You are on page 1of 102

Music in the Bible

The thing that hath been, it is that which shall be; and that which is done is that which shall be done: and there is no new thing under the sun. Ecclesisastes 1:9

Important Short Notes on Music in the Bible 4 Overview of Music as Used in the Bible 7 Part I - Instruments in the Bible 10 Stringed Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Harp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Stringed Instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Viol/Psaltery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Sackbut. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Other Stringed Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Wind Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Pipes and Flutes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Trumpets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Dulcimer/Bag-Pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Organ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Percussion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Bells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Cymbals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Tabrets/Timbrels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Miscellaneous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Part II - Song, Music, Rejoicing, and Dancing 20 Singing and Song. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Old Testament.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 New Testament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Playing Instruments.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Old Testament.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 New Testament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 General Music. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Old Testament.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 New Testament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Mirth, Gladness, Rejoicing, Shouting, Thanksgiving, Noisemaking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Old Testament.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 New Testament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Dancing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Old Testament.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 New Testament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Part III - The Role of Music, Song, and Dance in the Bible 30 The Jubile Trumpet (Shofar). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Israels Silver Trumpets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Trumpets in Battle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Priests Blow the Shofar in the Battle for Jericho. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 The Shofar in the Battle Against the Midianites, Amalekites, and Children of the East. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Children of Judah Blow the Silver Trumpets in Battle Against Jeroboam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 The Lord Connects Sound of the Trumpet with Battle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Paul Connects the Certainty of the Sound of the Trumpet With Battle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Sounding Trumpets Bring About the End. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 The Ark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 David and the Chosen Men of Israel Bring the Ark from Baale of Judah (Kirjath-Jearim). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 David Brings the Ark From the House of Obed-Edom to the City of David. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 David Instructs Levites to Appoint Singers and Musicians to Accompany Bringing the Ark to the City of David. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 The Psalms of Asaph and the Psalms for Jeduthun. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Asaph.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Jeduthun. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Priests and Singers in Temple Worship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Four Thousand Priests and Levites Set Aside for Praising the Lord With Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Courses of the Priesthood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Courses of the Singers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Priests and Singers By Course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 The Dedication of the First Temple. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 The Cleansing of the Temple Under Hezekiahs Reign. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 The Laying of the Second Temple Foundation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 The Dedication of the Wall of Jerusalem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Celebration of an Oath to the Lord in Asas Reign. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Victory Celebrations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 A Song of Moses and the Israelites after the Exodus from Egypt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 A Song of Israel in the Wilderness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Women of Israel Celebrate Davids Defeat of Goliath. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Judah Celebrates Defeat of Moabites and Ammonites in Jehoshaphats Reign. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Songs of the Redeemed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Anointing of Kings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Anointing of Solomon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Anointing of Jehu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Anointing of Joash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Prophesying. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Temple Singers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Saul and a Company of Prophets.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 The Prophet Elisha Asks for a Minstrel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Your Sons and Your Daughters Shall Prophesy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Rejoicing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Merrymaking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Laban to Jacob. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Associated With Peace, Happiness, and Plenty.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Christs Parable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Mourning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Trumpet as Warning Signal and Alarm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Singing Men and Singing Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Dancing Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Jephthahs Daughter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Men of Benjamin Take Wives of Daughters of Shiloh Who Dance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 The Spirit That Troubled Saul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Bells on the High Priests Garments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Bells on Horses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Wickedness and Sinfulness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Jubal - A Descendant of Cain Idolatry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Herodias Daughter Charms Herod With Dancing and Asks for the Head of John the Baptist. . . . . . . . . . . 65 Glossary of Musical Terms and Name Meanings 66 Old Testament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 New Testament. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Song Lyrics 83

Important Short Notes on Music in the Bible


Music is an extremely important part of the Bible in festivity, worship, and prophecy. Smiths Bible Dictionary notes, But the Temple was the great school of music, and it was consecrated to its highest service in the worship of Yahveh. The singers in the temple were so important that they were the only other class of workers, aside from the priests, to be called out by name and listed by course (I Chronicles 25). If prophesying in song was such an important function in the Temple, and were building the Temple of the end times, we ought to expect singers who prophesy in song to be as natural and important part of the body of Christ as are priests/teachers at this time. And indeed Joel 2:28 declares this: ". . . your sons and your daughters shall prophesy [see definition of prophesy in the next bullet]. . ." The word translated prophesy in both reference to the work of the temple singers and those who will prophesy in the end is: 5012 naba, naw-baw; a prim. root; to prophesy, i.e. speak (or sing) by inspiration (in prediction or simple discourse): prophesy (-ing), make self a prophet. Where are the singers who prophesy in accordance with this manner? Doubtless because Yahveh ordained music for His own purposes, the devil has sought fit to use it toward destructive ends, from the beginning. As the father of all such as handle the harp and the organ (Genesis 4:21), Jubal points to sons of Cain being involved in the music industry, and some of Yahvehs musicians must be familiar with them from having to deal with them. It is very important to look at the word handle (Strongs 8610) as used in Genesis 4:21: 8610 tphas, taw-fas; a prim. root; to manipulate, i.e. seize; chiefly to capture, wield; spec. to overlay; fig. to use unwarrantably:catch, handle, (lay, take) hold (on, over), stop, x surely, surprise, take. Thus, the sons of Cain were not the fathers of creating the harp and the organ (music), but of misusing music. Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon and a type of the antichrist, had a large orchestra in the third chapter of Daniel, a clear type of a large orchestra Satan will have. When the orchestra played, people were to bow down to the golden imageDaniel 3:4-6: Then an herald cried aloud, To you it is commanded, O people, nations, and languages, That at what time ye hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, ye fall down and worship the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath set up: And whoso falleth not down and worshippeth shall the same hour be cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace. This musical event was of such significance that it is repeated four times in Daniel 3 (verses 5, 7, 10, and 15).

Overview of Music as Used in the Bible


Note: All quotations from Smiths Bible Dictionary refer to the 1865 version published in London by John Murray in 1865. This version is considerably more detailed than modern versions and is available for free online. Smiths Bible Dictionary: Music. The inventor of musical instruments, like the first poet and the first forger of metals, was a Cainite.* According to the narrative of Gen. iv., Jubal the son of Lamech was the father of all such as handle the harp and the organ, that is, of all players upon stringed and wind instruments. The first mention of music in the times after the Deluge is in the narrative of Labans interview with Jacob (Gen. xxxi. 27). So that, in whatever way it was preserved, the practices of music existed in the upland country of Syria, and of the three possible kinds of musical instruments, two were known and employed to accompany the song. The three kinds are alluded to in Job xxi. 12. On the banks of the Red Sea sang Moses and the children of Israel their triumphal song of deliverance from the hosts of Egypt; and Miriam, in celebration of this same event, exercised one of her functions as a prophetess by leading a procession of the women of the camp, chanting in chorus the burden to the song of Moses, Sing ye to Yahveh, for He hat triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea. The triumphal hymn of Moses had unquestionably a religious character about it, but the employment of music in religious service, though idolatrous, is more distinctly marked in the festivities which attended the erection of the golden calf. The silver trumpets made by the metal workers of the tabernacle, which were used to direct the movements of the camp, point to music of a very simple kind (Num. x. 110). The song of Deborah and Barak is cast in a distinctly metrical form, and was probably intended to be sung with a musical accompaniment as one of the peoples songs. The simpler impromptu with which the women from the cities of Israel greeted David after the slaughter of the Philistine, was apparently struck off on the spur of the moment, under the influence of wild joy with which they welcomed their national champion, the darling of the songs of Israel (1 Sam. xviii. 6, 7). Up to this time we meet with nothing like a systematic cultivation of music among the Hebrews, but the establishment of the schools of the prophets appears to have supplied this want. Whatever the students of these schools may have been taught, music was an essential part of their practice. Professional musicians soon became attached to the court. David seems to have gathered round him singing men and singing women (2 Sam. xix. 35). Solomon did the same (Eccl. ii. 8), adding to the luxury of his court by his patronage of art, and obtaining a reputation himself as no mean composer (1 K. iv. 32). But the Temple was the great school of music, and it was consecrated to its highest service in the worship of Yahveh. Before, however, the elaborate arrangements had been made by David for the temple choir, there must have been a considerable body of musicians throughout the country (2 Sam. vi. 5), and in the procession which accompanied the ark from the house of Obededom, the Levites, with Chenaniah at their head, who had acquired skill from previous training, played on psalteries, harps, and cymbals, to the words of the psalm of thanksgiving which David had composed for the occasion (1 Chr. xv. xvi.). It is not improbable that the Levites all along had practiced music and that some musical service was part of the worship of the tabernacle. The position which they occupied among the other tribes naturally favored the cultivation of an art which is essentially characteristic of a leisurely and peaceful life. The three great divisions of the tribe each had a representative family in the choir. Asaph himself appears to have played on the cymbals (1 Chr. xvi. 5), and this was the case with the other leaders (1 Chr. xv. 19), perhaps to mark the time more distinctly, while the rest of the band played on psalteries and harps. The singers were distinct from both, as is evident in Ps. lxviii.

