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Linear Functions

Formula for slope: If the two points (x 1, y1) and (x 2, y2) are on a line, the slope of the line is change in y y y2 - y1 rise m = = = = . x2 - x1 run change in x x Slope of a horizontal line: Slope is zero. Slope of a vertical line: Slope is undefined. for x first, and then substitute that number into the equation to find y.)

vertex parabola with a > 0

Exponential Functions

Exponential Functions are functions of the form f (x) = a x, where a 7 0, and a Z 1.

Limits

x:a

CONTINUITY AT x = c

f (x) is continuous at x = c if 1. f (c) is defined. 2. lim f (x) exists.

x:c

3. lim f (x) = f (c).

x:c

1. 2. Domain: ( - q , q ) Range: (0, q ) (But be carefultranslations and reflections will alter the range.)

This means: 1. As x takes on values closer and closer (but not equal) to a on both sides of a, the corresponding values of f (x) get closer and closer to L. 2. The value of f (x) can be made as close to L as desired by taking values of x close enough to a.

Suppose a function has a derivative at each point in the open interval. 1. If f (x) 7 0 for each x in the interval, then f (x) is increasing on the interval. 2. If f (x) 6 0 for each x in the interval, then f (x) is decreasing on the interval. 3. If f (x) = 0 for each x in the interval, then f (x) is constant on the interval.

f (b) - f (a) is the average rate of b - a change of the function f between x = a and x = b. Average rate of change: f (a + h) - f (a) is h the instantaneous rate of change of f (x) at x = a. Instantaneous rate of change: lim

h:0

parabola with a < 0 vertex

x:a x:a x:a

lim f (x) is the limit as x approaches a from the left (x 6 a). lim+ f (x) is the limit as x approaches a from the right (x 7 a).

x:a x:a

EQUATIONS OF LINES

1. 2. 3. 4. SlopeIntercept Form: y = mx + b (The line has slope m and y-intercept b.) PointSlope Form: y - y1 = m(x - x 1) (The point (x 1, y1) is on the line, and m is the slope.) x = k (vertical line) f , k is a real number. y = k (horizontal line)

Let f (x) be any function, and let h and k be positive constants. Then, 1. y = f (x) + k shifts the graph of f (x) up by k. 2. y = f (x) - k shifts the graph of f (x) down by k. 3. y = f (x + h) shifts the graph of f (x) to the left by h. 4. y = f (x - h) shifts the graph of f (x) to the right by h. 5. y = - f (x) reflects the graph of f (x) vertically (across the x-axis). 6. y = f ( - x) reflects the graph of f (x) horizontally (across the y-axis).

Let y0 be the amount or number of some quantity initially present (t = 0). Then the amount present at any time t is y = y0ekt. If k 7 0, this is exponential growth and k is called the growth constant. If k 6 0, this is exponential decay and k is called the decay constant.

CRITICAL NUMBERS

A critical number is any number c for which f (c) = 0 or f (c) is undefined.

Let a, A, and B be real numbers and let f and g be continuous functions such that lim f (x) = A and lim g (x) = B.

x:a x:a

A function which describes the instantaneous rate of change (or slope of tangent line) of f (x) at any point x is called the derivative. f (x + h) - f (x) Derivative: f (x) = lim h:0 h

RELATIVE EXTREMA

f (c) is a relative maximum on (a, b) if f (x) f (c) for all x in (a, b). 2. f (c) is a relative minimum on (a, b) if f (x) f (c) for all x in (a, b). The term relative extremum refers to either a maximum or a minimum. If f has a relative extremum at x = c, then c is a critical number of f (x). 1.

1.

x:a x:a x:a x:a

Logarithmic Functions

For a 7 0, a Z 1, and x 7 0, y = log a x means a y = x. The logarithm, y, is the exponent to which you must raise a to produce x.

