Fluid Mechanics
Q1.
(a) For a steady twodimensional incompressible flow through a nozzle, the velocity field
is given by ( )
0
1 2 V u x L i = +
(i) Split the stress tensor into isotropic and anisotropic parts.
(ii) What are the physical origins of these two parts?
(iii) What are the principal directions and values of the principal stress? How are those
related to pressure and viscous stresses?
[9 + 10 + 6 = 25Marks]
Q3.
Area A
0
h (t)
,
D, L
V(t)
2
(a)Two viscous, incompressible, immiscible fluids of same density (= ) but different
viscosities (viscosity of the lower fluid layer =
1
and that of the upper fluid layer
=
2 1
< ) flow in separate layers between parallel boundaries located at y H = .
Thickness of each fluid layer is identical and their interface is flat. The flow is driven by
a constant favourable pressure gradient of
dp
dx
. Derive expressions for the velocity
profiles in the fluid layers. Also, qualitatively make a sketch of the velocity profiles.
Assume the flow to be steady and the plates to be of infinitely large width.
(b) Assume that flow around a circular cylinder separates at
=120. Till the point of separation, the pressure distribution
closely follows the potential flow theory, with
2
2
1 4sin
1
2
p
p p
C
u
u
= +
o
Using suitable boundary conditions, evaluate the constants
0
a and
1
a . Using the above
velocity profile, evaluate the total shear force on a plate of length L and width w, and the
drag coefficient
D
C .
(d)A flat plate is exposed to a fluid flow with a free stream parallel to the axis of the
plate. In another case, this plate is replaced by another plate of half the length of the
previous plate, all other conditions remaining unaltered. In both the cases, flow over the
entire length of the plate is laminar. With an order of magnitude analysis, determine the
ratio of the drag coefficients for these two cases.
(e) Consider the growth of boundary layer for flow over a surface with favourable
pressure gradient. Qualitatively sketch the plots of
2
2
, ,
u u
u
y y
c c
c c
, as a function of y, where
y is the boundary layer coordinate.
[3+3+11+5+3 = 25 marks]
Solution
3
1.
(a)
(i)The velocity component is given as
( )
0
1 2 u u x L = +
Hence,
0
2u u
x L
c
=
c
For the given velocity field, acceleration can be written as
u
a u
x
c
=
c
( ) ( )
2
0 0
0
2 2
1 2 1 2
u u
a u x L x L
L L
= + = +
(ii)
Let t be the time required for a fluid particle to travel from the inlet to the exit of the
nozzle.
From the given velocity field, we have
( )
0
1 2
dx
V u x L
dt
= = +
or
( )
0
1 2
dx
u dt
x L
=
+
Integrating the above equation, we obtain
( )
0
0 0
1 2
L t
dx
u dt
x L
=
+
} }
which gives
0
ln3
2
L
t
u
=
(b)
For the maximum acceleration without spilling the water, the free surface takes the shape
as shown in figure below.
From the geometry of the figure above, we have
,max
tan
x
a
g
u =
5 m
3 m
x
2 m
1 m
u
Free surface of water
4
or
,max
1
0.4
2.5
x
a
g
= =
or
2
,max
0.4 0.4 9.81 3.924 m/s
x
a g = = =
This is the maximum acceleration that can be given without spilling the water.
Now the acceleration is increased by20%.Therefore, the new acceleration is
2
3.924 1.2 4.7088 m/s
x
a = =
Now, tan
x
a h
L g
u = =
or,
4.7088
5 9.81
h
=
or, 2.4 m h =
The new configuration is shown in the figure below.
.
Volume of water left in the tank is
1
2.4 5 0.6 5 4
2
(
= +
(
3
36 m =
Initial volume of water in the tank is
3
5 4 2 40 m = =
Percentage of water spilt over is
40 36
100 10%
40
=
(c)
Let the diameter of the pipe be D.
Case 1:
When the single pipe joins two reservoirs, as shown in the figure below, the loss of head
is
2
1
2
f
L V
h f
D g
=
where is V the average velocity of fluid in the pipe.
For this case, the discharge is given by
Q AV =
5 m
h =2.4 m
x
0.6 m
u
2
4.7088 m/s
Free surface of water
5
Case 2:
When another pipe is added in parallel to the main pipe from the midpoint as shown in
the figure below, the loss of head is
2 2
1 2
2
2 2
2 2
f
L L
V V
h f f
D g D g
= + (1)
From continuity equation, we have
1 2 3
Q Q Q = +
Since the diameter and length of both the parallel pipes are same, we have
2 3
Q Q =
1
2 3
2
Q
Q Q = =
or
1
2 3
2
V
V V = =
Substituting the value of
2
V in Eq.(1), we get
2
1
2 2
1 1
2
5
2 2 4
2 2 8 2
f
V L L
V V L
h f f f
D g D g D g
= + =
Equating the head losses, we have
1
2 f f
h h =
2 2
1
5
2 8 2
V L V L
f f
D g D g
=
or
1
1.26 V V =
For this case, the discharge is given by
1 1
1.26 Q AV AV = =
Therefore, the percentage increase in the flow rate is given by
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q
H
1
H
2
H
1
L
H
2
Q
6
1
1.26
0.26 or 26%
Q Q AV AV
Q AV
= =
2.
(a)
For dynamic similarity, Froude number should be same for model and prototype.
m p
Fr Fr =
or,
p
m
m m p p
V
V
g l g l
=
or 30
p p
m m
V l
V l
= =
From the dynamic similarity for wave making resistance, we have
2 2 2 2
wp
wm
p p p m m m
F
F
V l V l
=
or
2 2
p p p
wp wm
m m m
V l
F F
V l
   