25, the singers went before, the players on instruments followed after, in the midst of the damsels playing with timbrels. The players on instruments were the performers upon stringed instruments, like the psaltery and the harp. The players on instruments in Ps. lxxxvii. 7, were different from these last, and were properly pipers or performers on perforated wind instruments (see 1 K. i. 40). The damsels playing with timbrels (comp. 1 Chr. xiii. 8), appear to have been reserved for the priests alone (1 Chr. xv. 24, xvi. 6). As they were also used in royal proclamations (2 K. xi. 14), they were probably intended to set forth by way of symbol the royalty of Yahveh, the theocratic king of his people, as well as to sound the alarms against His enemies (2 Chr. xiii. 12). The altar was the table of Yahveh (Mal. i. 7), and the sacrifices were His feasts (Ex. xxiii. 18), so the solemn music of the Levites corresponded to the melody by which the banquets of earthly monarchs were accompanied. The Temple was his palace, and as the Levite sentries watched the gates by night they chanted the songs of Zion; one of these it has been conjectured with probability is Ps. cxxxiv. In the private as well as in the religious life of the Hebrews music held a prominent place. The kings had their court musicians (Eccl. ii. 8) who bewailed their death (2 Chr. xxxv. 25), and in the luxurious times of the later monarchy the effeminate gallants of Israel, reeking with perfumes and stretched upon their couches of ivory, were wont at their banquets to accompany the song with the tinkling of the psaltery or guitar (Am. vi. 46), and amused themselves with devising musical instruments while their nation was perishing. But while music was thus made to minister to debauchery and excess, it was the legitimate expression of mirth and gladness, and the indication of peace and prosperity. It was only when a curse was upon the land that the prophet could say, the mirth of the tabrets ceaseth, the noise of them that rejoice endeth, the joy of the harp ceaseth, they shall not drink wine with a song (Is. xxiv. 8, 9). The bridal processions as they passed through the streets were accompanied with music and song (Jer. vii. 34), and these ceased only when the land was desolate (Ez. xxvi. 13). The music of the banquets was accompanied with songs and dancing (Luke xv. 25). The triumphal processions which celebrated a victory were enlivened by minstrels and singers (Ex. xv. 1, 20; Judg. v. 1, xi. 34; 1 Sam. xviii. 6, xxi. 11; 2 Chr. xx 28; Jud. xv. 12, 13), and on extraordinary occasions they even accompanied armies to battle. Besides songs of triumph there were also religious songs (Is. xxx. 29; Am. v. 23; Jam. v. 13), songs of the temple (Am. viii. 3), and songs which were sung in idolatrous worship (Ex. xxxii. 18). Love songs are alluded to in Ps. xlv. title and Is. v. 1. There were also the doleful songs of the funeral procession, and the wailing chant of the mourners who went about the streets, the professional keening of those who were skillful in lamentation (2 Chr. xxxv. 25; Eccl. xii. 5; Jer. ix. 1720; Am. v. 16). The grape gatherers sang as they gathered in the vintage, and the wine-presses were trodden with the shout of a song (Is. xvi. 10; Jer. xlviii. 33); the women sang as they toiled at the mill, and on every occasion the land of the Hebrews during their national prosperity was a land of music and melody. There is one class of musicians to which allusion is casually made (Ecclus. ix.4), and who were probably foreigners, the harlots who frequented the streets of the great cities and attracted notice by singing and playing the guitar (Is. xxiii. 15, 16). There are two aspects in which music appears, and about which little satisfactory can be said: the mysterious influence which it had in driving out the evil spirit from Saul, and its intimate connexion with prophecy and prophetical inspiration. From the instances in which it occurs, it is evident that the same Hebrew root is used to denote the inspiration under which the prophets spake and the minstrels sang. All that can be safely concluded is that in their external manifestations the effect of music in exciting the emotions of the sensitive Hebrews, the frenzy of Sauls madness (1 Sam. xviii. 10), and the religious enthusiasm of the prophets, whether of Baal or Yahveh, were so nearly alike as to be described by the same word. The case of Saul is more difficult still. We cannot be admitted to the secret of his dark malady. Two turning points in his history are the two interviews with Samuel, the first (1 Sam. x. 5) and the last, if we except that dread encounter which the despairing monarch challenged before the fatal day of

Gilboa. The last occasion of their meeting was the disobedience of Saul in sparing the Amalekites, for which he was rejected from being king (1 Sam. xv. 26). Immediately after this we are told the Spirit of Yahveh departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from Yahveh troubled him (1 Sam. xvi. 14); and his attendants, who had perhaps witnessed the strange transformation wrought upon him by the music of the prophets, suggested that the same means should be employed for his restoration (1 Sam. xvi. 16, 23). But on two occasions, when anger and jealousy supervened, the remedy which had soothed the frenzy of insanity had lost its charm (1 Sam. xviii. 10, 11, xix. 9, 10). *The assertion that the Cainites were the inventors of musical instruments is a flawed one. See the fourth bullet in the Important Short Notes section.

Part I - Instruments in the Bible


Smiths Bible Dictionary: Musical Instruments. In addition to the instruments of music which have been represented in our version by some modern word, and are treated under their respective titles, there are other terms which are vaguely or generally rendered. These are: 1. Dachvn, Chald., rendered instruments of musick in Dan. vi. 18. The margin gives or table, perhaps lit. concubines. The last-mentioned rendering is that approved by Gesenius, and seems most probable.2. Minnm, rendered with great probability stringed-instruments in Ps. cl. 4. It appears to be a general term, but beyond this nothing is known of it.3. sr, an instrument of ten strings, Ps. xcii. 3. The full phrase is nebel sr, a ten-stringed psaltery, as in Ps. xxxiii. 2, cxliv. 9; and the true rendering of the first-mentioned passage would be upon an instrument of ten strings, even upon the psaltery.4. Shiddh, in Eccl. ii. 8 only, I gat me men-singers and women-singers, and the delights of the sons of men, musical instruments, and that of all sorts. The words thus rendered have received a great variety of meanings. But the most probable interpretation to be put upon them is that suggested by a usage of the Talmud, where shdh denotes a palanquin or litter for women.5. Shlishm, rendered instruments of musick in the A. V. of 1 Sam. xviii. 6, and in the margin three-stringed instruments. Roediger translates triangles, which are said to have been invented in Syria, from the same root. We have no means of deciding which is the more correct.

Stringed Instruments
Harp 3658 kinnwr, kin-nore; from an unused root mean. to twang; a harp:harp. (Greek) 2788 kithara, kith-ar-ah; of uncert. affin.; a lyre:harp. Smiths Bible Dictionary: Harp. (Heb. kinnr). The kinnr was the national instrument of the Hebrews, and was well known throughout Asia. The writer of the Pentateuch assigns its invention to the antediluvian period (Gen. iv. 21). Touching the shape of the kinnr a great difference of opinion prevails. The author of Shilte Haggibborim describes it as resembling the modern harp; Pfeiffer gives it the form of a guitar; and St. Jerome declares it to have resembled in shape the Greek letter delta. Josephus records that the kinnr had ten strings, and that it was played with the plectrum; others assign to it twenty-four, and in the Shilte Haggibborim it is said to have had fortyseven. Josephuss statement, however, is an open contradiction to what is set forth in the 1st book of Samuel (xvi. 23, xviii. 10), that David played on the kinnr with his hand. Probably there was a smaller and a larger kinnr, and these may have been played in different ways (1 Sam. x. 5). Stringed Instrument 4482 mn, mane; from an unused root mean. to apportion; a part; hence a musical chord (as parted into strings):in [the same] (Psa. 68:28), stringed instrument (Psa. 150:4), whereby (Psa. 45:8 [defective plur.]). Viol/Psaltery 5035 nebel, nehbel; or nbel, naybel; from 5034; a skin-bag for liquids (from collapsing when empty); hence, a vase (as similar in shape when full); also a lyre (as having body of like form):bottle, pitcher, psaltery, vessel, viol. Smiths Bible Dictionary: Viol. For an explanation of the Hebrew word translated viol, see PSALTERY . The old English viol, like the Spanish viguela, was a six-stringed guitar. Etymologically, viol is connected with the Dan. Fiol and the A. S. fi4ele, through the Fr. viole, Old. Fr. vielle, Med. Lat. vitella. Smiths Bible Dictionary: Psaltery. The psaltery was a stringed instrument of music to accompany the voice. The Hebrew word nbel, or nebel, is so rendered in the A. V. in all passages where it occurs, except in Is. v. 12, xiv. 11, xxii. 24 marg; Am v. 23, vi. 5, where it is translated viol. The ancient viol was a six-stringed guitar. In the Prayer Book version of the Psalms, the Hebrew word is rendered lute. This instrument resembled the guitar, but was superior in tone, being larger, and having a convex back, somewhat like the vertical section of a gourd, or more nearly resembling that of a pear. Those three instruments, the psaltery or sautry, the viol and the lute, are frequently associated in the old English poets, and were clearly instruments resembling each other, though still different. The Greek , from which our word is derived, denotes an instrument played with the fingers instead of a plectrum or quill, and the verb being used of twanging and the

bowstring. But it only occurs in the LXX. as the rendering of the Heb. nbel or nebel in Neh. xii. 27, and Is. v. 12, and in all the passages of the Psalms, except Ps. lxxi. 22, and Ps. lxxxi. 2, while in Am. v. 23, vi. 5 the general term is employed. In all other cases represents nbel or nebel. These various renderings are sufficient to show that at the time the translation of the LXX. was made, there was no certain identification of the Hebrew instrument with any known to the translators. The rendering commends itself on account of the similarity of the Greek word with the Hebrew. Josephus appears to have regarded them as equivalent, and his is the only direct evidence upon the point. He tells us that the difference between the (Heb. cinnr) and the was, that the former had ten strings and was played with the plectrum, the latter had twelve notes and was played with the hand. We have strong presumptive evidence that nabla and nebel are the same; and that the nabla and psalterion are identical appears from the Glossary of Philoxenus. Of the Psaltery among the Greeks there appear to have been two kinds. Both Isidorus and Cassiodorus describe the psaltery as traiangular in shape, like the Greek , with the sounding-board above the strings, which were struck downwards. It is impossible to say positively with what instrument the nebel of the Hebrew exactly corresponded. It was probably of various kinds, as Kimchi says in his note on Is. xxii. 24, differing from each other both with regard to the position of the pegs and the number of the strings. The nebel sr (Ps. xxxiii. 2, xcii. 3 [4], cxliv.9) appears to have been an instrument of the psaltery kind which had ten strings, and was of a trapezium shape, according to some accounts. From the fact that nebel in Hebrew also signifies a wine-bottle or skin, it has been conjectured that the term when applied to a musical instrument denotes a kind of bagpipe. The psalteries of David were made of cypress (2 Sam. vi. 5), those of Solomon of algum or almug-trees (2 Chr. ix. 11). Among the instruments of the band which played before Nebuchadnezzars golden image on the plains of Dura, we again meet with the psaltery (Dan. iii. 5, 10, 15; p.santrn). The Chaldee word appears to be merely a modification of the Greek . Sackbut 5443 abbe k (Chald.), sab-bek-aw; or sabbe k (Chald.), sab-bek-aw; from a root corresp. to 5440; a lyre:sackbut. Smiths Bible Dictionary: Sackbut. (Dan. iii. 5, 7, 10 , 15), the rendering in the A. V. of the Chaldee sabb.ca. If this musical instrument be the same as the Greek and Latin sambuca, the English translation is entirely wrong. the sackbut was a wind-instrument; the sambuca was played with strings. Mr. Chapell says (Pop. Mus. i. 35), The sackbut was a bass trumpet with a slide, like the modern trombone. The sambuca was a triangular instrument with four or more strings played with the fingers. Other Stringed Instruments 6218 swr, aw-sore; or sr, aw-sore; from 6235; ten; by abbrev. ten strings, and so a decachord:(instrument of) ten (strings, -th). 6460 pe anryn, (Chald.), pes-an-tay-reen; or pe antryn, pes-an-tay-reen, a transliteration of the Gr. psaltri4n; a lyre:psaltery. 7030 qythr (Chald.), kee-thaw-roce; of Gr. origin (h); a lyre:harp. 7991 shlysh, shaw-leesh; or shlwsh (1 Chron. 11:11, 12:18), shaw-loshe; or shlsh (2 Sam.

