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The undersigned certify that they have read, and recommended to the Institute of Engineering for acceptance, a project report entitled “Design and Fabrication of Small-Scale Sausage Casing Making Machine”, submitted by Achyut Adhikari, Anita Prajapati, Ashok Silwal, Sanat Kunwar in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering and recommended to the Institute of Engineering for its acceptance.

Supervisor Associate Prof.Ram Chandra Sapkota Assistant Dean Institute of Engineering, TU

Supervisor Associate Prof. Dr. Riddhi Ratna Sthapit Department of Mechanical Engineering Pulchowk Campus

External Examiner Professor Som Shekhar Adiga Kathmandu University

Committee Chairperson Dr. Rajendra Shrestha Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pulchowk Campus Date



The project entitled ‘Design and fabrication of small-scale sausage casing making machine’ is conducted as final year project in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor Degree in Mechanical Engineering. The project includes the design, fabrication and testing of manually operating sausage casing making machine. The machine is especially useful for small-scale sausage production. The main aim of the design of the machine is to develop the culture of utilizing the intestine for healthy consumption which is used otherwise. The requirement of sausage casing making equipment is low cost; user friendly and easy operation which is fulfilled by manually operated casing machine we designed. The focus is mainly given on producing natural casing from the animal intestine particularly of goat which has not been used as casing material for sausage so far. The casing machine utilizes roller mechanism to remove internal slime and outer muscular and serosa layer as it passed on through two sets of roller. Manually, raw material i.e. intestine is fed into the first set of roller. It is rolled to second set. A set of gear transmits motion to the rollers. Pressing between the rollers is needed to loosen outer layer and crushed inner layer which is fulfilled by applying forced on pressing element. Rotary motion is provided with the handle mounted at the end of second roller. The simple machine was fabricated and was tested for its performance. A thin transparent sub-mucosa layer was extracted from the intestine as per our testing which is comparable with the casing available in the market. This project report presents the detail drawings and fabrication procedure, testing and analysis of market survey on sausage consumption.



During our project period we have received immense support from the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, our parents, seniors and friends. Our hearty gratitude goes to our project supervisors Associate Prof. Ram Chandra Sapkota and Associate Prof. Dr. Riddhi Ratna Sthapit for their continuous guidance and support. Our special thanks goes to Professor Dr. Bhakta Bhadur Ale for encouraging us to go ahead with the project. We would like to thank our Head of Department Dr. Rajendra Shrestha for providing us required facilities. We appreciate Engineer of Balaju Yantra Shala Er. Dilesh Maharjan for his cooperation and guidance in the fabrication of machine. We are thankful to Balaju Yantra Shala for timely fabrication and compatible price. We would like to thank National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) College for providing us testing lab. We would like to thank our friends for their continuous support in completing our project. Our sincere thanks go to our seniors for their valuable advice and support while working in the project. Finally many thanks to our parents who have always supported and encouraged us during our project.


.................................................................................... 20 .... 16 1........................53 3.......................................................................................4 Methodology .................................. 55 3..........................................................31 3.............................................................................. 31 DESIGN............................................................................................. 53 3..............................5 Expected outcome...................................................................................... 8 LIST OF NOTATION AND ABBREVIATION............................................................................6 Operation of the Device.............................................................. 23 ...... 32 3..........................................................................................8 Ergonomics..............................................................................................................................19 1....5 LIST OF TABLES....................................................................................................................2 SPECIFICATION.......................................................33 3.................................................................................................................1 History ........47 3.. 10 1..................................................................................................................................2 Objectives ................................................................................................................. 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS.............................................. 10 1............................................................................................. 60 CHAPTER FOUR..........10 Fabrication.........................52 3............................................................................................................................... 2 ABSTRACT...........9 LIST OF FIGURES...3 DESIGN CALCULATION..............................6 Scopes................................... 10 INTRODUCTION.......................................34 3...........60 6 ..........................................5 Material Selection.............................49 3..............3 Rationale ................... 20 LITERATURE REVIEW.................................................................................................1 Design Matrix. OPERATION AND TESTING........................................................................................COPYRIGHT................................................................ 30 CHAPTER THREE..............17 1............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 60 FINANCIAL AND MARKET ANALYSIS............. 20 CHAPTER TWO............. 10 CHAPTER ONE............................9 Physical and operational characteristics..................................................................................11 Testing.......................................... 16 1............................................7 Maintenance and inspection............................. 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..........................

......................................................79 7 .............68 CHAPTER FIVE...........................1 Financial Analysis...................... 75 5....62 4.............................4.......................................1 Limitations ............................3 Environmental Impact Assessment...........................................76 REFERENCES..... 75 LIMITATIONS.................................................................................. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS..................................................... 75 5..67 4..................................2 Socio-Economic Analysis........................................75 5................................3 Recommendations.......................68 4................................2 Conclusions................4 Cost Evaluation and Expenditures............................................................................................. 77 APPENDIX: DRAWINGS AND PHOTOS......................................................................................................

3 Table 4.LIST OF TABLES Table 3.2 Table 4.7 Specification of a standard gear Make or Buy Chart Cost Of a Normal Sausage Making Industry in Small Scale Equipment Cost Market Survey/ Analysis Cost Evaluation for the Fabrication of Sausage Casing Making Machine Cost Structure of Indirect Material Used in Model Cost Structure of Direct Labour Used in Model Cost Structure of Manufacturing Overhead 8 .5 Table 4.10 Table 4.1 Table 4.4 Table 4.6 Table 4.3.1 Table 3.

LIST OF NOTATION AND ABBREVIATION b BMD Cs Cv FBD Fex Ft H m M N Pd SFD T Ws p Face width Bending moment diagram Service factor Velocity factor Free body diagram External force Tangential force Horizontal Force Module Maximum moment rpm Design power Shear force diagram Maximum toque Static load Lewis form factor Design shear stress d 9 .

................................LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2..3 Cleaning and measuring intestine casing... Reference to a cooked meat product stuffed in a goat stomach like a sausage was known in Babylon and described as a recipe in the world’s oldest cooking book 3...1 History It is often assumed that sausages were invented by the Sumerians in the region that is Iraq today.750 years ago (Yale Babylonian collection....23 Figure 2.....5 Machine for automatic cleaning of animal intestine............ around 4000 BC.. 27 Figure 2..............................30 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1...............................27 Figure 2.....2 Intestine trimming and splitting machine................. USA)..................................... New Haven Connecticut..............................4 Stripping machine......1 The intestinal wall with different layers.......29 Figure 2.......... 10 .

This should not be confused with collagen casings. For this reason natural casings are the only casings that can be used in organic sausage production. boiling. which consists of goat and lamb meat. Epicharmus (ca. Natural casings are traditional products that have been used in the production of meat specialties for centuries and have remained virtually unchanged in function. 550 BC . are edible and bear a close resemblance to the original intestine after processing. In addition. Production Natural sausage casings are made from the sub-mucosa. sheep. Sausage fillings are mostly minced or comminute meat mixes held together by the casings during further processing steps such as smoking. was first mentioned in 589 BC. cattle and sometimes horses. poem 25). which are artificially processed from collagen derived from the skins of cattle. Natural casings are derived from the intestinal tract of farmed animals. frying or roasting. The outer fat and the inner mucosa lining (slime) are removed during processing. A large variety of sausage is produced world-wide using intestines of pigs. Natural casings are obtained from animal intestines derived from slaughtering. 460 BC) wrote a comedy entitled The Sausage. Casings Casings are soft cylindrical containers used to contain sausage goats. collagen or synthetic materials. Salt and water are all that is used. appearance and composition. Casings can be of natural origin or artificial. The Greek poet Homer mentioned a kind of blood sausage in his Odyssey (book 20. and that is the way they have been cleaned and preserved for thousands of years. a layer of the intestine that consists mainly of naturally occurring collagen. Although the intestines have been flushed. casings also protect products during storage. Manufactured artificial casings are made of cellulose. 11 .The Chinese sausage làcháng. Numerous books report that sausages were already popular among the ancient Greeks and Romans.

The osmotic quality of Natural Casings permits superb cooking. Natural Casings have excellent characteristics of elasticity and tensile strength. • The term "Natural" is. more recently. even flavour throughout. one of the most powerful words influencing consumers' buying decisions. giving the sausage a rich. Natural casings are the best possible growing fields for the noble molds which properly add natural seasoning and flavour to salamis and sausages. Natural casings unique natural curves and sheen. • • • Sausage in Natural Casings stays tender and juicy. and is so highly demanded by today's knowledgeable consumers. with rounded ends where the sausage is linked giving the sausage an eye appeal. to allow for high efficiency production and expansion during filling. allowing smoking and cooking flavours to permeate the casing and infuse the meat. 12 . There are chances of break during sausage cleaning process.scraped and cleaned by hand for centuries. machinery has been used for large scale production. and continues to be. Advantages of natural casing Natural casings breathe. • Natural Casing Sausage has that special "snap" and tender bite that's like no other man-made product. Length of casing also non uniform in different animal. • • Natural Casings readily permit deep smoke penetration. Disadvantage of natural casing • • • Shape and size of casing are non uniform.

