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ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION Head loss is a measure of the reduction in the total head (sum of elevation head, velocity

head and pressure head) of the fluid as it moves through a fluid system. There are two main types of head losses in pipe flow. The first is the friction loss that occurs when a fluid flows through the straight pipes. The others are minor losses and head losses that occur due to bends, elbows, joints, valves and other fittings in the systems. Basically, when there is a change of flow or in the cross sectional area, head loss will occur. This phenomenon is always present and unavoidable due to friction that occurs between the fluid and the walls of the pipes of which it flows within. It can also happen between adjacent fluid particles that flow along the pipe. The velocity of water is directly proportional to its flow rates. When the flow rate of water increases, the velocity of water will also increase, causing the head loss of water increases when it flows through the pipe. On the other hand, the head loss due to friction of water running through a circular is inversely proportional to the diameter of the pipe. The larger the diameter, the smaller the head loss. From the Darcy-Weisbach equation, the theoretical values of head loss are calculated. By comparing the theoretical values with the experimental values, the error between the two values is high for pipe No. 1 (D = 0.006m). For pipe No. 1 (D = 0.006m), the average percent error is 76.75%. In contrast, the errors for pipe No. 2 (D = 0.010m) and No. 3 (D = 0.017m) are relatively small, which are 2.40% and 12.06% respectively. The Moody Diagram is used in practice to determine the pipe friction coefficient, f from Reynolds number, Re. From Graph 1, it shows that the friction factor is inversely proportional to the Reynolds number. To make a comparison between the experimentally obtained graph and that of the Moody Diagram, the scale of the x-axis must be taken into consideration. The range of the values in xaxis in Graph 1 is within 104 while the Moody Diagram is from 103 to 108. Since the Reynolds numbers are greater than 3000 in all three cases, we can assume that the flow conditions are turbulent. When the small portion of Moody Diagram in the range of 104 to 105 in x-axis is zoomed out to compare it with Graph 1, both are found to be quite similar. The possible sources of errors that caused the high percentage error in Pipe A, may be from parallax error when taking the reading of the measuring tank. Moreover, the flow rate of water into the measuring tank is unstable, thus making it hard to take precise reading. Besides that, presence of air bubbles in the pipe can affect the stability of the flow of the fluids in the pipe, thus, causing added errors. Hence, in order to improve the accuracy of this experiment, we must try our best to release the air bubbles before running the experiment. One precaution is to let the water flow for a while before taking readings.