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EVALUATION MODELS Roberta Straessle Abruzzese (RSA) Evaluation Model Low


Time and cost Frequency

Outcome Content Process


Total Program


Process (Formalative) Evaluation Purpose: To make adjustments in an educational activity as soon as they are needed, whether those adjustments be in personnel, materials, facilities, learning objectives, or even ones own attitude. The scope of process evaluation generally is limited in breadth and time period to a specific learning experience such as a class or workshop.


Resources: Usually are less costly and more readily available than for other types.

Content Evaluation Purpose: To determine whether learner have acquired the knowledge or skills thought during the learning experience. Limited to a specific learning experience and to specifically stated objectives for that experience.


Resources: Used to teach content can also be used to carry out evaluation of how well that content was learned.

Outcome (Summative) Evaluation Purpose: To determine the effects or outcomes or outcomes of teaching effects. Its intent is to su what happened as a result of education. Abruzzese (1992) differentiated outcome evaluation from contentevaluation by focusing outcome evaluation on measuring more long term change that persist after the learning experience The scope depends in part on the changes being measured, which, in turn, depend on the objectives established for the educational activity.


Resources required are more costly and sophisticated than those for process or content evaluation. Outcome evaluation require greater expertise to develop measurement and data collection strategies, more time to conduct the evaluation, knowledge of baseline data establishment, and ability to collect reliable and valid comparative data after learning experiences. o Impact Evaluation Purpose: To determine the relative effects of education on the institution or the community. To obtain info that will help decide whether continuing an educational activity is worth its cost. Broader, more complex, and usually more long term than that of process, content or outcome evaluation.


Resource requirements for conducting an impact evaluation are extensive and may be beyond the scope of an individual nurse educator. It generally includes: Reliable and valid instruments Trained data collectors Personnel research and statistical expertise Equipment and materials necessary for data collection and analysis Access to populations who may be culturally or geographically diverse

Conducting the evaluation Three methods to minimize the effects that occur when carrying out an evaluation are to: Conduct a pilot test first Include extra time Keep a sense of humor