Notation: f (x), 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. dy d , [ f (x)], Dx [ f (x)] dx dx Constant Rule: If f (x) = k, then f (x) = 0. Power Rule: If f (x) = x n, then f (x) = nx n-1. d Constant Times a Function: [k f (x)] = k # f (x) dx Sum or Difference: If f (x) = u(x) ; v(x), then f (x) = u (x) ; v (x). Product Rule: If f (x) = u(x) # v(x), then f (x) = u(x)v (x) + v(x)u (x). u(x) Quotient Rule: If f (x) = and v(x) Z 0, then v(x) v(x)u (x) - u(x)v (x) . f (x) = [v(x)]2 Chain Rule: If y = f (u) and u = g(x) so that y = f (g(x)), then 8. dy dy = dx du d du or [ f (g(x))] = f (g(x)) # g (x) . dx dx

x:a x:a

Parallel lines: Two nonvertical lines are parallel if and only if they have the same slope, m 1 = m 2. Perpendicular lines: Two lines, neither of which is vertical, are perpendicular if and only if their slopes have a product of - 1. (In other words, the slopes are negative reciprocals of one 1 .) another, m 1 = - m 2

1. 1. 2. 3. 4. Domain: (0, q ) log a (xy) = log a x + log a y x log a a b = log a x - log a y y log a x r = r log a x log a a = 1 The common log: log 10 x Q log x The natural log: log e x Q ln x 2. Range: ( - q , q )

x:a

lim 3f (x) ; g (x)4 = lim f (x) ; lim g (x) = A ; B lim f (x) f (x) A x:a = , B Z 0. R = g(x) lim g(x) B

x:a x:a

# C lim g (x) D

x:a

x:a

= A#B

x:a

lim B

Let c be a critical number for a function. Suppose that f (x) is continuous on (a, b) and differentiable on (a, b) except possibly at c and that c is the only critical number on (a, b). 1. f (c) is a relative maximum if f changes from positive to negative at x = c. 2. f (c) is a relative minimum if f changes from negative to positive at x = c.

PROPERTIES OF LOGARITHMS

If p(x) is a polynomial, then lim p(x) = p(a). For any real number k, lim C f (x) D k = C lim f (x) D k = Ak,

x:a x:a

Polynomials: A polynomial of degree n, where n is a nonnegative integer, is defined by f (x) = anx n + an - 1x n - 1 + + a1x + a0. an, an - 1, ... , a1, a0 are real numbers called coefficients. an is called the leading coefficient. The domain of any polynomial function is all real numbers.

FUNCTIONS

Definition of a function: A function is a rule that assigns to each element in one set exactly one element from another set. In other words, for each input (independent variable) there is exactly one output (dependent variable). Definition of domain: The domain of a function is the set of all possible real values for the independent variable (or in other words, the set of all allowable values, or meaningful replacements for x). Definition of range: The resulting set of all possible output values for the dependent variable (or y) is called the range.

x:a x:a

c

6. = b A. 7.

SPECIAL NOTATIONS

x:a

x:a x:a

Rational Functions

Rational functions are so named because they are a ratio of polynomial functions. p(x) Rational functions are functions of the form f (x) = , q(x) where p(x) and q(x) are polynomials and q(x) Z 0. Asymptotes: If a function grows without bound as x approaches some number k, then x = k is a vertical asymptote. To find vertical asymptotes for rational functions: Set the denominator equal to 0 and solve for x.