10

23:13), shaw-loshe; from 7969; a triple, i.e. (as a musical instrument) a triangle (or perh. rather three-stringed lute); also (as an indef. great quantity) a three-fold measure (perh. a treble ephah); also (as an officer) a general of the third rank (upward, i.e. the highest):captain, instrument of musick, (great) lord, (great) measure, prince, three [from the marg.]. 8067 she mynyth, shem-ee-neeth; fem. of 8066; prob. an eight-stringed lyre: Sheminith.

Wind Instruments
Pipes and Flutes 2485 chlyl, khaw-leel; from 2490; a flute (as perforated):pipe. 4953 mashrwqy (Chald.), mash-ro-kee; from a root corresp. to 8319; a (musical) pipe (from its whistling sound):flute. Smiths Bible Dictionary: Pipe. (Heb. chll). The Hebrew word so rendered is derived from a root signifying to bore, perforate, and is represented with sufficient correctness by the English pipe or flute, as in the margin of 1 K. i. 40. It is one of the simplest, and therefore probably one of the oldest, of musical instruments; and in consequence of its simplicity of form there is reason to suppose that the pipe of the Hebrews did not differ materially from that of the ancient Egyptians and Greeks. It is associated with the tabret (tph) as an instrument of a peaceful and social character. The pipe and tabret were used at the banquets of the Hebrews (Is. v. 12), and their bridal processions (Mishna, Baba metsia, vi. 1), and accompanied the simpler religious services, when the young prophets, returning from the high-place, caught their inspiration from the harmony (1 Sam. x. 5); or the pilgrims, on their way to the great festivals of their ritual, beguiled by the weariness of the march with psalms sung to the simple music of the pipe (Is. xxx. 29). The sound of the pipe was apparently a soft wailing note, which made it appropriate to be used in mourning and at funerals (Matt. ix. 23), and in the lament of the prophet over the destruction of Moab (Jer. xlviii. 36). It was even used in the Temple choir, as appears from Ps. lxxxvii. 7, where the players on instruments are properly pipers. Twelve days in the year, according to the Mishna, the pipes sounded before the altar. They were of reed, and not of copper or bronze, because the former gave a softer sound. Of these there were not less than two nor more than twelve. In later times, the funeral and deathbed were never without the professional pipers or flute-players (Matt. ix. 23), a custom which still exists. In the social and festive life of the Egyptians the pipe played as prominent a part as among the Hebrews. In the different combinations of instruments used in Egyptian bands, we generally find either the double pipe or the flute, and sometimes both; the former being played by both men and women, and the latter exclusively by women. Any of the instruments above described would have been called by the Hebrews chll, and it is not improbable that they might have derived their knowledge of them from Egypt. The single pipe is said to have been the invention of the Egyptians alone, who attribute it to Osiris. Bartenora identifies the chll with the French chalumeau, which is the German schalmeie, and our shawm or shalm, of which the clarionet is a modern improvement. Smiths Bible Dictionary: Flute. (1 K. i. 4), marg. [PIPE ]), a musical instrument, mentioned, amongst others (Dan. iii. 5, 7, 10, 15) as used at the worship of the golden image which Nebuchadnezzar had set up. Trumpets 2689 chtstse rh, khats-o-tser-aw; by redupl. from 2690; a trumpet (from its sundered or quavering note):trumpet (-er). 3104 ywbl, yo-bale; or ybl, yo-bale; appar. from 2986; the blast of a horn (from its continuous sound); spec. the signal of the silver trumpets; hence the instrument itself and the festival thus

12

introduced:jubile, rams horn, trumpet. 7161 qeren, keh-ren; from 7160; a horn (as projecting); by impl. a flask, cornet; by resembl. an elephants tooth (i.e. ivory), a corner (of the altar), a peak (of a mountain), a ray (of light); fig. power: x hill, horn. 7162 qeren (Chald.), kehren; corresp. to 7161; a horn (lit. or for sound):horn, cornet. 7782 shwphr, sho-far; or shphr, sho-far; from 8231 in the orig. sense of incising; a cornet (as giving a clear sound) or curved horn:cornet, trumpet. (Greek) 4536, salpigx, sal-pinx; perh. from 4535 (through the idea of quavering or reverberation): a trumpet:trump (-et). Smiths Bible Dictionary: Trumpet. [CORNET .] Smiths Bible Dictionary: Cornet. (Heb. Shfr), a loud-sounding instrument, made of the horn of a ram or of a chamois (sometimes of an ox), and used by the ancient Hebrews for signals, for announcing the Jubile (Lev. xxv. 9), for proclaiming the new year, for the purposes of war (Jer. iv. 5, 19); comp. Job xxxix. 25), as well as for the sentinels places at the watch-towers to give notice of the approach of the enemy (Ez. xxxiii. 4, 5). Shfr is generally rendered in the A.V. trumpet, but cornet (the more correct translation) is used in 2 Chr. xv. 14; Ps. xcviii. 6; Hos. v. 8; and 1 Chr. xv. 28. Cornet is also employed in Dan. iii. 5, 7, 10, 15, for the Chaldee Keren (literally a horn). Oriental scholars for the most part consider Shfr and Keren to be one and the same musical instrument; but some Biblical critics regard Shfr and Chatstserh as belonging to the species of Keren, the general term for horn. The generally received opinion is, that Keren is the crooked horn, and Shfr the long and straight one. The silver trumpets which Moses was charged to furnish for the Israelites, were to be used for the following purposes: for the calling together of the assembly, for the journeying of the camps, for sounding the alarm of war, and for celebrating the sacrifices on festivals and new moons (Num. x. 110). In the age of Solomon the silver trumpets were increased in number to 120 (2 Chr. v. 12); and, independently of the objects for which they had been first introduced, they were now emplyed in the orchestra of the Temple as an accompaniment to songs of thanksgiving and praise. Ybl, used sometimes for the year of Jubile (comp. Lev. xxv. 13, 15, with xxv. 28, 30), generally denotes the institution of Jubile, but in some instances it is spoken of as a musical instrument, resembling in its object, if not in its shape, the Keren and the Shfr. Gesenius pronounces Ybl to be applied to the sound of a trumpet signal. Still it is difficult to divest Ybl of the meaning of a sounding instrument in the following instances: Ex. xix. 13; Josh. vi. 5, 6. The sounding of the cornet was the distinguishing ritual feature of the festival appointed by Moses to be held on the first day of the seventh month under the denomination of a day of blowing trumpets (Num. xxix. 1), or a memorial of blowing of trumpets (Lev. xxiii. 24); and that rite is still observed by the Jews in their celebration of the same festival, which they now call the day of memorial, and also New Year. The intention of the appointment of the festival of the Sounding of the Cornet, as well as the duties of the sacred institution, appear to be set forth in the words of the prophet, Sound the cornet in Zion, sanctify the fast, proclaim the solemn assembly (Joel ii. 15). Agreeably to the order which this passage runs, the institution of the festival of Sounding the Cornet seems to be the prelude and preparation for the awful Day of Atonement. The word solemn assembly, in the verse from Joel quoted above, applies to the festival Eighth Day of Solemn Assembly (Lev. xxiii. 36), the closing rite of the festive cycle of Tishri. The cornet is also sounded in the synagogue at the

13

close of the service for the Day of Atonement, and, amongst the Jews who adopt the ritual of the Sephardim, on the seventh day of the feast of Tabernacles, known by the post-Biblical denomination of The Great Hosannah. In The Companion Bible, E. W. Bullinger says trumpets were of two principal kinds: those called chzozrah, made of silver and straight; the other shphr, a horn. These must be distinguished. The other words are ybl, a jubilee horn (Ex. 19.16) and tka, the blast of a trumpet (Ezek. 7.14). Dulcimer/Bag-Pipe 5481 wmpwne yh (Chald.), soom-po-neh-yaw; or wmpne yh (Chald.), soom-po-neh-yaw; or yphne y (Dan. 3:10) (Chald.), see-fo-neh-yaw; of Greek origin (); a bagpipe (with a double pipe):dulcimer. Smiths Bible Dictionary: Dulcimer. (Heb. Sumphoniah), a musical instrument, mentioned in Daniel, iii. 5, 15. Rabbi Saadia Gaon describes the Sumphoniah as the bag-pipe, an opinion adopted by the majority of biblical critics. The same instrument is still in use amongst peasants in the N.W. of Asia and in Southern Europe, where it is known by the similar name Sampogna or Zampogna. With respect to the etymology of the word a great difference of opinion prevails. Organ 5748 wgb, oo-gawb; or ggb, oog-gawb; from 5689 in the orig. sense of breathing; a reed instrument of music:organ. Smiths Bible Dictionary: Organ. (Gen. iv. 21, Job xxi. 12, xxx. 31, Ps. cl. 4). The Hebrew word gb or ggb, thus rendered in our version, probably denotes a pipe or perforated wind-instrument, as the root of the word indicates. In Gen. iv. 21 it appears to be a general term for all windinstruments. In Job xxi. 12 are enumerated the three kinds of musical instruments which are possible, under the general terms of the timbrel, harp, and organ. Our translators adopted their rendering, organ, from the Vulgate, which has uniformly organvan, that is, the double or multiple pipe. Joel Bril adopts the opinion of those who identify it with the Pandean pipes or syrinx, an instrument of unquestionably ancient origin, and common in the East. Russell describes those he met with in Aleppo. In The Companion Bible, E. W. Bullinger says this was the Pans pipe.

14

Percussion
Bells
4517 me nana, men-ah-ah; from 5128; a sistrum (so called from its rattling sound):cornet. 4698 me tsillh, mets-il-law; from 6750; a tinkler, i.e. a bell:bell. 6472 pamn, pah-am-one; from 6471; a bell (as struck):bell. Smiths Bible Dictionary: Bells. There are two words thus translated in the A. V., viz. pamn, Ex. xxviii. 33, and mtsillth, Zech. xiv. 20; A. V. marg. bridles. In Ex. xxviii. 33 the bells alluded to were the golden ones, according to the Rabbis 72 in number, which alternated with the three-coloured pomegranates round the high-priests ephod. The object of them was that his sound might be heard when he went into the holy place, and when he came out, that he die not (Ex. xxviii. 34; Ecclus. xlv. 9). No doubt they answered the same purpose as the bells used by the Brahmins in the Hindoo ceremonies, and by the Roman Catholics during the celebration of mass. To this day bells are frequently attached, for the sake of their pleasant sound, to the anklets of women. [ANKLET .] The little girls of Cairo wear strings of them round their feet. In Zech. xiv. 20 bells of the horses is probably a wrong rendering. It is more probable that they are not bells but concave or flat pieces of brass, which were sometimes attached to horses for the sake of ornament.

Cymbals
4700 me tsleth, mets-ay-leth; from 6750; (only dual) double tinklers, i.e. cymbals:cymbals. 6767 tse ltsal, tsel-aw-tsal; from 6750 re- dupl.; a clatter, i.e. (abstr.) whirring (of wings); (concr.) a cricket; also a harpoon (as rattling), a cymbal (as clanging):cymbal, locust, shadowing, spear. [This is the word translated shadowing in Isaiah 18:1.] (Greek) 2950 kumbal4n; koom-bal-on; from a der. of the base of 2949; a cymbal (as hollow):cymbal. Smiths Bible Dictionary: Cymbal, Cymbals. A percussive musical instrument. Two kinds of cymbals are mentioned in Ps. cl. 5, loud cymbals or castaganettes, and high-sounding cymbals. The former consisted of four small plates of brass or of some other hard metal; two plates were attached to each hand of the performer, and were struck together to produce a loud noise. The latter consisted of two larger plates, one held in each hand, and struck together as an accompaniment to other instruments. The use of cymbals was not necessarily restricted to the worship of the Temple or to sacred occasions: they were employed for military purposes, and also by the Hebrew women as a musical accompaniment to their national dances. Both kinds of cymbals are still common in the East in military music, and Niebuhr often refers to them in his travels. The bells of Zech. xiv. 20, were probably concave pieces or plates of brass which the people of Palestine and Syria attached to horses by way of ornament.

15

Tabrets/Timbrels 8596 tph, tofe; from 8608 contr.; a tambourine:tabret, timbrel. 8611 tpheth, tofeth; from the base of 8608; a smiting, i.e. (fig.) contempt:tabret. Smiths Bible Dictionary: Tabret. [TIMBREL .] Smiths Bible Dictionary: Timbrel, Tabret. By these words the A. V. translates the Heb. tph, which is derived from an imitative root occurring in many languages not immediately connected with each other. It is the same as the Arabic and Persian duff, which in Spanish becomes adufe, a tambourine. In Old English tabor was used for any drum. Tabouret and tabourine are diminutives of tabor, and denote the instrument now known as the tamborine. Tabret is a contraction of tabouret. The Heb. tph is undoubtedly the instrument described by travellers as the duff or diff of the Arabs. It was used in very early times by the Syrian of Padan-aram at their merry-makings (Gen. xxxi. 27). It was played principally by women (Ex. xv. 20; Judg. xi. 34; 1 Sam. xviii. 6; Ps. lxviii. 25 [26] as an accompaniment to the song and dance (comp. Jud. iii. 7), and appears to have been worn by them as an ornament (Jer. xxxi. 4). The diff of the Arabs is described by Russll (Aleppo, p. 94, 1st ed.) as a hoop (sometimes with pieces of brass fixed in it to make a jingling) over which a piece of parchment is distended. It is beat with the fingers, and is the tympanum of the ancients, as appears from its figure in several relievos, representing the orgies of Bacchus and the rites of Cybele.

In The Companion Bible, E. W. Bullinger says these were drums of various sizes (see note on I Samuel 18:6).

16

Miscellaneous
1265 be rwsh, ber-sh; of uncert. der.; a cypress (?) tree; hence a lance or a musical instrument (as made of that wood):fir (tree). [see II Samuel 6:5 and 7991 below. This is the same word used in Hosea 14:8, where God says, I am like a green fir tree . . . It is also the same word for some of the wood Solomon used in building the Temple.] 7705 shiddh, shid-dah; from 7703; a wife (as mistress of the house): x all sorts, musical instrument.

17

Part II - Words Associated With Song, Music, Rejoicing, and Dancing

18

Singing and Song


Old Testament
2167 zmar, zaw-mar; a prim. root [perh. ident. with 2168 through the idea of striking with the fingers]; prop. to touch the strings or parts of a musical instrument, i.e. play upon it; to make music, accompanied by the voice; hence to celebrate in song and music:give praise, sing forth praises, psalms. 2172 zimrh, zim-raw; from 2167; a musical piece or song to be accompanied by an instrument:melody, psalm. 4853 mass, mas-saw; from 5375; a burden; spec. tribute, or (abstr.) porterage; fig. an utterance, chiefly a doom, espec. singing; mental, desire:burden, carry away, prophecy, x they set, song, tribute. 5012 nb, naw-baw; a prim. root; to prophesy, i.e. speak (or sing) by inspiration (in prediction or simple discourse):prophesy (-ing), make self a prophet. [This is the word translated prophesy in Joel 2:28: . . . and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy . . .] 5059 ngan, naw-gan; a prim. root; prop. to thrum, i.e. beat a tune with the fingers; espec. to play on a stringed instrument; hence (gen.) to make music:player on instruments, sing to the stringed instruments, melody, minstrel, play (-er, -ing). 6030 nh, aw-naw; a prim. root; prop. to eye or (gen.) to heed, i.e. pay attention; by impl. to respond; by extens. to begin to speak; spec. to sing, shout, testify, announce:give account, afflict [by mistake for 6031], (cause to, give) answer, bring low [by mistake for 6031], cry, hear, Leannoth, lift up, say, x scholar, (give a) shout, sing (together by course), speak, testify, utter, (bear) witness. See also 1042 and 1043. 6969 qwn, koon; a prim. root; to strike a musical note, i.e. chant or wail (at a funeral):lament, mourning woman. 7015 qynh, kee-naw; from 6969; a dirge (as accompanied by beating the breasts or on instruments):lamentation. 7892 shyr, sheer; or fem. shyrh, shee-raw; from 7891; a song; abstr. singing:musical (-ick), x sing (-er, -ing), song.

New Testament
103 aid, ad-o; a prim. verb; to sing:sing. 5214 humn, hoom-neh-o; from 5215; to hymn; i.e. sing a religious ode; by impl. to celebrate

19

(God) in song:sing an hymn (praise unto). 5215 humn4s, hoom-nos; appar. from a simpler (obsol.) form of hud. (to celebrate; prob. akin to 103; comp. 5667); a hymn or religious ode (one of the Psalms):hymn. 5603 id, o-day; from 103; a chant or ode (the gen. term for any words sung; while 5215 denotes espec. a religious metrical composition, and 5568 still more spec. a Heb. cantillation):song. 5567 psall, psal-lo; prob. strengthened from psa (to rub or touch the surface; comp. 5597); to twitch or twang, i.e. to play on a stringed instrument (celebrate the divine worship with music and accompanying odes):make melody, sing (psalms). 5568 psalm4s, psal-mos; from 5567; a set piece of music, i.e. a sacred ode (accompanied with the voice, harp, or other instrument; a psalm); collect. the book of the Psalms:psalm. Comp. 5603.

20

Playing Instruments
Old Testament
5059 ngan, naw-gan; a prim. root; prop. to thrum, i.e. beat a tune with the fingers; espec. to play on a stringed instrument; hence (gen.) to make music:player on instruments, sing to the stringed instruments, melody, minstrel, play (-er, -ing). 8608 tphaph, taw-faf; to drum, i.e. play (as) on the tambourine:taber, play with timbrels. 8628 tqa, taw-kah; a prim. root; to clatter; i.e. slap (the hands together), clang (an instrument); by anal. to drive (a nail or tent-pin, a dart, etc.); by impl. to become bondsman (by handclasping):blow ([a trumpet]), cast, clap, fasten, pitch [tent], smite, sound, strike, x suretiship, thrust.

New Testament
832 aul.4, 4w-leh-o; from 836; to play the flute:pipe. 834 aults, 4w-lay-tace; from 832; a flute-player:minstrel, piper. 2789 kithariz, kith-ar-id-zo; from 2788; to play on a lyre:harp. 2790 kitharid4s, kith-ar-o-dos; from 2788 and a der. of the same as 5603; a lyre-singer (-player), i.e. harpist:harper. 3451 m4usik4s, moo-sik-os; from M4usa (a Muse); musical, i.e. (as noun) a minstrel: musician. 4537 salpiz, sal-pid-zo; from 4536; to trumpet, i.e. sound a blast (lit. or fig.):(which are yet to) sound (a trumpet). 4538 salpists, sal-pis-tace; from 4537; a trumpeter:trumpeter. 5567 psall, psal-lo; prob. strengthened from psa (to rub or touch the surface; comp. 5597); to twitch or twang, i.e. to play on a stringed instrument (celebrate the divine worship with music and accompanying odes):make melody, sing (psalms).

21

General Music
Old Testament
2170 ze mr (Chald.), zem-awr; from a root corresp. to 2167; instrumental music:musick.

