You are on page 1of 2



UNIT-I Introduction: Safety programs - Engineering ethics - Accident and loss statistics - Acceptable risk - Public perceptions - The nature of the accident process - Inherent safety. Toxicology: How toxicants enter biological organisms - How toxicants are eliminated from biological organisms - Effects of toxicants on biological organisms - Toxicological studies - Dose Vs response - Models for dose and response curves - Relative toxicity - Threshold limit values. UNIT-II Industrial hygiene: Government of India regulations and OSHA - Industrial hygiene identification -Evaluation Control. UNIT-III Source models: Introduction to source models - Flow of liquid through a hole - Flow of liquid through a hole in a tank - Flow of liquids through pipes - Flow of vapor through holes - Flow of gases through pipes - Flashing liquids - Liquid pool evaporation or boiling - Realistic and worst-Case releases. UNIT-IV Toxic release and dispersion models: Parameters affecting dispersion - Neutrally buoyant dispersion models Pasqual-Gifford model - Dense gas dispersion. UNIT-V Fires and explosions: Classification of fires - The fire triangle - Distinction between fires and explosions Definitions - Flammability characteristics of liquids and vapors - Limiting oxygen concentration and Inerting Flammability diagram - Ignition energy Autoignition Auto oxidation - Adiabatic compression - Ignition sources - Sprays and mists Explosions. UNIT-VI Designs to prevent fires and explosions: Inerting - Static electricity - Controlling static electricity - ExplosionProof equipment and instruments Ventilation - Sprinkler systems - Miscellaneous designs for preventing fires and explosions. UNIT-VII Introduction to reliefs: Relief concepts Definitions - Location of reliefs - Relief types - Relief scenarios - Data for sizing reliefs - Relief systems. Relief sizing: Conventional spring-Operated reliefs in liquid service - Conventional spring-Operated reliefs in vapor or gas service - Rupture disc reliefs in liquid service - Rupture disc reliefs in vapor or gas service Deflagration venting for dust and vapor explosions - Venting for fires external to process vessels - Reliefs for thermal expansion of process fluids.

UNIT-VIII Hazards identification: Process hazards checklists - Hazards surveys - Hazards and operability studies - Safety reviews - Other methods. Risk assessment: Review of probability theory - Event trees - Fault trees - QRA and LOPA. Accident investigations: Learning from accidents - Layered investigations - Investigation process Investigation summary - Aids for diagnosis - Aids for recommendations. Text Book: 1. Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, Daniel A. Crowl, Joseph F. Louvar, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2011. Reference Books: 1. Safety and Accident Prevention in Chemical Operations, H.H.Fawcett and W.S.Wood, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York 1982. 2. Guidelines For Process Safety: Fundamentals in General Plant Operations, Center for Chemical Process Safety of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1995. 3. ILO OSH 2001. 4. Government of India: The Factories Act 1948, Amended 1954, 1970, 1976 and 1987; The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals rules, 1989; The Explosives Act 1884; The Petroleum Act 1934; National Policy on Safety, Health and Environment at Workplace, Government of India; Constitutional Provisions of Occupational Safety and Health, The Constitution of India.