Absolute extrema only occur at critical values of f or at the endpoints of the interval, a or b.

log b x If x, a, and b are positive, a Z 1, b Z 1, then log a x = . log b a ln x In particular, log a x = . ln a

LIMITS AT INFINITY

1 1 For any positive real number n, lim n = 0 and lim n = 0. x: q x x: -q x (If x is negative, x n does not exist for certain values of n, so the second limit is undefined.) Let p (x) and q(x) be polynomials, q(x) Z 0. To find

x: q

Quadratic Functions

Quadratic functions: f1x2 = ax 2 + bx + c, where a, b, and c are real numbers and a Z 0. Properties of quadratic functions: 1. If a 7 0, the parabola opens up. If a 6 0, the parabola opens down. 2. Parabolas have either a highest or lowest point. This point is called the vertex. 3. -b The x-coordinate of the vertex is x = , and the 2a -b corresponding y-coordinate is f a b . (Find the value 2a

more

LOGARITHMIC EQUATIONS

For x 7 0, y 7 0, b 7 0, b Z 1, if x = y, then log b x = log b y. And if log b x = log b y, then x = y.

lim

1. 2.

,!7IA3C1-dheeaa!:t;K;k;K;k

1

ISBN 0-321-37440-1

Divide the numerator and denominator by x raised to the highest power of x appearing in either polynomial. Then find the limit of the result from Step 1 by using the rules for limits, including the rules 1 1 lim n = 0 and lim n = 0. x: q x x: -q x

more

d x [e ] = ex dx d x 9. [a ] = a x # ln a dx d g(x) 10. [a ] = (ln a)a g(x) # g (x) dx g (x) d 11. C ln g(x) D = dx g(x)

1. 2. 3. 4. Find all critical numbers for f in (a, b). Evaluate f (x) for all critical numbers in (a, b) (ignore any critical numbers not within the given interval). Evaluate f (x) at the given endpoints of the interval, namely a and b. The largest value for f (x) is the absolute maximum and the smallest value for f (x) is the absolute minimum.

Instantaneous rate of change Slope of the tangent line Critical numbers, intervals of increase and decrease of a function, and relative extrema Marginal revenue, marginal profit, and marginal cost Velocity, v(t)

Higher Derivatives

Notation: 2nd Derivative: f (x), 3 Derivative: f (x),

rd

Related Rates

d 2y dx d 3y , D2 x ( f (x)), y 2 , D3 x ( f (x)), y 3 1. 2. 3. 4. Identify all given quantities; draw a sketch. Write an equation involving all variables in the problem. Use implicit differentiation to find derivatives on both sides of the equation. Solve for the derivative giving the unknown rate of change and substitute the given quantities. (Only substitute in the numbers AFTER taking the derivatives.)

If f (x) and g(x) are continuous, and f (x) g(x) on [a, b], then the area between f (x) and g(x) from x = a to x = b is b b 1a [f (x) - g(x)] dx or 1a [top - bottom] dx.

The partial derivative of f (x, y) with respect to y is written 0f 0 fy(x, y), or f (x, y). 0x 0y

SEPARATION OF VARIABLES

Separation of variables is used to solve a differential equation f (x) dy problem of this type: , if g(y) Z 0 . = dx g(y) Cross multiply and integrate both sides: 1 g(y) dy = 1 f (x) dx.

Function

ex ln (1 + x) 1 1 - x

Taylor Series

1 + x + -x 1 1 1 2 x + x3 + + xn + 2! 3! n!

Interval of Convergence

(- q, q) [ - 1, 1) ( - 1, 1)

0 0z 0 2z a b = fxx = 2 = z xx 0x 0x 0x 0 0z 0 2z a b = fyx = = z yx 0x 0y 0 x0 y 0 0z 0 2z a b = fyy = 2 = z yy 0y 0y 0y 0 0z 0 2z a b = fxy = = z xy 0y 0x 0 y0 x

INTEGRATION BY PARTS

1 udv = uv - 1 vdu

x2 x3 xn - - 2 3 n

Geometric sequence: A sequence in which each term after the first term is found by multiplying the preceding term by some number, r, (called the common ratio) is a geometric sequence.

The second derivative determines concavity.

VOLUME

If f is a non-negative function and R is a region between f and the x-axis from x = a to x = b, then the volume formed by b rotating R about the x-axis is V = p 1a [f (x)]2 dx.