They also are shirred for easier use and can be treated with dye to make "red hot". Cellulose fibres are combined with wood pulp to make large diameter fibrous casings for bologna. it is similar to bread dough prior to final production. They can be flat or shirred. dried and shirred into short sticks up to 41 cm long that contain as much as 50m of casing. production speeds and labour requirements of natural casing sausages. Cellulose. The casing is peeled off after cooking. It can also be derived from poultry and fish. is similarly processed into a paste and extruded into clear. resulting in "skinless" franks. and a coating is formed by treating the outside with a calcium solution to set the coating. as a raw material.• Limited availability of raw material for casing. or even plastic and may not be edible. Artificial casings Artificial casings are made of collagen. Artificial casings from animal collagen can be edible. This type is also permeable to smoke and water vapour. tough casings for making wieners and franks. depending on application. Usually the cost to produce sausages in collagen is significantly lower than making sausages in gut because of higher production speeds and lower labour requirements. usually from cotton linters. In a newer process. and can be pre-treated with smoke. 13 . a form of dough is coextruded with the meat blend. cotto salami. although newer machine has enabled much improvement in the uniformity of the product. caramel colour. and the bones and tendons. smoked ham and other products sliced for sandwiches. It is then extruded through a die to the desired diameter. or other surface treatments. The collagen for artificial casings is processed extensively and. They have been made for more than 50 years and their share of the market has been increasing. cellulose. depending on the origin of the raw material. Collagen Collagen casings are mainly produced from the collagen in beef or pig hides.

to allow for high efficiency production and expansion during filling • Natural Casing Sausage has that special "snap" and tender bite that's like no other man-made product. resulting in some loss when the casing is peeled. • The term "Natural" is. and continues to be. They also can be flat or shirred. smoke and water do not pass through the casing. providing better shelf-life and maintaining a juicier. the endothermic quality of Natural Casings means that the casing draws heat from the sausage and cools it below the temperature of surrounding air. one of the most powerful words influencing consumers' buying decisions. but higher overall yield due to better moisture control. and is so highly demanded by today's knowledgeable consumers • • • Sausage in Natural Casings stays tender and juicy The osmotic quality of Natural Casings permits superb cooking Natural casings are the best possible growing fields for the noble molds which properly add natural seasoning and flavour to salamis and sausages. The inner surface can be laminated or co-extruded with a polymer with an affinity for meat protein causing the meat to stick to the film. so plastic is used for non-smoked products where high yields are expected. For Retailers. Special Qualities of Natural Casings Natural Casings are the sausage makers' best choice because: • • Natural Casings readily permit deep smoke penetration Natural Casings have excellent characteristics of elasticity and tensile strength. 14 . For Sausage Makers. these characteristics yield high quality products that are uniform in flavour. Generally.Plastic Casings Plastic casings are extruded like most other plastic products.

It also allows the wonderful scent of fine sausage to enhance appetite appeal. Coarseness of the grind 15 . cooking and humidity must be carefully controlled. they have many of the same characteristics common to all types of collagen. particularly the unique characteristic of variable permeability. Equipment used for filling 2. or over an open flame on the barbecue grill. Better casing suppliers and the sausage manufacturer will determine the specifications required based on the sausage manufacturer's purposes. under a broiler. whether cooking in a skillet. Since small intestines are collagen in nature. For Consumers. Moisture and heat make casings more porous and tend to soften them. Before studying the numerous kinds of Natural Casings. it's important to understand that casings can vary in quality.fresher appearance. a largely collagen layer of the intestine. Natural Casings are hardened and rendered less permeable through drying and smoking processes. the osmotic quality allows an intermingling of flavours inside and outside the sausage while sizzling in the skillet. which explains why smoking. These variables include : 1. The fat and the inner mucosa lining are removed. Type(s) of sausage being manufactured 3. Other less well known characteristics of Natural casings are: • • • • Superior tensile strength enables maximum yields Sausage in Natural Casings has a well-filled appearance Natural Casing Sausages have a fine appearance at link ends A variety of product shapes contribute to an inviting appearance. and give sausage in Natural Casings strong display appeal Natural Casings: Natural Casings are made from the sub-mucosa.

    To use roller feed mechanism on designing the machine To design. Sausages are being consumed at large scale in city area. The casing of the sausage. The demand is increasing since few years back. To compare the sausage having goat casings with others available in the market.3 Rationale Nepal is a country where agricultural and livestock animal living has been practiced from the ages. 1. After animal being slaughtered. fabricate and test the performance of the machine designed. as few of consumer recognises is one of the by-product of animal.1. Animals are slaughtered for feeding purposes. To estimate the cost of materials and fabrication. The intestinal tract not often called as healthy source are also consumed.2 Objectives Main objective To design a simple mechanical equipment for the production of natural sausage casings from the small intestine of goat and to study its feasibility in small-scale industry Specific objectives  To analyze the field survey on the demand for sausage casing and sausage at present. the small intestine of animal 16 .  To experiment small intestine of goat as a sausage casing in production of sausage.

17 . complex and spacious so small-scale manufacturer can’t afford the machine and its maintenance comprising the chemical storage required for the further storage. It consists of simple mechanism known as roller feed mechanism consisting of rollers and gears along with handles. With this fact in mind we get motivated to produce casing from animal using some engineering principle. Apart from that. The cost of sausage and the production cost will also reduce with the introduction of casing machine at local level. many books were consulted to acquire different design related knowledge for material selection and component design. However. The casing at high cost is imported mostly from European country. The raw materials available in Nepal could not meet the demand of high scale sausage industries since animal slaughtering is not widely practiced in Nepal as a business perspectives. The machines bought from abroad are costly. So we aimed for the small scale sausage making machine which is of moderate cost and small in size. here in our context. 1. Information related with different type of casing machines’ source was obtained from different sites. The small local industries have been importing casings from foreign or neighbouring countries like India.4 Methodology The methodology involved for the design of sausage casing machine and fabrication of prototype are given below in a chronological order: a) Literature review based on taken for its processing to healthy casing to make it preferable for sausage production in foreign country. various booklets available As this project has never done in Nepal. the practice is not yet in used. the study was mostly based on internet than other source. The casing requirement for large scale is hard to fulfil because it is manual and hence production rate is low and intestine is also not sufficiently available in the market. China and other European countries at the cost of high price.

ease of fabrication and similar other factor such as functionality. various booklets available. The processes thus were mainly based on the availability and ease of fabrication. d) Design finalization Our design involved in the assumption of removal of internal slime and outer serosa layer leaving only edible part of intestine. they helped us to find the most appropriate way to complete our project. We finalized our designs on the sole basis of cost. teachers and seniors and found out appropriate solution for different problems. Tools and equipments needed were readily available in the Balaju Yantra Shala (P) Ltd. interaction with teachers and seniors was so great to us in design in easy way. material availability. internet. It was very useful to discuss our project with our supervisor. This design was prepared on the basis of literature review.e. Detailed study about the project from different source i. They give us proper guideline and direction to implement our project in more precise manner. tool equipments and processes After the design finalization required materials tool equipments and processes required for each component were determined. All in all. The materials required mainly consisted of mild steel for rollers. Some of the components were used directly withdrawn from market. e) Determination of necessary materials. 18 . making a tentative design of project and also estimating cost related to project along with the preparation of drawing of casing machine.b) Discussion with teachers and seniors associated with similar field. c) Preliminary design Our preliminary design included various alternative designs and sketches for each component system. frame and handle and standard gears of desired gear ratio.

It was taken into our machine. The handle was machined in milling machine. The fabrication was started with the turning of smooth rollers in the lathe machine. j) Report preparation k) Final presentation l) Project submission 1. thus it is highly recommended to use stainless steel but because of cost factor we electroplated four rollers with Nickel plating and remaining parts are silver sprayed for good aesthetic look. tools.5 Expected outcome  A thin transparent sub-mucosa layer from the small intestine of goat 19 . The quality was compared with the local sausage produced.. fabrication of sausage casing machine was initiated in the Balaju Yantra Shala (P) Ltd. rolled with the required force. equipments process involved in the fabrication of the casing machine we started the collection of required materials which include mainly standard gear of designed gear ratio. All other components were mounted on a chronological order. i) Testing of the machine Thus fabricated machine was tested. tooth was obtained with the milling machine. g) Fabrication of machine After the collection of the required materials. h) Electroplating of machine Since the machine we designed is for fulfilling the purpose of sausage production which should be edible.f) Collection of materials After listing out the necessary materials. The casing output from our machine was taken to sausage manufacturer and sausage was produced. Goat intestine was bought from nearby slaughter shop.

