HISTORY BEHIND BENGALI MUSIC

The music of Bengal, also referred to as Bangla music, comprises a long tradition of religious and secular song-writing over a period of almost a millennium. Composed with lyrics in the Bengali language, Bengali music spans a wide variety of styles.

The earliest music in Bengal was influenced by Sanskrit chants, and evolved under the influence of Vaishnav poetry such as the 13th-century Gitagovindam by Jayadeva, whose work continues to be sung in many eastern Hindu temples. The Middle Ages saw a mixture of Hindu and Islamic trends when the musical tradition was formalized under the patronage of Nawabs and the powerful landlords bAro bhuiyAn. Much of the early canon is devotional, as in the Hindu devotional songs of Ramprasad Sen, a bhakta who captures the Bengali ethos in his poetic, rustic, and ecstatic vision of the Hindu goddess of time and destruction in her motherly incarnation, Ma Kali. Another writer of the time was Vidyapati. Notable in this devotional poetry is an earthiness that does not distinguish between love in its carnal and devotional forms; some see connections between this and Tantra, which originated some time in the middle of the first millennium CE. The Bauls (meaning "divinely inspired insanity") are a group of mystic minstrels (Muslim sufis and Hindu Baishnos) from the Bengal region, who sang primarily in the 17th and 18th centuries. They are thought to have been influenced greatly by the Hindu tantric sect of the Kartabhajas as well as by Muslim Sufi philosophers. Bauls traveled and sang in search of the internal ideal, Moner Manush (Man of the Heart or the inner being), and described "superfluous" differences between religions.Lalon Fakir, alternatively known as Lalon Shah, who lived in the 19th century in and around Kushtia, is considered to be the greatest of all bauls. By far the most defining expression of Bengali music, with an ouvre of over two thousand songs, was Rabindranath Tagore (known in Bengali as Robi Thakur and Gurudeb , the latter meaning "Divine Teacher"). His songs are affectionately called Rabindra Sangeet, and cover topics from devotion, love, nature and seasons, and patriotism. Tagore's earlier works had been inspired by the lilas of Krishna while his latter works involved transcendentalism of the Upanishads.

Traditionally the music composed by ethnic Kashmiris has a wide range of musical influences in composition. and the Manganiars. normally begin with the alap. But. especially centered around water and wells. Ramdeoji. who had a more liberal approach. The region's music shares similarities both with nearby areas of India and the other side of the border. which lyrically describes chores.Traditional music includes the women's Panihari songs. There are two traditional classes of musicians: the Langas. Due to Kashmir's close proximity to Central Asia. Jodhpur and Jaipur. who stuck mostly exclusively to Muslim audiences and styles.Rajasthan has a diverse collection of musician castes. Or for instance another song about Podina (Mint) and how it is liked by various members of the family (an allegorical reference to a local liquor extracted from mint is also made).HISTORY MUSIC BEHIND RAJASTHANI Music of Rajasthan originates from Rajasthan. Celebration of the coming of the Monsoons or the harvest season are central to most traditional folk songs. using traditional Central Asian instruments and musical scalesChakri is one of the most popular types of folk music played in Jammu & Kashmir. Epic ballads tell of heroes like Devnarayan Bhagwan. The celebration of changing seasons is also very central to folk music of Rajasthan. which sets the tune and is followed by a recital of a couplet (dooba). Eastern Asia and Southern Asia. sapera. a unique blend of music has evolved encompassing the music of the three regions. Songs also revolve around daily activities of the local people for instance a song about not sowing Jeera (Cummin) as it is difficult to tend. Chakri is played with musical instruments like the . One of the most famous Rajasthani Maand singers is Allah Jilai Bai of the Bikaner Gharana. including Udaipur. HISTORY BEHIND KASHMIRI MUSIC Kashmiri music reflects the rich musical heritage and cultural legacy of the Jammu & Kashmir region in India. jogi and Manganiar. both of which are an integral part of Rajasthan's desert culture. Pabuji and Tejaji. Gogaji. including langas. played by various castes. in the Pakistani province of Sindh. bhopa. Kashmiri Valley music is closer to Central Asian music. one of the states of India and home to several important centers of Indian musical development. Every day common themes are the center of traditional rajasthani folk music. overall. Other songs.