=
 
\ . \ .
5 1 30 900 135000 N 135 kN = = =
Neglecting the viscous resistance due to water in comparison to the wave making
resistance, the problem is described by 5 variables as
( ) , , , , 0 f V l g F =
These variables are expressed by 3 fundamental dimensions M, L, and T. Therefore, the
number of t terms 5 3 2 = =
Using D, and N as repeating variables, t terms can be written as
1 1 1
1
a b c
l V F t = (2)
2 2 2
2
a b c
l V g t = (3)
Substituting the variables of Eqs (23) in terms of their fundamental dimensions M, L,
and T, we get
 
1 1
1 0 0 0 3 1 2
M L T L ML LT MLT
b c
a
( ( ( =
(4)
 
2 2
2 0 0 0 3 1 2
M L T L ML LT LT
b c
a
( ( ( =
(5)
Equating the exponents of M, L and T from Eq.(4), we have
1
1 0 b + =
1
2 0 c =
1 1 1
3 1 0 a b c + + =
which give
1
2 a = ,
1
1 b = ,
1
2 c =
Substituting these values into Eq. (2), we have
1 2 2
F
V l
t =
7
Equating the exponents of M, L and T from Eq.(5), we have
2
0 b =
2
2 0 c =
`
2 2 2
3 1 0 a b c + + =
which give
2
1 a = ,
2
0 b = ,
2
2 c =
Substituting these values into Eq. (3), we have
2 2
gl
V
t =
Hence the problem of ship resistance where the viscous resistance due to water is
neglected in comparison to the wave making resistance, can be expressed as
2 2 2
, 0
F gl
f
V l V
 
=

\ .
or
2 2
2
gl
F V l
V
 
= 

\ .
(b)
Applying energy equation between sections 1 and 2, we obtain
2 2
1
( )
( ) 0
2 2
atm atm
l
p p V V t
h t h
g g g g
+ + = + + +
(i)Neglecting
2
( )
2
V t
g
and entry loss ( given) and as
1
V is negligible as compared to ( ) V t ,
the above equation becomes
( )
l
h t h =
Considering laminar flow, we have
2
32
l
VL
h
gD
Thus, one can write
2
32
( )
VL
h t
gD
or
2
( )
32
gD
V h t
VL
Again, from continuity equation, we get
0
( )
pipe
dh t
A V A
dt
=
or
2
2
0
( )
( )
4 32
gD dh t
D h t A
L dt
t
=
Integrating the above equation, we obtain
4
0
0
( ) exp
128
D gt
h t h
LA
  t
=