6 Scopes  Small scale sausage production  Domestic purpose  For further improvement for automation CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW The proper manufacturing of sausage casings from animal intestines is a topic of research in the world as there is not yet any efficient method developed. Smooth output  Easy to operate  Easy to handle  Durable  Able to use at time of need  Easy to store  Ergonomic design  Quick easy access in cleaning 1. natural casings can easily be processed from intestines derived from local slaughter. If natural casings can be produced locally. are often wasted. Many people in the livestock and meat sector are unaware that processing of intestines into natural casings for sausage production is relatively simple and can be a profitable business. Intestines. if not used for human food. The availability of locally produced natural casings will considerably facilitate rural 20 . this may help to reduce overall production costs. Even in remote or rural settings with no access to commercial casing suppliers.

for homemade sausage. These ways define the type of process involved. we have devised a casing cleaning machine which fulfils the minimum requirement of sausage casing requirement. The natural sausage casing is regarded as the most natural way of “packaging” a sausage. casings are produced manually. is greater than that of the force of adhesion. They will be shortly discussed. The water must be sprayed during the process to smoothen the contact of roller with the intestines. Due to the same reason there have been a lot of obstacles and hindrances during our course of action. The earliest and the most primitive is the one which applies force by putting the intestines between two rollers. For commercial purpose the sausage producers are compelled to import sausage casings since sausage are highly demanding meat stuffs. The outer layer and the remaining strings can be removed by using a roller with blades. A manual cleaning can be done to separate the different layers of the intestine but is a very cumbersome process. However. The machines employed to manufacture the casings are mainly using the two types of forces. In spite of these difficulties. Still the intestine is not being used for casing purpose. In such a scenario our work here at the Pulchowk Campus seems to be a pioneer activity in the field.meat processing. Their main job is to apply squeezing force on the intestine such that the internal mucosa layer and the outer layers get loosened. The remaining is the fine and strong mucosa layer. This method consumes a lot of 21 . a) The main theory behind the design of sausage casing manufacturing machine is that the force of cohesion between the molecules of an intestine or in most natural objects. the molecules of different layers get detached while those of same molecules remain in contact thus remaining is a good or required layer of intestine. For 2000 years. They also do the job of squeezing the mucosa layer towards the rear of the intestine. proper advice and training on casing preparation is essential. So when an external force is applied on the intestine. The natural sausage casing is a by-product of every slaughter. However. The sausage casings making machine are not yet installed commercially. in our case. There are mainly two sets of rollers. the gut of slaughtered animals has been used as a casing for meat foods. This external force can be applied in a number of ways.

Here the intestine is drawn through an extraction device comprising a vibrating member and a reaction surface whereby the intestine is periodically compressed between the vibrating member and the reaction surface to release the mucosal lining towards the rear end of the intestine.water during the manufacture. the mucosal lining is extracted from the intestine by drawing the intestine past one or more vibrating heads which periodically compress the intestines against a reaction surface where the mucosal lining is extruded towards the rear of the intestines. The intestine is drawn through a plurality of such extraction devices arranged along a path of movement of the intestine. Many high-tech equipments have been in used for mechanical production of sausage casing in foreign land. 22 . b) In the other ‘better’ method. The vibrating members of the respective devices may operate at different vibration frequencies or at different contact pressures with the intestine. A group of intestines are attached to a carrier to draw the group of intestines through heated liquid bath and then through at least one extraction device comprising one vibrating member for loosening the mucosal layer and to extrude it towards the rear. The reaction surface is made up of rubber or some other resilient material. with a waste water problem and may lead to wear and tear of the intestinal layers due to a large force involved. but even simple machine is not in use for sausage casing production here in Nepal. The process results in significantly reduced water consumption during processing and a higher quality of the end product.

These rollers thus draw the mucosa layer towards the rear of the intestine and loosen the outer muscular layer which can be removed later on. As the set of rollers at the backward position are in relatively less speed than those at the front. the small 23 . The intestinal content is removed manually. The optimal pressure required for the operation will be determined by the worker by his experience using the device in the long run. we prefer calling this a ‘toothpaste action. The action of these rollers is like squeezing a toothpaste tube drawing it backwards while keeping the hand in constant position. The intestine undergoes a substantial processing to bring it into a state suitable for use. In these two sets of rollers. For this purpose. The processing of natural casings must be started as soon as possible after slaughter. sub-mucosa membrane. The intestine mainly contains four layers viz.Figure 2. For ease of processing it is recommended to start the operation while the intestines are still warm. The force applied to the intestine is done by pressing with the hand.1 The intestinal wall with different layers The intestine of goat is the raw material for our machine. The small intestines are detached from adhering mesenteric (connective and fatty) tissue. one of each set is geared because without which the intestine may not be pulled and the force applied may not be enough to break the force of contact between the layers of the intestine. Mucosa membrane. The empty casings are flushed with water and subsequently de-slimed by using either manual or electrically operated casing-cleaning machines. one of which is driven by the hand by using a handle while the other pinion is driven by this gear. muscular layer and serosa membrane respectively from inside. they have the job of squeezing the internal mess of mucosa backwards. as bacterial spoilage of the intestines tissues sets in rapidly. The roller at the front has the job of crushing the intestine such that the internal mucosa layer gets detached from the sub-mucosa layer. In the casing manufacturing using our machine the intestine passes through two set of rollers. The sub-mucosa membrane is the required layer for the casings.. The two rollers are connected by two gears. The other job of this set of rollers is to draw the intestine front.

Parts of the outside layers “serous” membrane are automatically removed when detaching the small intestine from the mesenteric tissue. Manure stripping: the liquid and the manure remaining within the intestine is removed manually or by the manure stripper. “Slime” is the internal layer of the intestine. In the slaughtered animal this membrane disintegrates rapidly and can easily be removed. the internal “mucous” membrane can be loosened and removed. Warm water spray will smooth the contact of rollers with the intestine. Also prevent the tearing of the 24 . This process can be classified into the following steps as pulling. basically the internal “mucosa” membrane. Because of its structure it is commonly known as “slime”. The rest of the outside layer and the intermediate “muscular” layer will be removed during the casing de-sliming and cleaning operation. and pulling the intestine through in its full length between spoon and finger. With the spoon firmly pressed onto the intestine. The removal of the “slime” can also be done manually by using a tablespoon or a specially shaped piece of wood. The loosened tissues inside the casing are pressed out manually and the remainder rinsed off with water. Pulling: The inner layer of intestine that is attached with mesentery fats is removed with the hand or a puller. The casing after this process is soaked into the salt water. The casing is thus a sub-mucosa layer of small intestine. Our design focuses on this step of the casing manufacturing as it deals with the quality of the casing. Crushing and mucosa stripping: The purpose of crushing is to remove the outer (muscular and serosa) layer. manure stripping. Without this process casing is not usable and it’s very difficult to do this manually. this will remove the mesentery fat from the intestine. In our project this may be done by using main machine but applying a very less pressure.intestines are passed through a set of rollers to loosen the tissue layers and to remove the “slime”. crushing and mucosa stripping and finally finishing roller. In our project all this job is done by hand or manual process. It can be extracted mechanically as well.

usually packed in hanks (91. This connective tissue membrane forms the edible casing. preferably in the chillers. The remaining strong-elastic tissue is a layer composed mainly of connective tissues “sub-mucous membrane”.material. dry salted and stored in a cool place. flushed with salted water. The sheep casings are not reversed (turned inside out) during their processing. The final layer remaining is submucosa layer. In our machine there is no such provision for such a process due to cost. smooth stainless). time and various reasons. The final output now can be used for the sausage stuffing or can be store for future use. It contains several size of roller (rubber fluted. At the end the mucosa layer will be separated from the intestine while other layers get loosened. stripped for water removal. After the process the casing is soaked into the cold (10-120C) water or ice cold water. preferably under storage temperatures not exceeding +15 0c. The average length of the small intestine from sheep is 17 to 24 meters depending on the size of the animal. the casings are inflated for grading.4m or 100 yards) and graded according to their diameter and colour coded as follows: Casing Diameter 28/ + mm 26/28 mm 24/26 mm 22/24 mm 20/22 mm 18/20 mm 16/18 mm 14/16 mm Color Coding green/white green red/white red blue/white blue yellow 25 yellow/white . In this form they can be stored for three months. For completion of the processing. By no means should natural casings be frozen. Finishing: The casing from the mucosa stripper is fed into the finishing machine during the standard manufacturing.The scrapping roller at the entrance is required warm water (41420C) spray. The purpose of this machine is to remove all strings and the remaining mucosa. as they would lose their elasticity and firmness. Sheep and goat casings for the international casing trade are produced in largely mechanized operations. At the exit the puller is provided.

The casings are prepared for the removal of manure. state-ofthe-art machinery. As the intrinsic value of the raw material represents a large part of the finished casing product. 26 . in particular lactic acid (2% to the water). is accomplished by machine crushing under close "hands-on/eyes-on" scrutiny. In the slaughterhouse. as their collagen fibres absorb water. This treatment removes part of the salt and the casing walls become more both a precise science and an elaborate process. and the various parts of the intestinal tract are separated. and maximum sanitation and quality control procedures.most often done in large slaughtering facilities . This removal.The natural casings are soaked in water before filling the sausage mix. threads and animal case recovery . facilitated in a series of both hot and cold water soaks. ( Handling Casings Today. also assists in this process. every inch of tract needs to be utilized. the viscera of each animal are removed. Addition of organic acids.sausage-casings. mucosa (raw material for the anticoagulant "heparin") and any undesirable elements such as fat. It requires high-level expertise. This separation of parts is instrumental in creating a variety of products ranging all the way from pig chitterlings to sheep appendixes for pharmaceutical products.