but they are totally entertaining. the Kashmiri santoor looks and sounds different from the original Persian santur and Bhajan Sopori's ancestors were key in adapting the santoor. a hundred string percussion instrument which is played by the goddess Sharada (the goddess of learning and art in ancient Kashmir).harmonium.[4] Rouf includes dancing and singing simultaneously. be it cultural. Each row of girls then moves one step forward and then back in swaying motion while singing the Rouf song or Wanwun. The most popular folk instrument is the santoor (Shat-tantri-veena). No musical instrument is required for this. Ladishah is a sarcastic form of singing. The songs are sung resonating the present social and political conditions and are utterly humorous. and is accompanied by a hundred-stringed instrument called the santoor. which uses its own ragas (known as maqam). wasool. etc. History Behind HIMACHALI Music The music of Himachal Pradesh a state of India located in the northwest corner of the country. It is popular in .[citation needed] The most notable Kashmiri santoor player from Kashmir is Pt. many of which are sung without accompaniment. the sarangi and the nout. includes many kinds of folk songs from the area. Sufiana Kalam has been popular in Kashmir since arriving from Iran in the 15th century and has been the music of choice for Kashmiri Sufi mystics. The songs are composed on the spot on issues relating to that village. The songs reflect the truth and that sometimes makes the song a bit hard to digest. The singers move from village to village performing generally during the harvesting period. Chakri ends with the rouf.[3] It is a very important part of the Henna Night during weddings for Kashmiri Pandits and the Kashmiri Muslims.Rouf is a traditional dance form usually performed by girls on certain important occasions like Eid. has also given santoor recitals in Iran. tabala. marriage and other functions. Bhajan Sopori. Girls arrange themselves in two or three rows. along with the Kashmiri saz. Abhinavagupta (the great philosopher).Sufiana Kalam is the classical music of Kashmir. Laila-Majnun . The very fact that it was a Kashmiri. Pt. The dance based on the sofiyiana kalam is the hafiz nagma Music and musical instruments find mention in the earliest texts like the Nilmatapurana and Rajatarangini by Kalhana. Henzae and Wanvun is a music form sung by Kashmiri Pandits on religious and cultural festivals and in weddings. However. social or political. setar and harmonium. who wrote a commentary called Abhinavabharati on Bharata's Natyashatra shows how much importance was given to music in the ancient times. Rouf is usually called wanwun when performed at marriagesLadishah is one of the most important parts of the Kashmiri music tradition. Bhajan Sopori. Wanvun is a very important part of the wedding ceremonies in Kashmiri Pandit and Kashmiri Muslim traditions. though rouf is a dance form but few ending notes of Chakri which are played differently and on fast notes is also called Rouf. the rubab. each row has four to six girls. from where this instrument has originated.Jhoori is a type of song that celebrates extramarital romance. Chakri was also used to tell stories like fairy tales or famous love stories such as Yousuf-Zulaikha.