\ .
Area A
0
h (t)
,
D, L
V(t)
2
1
8
(ii) Given that the flow is highly turbulent, therefore friction factor constant f ~ .
From energy equation with the consideration of exit kinetic energy, we have
2 2
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
V t L V t
h t f
g D g
= +
or
2 ( )
( )
1
gh t
V t
L
f
D
=
+
Again, from continuity equation, we get
0
( )
pipe
dh t
A V A
dt
=
or
2
0
2 ( ) ( )
4
1
gh t dh t
D A
L
dt
f
D
t
=
+
Integrating the above equation, we obtain
2
0
0
2
( )
8
1
D t g
h t h
L
A
f
D
t
=
+
(c)
(i)
isotropic part anisotropic part
2 0 2 0 0
0 3 2 0 2 0
a a a
a a a
( ( (
= +
( ( (
(i) The isotropic part of the stress tensor is not related to the deformation and it is
orientation invariant, while the anisotropic part of the stress tensor is related to the
deformation,
(ii) Principal stresses are 2 a and 3 2 a and all directions are principal directions. State
of stress is purely normal and no shear.
Pressure is 2 a .
Anisotropic components represent here viscous normal stresses.
3.
(a)
The flow arrangement is shown in the figure below.
Stationary plate
H
2 2
,
Stationary plate
x
y
1 1
, H
9
Large lateral width of the plate renders the basic flow consideration to be two
dimensional, for which the continuity equation under incompressible flow conditions
reads:
0
u v
x y
c c
+ =
c c
For fully developed flow, 0
u
x
c
=
c
Hence, 0
v
y
c
=
c
( ) v v y =
Since 0 v = at y H = as a result of the nopenetration at the walls, v is identically
equal to zero for all y, i.e.,
0 v = at H y H s s
Now, considering xmomentum equation, we have, for steady flow,
2 2
2 2
u u dp u u
u v
x y dx x y
  ( c c c c
+ = + +
 (
c c c c
\ .
Using derivations identical to those presented in Section 8.3.1, it follows
2
2
Function of x only Function of y only
1
constant
d u dp
dy dx
= =
For 0 H y s s
2
1
2
1
1 d u dp
dy dx
=
Integrating the above equation, we have
1
1
1
1 du dp
y C
dy dx
= +
2
1 1 2
1
1
2
dp y
u C y C
dx
= + + (6)
where
1
C and
2
C are constants of integration .
For 0 y H s s
2
2
2
2
1 d u dp
dy dx
=
Integrating the above equation, we have
2
3
2
1 du dp
y C
dy dx
= +
2
2 3 4
2
1
2
dp y
u C y C
dx
= + + (7)
where
3
C and
4
C are constants of integration.
Eqs (6) and (7) are subjected to the following boundary conditions
10
At y H = ,
1
0 u = ,
At y H = ,
2
0 u = ,
At 0 y = ,
1 2
u u = (continuity of flow velocity)
At 0 y = ,
1 2
1 2
du du
dy dy
= (continuity of shear stress)
From the boundary conditions at y H = ,
1
0 u = , and at y H = ,
2
0 u = , we get
2
2 1
1
1
2
dp H
C C H
dx
=
2
4 3
2
1
2
dp H
C C H
dx
=
From the boundary condition at 0 y = ,
1 2
1 2
du du
dy dy
= , we have
1 1 2 3
C C =
2
1 3
1
C C
=
From the boundary condition at 0 y = ,
1 2
u u = , one can write
2 4
C C =
or,
2 2
1 3
1 2
1 1
2 2
dp H dp H
C H C H
dx dx
=
or, ( )
2
1 3
1 2
1 1
2
dp H
C C H
dx
(
+ =
(
or,
2
3
1 1 2
1 1
1
2
dp H
C
dx
  (
+ =
 (
\ .
or,
( )
( )
2 1
3
2 1 2
2
dp H
C
dx
=
+
( )
( )
2 1
1
2 1 1
2
dp H
C
dx
=
+
Substituting the values of
1
C ,
2
C ,
3
C and
4
C in the Eqs (6) and (7), we have
( )
( )
( )
2 1 2 2
1
1 2 1
1 1
2
dp
u y H H y H
dx
(
= + +
(
+
( )
( )
( )
2 1 2 2
2
2 2 1
1 1
2
dp
u y H H y H
dx
(
= +
(
+
Qualitative sketch of the velocity profiles are shown in the figure below.
11
Note from the above figure that since
2 1
< ,
2 1
0 0 y y
du du
dy dy
= =
> ( so as to satisfy
1 2
1 2
0
0
y
y
du du
dy dy
=
=
= )
or
1 2
0 0 y y
dy dy
du du
= =
> ,
or equivalently
1 2
tan tan u u >
(b)
It is given that
( )
2 2
1
1 4sin
2
p p U u
= + for 0 120 u s s
At 120 u =
( )
2 2 2
1
1 4sin 120
2
p p U p U
= + =
It is given that the pressure in the wake region remains approximately constant that
means
2
p p U
= for 120 180 u s s
Consider an elemental area subtending an angle du as shown in the figure below. Drag
force acting on the elemental area due to pressure (neglecting the skin frictional drag) is
cos cos
D
dF pdA p Rd L u u u = = (8)
H
0
H
u
y
u
2
u
1
pdA
U
u
du
R
u
12
The total drag force acting on the cylinder is obtained by integrating Eq. (8) over the
entire surface of the cylinder as
120 180
0 120
2 cos 2 cos
D D
A
F dF p RLd p RLd
u u
u u
u u u u
= =
= =
= = +
} } }
( ) ( )
120 180
2 2 2
0 120
1
2 1 4sin cos 2 cos
2
p U RLd p U RLd
u u
u u
u u u u u
= =
= =
= + +
`
)
} }
( )
120 120
2 2 2
0 0
180
2
120
1
2 cos 4 sin cos
2
2 cos
RL p U d U RL d
p U RL d
u u
u u
u
u
u u u u u
u u
= =
= =
=
=
 