1 + x + x2 + x3 + + xn +

Antiderivatives

THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL: RULES FOR INTEGRATION (INDEFINITE INTEGRALS)

1. 2. 3. un + 1 + C Power Rule: 1 u ndu = n + 1 (n Z - 1)

If z = f (x, y) has a relative maximum or minimum at (a, b) and fx(a, b) and fy(a, b) exist, then fx(a, b) = 0 and fy(a, b) = 0.

LHospitals Rule

Used for indeterminate forms (limits which produce 0 0 ). To use LHospitals rule: f (x) 0 1. Be sure lim = . x : a g(x) 0 2. Take the derivative of the numerator and the derivative of the denominator independently. 3. Find lim f (x) and lim g (x) and look at the ratio

x:a x:a x:a

CONCAVITY

A function is concave up on an interval if f is increasing on the interval. A function is concave down on an interval if f is decreasing on the interval. A function is concave up on an interval (a, b) if the graph of f (x) lies above the tangent line for each point in (a, b). A function is concave down on an interval (a, b) if the graph of f (x) lies below the tangent line for each point in (a, b).

The average value of f (x) on [a, b] is 1 b f (x) dx. b - a 1a

For z = f (x, y), let fxx, fyy, and fxy all exist in a circular region in the xy-plane with center (a, b). Let fx(a, b) = 0 and fy(a, b) = 0. Define D by D = fxx(a, b) # fyy(a, b) - [fxy(a, b)]2. 1. f (a, b) is a relative maximum if D 7 0 and fxx(a, b) 6 0. 2. f (a, b) is a relative minimum if D 7 0 and fxx(a, b) 7 0. 3. f (a, b) is a saddle point if D 6 0. 4. If D = 0, the test is inclusive.

an = ar n-1

Constant Multiple Rule: 1 k # f (x) dx = k 1 f (x) dx Sum/Difference Rule: 1 [ f (x) ; g(x)] dx = 1 f (x) dx ; 1 g(x) dx

u u 1 e du = e + C

If a geometric sequence has a first term a and a common ratio r, n a(r n - 1) then the sum of the first n terms is sn = a ar i - 1 = , r - 1 i=1 r Z 1.

IMPROPER INTEGRALS

q 1a f (x) b

dx =

b lim a f (x) b: q 1 b

dx

x:a

Let f (x) be a function with derivatives f (x) and f (x) existing at all points in an interval (a, b). Then f (x) is concave up on (a, b) if f (x) 7 0 and f (x) is concave down on (a, b) if f (x) 6 0. Point of inflection: A point of inflection is a point at which concavity changes. At any point of inflection, f (x) = 0 or f (x) does not exist.

1- q f (x) dx =

q 1- q

4. 5. 6.

c b

x:a

a A geometric series converges to if r is in ( - 1, 1) and 1 - r diverges if r is not in ( - 1, 1). 4.

x:a

f (x) . g(x)

eku 1 e du = k + C -1 1 u du = ln u + C

ku

f (x) dx =

DOUBLE INTEGRALS

Properties: Let z = f (x, y) be a nonnegative function on the region R defined by c x d and a y b. Then the volume over the rectanb d d b gular region is given by 1a 1c f (x, y) dx dy = 1c 1a f (x, y) dy dx. Double integrals over variable regions: Let z = f (x, y) be a nonnegative function of two variables. If R is defined by c x d and g(x) y h(x), then the volume d h(x) over R is obtained by 1c 1g(x) f (x, y) dy dx. Let z = f (x, y) be a nonnegative function of two variables. If R is defined by g(y) x h(y) and a y b, then the volume b h(y) over R is obtained by 1a 1g(y) f (x, y) dx dy.