The fully cleaned casings are placed in a saturated salt environment to prepare for further processing. The casings are then sorted into various grades and diameters. The selection process is dictated by such factors as: type of Figure 2. A cooperating pair of primary feeding rollers is mounted on the lowermost shafts. A pair of secondary rollers being similar to primary feeding rollers 27 .ltd. rollers being spaced at a predetermined distance apart and having longitudinally corrugated circumferential pyramidal teeth. a vertical series of shafts mounted in fixed bearing and a companion vertical series of shafts mounted in movable bearings.3 Cleaning and measuring intestine casing (Source: chongqing tianshi animal by-product co. Figure 2.htm webmaster@imstexas.htm Stripping machine Semi-automatic or automatic machine are used for cleaning and preparing intestines for sausage casing. and criteria set by the casing processor and ultimately the sausage producers.. In automatic machine.2 Intestine trimming and splitting machine (Source:Intestine Processing Equipment.foto. The machine is motor driven.

but being normally located closer together than primary feeding rollers. Krob invented machine US Patent) The process use in the stripping machine is very complicated as it is designed for large scale purpose with huge budget. A pair of rotary cutting elements mounted on the shafts next to the secondary feeding rollers. Thus the simplified version of the machine is designed as an experiment. In addition. For simultaneously rotating all of feeding rollers are rotated in one direction and at the same speed and stripping and cutting elements are simultaneously rotated in opposite direction and at greater peripheral speed than that of feeding rollers. A pair of final feeding rollers mounted on the uppermost shafts means for yieldable holding is feeding rollers and stripping and cutting rolls are normally closed working relation to each other. 28 . goat casing is not found to be used for casing so far. cutting elements having longitudinally extending circumferential cutting blades and being spaced normally a predetermined distance apart. (Source: Irving William Ross and Joshep S. The process is under the control of the operator. The test on intestine of goat for casing will be done through our machine.

to deflet intesline laterally of the second unit for passage there through in the opposite direction.4 Stripping machine Cleaning machine In the machine for clearing the intestline of different animals.said units including rotatable cleaning members.Figure 2. and a baffle plate adjustably mounted between the two units and operable in one position there of guide intestines in a direct path from the first unit for passage through the second units in one direction and. the rotatble member for the second unit 29 . units including rotatable cleaning members. a device for feeding intestines. first and second units for successively esertinga clearing action upon intestlines passing there rhough .in second position .

and in opposite to the intestines during movement of the latter in opposite direction. a shaft positioned behind plate – like member eccentrices on shaft cooperating with plate like member for adjustingthe latter with respect to rotatable member. during direct passage of the latter through the second unit. and a device for feeding intestine to cleaning units feeding device including a rotatable member. (Source: A machine invented by C.the eccentriccoating with the medial portion of plate –like member having a portion there of cut away to accommodate limited yielding movement of the medial portion of the plate –like member in one angular pos ition of the shaft and the eccentrics carried thereby.moving in same direction with the intestine . In the machine for clearing units for exerting a cleaning action upon the intestines.5 Machine for automatic cleaning of animal intestine 30 .H.the portion of th intestine deflected by baffle plate depending there from in the form of a loop .STRIDH US Patent) Figure 2.and means for subjecting the loop portion to further clearing treatment.

phosphate (0.3%). tieing. twisting Cooking by steam or hot water Coolin g CHAPTER THREE Packagi ng Figure 2. one third of water Continuation of chopping Mixing of binder and filer (2-3%).3%). chopping aid (0.6-2. example-egg protein.2). OPERATION TESTING 31 . soya protein etc rest of water Finish chopping to a creamy and smooth batter Small intestine of goat Natural casing output from fabricated machine Filling with the help of sausage stuffer Linking.nitrite (80-100 ppm.6 Process diagram for sausageAND manufacturing from natural casings DESIGN.Meat Mincing (2-3 mm) by meat mincer Add in bowl chopper and chopping for few rounds Mixing of salt (1.

Thus a model of design is fabricated. Simplicity Simplicity is a measure applying simple mechanism to the current problem. There will be a high interaction between product and the consumers. These aspects include ease of use. durability and simplicity. Cost Cost shouldn’t be the only reason for selecting a design but it definitely is a major factor. Use of simple roller mechanism reduces the cost of highly automated blade mechanism. The action makes it more durable and prevents from getting corroded. Durability The durability of machine is also important part of design.1 Design Matrix In order to make design successful for real application a design matrix is created that measure various aspects of our designs. While all the designs cost a fair amount design seems especially inefficient. Manual pressure is applied to the adjustable pressing element after loading the machine with the input material 32 . cost. Consumers are directly affected by the quality of product produced from the device. Cost is dependent to size of machine. Adjustable pressing element provides desirable force to remove slime and outer serosa layer. Simple arrangement of rollers with gear mechanism simplifies the design.3. Ease of use Ease of use is the most important aspect of our design. Design of different parts consists of purchasing raw materials and making the device with optimum cost. The material used is mild steel. Finally electroplating is done on the rollers with nickel and silver spray is done on the frame and other parts.

3.i. handle dimension for pressing.1 Specification of standard gear S.N. These measurements ate done with some assumption such as length or roller and diameter of rollers. goat intestine.3. With the handle. Pinion Outside diameter(do) Inside diameter(di) Pitch diameter(dp ) Number of teeth (zp) Module(m) Gear ratio Involute system 36 14 32 28 2 1.2 SPECIFICATION All the specification is calculated geometrically.56 Full depth 200 33 . and outer frame. Element Gear Outside diameter(Do) Inside diameter(Di) Pitch diameter(Dpg) Number of teeth (zg) Module(m) Dimension in mm 56 17 52 28 2 2. 3. 1.e. motion is given to the pinion and hence rotates the tooth roller.

Dedendum=1. The dynamic and static force developed in the gear was calculated. For gear design For the pulling of intestine from the second roller the speed of second roller should be higher than that of first one. Mahadevan. tangential and radial force appeared on gear was calculated. Wear load and the limiting force that tear the teeth of roller were calculated. Accordingly.571m Outside diameter=z+2 Approximate fillet radius=0. pg.183) 3. Design data hand book for mechanical engineers 3rd edition.157m Min.157m Thickness of tooth=1.56. 34 . Modulus of standard gear is found to be 2. The force analysis on the shaft of tooth roller was calculated.157m Min.209m (Source: K.Properties of involute teeth Addendum=1m Min.3 DESIGN CALCULATION As per the requirement of the gear ratio to strip the inner mucosa layer the standard gear from the market was used. Total depth=2. Clearance=0. To get smooth and continuous stripping of inner slime the gear ratio preferred is 1.

226m m/s Dg=56mm dp=36mm Ng=154rpm Np=240rpm (considered value of automatic machine) Dp/Dg=Ng/Np=Zp/Zg Ft=power transmitting capacity of gear/velocity Force needed to strip inner slime and tear outer serosa layer was determined by measuring the mass required to remove slime with the help of spring balance which is found to be 6 kg.Here. Zg=28 Zp=18 Pitch diameter. With the assumed distance for handle i. d=mz Velocity.e 50mm. P=2 NT/60 = 2X X240X3/60=75W 35 . T=F X d=6 X 10 X 0.05= 3Nm Power requirement. torque required was calculated as: Torque requirement. V= DpNp/60 mm/s = XmX18X240/60= XmX18X240/60X10 3 =0.

25 (for light shock type of load.05+0.154-0.154-0.103=15.05+v) =3. m=0.05/ (3. DP=mXzp=2X18=36mm Dg=mXzg=2X26=56mm 36 .98 We use.103 Yg=0. Cv=3. Design Data Handbook) =146X 0.226*m) Ft= p X ) CvXmXb (Source: Mahadevan. Design Data Hanbook) Where.226m) =416/m Solving for m.038 ( Velocity factor.05/(3. Pd=PXCs Cs=1.912/28=0.154-0. design data hand book ) =75X1. for 8 to 10 hrs.912/18=0.25 =93.121 p = g=146MN/mm2 MS at FOS=1 (Mahadevan.75W Ft=Pd/V=416/m Lewis form factor (20 Involute)Yp=0.154-0.05/(3. m=2 thus we verify.912/Zg =0.038X10mXmX3. Manadevan.912/Zp =0.05+0.Design power. per day service. Ft=Driving force or tangential load at pitch line ( p =Lewis form factor Cv=velocity factor m=module b=face width = X15.

irregularities in tooth profile and deflection of teeth under load.143 37 .452m/s Dynamic load calculation The dynamic loads are due to inaccuracies of tooth spacing. WD=WT+WI (Source: Khurmi. WS= eX X b m Xy (Source: Khurmi.V=0. Machine Component Design) WD=Total dynamic load in N WT=Steady load due to transmitted torque in N WI=Increment load due to dynamic load in N =WT+{21V(bXc+WT)}/(21V+ V=pitch line velocity b=face width of gear C=dynamic factor in N/mm=444N/mm for MS C40 (As per Design Data Hand Book) =207+{21X0.452(20X444+207)}/{21X0.542 =207+95 =302N T ) Static load calculation The static load is obtained by Lewis formula by substituting flexural endurance limit e. Machine Component Design) =380X20X =6828N X2X0.

52 N Ww is the limiting force beyond which the teeth of gear start to wear. Wt=2T/d=187.22X0.65 =507. Wr=Ft tanα=68N WR WN WR=Radial load WN=Normal load WT=Tangential load 38 .5N Radial force acting on the tooth. (Source: Mahadevan. Wear load calculation The maximum load that gear can carry without premature wear depends upon the radii of curvature of tooth profile and on the elasticity and fatigue limits of the material. Design Data Hanbook) Two types of load act on spur gear: radial load and tangential load Forces acting in a gear Tangential force. thus it is a safe design.Since Fen>1.25Fd. The limiting load is obtained as: Ww = DpXbXQXk Q=ratio factor=2Zg/(Zg+Zp) K= load stress factor in N/mm2 =32X20X1.