= +

\ .
+
} }
}
( )
120
3
120 180
2 2 2
0 120
0
1 sin
2 sin 4 2 sin
2 3
RL p U U RL p U RL
u
u u
 
= + +

\ .
( )
2 2 2
1 3 3 3 3
2 4 2
2 2 8 2
RL p U U RL p U RL
 
= +

\ .
2 2
3
2 3
2
RL U RL U
= =
The drag coefficient is found to be
2
2 2
3
3
1 1
2
2 2
D
D
F RL U
C
U A U RL
= = =
4.
(a)
Free stream velocity is given as
m
U cx
=
Outside the boundary layer, flow is irrotational, and hence the Bernoullis equation is
valid. Bernoullis equation can be written as
2
1
constant
2
p U
+ =
Differentiating the above equation with respect to x, we get
0
dp dU
U
dx dx
+ =
or,
( )
1 2 2 1
1
m m m
dp dU
U cx cmx c mx
dx dx
= = =
Boundary layer equations for a constant density, twodimensional, steady flow are
0
u v
x y
c c
+ =
c c
2
2
1 dp u u u
u v
x y dx y
c c c
+ = + v
c c c
13
Substituting the value of
1 dp
dx
c c c
+ = + v
c c c
(b)
The variation of wall shear stress as a function of axial position along the plate is shown
in the figure below.
(c)
The velocity profile is given as
0 1
u y
a a
U
= +
o
The velocity profile must satisfy the essential boundary conditions i.e.,
at 0 y = , 0 u = ( noslip condition at the plate)
at y = o, u U
=
o
The boundary layer equations for steady, twodimensional, constant density, laminar flow
over a flat plate flow are
0
u v
x y
c c
+ =
c c
(9)
2
2
u u u
u v
x y y
c c c
+ = v
c c c
(10)
Integrating Eq.(9) with respect to y within boundary layer( from 0 y = to y = o), we get
0 0
0
u u
dy dy
x y
o o
c c
+ =
} }
c c
Wall shear
stress,
w
t
Distance from leading edge, x
Laminar
Turbulent
1
2
x
1
5
x
c
x x =
14
or
 