If

If the limits exist, then the integrals are called convergent. If not, they are divergent.

x:a

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus: Let f be continuous on [a, b] and let F be any antiderivative of f, then b b 1a f (x) dx = F(x)|a = F(b) - F(a) Properties of the definite integral: a 1. 1a f (x) dx = 0 2. 3.

b 1a f (x) b 1a f (x)

INFINITE SERIES

An infinite series is the sum of an infinite sequence of numbers,

q

Multivariable Calculus

FUNCTIONS IN THREE DIMENSIONAL SPACE

Equation of a plane: ax + by + cz = d is a plane if a, b, and c are not all zero. The graph of z = f (x) is a surface in three dimensional space.

Derivatives d [sin x] = cos x dx d [cos x] = - sin x dx d [tan x] = sec2 x dx d [cot x] = - csc2 x dx d [sec x] = sec x tan x dx d [csc x] = - (csc x cot x) dx Antiderivatives 1 sin x dx = - cos x + C 1 cos x dx = sin x + C 1 tan x dx = - ln cos x + C 1 cot x = ln sin x + C

2 1 sec x dx = tan x + C 2 1 csc x dx = - cot x + C i=1

Let f (x) exist on some open interval containing c and let f (c) = 0 (c is a critical value), then 1. If f (c) 7 0, then a relative minimum occurs at c. 2. If f (c) 6 0, then a relative maximum occurs at c. 3. If f (c) = 0, then the test gives no information.

called terms: a1 + a2 + a3 + = a ai. The nth partial sum of an infinite series is the sum of the first n

n

dx = dx =

c 1a f (x) dx + a - 1b f (x) dx

b 1c f (x)

dx

QUADRIC SURFACES

1. Paraboloid: z = x 2 + y 2 y2 z2 x2 Ellipsoid: 2 + 2 + 2 = 1 a b c Hyperbolic Paraboloid: x 2 - y 2 = z Hyperboloid of Two Sheets: - x 2 - y 2 + z 2 = 1

i=1

Concavity Point(s) of inflection Acceleration (second derivative of position) Point of diminishing returns

To determine the area bounded by f, x = a, x = b, and the x-axis 1. Sketch the graph. 2. Find any x-intercepts of f in [a, b]. Consider each subregion defined by these x-intercepts individually. 3. The definite integral will be positive for subregions above the x-axis, and will be negative for subregions below the x-axis. Use separate integrals to compute these areas. Area can only be positive, so take the absolute value of the integral for regions lying below the x-axis. 4. The total area from x = a to x = b will be the sum of the areas of all the subregions.

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2. 3.

Differential Equations

A differential equation is an equation that contains an unknown function y = f (x) and a finite number of derivatives. The solution to a differential equation is a function.

Suppose lim Sn = L for some real number L. Then L is the sum n: q of the infinite series a1 + a2 + a3 + , and the series converges. If no such limit exists, the series diverges and has no sum.

PARTIAL DERIVATIVES

The partial derivative of f (x, y) with respect to x is obtained by treating y as a constant and x as a variable. The partial derivative of f (x, y) with respect to y is obtained by treating x as a constant and y as a variable.

Taylor polynomials are polynomial approximations to nonpolynomial functions close to particular values for x.

Implicit Differentiation

When y = f (x), y is said to be explicitly defined in terms of x. Functions can also be defined implicitly. The process of implicit differentiation: Treat y like it is some unknown function of x. To find the derivative of the unknown function, you must use the chain dy rule. The derivative of the unknown function is dx .

dy Simplify to solve for dx .

To solve differential equations, you must integrate. Whenever a problem involves integration, a C must be added. When no additional information is given to allow you to find the numerical value for C, a general solution is obtained. If you are given additional information about the problem, such as the value of f (x) when x = 0 (called the initial value), then you will be able to find the numerical value for C. This will yield a particular solution.

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TAYLOR SERIES

If all derivatives of f (x) exist at x = 0, then the Taylor series for f (x) centered at x = 0 is f (0) f (2)(0) 2 P(x) = f (0) + x + x + . 1! 2!

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NOTATION

The partial derivative of f (x, y) with respect to x is written 0f 0 fx(x, y), or f (x, y). 0x 0x

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