The tooth portion is of 80mm length enough to pass through one intestine. The roller shaft is the solid cylinder. The small length is preferred to reduce cost.5 39 . Vertical force consideration during unloading 240 30 160 23 17.WT Figure 3. The shaft is made of mild steel C40 material and nickel electroplated.1 Reaction force on gear teeth Shaft force analysis Shaft design Shaft is designed on the basis of strength.

5N SF 24N 32N 2N BMD 2. we get Rx=-24N=24N Ry=221. SFD and BMD of roller shaft during unloading Forces acting in a gear Tangential force.16Nm 4.5N Radial force acting on the tooth.4Nm 0.4Nm at the support bearing y.5N Ry=221.041Nm m Figure 3.Rx=24N FB D 187. Fr=Ft tanα=68N Shaft weight=8N Handle weight=2N Calculating reaction force taking moment about y.2 FBD. Ft=2T/d=187.5N 2N Ws=8N 187. Horizontal force consideration Y( N) 240 160 40 30 23 .4N Maximum bending moment is calculated to be4.

788N Ry=77.78N BMD 1.78N FBD Ry=77.X( mm) Rx=9. Vertical force analysis during loading 41 .3 FBD.78N Maximum bending moment=1.56Nm Figure 3. Thus reaction force is calculated.56Nm at the support bearing y. SFD and BMD of roller shaft during unloading Radial force of gear acts horizontally to the shaft. and shear force and bending moment is plotted in SFD and BMD Rx=9.78N 68N SF D 68N 9.

the two external forces to be applied on the shaft is obtained practically.e. As mentioned earlier. The handle force is the force that must overcome the torque required to rotate the gear 240 30 80 80 23 17.For the vertical force analysis on the roller shaft. equal to 60N. The mass multiplied by gravity thus is obtained as pressing force i. pressing force required to remove slime is obtained by spring balance which gives mass.5 42 .

5N M=3Nm Fex= 60N SFD 23 N 37N 245N Ry=90.5N 60N 127. Do = [((16/ M=4. 43 .05Nm Using maximum bending moment for shaft design we have.05Nm T=3Nm K=0 for solid shaft d d )) X ( 2 +(Ct XT)2})X1/(1-k4)}]1/3 (Design Data Handbook) =110MN/mm2 for MS with FOS=1.Rx=23N FBD 187.4 EBD. Rx=23N Ry=90.5N Maximum bending moment was calculated to be 4. SFD and BMD of shaft during loading The reaction forces were calculated.05Nm 1.5N 60N 4. Ct=1 (Design Data Handbook) . Weight for shaft and handle for calculation was neglected. Thus we get.12Nm BM D 1.84Nm Figure 3.

3. The optimum dimensions of pressing element were considered for the prototype based on the external frame and the distance of roller as per the centre distance between gears. Handle Required torque for smooth operation is calculated to be 3Nm. Force required to transmit the motion to the gear is 60N.4 Components Smooth rollers There are two smooth rollers.9mm Hence.Do=6. The external frame of the device was assumed for the model. Each roller is in close contact with the tooth roller. Smooth rollers 44 Tooth rollers . we take 12mm diameter of shaft for safe design. The function of smooth roller is to loosen the layers of intestine. T=F X d d=50 mm For smooth and easy operation the length of handle can be increased.

45 . The gear is mounted at the end of shaft of first roller. The element itself is mounted on the external frame through the bearing. The smooth rollers and the toothed rollers pressed the intestine in between to remove the inner mucosa and outer serosa and muscular layer. The position of the handle is adjustable. The purpose of the tooth roller is to tear out the outer serosa layer of the intestine.Toothed rollers It is the rotating part of device. The two gears are meshed to transmit motion to both the shaft. Gear and Pinion The gear and pinion mechanism is used to deliver motion to the rollers. The pinion is mounted at the end of second shaft. The manual power is given to the pinion through the handle. Pressing element The two smooth rollers are mounted on the pressing element. The external force is given to its handle by hand. It gets its motion from the gears mounted at the end of the shaft. The required force to produce casing from intestine is adjusted through this element. There are two toothed rollers.

pressing elements and the gear are mounted on the casing. rollers. The shaft. 46 . The force is applied on the handle manually.Handle The handle is mounted at the end of the tooth roller shaft. Handle Frame Frame The external frame holds the overall weight of the machine. The force is transmitted to the gears that drive both rollers.

and lathe work to be done faster than with a harder material with a density of it resulted in our final product. Thus.3. Weight of material. The suitable thickness of the materials and outer dimensions were taken so that they could be easily drilled and other operations be performed. Workability of the materials. The square section is used for pressing handle and circular bar is used for handle to rotate gear. The circular bar is used for roller. The readymade gears were selected for cheapness.5 Material Selection The material used for sausage casing is mild steel Mild steel C40 was chosen for a number of reasons. Since it is affordable and easily accessible. Some of specific considerations taken in the material selection are discussed as follows: • Frame required stabled in structure and rigid in operation. Moreover. the design can be reproduced faster and more affordable than other materials. Fewer operations to be performed for final dimensions. milling. Withstand different load condition with factor of safety. the rectangular plate of mild steel was selected. tapping. Mild steel is also a very easily fabricated material that allows drilling. they should have minimum deflection and with suitable aesthetic point of view. 47 • • • • . Cost of material. • • • • • • Availability of the material in the local market in required dimensions and appropriate shapes. Material selection to fabricate sausage casing machine was done on the basis of the following consideration. First mild steel is one of the most affordable steel formulations and most readily available.

The suggested use of mild steel is for large forgings. The mild steel sheets could be easily cut and bent.1% to 0. The advantage with mild steel was that it was easily workable and provided reasonable strength. it reduces the weight of a device to a large extent. The material for the toothed rollers was electroplated by Nickel since the machine is used for food items the electroplating was dip rated rather than surface rated. The mild steel rods were easily turned into required shape and size and could easily be cut and drilled. Mild steel is one of the alloys of irons which contains about 0. Steel was chosen because these components were such a small portion of the design that weight would not be significantly affected. and some washers of the sausage casing machine are steel. cheap and strong that there were no other competitors. Ultimate tensile strength (σ) Ultimate Shear Strength (τ) 460MN/m2 294MN/m2 The nuts. shafts. bolts. The various uses of mild steel in the design are as follows: Mild steel shafts 48 . mild steel materials were also easily available and were affordable. Because of this weight characteristic of mild steel. axles. The steel components are readily available. Referring to the design data handbook.• Material such as MS rod and MS plate with appropriate dimension is used.25% carbon.

The design specification and their pictures are given in appendix. The cantilever shafts were supported on this body especially for supporting handle. Side framework These are side framework making framework of the machine giving strength. Rotating Handle The Rotating Handle is kept on the rear side of the machine on left hand side. In the framework the bigger and smaller gears are aligned with rotating handle fixed at rearmost end. The smooth rollers are kept in pressing handle. The rotating Handle is of L shaped on the rear side.6 Operation of the Device 49 . Handle The Handle was made of a mild steel are two in number serving different purpose. Pressing Handle The pressing handle kept in small tolerance in which gap the intestines are fed and kept in between the two smooth rollers.These are the main supporters for the functioning and working base on a ground level supporting entire framework. NB: The dimensions sizes can be seen on Appendix 3. The two sides are fixed with washers and Nuts.

2 Safety Precautions Our machine mainly has the job of separating the different layers of the intestine with minimum effort.3. The cost of which is also very high.6. The rollers further act on the raw material to squeeze the inner mucosa layer.6. This process is not necessary if the intestine is initially immersed on the hot water of 30-400c. • The pressure on the handle should be applied as recommended.1 Mechanism The sausage casing machine thus designed is the simple machine that uses simple roller mechanism to fulfil the purpose.e. The intestine with loosened layer comes out from the machine. 50 . It is to be remembered that the intestinal layers can be separated manually too. The outer serosa layer is removed by machine itself but should be removed with the hand if remains. During the process the hot water of 30-40 0c is sprayed to prevent the casings from getting torn. The filling process is carried out through stuffer machine. The lubrication of the meshing parts will prevent corrosion and bring about smoothness in operation. They loosen the layers of intestine. The raw material is first acted upon by the two rollers. The mechanism used is the simple one that can be suitable to small scale industry. The sausage is then ready to get filled with sausage ingredients. intestine. But our device here works as a facilitator. It is then kept on salt solution to protect from germs and any other damage caused due to environmental condition. Exceeding the limit may ruin the raw material i. The small intestine of the animal (goat) is fed into the machine. The product is washed with clean water. Then it passed on to second set of rollers. The large scale industry needs to use further modified mechanism. smooth and tooth. 3. The blade mechanism is largely preferred in such scale.