Ghughuti na basa and many others are legendary. The folk music primarily is related to the various festivals. dafale. Ainchaliyan are religious songs. ghungru (bells). jumang. nagara. The pure and blessed music have the feel and the touch of nature and subjects related to nature. martial panwaras and melancholy khuded. chimta (tongs). it is said that when these songs were . Saṃskāra songs are sung at festivals and celebrations by women from some of the higher castes. riwana (small fretless lute). The Music and its development have seen various phases of growth and have undergone lots of transformation during the course of time. Non-drum percussion instrumnts include the ghanta and ghariyal (gongs). Eact district has its own dialect. daur.The most famous personality associated with Kumaoni Folk Music is Mohan Upreti. thali (platter) and kokatha murchang. also using string puppets. but to a lesser extent. gajju. as are the martial jhanjhotis. dhol.Mahasu and Sirmaur. folk stories and simple life of the people of Uttarakhand. History Behind GARHWALI Music Garhwali folk music had its root in the lap of nature. doru. bhankora and masakbhaja. 2. ruman. These songs are based on ragas. dholku. dolki and hudak. including dammama.[1]He is famous for the great Kumaoni song Bedu Pako Baro Masa which for many years the identity of the hills of Uttarakahand. ektara and kindari davatra. sung at the bride's house after a wedding and by women at the home of an unmarried girl. nagarth. dholki. wandering musicians play a khanjari (tambourine) and perform.There are many dialects in Himachal Pradesh.The earliest of the singers who left never ending impressions on the folk music of Uttarakhand were : 1. sarangi (bowed lute). ransingha.Musical instruments used in Uttarakhand music include the dhol. Thus the songs of Uttarakhand are a true reflection of the Cultural Heritage and the way people lives their lives in the Himalayas. bishudi (flute).There are also wind instruments like algoja/algoza (twin flutes). damoun. who is known for his Nanda Devi Jagar & Rajula Malu Shahi Ballad. Dheeraj's love songs and Thakur Das Rathi's 'Naatis' has given great contribution to enrich the music of Himachal Pradesh. religious traditions. thadya and jhoda. peepni. turri. manjira and jhanjh (cymbals). which are compositions of Indian classical music. In Chamba-Pangi. Mohit Chauhan's 'morni'. dhaunsa. tamaka. Shri Gopal Babu Goswami who is considered to be a legend in Kumaon for his melodious voice. Laman songs from Kullu Valley are another type of love song. Tabla and harmonium are also used. and is accompanied by a female dance called jhoomar. String instruments include gramyang. damanght. karnal (straight brass trumpet) and ranasingha (curved brass trumpet).[clarification needed] It is said this song was also a favourite of Jawahar Lal Nehru who heard it in a band march as this song is also a popular marching song. including ceremonial mandals.Himachal Pradesh folk music features a wide variety of drums. thali.His songs on the life of the members of the armed forces and their families like Kaile baje muruli.There are many kinds of folk songs from the area. shehnai (oboe). Karnail Rana's[1] various folk songs.

In fact. In the past decade Uttarakhandi Music has seen a revolution after the offer by various Music Recording / Cassette Producing agencies such as Rama Video Cassette. from local areas. . to make their own Cassettes after getting their songs recorded in BIGBOSS digital sound recording studio. Also.transmitted on All India Radio women with their husbands could not help but weep when they heard the soul touching voice of Gopal Da as he was lovingly called. Gajendra Rana's "Malu". Shri Narendra Singh Negi who is considered to be the voice of Garhwal. and he incorporates many legends and folk tales into his rousing songs. Meena Rana. Pritam Bharatwan.Some of the hit songs / albums being Fauji Lalit Mohan Joshi's "Maya Ki Yaad". Gajendra Rana who have made their contribution to the Kumaoni / Garhwali Music by various hit songs / music albums over the period. Kalpana Chauhan. "Tak Taka Tak Kamla" and many other hit albums / songs . Pritam Bhartwan's "Saruli". Likewise Chander Singh Rahi is another popular singer. 3.101 karanpur dehradun uttarakhand This has led to a sudden surge of a number of hidden talents from various corners of Uttarakhand which include famous personalities such as Fauji Lalit Mohan Joshi. a balladeer and storyteller. "Leel Ghasyari". Heera Singh Rana. Heera Singh Rana is identified as a singer and a social activist whose songs tell the tale of the pain of the people of the hills . with advance in Technology and easy availability of videocams and other recording devices. "Pushpa". "Rajuli". Anuradha Nirala. Kumaoni / Garhwali songs have gained so much popularity over the years that they have become integral part of the DJ Music being played during wedding and other functions. "Rani Gorkhani". His recordings are perhaps the most authentic to the hills. lots of talents have started producing music albums which has further led to the popularization of Uttarakhandi folk dance.Neelam cassettes and TSeries who have offered new talents.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful