

Content Points Fire suppression strategies Broad statements developed in support of the objective Regularly reviewed and revised to account for changing conditions Direct, Indirect and Parallel Grass fire tanker tactics CD Clip 2 - 3 Direct attack

Grass fire tanker tactics CD WBoard

Recall points covered in Wildfire Behaviour and Wildfire Development

Recall points covered in Hand tools used in Wildfire Firefighting

Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Variations of direct fire suppression strategies Instructional Method Practice/Feedback Assessment Variations of direct attack Head attack Low intensity fires only Knock down fire head Black out fire edge Stable and moderate weather conditions required Advantages Removes fuel from immediate path of fire Firefighters can retreat to the black Parts of edge that self extinguish are readily incorporated into the control line Generally results in least area burnt of all methods used to control/suppress wildfires. Disadvantages Not suited to fires moving upwards in steep terrains. Firefighters exposed to heat and smoke Irregular control line may be difficult to patrol Fences and natural barriers may present obstacles Using OHT 14 Head Attack explain the terms head, flank and parallel attacks. Explain where and how this strategy would be used and discuss the advantages and disadvantages associated with this method. Ask participants: What are the risks associated with this strategy? Answers to include: Changing weather conditions causing unexpected behaviour (flare up, spotting, flank becoming the head etc) Spotting ahead of fire front causing entrapment Safety point Safety point WF LM page 112 OHT 14 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Recall Dead Man Zone

Ask participants: What can fire crews do to minimise the risks? Answers to include: At least two known safe routes out Monitor radio for changed conditions Be alert to changes in fire behaviour Be alert to changes in weather behaviour (wind direction and strength.

Recall: Safety on the Fireground and Wildfire Behaviour, Wildfire Development

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Variations of direct fire suppression strategies Instructional Method Using OHT 15 Flank Attack explain the terms flank attack. Explain where and how this strategy would be used and discuss the advantages and disadvantages associated with this method. Practice/Feedback Assessment

Time: Aids/Refs OHT 15

Content Points Flank attack Medium to high intensity grass and wildfires Work from rear or knock down flank Pinch in the flanks towards the head Black out fires edges Direct attack from either burnt or unburnt ground Advantages Firefighters can retreat to the black Parts of edge that self extinguish are readily incorporated into the control line Disadvantages Firefighters exposed to heat and smoke Irregular control line may be difficult to patrol Fences and natural barriers may present obstacles

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Variations of direct fire suppression strategies Instructional Method Using OHT 16 Parallel Attack 7 explain the terms Parallel attack. Explain where and how this strategy would be used and discuss the advantages and disadvantages associated with this method. Ask participants: What two techniques are used to construct a control line using a Rakehoe? Answer to include: Step up and One lick methods. Recall points covered in Hand tools used in Wildfire Firefighting Practice/Feedback Assessment

Time: Aids/Refs OHT 16

Content Points Parallel attack Low to Medium intensity grass and wildfires Work near edge to construct a control line close to fire (low intensity) Work further from edge to construct a control line (higher fire intensity). Irregularities are bypassed. Remaining fuel allowed to burn to control line Remaining fuel may be burnt out by firefighters. Advantages Firefighters less exposed to heat and smoke Control lines generally shorter and straighter than head/flank attacks. Disadvantages Increased risk to firefighters in event of wind change Increased risk of fire escaping Greater area burnt than in head or flank attacks.

Emphasise need for escape plan, two escape routes and immediate action in the event of flank turning to head.

Critical safety point Recall Linton disaster 1983 and Dead Man Zone video)

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Indirect fire suppression strategies Instructional Method Heading Explain that an indirect fire suppression strategy is used where fire cannot safely and effectively be attacked. Ask participant: What factors would have influenced the Incident Controllers decision to go with an indirect attack? Answer to include: Fire is too intense Fire is spotting over long distances Fire is too remote making access and egress difficult Weather fuel and topography may cause unexpected fire behaviour Lack of resources available to attack the fire directly Ask participants: Why would long distance spotting influence the incident controller to consider an indirect attack? Answer to include: Long distance spotting may create new fire fronts ahead of those being controlled, wasting manpower and resources. Practice/Feedback Assessment Indirect fire suppression strategies WF LM page 114 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Defensive fire suppression strategies Instructional Method Using OHT 17 Indirect Attack explain the term indirect attack. Explain where and how this strategy would be used and discuss the advantages and disadvantages associated with this method. Explain that Backburning must only be used by highly experienced personnel. If asked to assist, participants MUST listen and OBEY all instructions. Ask participants: What hand tool is used to light a backburn? Answer to include: A Drip torch Safety point Practice/Feedback Assessment Indirect attack Indirect attack using backburning. Use of natural fire barrier or construction of a control line some distance from fire (High to very high intensity) Remaining fuel is backburned by firefighters.