Make the intestine wet before operating the machine. Straighten the intestine as it may be tangled and twisted at several parts. 3. fats and other usable parts of meat.3Operation instructions Preparation before device operation • Separate the intestinal parts from the stomach. • The intestines to be used should be properly cleaned before operation.Exceeding or not meeting the standard may not produce the expected result. • • • • Clean the intestine by draining out the manure from it.• The device should be kept away from the reach of children as the gear parts are exposed and may lead into some accidents. however small. But here in manual operation it depends on the force applied. Operating the device • Apply pressure to the intestine by pressing the handle with the hand or with the spring. Place the intestine between two set of rollers and clamp the machine.6. • The device should exclusively be used for sausage casing manufacturing purpose. • The rpm on the rotating handle should be about 240 in automatic system. Other tasks such as crushing sugarcane may exceed the design limit. 51 . • Rotate the rollers with the help of rotating handle provided.

Usage for the preparation of sausage casings • • • The intestine is passed through the stages of sections 3. The machining can be done for the removal of sharp and pointed edges. The screws must be at their own place and tight. • It must be ensured that the base of the machine is properly clamped to the table. Remains of slime are the space for germs to grow. but are not healthy practice for casing.7 Maintenance and inspection • The operator must inspect the device before each use as prevention is better than cure. the set of rollers must be checked for smoothness. in some case are found to be removed manually with the help of a spoon.• Check for the loosening and separation of layers as it is the main task of the operation. then increase the pressure.3 The product intestine is with loosened layers. The layers except the sub-mucosa layer. If there is much tearing and breaking of the intestine. • The sub-mucosa layer is the required casing and can be readily used or stored with some salt. • • The gears and meshing parts must be properly lubricated. • • If the layers are found to not separate. 3. 52 .6. The rotation must have a definite rpm as provided.

At least once a year, the machine must be inspected by a technician of the related field.

3.8 Ergonomics Before operating the machine some practice is required to ensure that the product will be of the required quality. The operator after some practice will be able to know about the pressure to be given to the top handle. Similarly he will know about the rpm to be given to the rotating handle. The product should be kept far from the reach of the children. The sharp edges and burs should be removed to enhance the beauty and to decrease the risks involved. The covering of gear parts is also a one measure for the safety of the patient. The ball bearings can be used on the meshing parts to ensure comfort. For increasing the rate of production and to decrease the loss of effort, multiple number of intestines can be used at a time. Increasing the length of handle can be done to decrease the effort involved. The motors can be used to ensure the automation. The springs can be used to provide the required pressure to the intestine.

3.9 Physical and operational characteristics a. Performance Requirements The device must be able to crush off the serose layer and the muscular layer and squeeze out the mucosa layer. Use of warm water before machining assists in the operation of the device.

b. Safety The sharp edges should be removed on device to ensure the safety of the user as well as the raw material. The device according its design supports especially goat


intestine, while the intestine of pig is not recommended. The covering of gear parts would be essential. c. Accuracy and Reliability The accuracy is not perfect as much, but still it is comparable to the casings used in our market. The machine is reliable enough for the casing manufacturing purpose if not for other purposes. d. Life is Service Parts are made replaceable with a high factor of safety, increasing the service life indefinitely. The machine is able to withstand multiple numbers of intestines at a time. e. Shelf Life The storage of the machine will have no effect on its ability to perform provided that the machine is protected from rusting and corrosion. f. Operating Environment The device will be used in any environment such as in room, in corridor, bathroom, playground, etc. Similarly, the device doesn’t produce any amount significant amount of noise and hence can be used in any sensitive areas. g. Ergonomics The machine is able to withstand any amount of pressure and the rpm required for processing the intestine. h. Size The size can be made according to the requirement of the user but still our model can act as a prototype.

i. Materials

The materials used are able to withstand the pressure involved. The material used is mainly the mild steel electroplated with a coating of nickel-chromium due to cost reasons. But stainless steel is much preferred. j. Aesthetics, Appearance and Finish The appearance can be made to seem much safer by covering the gears and the roller parts with some cover. The finish is given to the device as much as practicable.

3.10 Fabrication The machine was fabricated in one workshop and electroplating and painting performed in other workshop in the valley. The design and drawing are explained and the workshop was visited regularly to guide the fabrication as required. After calculating cost of gear fabrication gear are brought from the hardware shop from Teku. The machine is fabricated in Balaju Yantra Shala (P) Ltd. Material used and make or buy chart. Table3.1 Make or buy chart. S.N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Part name Frame Toothed roller Smooth roller Gear Handle Circlips Nut screw Number 2 1 1 2 2 6 4 3 Material M.S M.S M.S M.S M.S M.S Cast Iron Cast Iron Make or Buy Make Make Make Buy Make Buy Buy Buy

Steps followed to fabricate the sausage casing machine: 1. Search of workshops. 2. Search of materials that are not available in the workshop.

3. Search of gears required in machine. 4. Regular supervision of fabrication of components. 5. Electroplating and painting for machine. 6. Final assembly of components.

Aesthetics To make the outlook and finishing of sausage sassing machine, following thing were done during and after fabrication. 1. Fabricate parts were smoothened and shiny by applying sand paper 2. The electroplating in rollers of machine 3. At last machine is painting with silver colour for its pleasant look and preventing rusting. 4. The various operations during the manufacture of the machine are as follows: Cutting The solid shafts of diameters 20 mm of mild steel were cut from 25 ft long bar to required shape and size using power cutting machine. Drilling For joining two shafts in the side frame the drilling actions were performed on the exterior framework of the machine. Drilling was done by using hand drill and pillar drill and holes were drilled at the required locations. Grinding It is used to grind the burrs and smooth the surface of shaft. It is also used to grind the simple error that were occurred during parts formation


Two gears. Similarly the rotating Handle is composed of various parts welded together to give rotating handles.Milling The milling action was performed for making toothed rollers. Electroplating As our machine was for the food item so the toothed rollers and smooth rollers were dip electroplated to avoid from rusting. Similarly the hole for fixing handle was drilled as per our design. Then the two toothed rollers were fixed on the hole of the compartment they were adjusted as our design. The milling action was performed on horizontal milling machine. Final Assembly The frame compartment was made strong and robust enough to with stand the maximum load as per our design. The Dip electroplating was done by setting the apparatus in the electroplating machine. The handle consisting of two smooth rollers were fixed as in the drilled holes with the cantilever shaft made for inserting in the 57 . There were six shafts initially faced on the process of making. The pressing handle are of parts and are welded together to give the complete part. Welding The welding was used particularly in making handles Pressing handles and rotating Handle. The Nickel-Chromium Plating was done to avoid from rusting as it is for the food processing application. The gears were inserted on the one side of both the compartment and the round clips were put to avoid the shifting during operation times. Facing Facings were used for making rollers especially on the start of making shafts. The milling action was performed over the surface area of the shaft that was designed where the material was to be inserted. one small and the other big along with two toothed rollers were fixed by circuit on each side.

Similarly the rotating Handle was fixed in the outer body of the compartment. nuts and bolts were checked once at final level for the assurance. The handle is rotated to and fro to check its flexibility.The wooden bench was put in the bottom to maintain the equal base level of the machine. The rotating handle was rotated and checked for convenience. The tolerance gap was checked between the toothed rollers and smooth rollers for smooth functioning of the machine. The two shafts in the bottom were nut and bolted to make the machine supporting from both sides . 58 .compartment . The gear was properly oiled and the fastening of circlips.

5 Assembly diagram 59 . 6. Part s name Pressing element Smooth roller Frame Tooth roller Gear Handle Materia l MS MS MS MS MS MS Quantity 6 1 2 2 2 2 1 5 Figure 3.1 2 3 4 Part lists S.N . 5. 4. 3. 1. 2.

The output was good and the output for the 1 m sausage casings time was approximately 40s. Ram Chandra Sapkota and the result found is the fine transparent casings as per the expectation.11 Testing Testing and the implications of the test results of the machine determine the degree of success of the development of machine.3. Instruments used: Sausage Casing Making Machine.5:1 ratio. The smooth fine transparent casings almost of 18-20 mm diameter were found which were further filled on Meat Mania on sausage making Industries. CHAPTER FOUR FINANCIAL AND MARKET ANALYSIS 60 . The intestines were fully soaked in hot water to avoid the breakage and smooth flow of the intestines. The intestine is fed on the small rpm rollers of higher gear side in which pressing action was done. The uniform forces should be applied to get smooth casings avoid from wreckage of intestines. The intestinal tract was bought from local slaughtering meat shop. Although there were some Problems It seems to be Satisfactory. The gear ratio was almost 1. The Working of machine was fully observed by the project supervisor Assistant Prof. the forces applied was that of ordinary people accounting the force of (5-10) N. Beakers. China Plates Procedure: The intestinal tract was bought from local slaughtering meat shop. the following tests were carried out with the instruments and procedure explained below. The testing was conducted on 25th October on our college. The testing was done 2-3 times to observe the difficulties on different day. In the case of this machine. the intestine passed through comparatively high rpm rollers in which pulling action was done to take out the inner sub mucosa layer.