0
0
0
u
dy v
x
o
o c
+ =
}
c
or
0
0
0
y y
u
dy v v
x
o
=o =
c
+ =
}
c
or
0
0
y
u
dy v
x
o
=o
c
+ =
}
c
0
0 because of nopenetration boundary condition
y
v
=
(
=
or
0
y
u
v dy
x
o
=o
c
=
}
c
(11)
Integrating Eq.(10) with respect to y within boundary layer( from 0 y = to y = o), we get
2
2
0 0 0
u u u
u dy v dy dy
x y y
o o o
c c c
+ = v
} } }
c c c
or
 
0
0 0
0
u v u
u dy uv u dy
x y y
o
o o
o ( c c c
+ = v
} }
(
c c c
or
0 0
0
y
y
u v u
u dy v U u dy
x y y
o o
=o
=
c c c
+ = v
} }
c c c
0
0, 0
y
y
u
u
y
=
=o
(
c
= = (
c
(
or
0 0 0
0 y
u u u u
u dy dyU u dy
x x x y
o o o
=
c c c c
+ = v
} } }
c c c c
0
,
y
v u u
v dy
y x x
o
=o
( c c c
= =
}
(
c c c
or
0 0
0
2
y
u u u
u dy U dy
x x y
o o
=
c c c
= v
} }
c c c
or
( )
2
0
0 y
u
u U u dy
x y
o
=
c c
=
}
c c
Applying Leibnitz rule, the above equation becomes
( )
2
0
0 y
d u
u U u dy
dx y
o
=
c
=
}
c
or
2
0
0
1
y
d u u u
dy
dx U U U y
o
=
  c
=
} 
c
\ .
Substituting
u y
U
=
o
, we obtain
2
0
1
U d y y
dy
dx U
o
 
=
}

o o o
\ .
15
or
1
6
d
dx U
o
=
o
or
6
d dx
U
o o =
Integrating the above equation, we get
2
6
2
x C
U
o
= +
where C is an integration constant.
At 0 x , 0 o , so 0 C = .
2
12
x
U
o =
or
12
x
U
o =
The total shear force on one side of the plate is given by
0
L
D w
F wdx = t
}
0 0
12
L L
U U
dx U w dx
x
= =
} }
o
(
0
w
y
u
y
=
c
t =
c
)
1 2
2
0
2 3
L
U w
x dx
U
=
}
1
2
2
3
U w L
U
Drag coefficient is then
1
2
2
2 2
3
1 1
2 2
D
D
U b L
U F
C
U wL U wL
= =
2 1.15
3 Re
L
U L
= =
(d)
The boundary layer equations for steady, twodimensional, constant density, laminar flow
over a flat plate flow are
0
u v
x y
c c
+ =
c c
(12)
2
2
u u u
u v
x y y
c c c
+ = v
c c c
(13)
From the scaling estimation of Eq.(12) one can write
v U
L
o
o
16
From the scaling estimation of Eq.(13) one can write
2
U U U
U v
L
o
v
o o
or
2
2
U U
L
v
o
( v U
L
o
o
)
or
1 2
L
U
  v
o

\ .
From the scaling estimation, one can write
~
w
U
t
o
2
~
w
Df
C
U
or
1 2 2
~
Df
U
C
U U
L
U
U
o
o
  v

\ .
or
1 2
,1
2
,2 1
1
2
Df
Df
C
L
C L
 
= =

\ .
(e)
The variations of
2
2
, ,
u u
u
y y
c c
c c
, as a function of (where y is the boundary layer coordinate)
for flow over a surface with favourable pressure gradient are shown in the figure below. .
u
y
u
y
c
c
y y
2
2
u
y
c
c