Time: Aids/Refs OHT 17

Content Points

Advantages Allows more time to plan for and prepare the control line. Allows choice of locations for the control line Reduces exposure of firefighters to the fire Allows time for assembling resources Disadvantages Size of the fire is increased Greater perimeter to black out and patrol May be intense fire where backburn meets the main fire

Recall use of drip torch covered in Hand tools used in Wildfire Firefighting

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Mop up (blacking out) Instructional Method Heading View Clips 4, 5 and 6 related to mopping up and blacking out. Explain to participants that mopping up involves blacking out around the perimeter to ensure that the fire remains contained. Emphasise that poor blacking out may put crews (including your own) at risk, as many fresh outbreaks have occurred as a result of poor blacking out. Ask participants: When blacking out, what factors would the OIC consider when decided how wide the blackout strip should be? Discuss responses. Answers should include: The fire has covered a large area. Terrain is hilly (smouldering material may fall downhill onto the blackout strip. Weather conditions (hot, dry, windy) Fuel type and load Using OHT 18 discuss the order in which mop up activities are carried out OHT 18 Safety point Practice/Feedback Assessment Mop up/Black out Grass fire tanker tactics CD Clips 4, 5 and 6 Why mop up is done Prevent reignition of extinguished flames Dirt time consuming work Usually carried out on foot Essential it is done properly Grass fire tanker tactics CD Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Recall Factors have been covered in Wildfire Behaviour , Wildfire Development

Sequence of actions in blacking out Elevated burning/smouldering fuels Repositioning logs on hills hot/smouldering ground materials Clearing smouldering materials from control line Breaking up fuel concentrations

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Mop up (blacking out) Instructional Method Using OHT 19 Mop up Tasks, discuss the tasks that must be carried out. Emphasise safety aspect and stress importance of doing the job properly. Use extreme care cooling logs, water to hot embers results in instantaneous production of steam and may result in dust, smoke and steam thrown back into the hose operators face. Safety point Practice/Feedback Assessment Mop up involves: Raking materials back into the burnt area Digging out and extinguishing burning roots and stumps Using extinguishing media to cool large pieces to permit handling Dragging smouldering logs and branches into burnt out area Repositioning burning logs on a hillside so they wont roll into unburnt areas. Separating clumps of fuels to reduce heat Allowing fuels to continue to burn provided they will burn out quickly and safely Extinguishing hot spots (look for shimmering heat profiles) on trees or ground Felling trees that pose a threat to firefighters safety. OHT 19 Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

Tree felling must be left to trained and experienced operators using appropriate PPE. Before felling any tree consider potential threat to habitat/environment.

Safety point

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Patrolling the perimeter Instructional Method Heading Explain to participants that patrolling refers to constant monitoring of a mineral earth control line or fire perimeter, either on foot or in a tanker. Ask participants: Why would it be necessary to patrol the control line? Discuss responses. Answer should include: To ensure that embers or burning fuel do not breech the control line. To ensure that burning roots that may cross a control line do not continue burning below ground starting spot fires on the other side of the control line. To ensure that the fire is contained. When done, for how long and how often Ask participants: When should patrolling the perimeter commence, how long should it continue and how often should patrols take place? Discuss responses. Answer to include During and after mopping up activities Continues until no possibility of fire escaping the control line. Frequency is dependant on fire intensity, fuel loadings, current and future weather conditions.
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Time: Practice/Feedback Assessment Aids/Refs WBoard WF LM page 117

Content Points Patrolling the perimeter What does patrol mean

Why patrol

Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Patrolling the perimeter Instructional Method Ask participants: What should you look for as you patrol the perimeter? List responses on whiteboard and discuss each point.

Time: Practice/Feedback Assessment Aids/Refs

Content Points What to look for when patrolling

WBoard

Overhead tree/branches Spot fires Hot ash or embers Smouldering roots

Answer to include Anything that could threaten the fire control line such as: Trees or branches of overhead trees that contain burning material. Hot ash or embers Smouldering root systems near the control line may cross under the control line Spot fires outside the control line Discuss risk factors and steps that firefighters must take to ensure personal safety and crew safety. Ask participants What steps can firefighters working on foot take to minimise risks from change in fire behaviour. Answer to include: Dont work alone (buddy up) Be alert and ready to move to the black Watch for falling limbs or hot spots Watch for moving truck or heavy equipment Watch for Insects, reptiles and vermin
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Safety considerations

Buddy up Remain alert Falling trees/branches Reduced visibility Insect, reptiles and vermin disturbed by fire or subsequent mop up activities.

Recall Working Safely on the Fireground.