A need for the national or international Company that could produce sausage casings in the local level has been rising.The casings are mainly brought of sheep and pork. It has been a source of junk food popular in every street to the restaurants. The natural casings can be made manually by hand but is too slow and tedious job which may take several hours. It consumes time and is not well finished as sheep and pork casings are extracted by the machines. Hence. the popularity of sausage has been rising. So by taking a look into the market behaviour and the demand of sausages industry a conclusion can be drawn that the production of sausage casing in domestic level will be highly appreciable in the Nepalese Market. Jestha. The domestic sausage industries are spending a lot of money for the casings to foreign countries like India. The cost of sausage casings are brought in the unit of hanks where 1 Hank is equal to 92 m . Moreover. The sausages are unknown to many people during the first launch by Nina and Hager Meat products. Germany. According to the data given by sausage manufacturers such as Meat Mania the demand of sausage is found to have been increasing with time. etc. So. But these days. they 61 .Demand and Supply level of a market The demand of sausage is increasing day by day. The goat casings are usually made manually. Marga whereas it is low in summer seasons in the months of Baisakh. Manually made casing brings some serious problems they are worn out or not properly stored due to which there will be a filling problem in casings. They were considered expensive foods and were unfamiliar among the common people. Their demands are much more in winter season in the months of Kartik. sometimes German casings are also used though they are synthetic one. The Indian casing from Kolkata and Delhi are popular in Nepalese market but still they can’t supply the fleeting demands during winter season. the machine making goat intestine is being a worth need because goats are comparatively slaughtered more than any other animal in scenario of Nepal. Poush. Hong Kong. Asar.

The total cost was found to be Thirty-Three lakhs fifty one thousand four hundred rupees. As according to the entrepreneurs’ view.) 20000 570000 270000 5000 20000 200000 400000 1485000 500000 120000 144000 500000 2400 400000 200000 3351400 . There would not be any exodus of domestic currency if there would be a proper sausage casing maker industry in the country. Cost of a normal sausage making industry in small scale Machines Numbers Unit Price Grinder 1 20000 Ball chopper 1 570000 Filler 1 270000 Smoke room 1 5000 Steam boil 1 20000 Vaccum packing 1 200000 Freeze 5 80000 Total Maintenance Cost Rent Transportation Miscellaneous government tax Machine work Bench Office Furniture Gross Cost 62 Cost(Rs.are paying government tax to the country during their import of casings. convenient and inspiring for sausage makers if there would be a domestic sausage casing making company in Nepal. The result is that the cost of casings is very high than it should be. A number of field visits were done with analysis based on sausage industry locally available in Kathmandu valley was done. Hence it would be boon for domestic sausage making company if proper sausage casing industry could provide sausage casing in domestic level. 4.1 Financial Analysis Cost on sausage industry. it would be rather easier. The various parameters were included from the machine cost transportation cost as well as government tax.

Table 4.) 1500 800 250 130 190 1120 600 1500 Rs. bolts.1 Cost of a normal sausage making industry in small scale COMPONENT COST Various materials were searched for the materials needed for the machine. The materials needed were of cast iron and mild steel. The parts included are gears rollers nut.10.` Table 4.000 63 .N. Equipment 1 Gear 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Smoothed roller Bolts Frame Handles Toothed roller Press element Machining TOTAL COST Type Cast iron Mild steel Cast iron Mild steel Cast iron Mild steel Mild steel Numbers Per Cost 2 750 2 10 2 1 2 1 400 25 65 190 560 600 1500 Cost(Rs.2 Equipment Cost S. iron frames.

5 182.5 128.5 92.5 175 3227.75 81.234 Forecast for Baisakh 64 .5 82.75 83.75 125 143.5 112.5 87.Months Baisakh Jestha Asar Sharwan Bhadra Asoj Kartik Mangsir Paush Falgun Chaitra Baisakh Jestha Asar Sharwan Bhadra Asoj Kartik Mangsir Paush Falgun Chaitra Production (kg) Demand (kg) 100 100 100 100 100 85 50 150 200 150 100 100 100 100 100 100 85 50 150 200 150 100 135 90 85 95 110 75 65 160 250 150 135 122 85 80 85 105 65 70 155 210 140 111 MSE 130.75 154 1864.25 95 91.25 86.25 98.413 101.5 90 102.25 102.75 164.5 93 88.5 156.5 205 200 142.25 123 105.5 70 112.1333 Forecast 2 months Forecast 4 months 112.25 173.5 103.5 82.5 137.5 95 85 67.

The sources of our casings are the intestines of goat basically of small intestine . Annual goat consumed in valley 2066/67: 476. The normal working hours of small scale industry is eight 65 . It took 40s to extract 1 m casing.The intestine Length is 18-25 metres till adult. But in the context of Nepal where goats are much more slaughtered than any other. The intestinal tract of goat has 21. The water is used for soaking purposes.5 m length which took 14 minutes to process into casings.3 Market Survey/ Analysis arious data were taken from the industry on the basis of demand and production. It took about 1 hours and five minutes to make 1 hank casings. it would serve a useful purpose.Table 4. Using crystal ball software we forecasted for the further four months data and demand was The goat casings haven’t been made since other animals are slaughtered more than goats.623 Daily Production level of the machine is calculated on the unit minute basis.

1. the food technology and other sausages company were delighted to know that the goat casings were made on our country. the production amount sums to Rs.8% mix Moisture % 0. the sausage with proper thickness of diameter 18-20 mm was made. But still there needs 1-2 people for surveillance. 7. 000 per month which includes Whiteness ≥ 85degree Grain size 96. For its daily output.5000 per month. In eight hours.25. Due to unavailability of various chemicals the iodine salt is used for storage in the refrigeration during testing.388 casings are formed which amounts to Rs. But still they are expensive since we Import in small amount.0% min NaCl% 99. they quoted it has a good future prospects. Maintenance cost includes time to time oiling the gear parts and using edible oil on the toothed roller and smooth roller parts using vegetable oil like mustard oil. Casing chemical are imported from our neighbouring country at reasonable prices.64 per month. sunflower oil. The Maintenance cost of gear and smooth roller and everything accounts to Rs.02% max water insoluble material. other one rotating the Handle. Intestinal tract all around Kathmandu valley serves the purpose. If the availability of intestinal tract is uniform around whole month and every chemicals required for the production is available. the 34 goats are to be slaughtered as we calculated for eight hours working basis. The standard of the casings produced was consulted with Meat Mania and food technology friends associated with National Institute of science and Technology (NIST) of B Sc. Storage cost is one of the expensive costs among any others.10. Besides. It really encourages the farming of goat keepers.hours.3. So. People are really happy with the goat casings as much Nepalese people prefer goat from many aspects than any other animal. 692. The chemicals were 66 .772. If there would be proper chemicals and refrigerator or cooling apparatus there would be better storage of the casings and the stock level can be stocked on cooling unit. Food tech students .The casings was checked for its transparency level and filled in Meat Mania. The storage cost accounts to Rs. It requires different chemicals and refrigeration machine. The manpower can be minimised by using the motor with constant speed and fixing the handle with spring mechanism. Manpower for this machine includes not more than two people one feeding the intestine.

They can get well benefit from the machine. the machine has served a useful purpose for the intestinal tracts being converted into casing which had been thrown in hilly regions before. Hence it is user-friendly too. It is small in size and robust and rigid so there is no chance of breakage on fall and wear . The operation of machine is easy and does not need skilled technician for operation. The waste product can be given to pet animals like dog and cat.Time to time lubrication should be done for the smooth movement of the rollers.2 Socio-Economic Analysis Talking about Social-Economic analysis. It provides employment on their own and can make money on their own. 67 .imported form Kolkata but for testing purposes the iodine salt was used. Hence it has also been the contributing factors towards the promotion of country employment. Similarly it can be composted as well. Hence the machine is economically sound since it is of considerable and moderate value and has no environmental hazards. It has no environmental hazards since it is mechanically operated and has no waste product that harms environment. Hence it might get its prominent place in the Nepali market because of its user friendliness and its cosiness along with comfortable operating condition. The invention of such machine makes a high impact both socially and economically. The special thanks are given to food tech students and college providing checking platform of the sausage casings. It produces less noise as there is no high vibration movement since there is only motion of rollers so in the view of noise pollution it has no such effects. On teaching sometime for the operation for an ordinary man can operate the machine. 4. The machine is not so costly that People can easily afford the machine as for their business as well as household Purposes.

Though there is some polluted smell and filthy some smell but it’s not so remarkable. 4. Since. The slime taken out of the intestine can be used as a soil humus and as a compost materials as a fertiliser.4. Kathmandu and other workshop too. manufacture and fabricate the model. The fatty materials can be given for pet animals like dog cat pig birds. After several days of research we found that the waste products after the operation can be well managed. The wastewater during the operation can be treated as garden water as it is nutrient rich and good for cultivation purposes. the machine is mechanical so there is no chance of polluted air though there is smell of intestinal tract which is not so detrimental to health and is not in remarkable in quantity.3 Environmental Impact Assessment The Environmental Impact Assessment is one of the essential activities that should be taken into account during any Project Construction or Engineering activities. As we got insight into our project we watched carefully its by-product waste materials during its operation. Table 4. The cost evaluation is obtained by market research and on the supervision of Balaju Yantra shala (P) Ltd.4 Cost evaluation for the fabrication of Sausage casing making machine 68 . Balaju.4 Cost Evaluation and Expenditures Cost structure The Cost structure in the manufacturing of the model is described under following topics: a) Direct material cost Direct material cost includes the costs of materials to purchase.