New Testament
4858 sumphnia, soom-fo-nee-ah; from 4859; unison of sound (symphony), i.e. a concert of instruments (harmonious note):music.

22

Mirth, Gladness, Rejoicing, Shouting, Thanksgiving, Noisemaking


Old Testament
1523 gwl, gheel; or (by perm.) gwl, gool; a prim. root; prop. to spin round (under the influence of any violent emotion), i.e. usually rejoice, or (as cringing) fear:be glad, joy, be joyful, rejoice. 1524 gyl, gheel; from 1523; a revolution (of time, i.e. an age); also joy: x exceedingly, gladness, x greatly, joy, rejoice (-ing), sort. 1959 hydd, hay-dawd; from an unused root (mean. to shout); acclamation:shout (-ing). 1984 hlal, haw-lal; a prim. root; to be clear (orig. of sound, but usually of color); to shine; hence to make a show, to boast; and thus to be (clamorously) foolish; to rave; causat. to celebrate; also to stultify:(make) boast (self), celebrate, commend, (deal, make), fool (-ish, -ly), glory, give [light], be (make, feign self) mad (against), give in marriage, [sing, be worthy of] praise, rage, renowned, shine. 3034 ydh, yaw-daw; a prim. root; used only as denom. from 3027; lit. to use (i.e. hold out) the hand; phys. to throw (a stone, an arrow) at or away; espec. to revere or worship (with extended hands); intens. to bemoan (by wringing the hands):cast (out), (make) confess (-ion), praise, shoot, (give) thank (-ful, -s, -sgiving). 4885 msws, maw-soce; from 7797; delight, concr. (the cause or object) or abstr. (the feeling):joy, mirth, rejoice. 5375 ns, naw-saw; or nh (Psa. 4:6 [7]), naw-saw; a prim. root; to lift, in a great variety of applications, lit. and fig., absol. and rel. (as follows):accept, advance, arise, (able to, [armour], suffer to) bear (-er, up), bring (forth), burn, carry (away), cast, contain, desire, ease, exact, exalt (self), extol, fetch, forgive, furnish, futher, give, go on, help, high, hold up, honourable (+ man), lade, lay, lift (self) up, lofty, marry, magnify, x needs, obtain, pardon, raise (up), receive, regard, respect, set (up), spare, stir up, + swear, take (away, up), x utterly, wear, yield. 6030 nh, aw-naw; a prim. root; prop. to eye or (gen.) to heed, i.e. pay attention; by impl. to respond; by extens. to begin to speak; spec. to sing, shout, testify, announce:give account, afflict [by mistake for 6031], (cause to, give) answer, bring low [by mistake for 6031], cry, hear, Leannoth, lift up, say, x scholar, (give a) shout, sing (together by course), speak, testify, utter, (bear) witness. See also 1042 and 1043. 6527 prat, paw-rat; a prim. root; to scatter words, i.e. prate (or hum):chant. 6670 tshal, tsaw-hal; a prim. root; to gleam i.e. (fig.) be cheerful; by transf. to sound clear (of various animal or human expressions):bellow, cry aloud (out), lift up, neigh, rejoice, make to shine, shout. 6817 tsaq, tsaw-ak; a prim. root; to shriek; (by impl.) to proclaim (an assembly):x at all, call together, cry (out), gather (selves) (together). 6963 qwl, kole; or ql, kol; from an unused root mean. to call aloud; a voice or sound: + aloud, bleating, crackling, cry (+ out), fame, lightness, lowing, noise, + hold peace, [-pro] claim,

proclamation, + sing, sound, + spark, thunder (-ing), voice, + yell. 7311 rwm, room; a prim. root; to be high act. to rise or raise (in various applications, lit. or fig.):bring up, exalt (self), extol, give, go up, haughty, heave (up), (be, lift up on, make on, set up on, too) high (-er, one), hold up, levy, lift (-er) up, (be) lofty (x a-) loud, mount up, offer (up), + presumptuously, (be) promote (-ion), proud, set up, tall (-er), take (away, off, up), breed worms. 7321 rwa, roo-ah; a prim. root; to mar (espec. by breaking); fig. to split the ears (with sound), i.e. shout (for alarm or joy):blow an alarm, cry (alarm, aloud, out), destroy, make a joyful noise, smart, shout (for joy), sound an alarm, triumph. 7442 rnan, raw-nan; a prim. root; prop. to creak (or emit a stridulous sound), i.e. to shout (usually for joy):aloud for joy, cry out, be joyful, (greatly, make to) rejoice, (cause to) shout (for joy), (cause to) sing (aloud, for joy, out), triumph. 7797 sws, soos; or sys, sece; a prim. root; to be bright, i.e. cheerful:be glad, x greatly, joy, make mirth, rejoice. 7832 schaq, saw-khak; a prim. root; to laugh (in pleasure or detraction); by impl. to play:deride, have in derision, laugh, make merry, mock (-er), play, rejoice, (laugh to) scorn, be in (make) sport. 8055 smach, saw-makh; a prim. root; prob. to brighten up, i.e. (fig.) be (caus. make) blithe or gleesome:cheer up, be (make) glad, (have, make) joy (-ful), be (make) merry, (cause to, make to) rejoice, x very. 8056 smach, saw-may-akh; from 8055; blithe or gleeful:(be) glad, joyful, (making) merry ([hearted], -ily), rejoice (-ing). 8057 simchh, sim-khaw; from 8056; blithesomeness or glee; (religious or festival): x exceeding (-ly), gladness, joy (-fulness), mirth, pleasure, rejoice (-ing). 8085 shma, shaw-mah; a prim. root; to hear intelligently (often with impl. of attention, obedience, etc.; caus. to tell, etc.): x attentively, call (gather) together, x carefully, x certainly, consent, consider, be content, declare, x diligently, discern, give ear, (cause to, let, make to) hear (ken, tell), x indeed, listen, make (a) noise, (be) obedient, obey, perceive, (make a) proclaim (-ation), publish, regard, report, shew (forth), (make a) sound, x surely, tell, understand, whosoever [heareth], witness. 8319 shraq, shaw-rak; a prim. root; prop. to be shrill, i.e. to whistle or hiss (as a call or in scorn):hiss. 8426 twdh, to-daw; from 3034; prop. an extension of the hand, i.e. (by impl.) avowal, or (usually) adoration; spec. a choir of worshippers:confession, (sacrifice of) praise, thanks (-giving, offering). 8643 te rwh, ter-oo-aw; from 7321; clamor, i.e. acclamation of joy or a battle-cry; espec. clangor of trumpets, as an alarum:alarm, blow (-ing) (of, the) (trumpets), joy, jubile, loud noise, rejoicing, shout (-ing), (high, joyful) sound (-ing).

24

New Testament
134 ain., ahee-neh-o; from 136; to praise (God):praise. 136 ain4s, ahee-nos; appar. a prim. word; prop. a story, but used in the sense of 1868; praise (of God):praise. 214 alalaz, al-al-ad-zo; from alal, (a shout, halloo); to vociferate, i.e. (by impl.) to wail; fig. to clang:tinkle, wail. 1867 .pain., ep-ahee-neh-o; from 1909 and 134; to applaud:commend, laud, praise. 2165 .uphrain, yoo-frah-ee-no; from 2095 and 5424; to put (mid. or pass. be) in a good frame of mind, i.e. rejoice:fare, make glad, be (make) merry, rejoice. 2165 .uphrain, yoo-frah-ee-no; from 2095 and 5424; to put (mid. or pass. be) in a good frame of mind, i.e. rejoice:fare, make glad, be (make) merry, rejoice. 2168 ucharist, yoo-khar-is-teh-o; from 2170; to be grateful, i.e. (act.) to express gratitude (towards); spec. to say grace at a meal:(give) thank (-ful, -s). 2170 ucharist4s, yoo-khar-is-tos; from 2095 and a der. of 5483; well favored, i.e. (by impl.) grateful:thankful. 2278 ch, ay-kheh-o; from 2279; to make a loud noise, i.e. reverberate:roar, sound. 2279 ch4s, aykhos; of uncert. affin.; a loud or confused noise (echo), i.e. roar; fig. a rumor:fame, sound. 2350 th4rub., thor-oo-beh-o; from 2351; to be in tumult, i.e. disturb, clamor:make ado (a noise), trouble self, set on an uproar. 2351 th4rub4s, thor-oo-bos; from the base of 2360; a disturbance:tumult, uproar. 2360 thr4., thr4-eh-o; from thr.4mi (to wail); to clamor, i.e. (by impl.) to frighten:trouble. 5350 phth.gg4mai, ftheng-gom-ahee; prob. akin to 5338 and thus to 5346; to utter a clear sound, i.e. (gen.) to proclaim:speak. 5353 phth4gg4s, fthonggos; from 5350; utterance, i.e. a musical note (vocal or instrumental):sound. 5456 phn, fo-nay; prob. akin to 5316 through the idea of disclosure; a tone (articulate, bestial, or artificial); by imp. an address (for any purpose), saying, or language:noise, sound, voice. 5463 chair, khahee-ro; a prim. verb; to be cheerful, i.e. calmly happy or well-off; impers. espec. as salutation (on meeting or parting), be well:farewell, be glad, God speed, greeting, hail, joy (-fully) rejoice.

25

5483 chariz4mai, khar-idzom-ahee;mid. from 5485; to grant as a favor, i.e. gratuitously, in kindness, pardon, or rescue:deliver, (frankly) forgive, (freely) give, grant. 5485 charis, khar-ece; from 5463; graciousness (as gratifying), of manner or act (abstr. or concr.; lit., fig., or spiritual; espec. the divine influence upon the heart, and its reflection in the life; including gratitude):acceptable, benefit, favour, gift, grace (-ious), joy, liberality, pleasure, thank (-s, worthy).