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire Enabling Objective: Patrolling the perimeter Instructional Method Emphasise that the firefighters hose is their safety line during blacking out operations. Ask participants: How can you protect the hose as you move through an area to black it out? Answer to include: Raking clear burning embers or sharp objects Wetting down the ground where hose is to be laid Patrolling the hose lay with a knapsack water sprayer.

Time: Practice/Feedback Assessment Safety point Aids/Refs

Content Points Safety considerations (continued)

Hose as lifeline (protect hose)

Recall Discussed in Hoses for wildfire firefighting.

Steam hazard

Ask participants: How can the firefighter avoid injury from steam smoke and dust that erupts when burning fuels are sprayed? Answer should include: Stand well back when water is first applied. PPC including dust mask and firefighting goggles should be worn.

Safety point.

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire (Practical activity 1) Enabling Objective: Direct attack from a tanker using two branches. Instructional Method Heading Show participants the branches and nozzles that will be used for grass fire fighting. Ask participants to recall and describe the types of patterns produced by the different nozzles, their applications and any safety factors that should be considered when using them. Answers should include: Straight jet : Long reach and penetration. Can be used to knockdown the flames. Will conduct electricity Spray pattern: Covers large area. Poor penetration. Large droplets removes heat more efficiently than jet. Offers some radiant heat protection for firefighters Subject to wind interference Less likely to conduct electricity. Fog pattern: Covers large area Short reach Radiant heat protection for firefighters Susceptible to wind interference May obstruct firefighters vision
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Time: 2 Hours Practice/Feedback Assessment Aids/Refs

Content Points Direct attack from a tanker using two branches. Branches and nozzles Straight jet Spray pattern Fog pattern

Recall Covered in Hose Systems for Wildfire firefighting

Wildfire firefighting appliance Branches and nozzles for grass fire firefighting

Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire (Practical activity 1) Enabling Objective: Direct attack from a tanker using two branches. Instructional Method Activity: Simulating a direct attack from a tanker using two branches (front and rear) on fire side of tanker. Provide opportunity for all participants to operate Practice in accurately the branches on the front and rear of the vehicle. directing a hose stream from front and rear Explain that the front branch will need to direct a branches fitted to a tanker using strategies jet pattern over the rear view mirror to knock and tactics discussed in down the flame. The rear branch will need to direct a stream to mop up any flames missed by theory session. the first branch. Correct faults as you see them and continue the activity until satisfied with each participants proficiency Consideration needs to be given to: Amount of water used as their may be a scarcity of water in the region. Use of a fire edge simulator machine for more advanced training where conditions allow. Practice with neighbouring brigades may provide participants with some appreciation of requirements when operating as part of a strike team. Practice/Feedback Assessment Direct attack on grass fire edge from a tanker using two branches Tanker Time: Aids/Refs

Content Points

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire (Practical activity 2) Enabling Objective: Emergency personal protection procedure Instructional Method Activity: Emergency Drill - demonstrate and practice taking refuge in a tanker, on the back and in the cabin as appropriate. Make use of heat shielding, (including heat reflective blinds where fitted to tanker ROPS and cabin windows) and spray systems where fitted. Emphasise that firefighters should not place themselves in situations requiring refuge. Safety point Practice/Feedback Assessment Wet activity Time: Aids/Refs Tanker

Content Points Emergency personal protection procedure

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Session 12: Combating the fire (Practical activity 3) Enabling Objective: Mop Up activity Instructional Method Demonstrate how to carry out mop tasks using readily available hand tools such as rakehoes and axes to roll, split and chop roots and small branches. Activity: Participants to black out an area. Suitable areas may be areas that have recently been subject to natural fire or other burn off activity. Emphasise safety factors associated with use of sharp tools and physical labours. Mop Up grass fire Explain that wetting down may be all that is required. Practice blackout techniques Practice/Feedback Assessment Mop Up Wildfire Rolling over logs and stumps Cooling logs and stumps Splitting logs and stumps Raking ashes and fuel Tanker Hose and branch Hand tools Time: 1 Hour Aids/Refs

Content Points

Safety point

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Learning and Assessment Strategy

Section 4 Session/Program Summary/Review:


Summary and review may be conducted using a combination of directed questioning techniques, practical activities and the summary/self assessment sections provided in participants learner manuals

Aids

Time

Learning Check: On the Job Practice: Support/Encouragement Techniques:

Written and practical assessment in the form of Skillspak for Wildfire Firefighting.

As specified by Brigade.

Brigade training personnel must take an active role in ensuring new firefighters are trained, mentored by competent, experienced personnel and are provided opportunities to develop and maintain the required skills.

Further Training: Program/ Unit Evaluation:

Refer to Brigade training officer or Regional HQ training manager.

Program and delivery will be evaluated using a CFA standard feedback sheet. Comments will be collated at brigade/regional level and fed back to HQ L&D for consideration and action..

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