N.) 1000 500 700 1000 500 200 100 365 5 4 4 4 Weight(gm) 3800 500 750 900 400 1100 650 850 30 70 50 20 Cost(Rs. 6. 5. 20 450 100 69 . 9. 2.5 Cost structure of indirect materials used in model S.5 Total Cost in Rs. 11. 3 Materials Welding Rods Nickel Plating Sliver Spray Quantity 2 4 Unit Cost 10 112. 13. 7. 8. 10.S.) 2000 1000 1400 1000 500 200 100 730 30 16 16 8 500 9. 12.N. 2. 1. 4. Table 4. Particulars Frame Smooth roller Toothed Roller Big gear Small Gear Pressing Handle Rotating Handle Supporting shaft Round clips Nuts Washers Keys Machining Cost TOTAL Quantit y 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 6 4 4 2 Unit cost(Rs. 3. 120 gm Rs 7500 [NB] Above cost does not include Labour Charge and Denting and Painting b) Indirect material cost Indirect material costs include the materials which are necessary in the production process but are not directly used in the product itself. 1.

) 870 Total Cost=Rs.7500+Rs. 1.500 The Hank casings diameter is of 18-20 mm. Parameters Manufacturing Overhead Cost Amount(Rs.7 Cost structure of manufacturing overhead S. 000.10. Casings made by the machine The casings diameter is of 18-20mm.1000+Rs.N.10.N. Circlips Keys Nut Total 6 2 4 5 5 5 30 10 20 630 c) Direct labour cost Table 4. 7. 1. Parameters Direct Labour Cost Amount(Rs. Production capacity The Production capacity is however compared to that of available market casings. 70 . Market Casings 1 Hank costs Rs. 6.) 1000 d) Manufacturing overhead cost Table 4.870=Rs.4.630+Rs. They are of sheep and delicate and of fine shaped.6 Cost structure of direct labour used in model S. 000 Hence the total cost to our sausage casing making machine is Rs. 5.

317. Hence.5 which equals to Rs. 34 goats casing capacity is made by the machine. It cost Rs.5 m For 21.317 Rs.5m small intestine (of one goat) it takes 860s (14 minutes) It needs 14 minute for making 1 goats casings so for the one day production that is normal working hours is 8 hours (480 minutes) so the goats slaughtered per day 480/14 =34. for 91m casings (75*91 )/21. Casing Extracted Chemicals involved Labour charge Total Cost Rs. Hence the margin available for the casings produced to that of natural casings is 71 . 403 So.They are fine and almost transparent and checked by food tech staffs It took 40 s for the 1 m casings to be extracted from the machine.5 m casings which weigh 565 grams. For 1 hank (91.38 hank that sums to Rs. Calculation It took 40s to extract from 1m intestine. 46 Rs. the per day Production is7.0833hours. 500 per Hank. For one single goat. 75 for 21.5) it takes 3660s (61minute) This means 1 hours and one minute or 1. 40 Rs. If the sausages are sold in market price of Rs.3690 Now we will be going through our purchase price of the intestinal tract and the profit earned. We know the normal working hours is 8 hours in which 7.28 goats. it has length almost of 21.38 hanks are made.

(97/500) *100 =19.) 500 3690 Hence.Profit =500-403=97 So. it takes 3660 s (1 Hours 1 minute) for 1 Hank Casings. N.5 m costs Rs.4% Hence. 1 2 3 4 Total Profit Margin =500-403=97 Profit Cost to Be Compared 97 500 72 Particulars Raw Cost Chemical cost Labour Rent Cost(Rs. Profit Percentage is.5 91(1 hank) Cost(Rs. 1 2 Length(m) 21.75 So.3690 In Local Level the intestinal tract which is of 21.5 91.) 317 46 20 20 403 .) 75 317 S.4% in production of the local casings produced by the machine.N.38 Time(s) 1.N.5 Hank(unit) 1 7. 1 2 3 Time(s) 40 860 3660 Length(m) 1 21. on calculating the cost involved on making casing is shown below S. the profit margin is 19.0833 8 Cost(Rs. Hence there is a daily production that cost to Rs. Calculation on Excel Sheet S.

14)1=Rs.400 Sinking fund factor 73 . The loan is of half years (six months) period.10.10. Initial Investment The Initial Investment on the sausage casing making machine accounts to Rs. The interest rate for our standard loan type is 14% per annum. Capital Structure The Capital Structure consists of Standard loan type.Profit Percentage 19. Mathematically. Though Project capital is moderate but it would be better if feasibility study is taken. The Capital is taken from the Bank of sum Rs.392.000(1+. Future sum of Initial payment (Compounding Amount) The future sum of initial payment was calculated and found to be Rs. 000.4 % Financial Analysis The financial analysis is done for the study of the feasibility of the Project.000 Provided by the Bank. F=P (1+i)n =10.11.11.

Present Worth formulation was used Internal Rate of Return The internal rate of return is 16%which is greater than cost of capital interest 14%.400[. the salvage value at the end of five years is Rs.So there is Opportunity of Investor return in the Project. Salvage value The Project life cycle is of one years’ time period.14/(1+. This seems that the life of the project is feasible and the investors get their return before the maturity of the project. Payback Period The life of Entire Project is 1 years whereas payback period is ¾ year which is less than the life of the project. Checking the feasibility of the project if salvage value at the end of 12 months is Rs.418 per month on One year time. So.3.14)12-1]=Rs. Mathematically. 000 and expected to pay 500monthly for a period of twelve months.Sinking fund factor is an interest bearing account into which a fixed sum is deposited each interest period: it is commonly established for the purpose of replacing fixed assets. 74 .000. A=F[i/(1+i)N-1]=11. Checking the feasibility of the project The machine is estimated to cost Rs. 418 The sinking fund is Rs.10.3000.

Mild steel is used instead of stainless steel because of cost constraint. experiences and knowledge are limited. The resources like capital. equipment. 2. The casing produced was not standardised. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. However it is electroplated with nickel to prevent food from getting damaged. 4. 5. Material complexity prohibit us to design for the large scale machines 6. Thus the machine was designed only for small scale. The intestinal tract could not be available as per the demand so it could not be used for large scale industries. The cost for the commercial production of natural casing is high.CHAPTER FIVE LIMITATIONS.1 Limitations 1. 3. machining complexity. Simple roller mechanism is used since the material and funds available are limited.2 Conclusions 75 . 5.

can be employed. It was taken to sausage industry Meat Mania for stuffing. 4. 6. Increasing the number of teeth on the roller can improve the crushing efficiency. 76 . 4. A set of gears for automatic manure stripping. thus experimented proved to be wonderful and meets all the requirements. 2. The quality of the casing produced was found satisfactory as per the manager of sausage industry where it was tested. Force multiplication can be achieved by the use of idle gears. The market of the sausage industry is increasing and hence the demand of the sausage casing. The roller feed mechanism is very much a useful process in casing manufacturing. The transparent sub-mucosa layer was obtained as an output of the machine. 3. 5. The casing was successfully stuffed with ingredients 5.3 Recommendations The following recommendations can be taken for future works on the field: 1. 2. The successful production of casing is desired as per the market survey. The machine can be automated using motors for ease. Improvement on design of the machine can be done as it is the simplest and cheapest form. Spring mechanism can be used to apply uniform force on the intestine.1. The simple mechanism can be thus used for the sausage casing production which is economical for small scale sausage industry. The casings are imported as is no manufactured in Nepal. 5. efficiency and for large scale production. The machine fabricated gave satisfactory performance on testing. The use of goat intestine as a sausage casing for the production of sausage. 3.

REFERENCES 1. Machine Design . II. F. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd. Pandya.Design Data Hand Book for Mechanical Engineers. 2006. Jamnadas & Co.2002.D.10th Edition 9.K. 8. C. Patel R.Kataria And Sons. 10. Sikh and A. 1997-98. and D. 3. CSB publishers and distributors. Mechanism and Machine theory. R. Design Data Handbook. Machine Design. 7. 2003. S. Vol. Machine Design. www.askthemeatman. 2008. New Age International(p)ltd.K and K. Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Ltd 2. en. New Delhi Reddy. 12th Edition. Mechanics of material. Johnston. Beer and E. Khurmi 4.R. and S.P. 1998. B. Third edition. Mahadevan and Reddy . Mechanics for engineers-Static and Dynamics.htm 77 .wikipedia.2007. Beer and Johnston and Dewolf. Sharma P.S. G.S. CBS Publishers 5. Mahadevan . Rao and DukkiPati.

html 19. www.sausage-casings.html 21. www.asp? gclid=CMSNx_Dd2qkCFcgCHAod3VYQXA ToK0IcTWrQeNv_zvAw&start=0&sa=N& q=spur+gear+tooth+nomenclature&hl=ne&sa=X&biw=1024&bih=634&tbm= isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=W27T_QioLjCvCM:&imgrefurl 17.omcan.tsrc =PPC&WT.ecs. 16.made-in-china. http://www.html www.cmd? N=0&Ntk=AllProducts&Ntt=sausage+stuffer&rid=20& www.osb&fp=416f346164050bd 3&biw=1024&bih=634 78 .11.htm 14.html 18.cabelas.umass. www. http://www. www.

APPENDIX: DRAWINGS AND PHOTOS Various Snapshots during Fabrication Stage Milling acion done for making toothed roller Setting feed rate to Tooth Roller 79 .

Making of Handle using Shaper Outer frame and toothed roller Fabricated machine before electroplating Pre-test of the machine Slime and the casing Cleaning the casing 80 .

Water filled casing Fabricated machine after electroplating of machine Testing of machine in lab Sausage on the casing made from our machine 81 .

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