26

Dancing
Old Testament
193 wl, ool, from an unused root mean. to twist, i.e. (by impl.) be strong; the body (as being rolled together); also powerful:mighty, strength. 2287 chgag, khaw-gag; a prim. root [comp. 2283, 2328]; prop. to move in a circle, i.e. (spec.) to march in a sacred procession, to observe a festival; by impl. to be giddy:celebrate, dance, (keep, hold) a (solemn) feast (holiday), reel to and fro. 2342 chyl, khool; or chyl, kheel; a prim. root; prop. to twist or whirl (in a circular or spiral manner), i.e. (spec.) to dance, to writhe in pain (espec. of parturition) or fear; fig. to wait, to pervert:bear, (make to) bring forth, (make to) calve, dance, drive away, fall grievously (with pain), fear, form, great, grieve, (be) grievous, hope, look, make, be in pain, be much (sore) pained, rest, shake, shapen, (be) sorrow (-ful), stay, tarry, travail (with pain), tremble, trust, wait carefully (patiently), be wounded. 3769 krar, kaw-rar; a prim. root; to dance (i.e. whirl):dance (-ing). 4234 mchwl, maw-khole; from 2342; a (round) dance:dance (-cing). 4246 me chwlh, mekh-o-law; fem. of 4234; a dance:company, dances (-cing). 6339 pzaz, paw-zaz; a prim. root [rather ident. with 6338]; to solidify (as if by refining); also to spring (as if separating the limbs):leap, be made strong. 7540 rqad, raw-kad; a prim. root; prop. to stamp, i.e. to spring about (wildly or for joy):dance, jump, leap, skip. 7788 shwr, shoor; a prim. root; prop. to turn, i.e. travel about (as a harlot or a merchant):go, sing. See also 7891. 7891 shyr, sheer; or shwr (1 Sam. 18:6), shoor; a prim. root [rather ident. with 7788 through the idea of strolling minstrelsy]; to sing:behold [by mistake for 7789], sing (-er, -ing man, -ing woman).

New Testament
3738 4rch.4mai, or-kheh-om-ahee; mid. from 4rch4s (a row or ring); to dance (from the ranklike or regular motion):dance. 5525 ch4r4s, khor-os; of uncert. der.; a ring, i.e. round dance (choir):dancing.

27

Part III - The Role of Music, Song, and Dance in the Bible

28

The Jubile Trumpet (Shofar)


Leviticus 25:822: 8 And thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years unto thee, seven times seven years; and the space of the seven sabbaths of years shall be unto thee forty and nine years. 9Then shalt thou cause the trumpet (7782) of the jubile to sound (5674) on the tenth day of the seventh month, in the day of atonement shall ye make the trumpet (7782) sound (5674) throughout all your land.10 And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubile unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family.11 A jubile shall that fiftieth year be unto you: ye shall not sow, neither reap that which groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in it of thy vine undressed.12 For it is the jubile; it shall be holy unto you: ye shall eat the increase thereof out of the field.13 In the year of this jubile ye shall return every man unto his possession.14 And if thou sell ought unto thy neighbour, or buyest ought of thy neighbours hand, ye shall not oppress one another: 15 According to the number of years after the jubile thou shalt buy of thy neighbour, and according unto the number of years of the fruits he shall sell unto thee:16 According to the multitude of years thou shalt increase the price thereof, and according to the fewness of years thou shalt diminish the price of it: for according to the number of the years of the fruits doth he sell unto thee. 17 Ye shall not therefore oppress one another; but thou shalt fear thy God: for I am the LORD your God. 18 Wherefore ye shall do My statutes, and keep my judgments, and do them; and ye shall dwell in the land in safety. 19 And the land shall yield her fruit, and ye shall eat your fill, and dwell therein in safety. 20 And if ye shall say, What shall we eat the seventh year? behold, we shall not sow, nor gather in our increase: 21 Then I will command My blessing upon you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth fruit for three years. 22 And ye shall sow the eighth year, and eat yet of old fruit until the ninth year; until her fruits come in ye shall eat of the old store.

Israels Silver Trumpets


Numbers 10:1-10:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 2 Make thee two trumpets (2689) of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou make them: that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps. 3 And when they shall blow (8628) with them, all the assembly shall assemble themselves to thee at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 4 And if they blow (8628) but with one trumpet, then the princes, which are heads of the thousands of Israel, shall gather themselves unto thee. 5 When ye blow (8628) an alarm (8643), then the camps that lie on the east parts shall go forward. 6 When ye blow (8628) an alarm (8643) the second time, then the camps that lie on the south side shall take their journey: they shall blow (8628) an alarm (8643) for their journeys. 7 But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow (8628), but ye shall not sound an alarm (7321). 8 And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall blow (8628) with the trumpets (2689); and they shall be to you for an ordinance for ever throughout your generations. 9 And if ye go to war in your land against the enemy that oppresseth you, then ye shall blow (8628) an alarm (7321) with the trumpets (2689); and ye shall be remembered before the LORD your God, and ye shall be saved from your enemies. 10 Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow (8628) with the trumpets (2689) over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the LORD your God.

29

Trumpets in Battle
Priests Blow the Shofar in the Battle for Jericho
Joshua 6:4-20: 4 And seven priests shall bear before the ark seven trumpets (7782) of rams horns (3104): and the seventh day ye shall compass the city seven times, and the priests shall blow (8628) with the trumpets (7782). 5 And it shall come to pass, that when they make a long blast with the rams (3104) horn (7161), and when ye hear the sound (6963) of the trumpet (7782), all the people shall shout (7321) with a great shout (8643); and the wall of the city shall fall down flat, and the people shall ascend up every man straight before him. 6 And Joshua the son of Nun called the priests, and said unto them, Take up the ark of the covenant, and let seven priests bear seven trumpets (7782) of rams' horns (3104) before the ark of the LORD . 7 And he said unto the people, Pass on, and compass the city, and let him that is armed pass on before the ark of the LORD . 8 And it came to pass, when Joshua had spoken unto the people, that the seven priests bearing the trumpets (7782) of rams' horns (3104) passed on before the LORD , and blew (8628) with the trumpets (7782), and the ark of the covenant of the LORD followed them. 9 And the armed men went before the priests that blew (8628) with the trumpets (7782): and the rereward came after the ark, the priests going on, and blowing (8628) with the trumpets (7782).10 And Joshua had commanded the people, saying, Ye shall not shout (7321), nor make any noise (8085) with your voice (6963), neither shall any word proceed out of your mouth, until the day I bid you shout (7321); then shall ye shout (7321). 11 So the ark of the LORD compassed the city, going about it once: and they came into the camp, and lodged in the camp.12 And Joshua rose early in the morning, and the priests took up the ark of the LORD . 13 And seven priests bearing seven trumpets (7782) of rams' horns (3104) before the ark of the LORD went on continually, and blew (8628) with the trumpets (7782): and the armed men went before them; but the rereward came after the ark of the LORD , the priests going on, and blowing (8628) with the trumpets (7782).14 And the second day they compassed the city once, and returned into the camp: so they did six days. 15 And it came to pass on the seventh day, that they rose early about the dawning of the day, and compassed the city after the same manner seven times: only on that day they compassed the city seven times. 16 And it came to pass at the seventh time, when the priests blew (8628) with the trumpets (7782), Joshua said unto the people, Shout (7321); for the LORD hath given you the city. 17 And the city shall be accursed, even it, and all that are therein, to the LORD : only Rahab the harlot shall live, she and all that are with her in the house, because she hid the messengers that we sent. 18 And ye, in any wise keep yourselves from the accursed thing, lest ye make yourselves accursed, when ye take of the accursed thing, and make the camp of Israel a curse, and trouble it. 19 But all the silver, and gold, and vessels of brass and iron, are consecrated unto the LORD : they shall come into the treasury of the LORD . 20 So the people shouted (7321) when the priests blew (8628) with the trumpets (7782): and it came to pass, when the people heard (8085) the sound (6963) of the trumpet (7782), and the people shouted (7321) with a great shout (8643), that the wall fell down flat, so that the people went up into the city, every man straight before him, and they took the city.

The Shofar in the Battle Against the Midianites, Amalekites, and Children of the East
Judges 7:8-22: 8 So the people took victuals in their hand, and their trumpets (7782): and he sent all the rest of Israel every man unto his tent, and retained those three hundred men: and the host of Midian was beneath him in the valley.9 And it came to pass the same night, that the LORD said unto

30

him, Arise, get thee down unto the host; for I have delivered it into thine hand. 10 But if thou fear to go down, go thou with Phurah thy servant down to the host: 11 And thou shalt hear what they say; and afterward shall thine hands be strengthened to go down unto the host. Then went he down with Phurah his servant unto the outside of the armed men that were in the host. 12 And the Midianites and the Amalekites and all the children of the east lay along in the valley like grasshoppers for multitude; and their camels were without number, as the sand by the sea side for multitude.13 And when Gideon was come, behold, there was a man that told a dream unto his fellow, and said, Behold, I dreamed a dream, and, lo, a cake of barley bread tumbled into the host of Midian, and came unto a tent, and smote it that it fell, and overturned it, that the tent lay along. 14 And his fellow answered and said, This is nothing else save the sword of Gideon the son of Joash, a man of Israel: for into his hand hath God delivered Midian, and all the host. 15 And it was so, when Gideon heard the telling of the dream, and the interpretation thereof, that he worshipped, and returned into the host of Israel, and said, Arise; for the LORD hath delivered into your hand the host of Midian. 16 And he divided the three hundred men into three companies, and he put a trumpet in every man's hand, with empty pitchers, and lamps within the pitchers. 17 And he said unto them, Look on me, and do likewise: and, behold, when I come to the outside of the camp, it shall be that, as I do, so shall ye do. 18 When I blow (8628) with a trumpet (7782), I and all that are with me, then blow (8628) ye the trumpets (7782) also on every side of all the camp, and say, The sword of the LORD , and of Gideon. 19 So Gideon, and the hundred men that were with him, came unto the outside of the camp in the beginning of the middle watch; and they had but newly set the watch: and they blew (8628) the trumpets (7782), and brake the pitchers that were in their hands. 20 And the three companies blew (8628) the trumpets (7782), and brake the pitchers, and held the lamps in their left hands, and the trumpets (7782) in their right hands to blow (8628) withal: and they cried, The sword of the LORD , and of Gideon. 21 And they stood every man in his place round about the camp: and all the host ran, and cried, and fled. 22 And the three hundred blew (8628) the trumpets (7782), and the LORD set every mans sword against his fellow, even throughout all the host: and the host fled to Beth-shittah in Zererath, and to the border of Abel-meholah, unto Tabbath.

Children of Judah Blow the Silver Trumpets in Battle Against Jeroboam


II Chronicles 13:1416:14 And when Judah looked back, behold, the battle was before and behind: and they cried (6817) unto the LORD , and the priests sounded (2690) with the trumpets (2689). 15 Then the men ofJudah gave a shout (7321): and as the men of Judah shouted (7321), it came to pass, that God smote Jeroboam and all Israel before Abijah and Judah. 16 And the children of Israel fled before Judah: and God delivered them into their hand.

The Lord Connects Sound of the Trumpet with Battle


Job 39:2425: 24 He swalloweth the ground with fierceness and rage: neither believeth he that it is the sound (6963) of the trumpet (7782). 25 He saith among the trumpets (7782), Ha, ha; and he smelleth the battle afar off, the thunder of the captains, and the shouting (8643).

Paul Connects the Certainty of the Sound of the Trumpet With Battle
I Corinthians 14:79: 7 And even things without life giving sound (5456), whether pipe (836) or harp (2788), except they give a distinction in the sounds (5353), how shall it be known what is piped (832) or harped (2789)? 8 For if the trumpet (4356) give an uncertain sound (5456), who shall prepare himself to the battle? 9 So likewise ye, except ye utter by the tongue words easy to be

31

understood, how shall it be known what is spoken? for ye shall speak into the air.

Sounding Trumpets Bring About the End


Matthew 24:31: 31 And He shall send His angels with a great sound (5456) of a trumpet (4536), and they shall gather together His elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other. I Corinthians 15:52: 52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump (4536): for the trumpet shall sound (4537), and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. I Thessalonians 4:16:16 For the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump (4536) of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: Revelation 8:2: 2 And I saw the seven angels which stood before God; and to them were given seven trumpets (4536).

32

The Ark
David and the Chosen Men of Israel Bring the Ark from Baale of Judah (Kirjath-Jearim)
II Samuel 6:15: 1 Again, David gathered together all the chosen men of Israel, thirty thousand. 2 And David arose, and went with all the people that were with him from Baale of Judah, to bring up from thence the ark of God, whose name is called by the name of the LORD of hosts That dwelleth between the cherubims. 3 And they set the ark of God upon a new cart, and brought it out of the house of Abinadab that was in Gibeah: and Uzzah and Ahio, the sons of Abinadab, drave the new cart. 4 And they brought it out of the house of Abinadab which was at Gibeah, accompanying the ark of God: and Ahio went before the ark. 5 And David and all the house of Israel played before the LORD on all manner of instruments made of fir (1265) wood (6086), even on harps (3658), and on psalteries (5035), and on timbrels (8596), and on cornets (4517), and on cymbals (6767). I Chronicles 13:8: 8 And David and all Israel played before God with all their might, and with singing, and with harps (3658), and with psalteries (5035), and with timbrels (8596), and with cymbals (4700), and with trumpets (2689).

David Brings the Ark From the House of Obed-Edom to the City of David
II Samuel 6:1219: 12 And it was told king David, saying, The LORD hath blessed the house of Obededom, and all that pertaineth unto him, because of the ark of God. So David went and brought up the ark of God from the house of Obed-edom into the city of David with gladness (8057). 13 And it was so, that when they that bare the ark of the LORD had gone six paces, he sacrificed oxen and fatlings. 14 And David danced (3769) before the LORD with all his might; and David was girded with a linen ephod. 15 So David and all the house of Israel brought up the ark of the LORD with shouting (8643), and with the sound (6963) of the trumpet (7782). 16 And as the ark of the LORD came into the city of David, Michal Sauls daughter looked through a window, and saw king David leaping (6339) and dancing (3769) before the LORD ; and she despised him in her heart. 17 And they brought in the ark of the LORD , and set it in his place, in the midst of the tabernacle that David had pitched for it: and David offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before the LORD . 18 And as soon as David had made an end of offering burnt offerings and peace offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the LORD of hosts. 19 And he dealt among all the people, even among the whole multitude of Israel, as well to the women as men, to every one a cake of bread, and a good piece of flesh, and a flagon of wine. So all the people departed every one to his house.

David Instructs Levites to Appoint Singers and Musicians to Accompany Bringing the Ark to the City of David
I Chronicles 15:1616:6; 16:4043: 16 And David spake to the chief of the Levites to appoint their brethren to be the singers (7891) with instruments (3627) of musick (7892), psalteries (5035) and harps (3658) and cymbals (4700), sounding (8085), by lifting up (7311) the voice (6963) with joy (8057). 17 So the Levites appointed Heman (1968) the son of Joel (3100); and of his brethren, Asaph (623) the son of Berechiah (1296); and of the sons of Merari (4847) their brethren, Ethan (387) the son of Kushaiah (6984); 18 And with them their brethren of the second degree, Zechariah (2148), Ben (1122), and Jaaziel (3268), and Shemiramoth (8070), and Jehiel (3171), and Unni (6042), Eliab (446), and Benaiah (1141), and Maaseiah (4641), and Mattithiah (4993), and Elipheleh (466), and Mikneiah (4737), and Obed-edom (5654), and

33

Jeiel (3273), the porters. 19 So the singers (7891), Heman (1968), Asaph (0623), and Ethan (0387), were appointed to sound (8085) with cymbals (4700) of brass; 20 And Zechariah (2148), and Aziel (5815), and Shemiramoth (8070), and Jehiel (3171), and Unni (6042), and Eliab (446), and Maaseiah (4641), and Benaiah (1141), with psalteries (5035) on Alamoth (5961); 21 And Mattithiah (4993), and Elipheleh (466), and Mikneiah (4737), and Obed-edom (5654), and Jeiel (3273), and Azaziah (5812), with harps (3658) on the Sheminith (8067) to excel. 22 And Chenaniah (3663), chief of the Levites, was for song (4853): he instructed about the song (4853), because he was skilful (995). 23 And Berechiah (1269) and Elkanah (511) were doorkeepers for the ark. 24 And Shebaniah (7645), and Jehoshaphat (3146), and Nethaneel (5417), and Amasai (6022), and Zechariah (2148), and Benaiah (1141), and Eliezer (461), the priests, did blow (2690) with the trumpets (2689) before the ark of God: and Obed-edom (5654) and Jehiah (3174) were doorkeepers for the ark. 25 So David, and the elders of Israel, and the captains over thousands, went to bring up the ark of the covenant of the LORD out of the house of Obed-edom (5654) with joy (8057). 26 And it came to pass, when God helped the Levites that bare the ark of the covenant of the LORD , that they offered seven bullocks and seven rams. 27 And David was clothed with a robe of fine linen, and all the Levites that bare the ark, and the singers (7891), and Chenaniah (3663) the master of the song (4853) with the singers (7891): David also had upon him an ephod of linen. 28 Thus all Israel brought up the ark of the covenant of the LORD with shouting (8643), and with sound (6943) of the cornet (7782), and with trumpets (2689), and with cymbals (4700), making a noise with psalteries (5035) and harps (3658). 29 And it came to pass, as the ark of the covenant of the LORD came to the city of David, that Michal the daughter of Saul looking out at a window saw king David dancing (7540) and playing (7832): and she despised him in her heart. 1 So they brought the ark of God, and set it in the midst of the tent that David had pitched for it: and they offered burnt sacrifices and peace offerings before God. 2 And when David had made an end of offering the burnt offerings and the peace offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the LORD . 3 And he dealt to every one of Israel, both man and woman, to every one a loaf of bread, and a good piece of flesh, and a flagon of wine. 4 And he appointed certain of the Levites to minister before the ark of the LORD , and to record, and to thank (3034) and praise (1984) the LORD God of Israel: 5 Asaph (623) the chief, and next to him Zechariah (2148), Jeiel (3273), and Shemiramoth (8070), and Jehiel (3171), and Mattithiah (4993), and Eliab (446), and Benaiah (1141), and Obed-edom (5654): and Jeiel (3273) with psalteries (5035)(3627) and with harps (3658); but Asaph (623) made a sound (8085) with cymbals (4700); 6 Benaiah (1141) also and Jahaziel (3166) the priests with trumpets (2689) continually before the ark of the covenant of God. 40 To offer burnt offerings unto the LORD upon the altar of the burnt offering continually morning and evening, and to do according to all that is written in the law of the LORD , which He commanded Israel; 41 And with them Heman (1968) and Jeduthun (3038), and the rest that were chosen, who were expressed by name, to give thanks to the LORD , because His mercy endureth for ever; 42 And with them Heman (1968) and Jeduthun (3038) with trumpets (2689) and cymbals (4700) for those that should make a sound (8085), and with musical (7892) instruments (3627) of God. And the sons of Jeduthun (3038) were porters. 43 And all the people departed every man to his house: and David returned to bless his house.

34

The Psalms of Asaph and the Psalms for Jeduthun


Asaph
From Appendix 63 of the Companion Bible: VIII. THE AUTHORS NAMED IN THE PSALMS. 1. The Psalms bearing the name of DAVID are seventy-three in all: thirty-seven in the Book I (3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 ,29 ,30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41); eighteen Psalms in Book II (51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 68, 69, 70); one in Book III (Psalm 86); two in Book IV (101 and 103); and fifteen in Book V (108, 109, 110, 122, 124, 131, 133, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145). 2. By ASAPH , twelve Psalms: one being in Book II (Psalm 50), and eleven in Book III (73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83). 3. By the sons of Korah eleven Psalms: seven being in Book II (42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49); and four in Book III (84, 85, 87, 88), as set out in The Companion Bible. In Psalms 46 and 88 it is repeated as the sub-scription of Psalms 45 and 87, and is not the super-scription of 46 and 88 as in all the Versions. 4. For, or of Solomon, two Psalms: one in Book II (Psalm 72), and one in Book V (Psalm 127). 5. By Heman the Ezrahite, one in Book III (Psalm 88). 6. By Ethan the Ezrahite, one in Book III (Psalm 89). 7. By Moses the man of God, one in Book IV (Psalm 90).

Jeduthun
From Appendix 65 of the Companion Bible: JEDUTHUN was one of the three directors (or the chief Musicians) of Temple worship (1 Chron. 16:41, 42; 25:16; 2 Chron. 5:12, 35:15). The three sons of Levi were thus represented by the three men whose names occur in this category. JEDUTHUN was a descendant of MERARI (1 Chron. 26:10); while ASAPH was a descendant of GERSHOM ; and HEMAN of KOHATH . JEDUTHUN seems to have had another name, ETHAN (1 Chronicles 15:17, 19, compared with 16:41, 42; 25:1, 3, 6, and 2 Chronicles 35:15). That there was an ETHAN , a Merarite, is seen from 1 Chronicles 6:44; 15:17. Since he is associated with those two men, it is going out of ones way to create a difficulty by supposing Jeduthun to be a musical instrument, or the name of a tune (Revised Version margin) or of a measure. There are three Psalms connected with JEDUTHUN (38, 61 and 76), and they will be found to fulfil these conditions.

35

In 2 Chronicles 35:15 he is called the kings seer; and in 1 Chronicles 25:1 it was the duty of these three men to prophesyand to confess, and to praise Jehovah (verse 3). This was according to the kings order (verse 6). By comparing these Psalms as set out in The Companion Bible, the confusion, caused by two of these Psalms appearing to have the names of two different authors, vanishes. The sub-scription of each Psalm now stands To the chief MusicianJeduthun.

36

Priests and Singers in Temple Worship


Four Thousand Priests and Levites Set Aside for Praising the Lord With Instruments
I Chronicles 23:5: 5 Moreover four thousand were porters; and four thousand praised (1984) the LORD with the instruments (3627) which I made, said David, to praise (1984) therewith.

Courses of the Priesthood


I Chronicles 24:1-19: 1 Now these are the divisions of the sons of Aaron (175). The sons of Aaron (175); Nadab (5070), and Abihu (30), Eleazar (499), and Ithamar (385). 2 But Nadab (5070) and Abihu (30) died before their father, and had no children: therefore Eleazar (499) and Ithamar (385) executed the priests office. 3 And David (1732) distributed them, both Zadok (6659) of the sons of Eleazar (499), and Ahimelech (288) of the sons of Ithamar (385), according to their offices in their service. 4 And there were more chief men found of the sons of Eleazar (499) than of the sons of Ithamar (385); and thus were they divided. Among the sons of Eleazar (499) there were sixteen chief men of the house of their fathers, and eight among the sons of Ithamar (385) according to the house of their fathers. 5 Thus were they divided by lot, one sort with another; for the governors of the sanctuary, and governors of the house of God, were of the sons of Eleazar (499), and of the sons of Ithamar (385). 6 And Shemaiah (8098) the son of Nethaneel (5417) the scribe, one of the Levites, wrote them before the king, and the princes, and Zadok (6659) the priest, and Ahimelech (288) the son of Abiathar (54), and before the chief of the fathers of the priests and Levites: one principal household being taken for Eleazar (499), and one taken for Ithamar (385). 7 Now the first lot came forth to Jehoiarib (3080), the second to Jedaiah (3048), 8 The third to Harim (2766), the fourth to Seorim (8188), 9 The fifth to Malchijah (4441), the sixth to Mijamin (4326), 10 The seventh to Hakkoz (7935), the eighth to Abijah (29), 11 The ninth to Jeshua (3442), the tenth to Shecaniah (7935), 12 The eleventh to Eliashib (475), the twelfth to Jakim (3356), 13 The thirteenth to Huppah (2647), the fourteenth to Jeshebeab (3428), 14 The fifteenth to Bilgah (1083), the sixteenth to Immer (564), 15 The seventeenth to Hezir (2387), the eighteenth to Aphses (6483), 16 The nineteenth to Pethahiah (6611), the twentieth to Jehezekel (564), 17 The one and twentieth to Jachin (3199), the two and twentieth to Gamul (1577), 18 The three and twentieth to Delaiah (1806), the four and twentieth to Maaziah (4590). 19 These were the orderings of them in their service to come into the house of the LORD , according to their manner, under Aaron their father, as the LORD God of Israel had commanded him.

Courses of the Singers


The Levites were divided into three major branches from Levis sons, Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. The high priest line came through Kohath, and down through Aaron. See I Chronicles 6:13. While the priests of the Temple courses all came from the Kohathites (see I Chronicles 24:119) through Aarons sons Eleazar (16 courses) and Ithamar (8 courses), the singers came from all three branches. Heman was a Kohathite (I Chronicles 6:33), Asaph a Gershonite (I Chronicles 6:3943), and Jeduthun/Ethan a Merarite (I Chronicles 6:44:47). The Heman/Kohath line was most heavily represented with fourteen courses (I Chronicles 25:5). The Jeduthun/Merari line held six courses (I

37

Chronicles 25:3), and the Asaph/Gershon line held four courses (I Chronicles 25:2). The sons of Asaph prophesied according to the order of the king (I Chronicles 25:1). The sons of Jeduthun prophesied with a harp, to give thanks and to praise the LORD (I Chronicles 25:3). Of Heman and his sons, I Chronicles 25:5 says, All these were the sons of Heman the kings seer in the words of God, to lift up the horn. Of all three, I Chronicles 25:6 says, All these were under the hands of their father for song in the house of the LORD , with cymbals, psalteries, and harps for the service of the house of God, according to the kings order to Asaph, Jeduthun, and Heman. The name meanings of Hemans first six sons form a prayer: I have magnified, and I have raised up help; Sitting in trouble, I have spoken many oracles (see note in The Companion Bible on I Chronicles 25:4). I Chronicles 25:131: 1 Moreover David and the captains of the host separated to the service of the sons of Asaph (623), and of Heman (1968), and of Jeduthun (3038), who should prophesy (5012) (5030) with harps (3658), with psalteries (5035), and with cymbals (4700): and the number of the workmen according to their service was: 2 Of the sons of Asaph (623); Zaccur (2139), and Joseph (3130), and Nethaniah (5418), and Asarelah (841), the sons of Asaph (623) under the hands of Asaph (623), which prophesied according to the order of the king. 3 Of Jeduthun (3038): the sons of Jeduthun (3038); Gedaliah (1436), and Zeri (6874), and Jeshaiah (3470), Hashabiah (2811), and Mattithiah (4993), six, under the hands of their father Jeduthun (3038), who prophesied (5012) with a harp (3658), to give thanks (3034) and to praise (1984) the LORD . 4 Of Heman (1968): the sons of Heman (1968); Bukkiah (1232), Mattaniah (4983), Uzziel (5816), Shebuel (7619), and Jerimoth (3406) , Hananiah (2608), Hanani (2607), Eliathah (448), Giddalti (1437), and Romamtiezer (7320), Joshbekashah (3436), Mallothi (4413), Hothir (1956), and Mahazioth (4238): 5 All these were the sons of Heman (1968) the kings seer (2374) in the words of God, to lift up (7311) the horn (7161). And God gave to Heman (1968) fourteen sons and three daughters. 6 All these were under the hands of their father for song (7892) in the house of the LORD , with cymbals (4700), psalteries (5035), and harps (3658), for the service of the house of God, according to the kings order to Asaph (623), Jeduthun (3038), and Heman (1968). 7 So the number of them, with their brethren that were instructed in the songs of the LORD , even all that were cunning, was two hundred fourscore and eight [288 = 24 x 12]. 8 And they cast lots, ward against ward, as well the small as the great, the teacher (995) as the scholar (8527). 9 Now the first lot came forth for Asaph (623) to Joseph (3130): the second to Gedaliah (1436), who with his brethren and sons were twelve: 10 The third to Zaccur (2139), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 11 The fourth to Izri (3339), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 12 The fifth to Nethaniah (5418), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 13 The sixth to Bukkiah (1232), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 14 The seventh to Jesharelah (3480), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 15 The eighth to Jeshaiah (3470), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 16 The ninth to Mattaniah (4983), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 17 The tenth to Shimei (8096), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 18 The eleventh to Azareel (5832), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 19 The twelfth to Hashabiah (2811), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 20 The thirteenth to Shubael (7619), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 21 The fourteenth to Mattithiah (4993), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 22 The fifteenth to Jeremoth (3406), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 23 The sixteenth to Hananiah

38

(2608), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 24 The seventeenth to Joshbekashah (3436), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 25 The eighteenth to Hanani (2607), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 26 The nineteenth to Mallothi (4413), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 27 The twentieth to Eliathah (448), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 28 The one and twentieth to Hothir (1956), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 29 The two and twentieth to Giddalti (1437), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 30 The three and twentieth to Mahazioth (4238), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve: 31 The four and twentieth to Romamti-ezer (7320), he, his sons, and his brethren, were twelve. II Chronicles 7:6: 6 And the priests waited on their offices: the Levites also with instruments (3627) of musick (7892) of the LORD , which David the king had made to praise the LORD , because His mercy endureth for ever, when David praised by their ministry; and the priests sounded trumpets (2690) before them, and all Israel stood.

39

Priests and Singers By Course


Course 1 Priests Jehoiarib Yahveh will contend 3080 Jediaiah Yah has known 3048 Harim snub-nosed 2766 Seorim barley grains 8188 Malchijah king of (i.e. appointed by) Yah 4441 Mijamin from the right hand 4326 Hakkoz a thorn 6976 Abijah father (i.e. worshipper) of Yah 29 Jeshuah he will save 3442 Shecaniah Yah has dwelt 7935 Eliashib God will restore 475 Jakim he will raise 3356 Singers Joseph (Asaph/Gershon line) let him add 3130 Gedaliah (Jeduthun/Merari line) Yah has become great 1436 Zaccur (Asaph/Gershon line) mindful 2139 Izri (Jeduthun/Merari line) formative 3339 Nethaniah (Asaph/Gershon line) given of Yah 5418 Bukkiah (Heman/Kohath line) wasting of Yah 1232 Jesharelah (Asaph/Gershon line) right towards God 3480 Jeshaiah (Jeduthun/Merari line) Yah has saved 3470 Mattaniah (Heman/Kohath line) gift of Yah 4983 Shimei (Jeduthun/Merari line) famous 8096 Azareel (Heman/Kohath line) God has helped 5832 Hashabiah (Jeduthun/Merari line) Yah has regarded 2811

10

11

12

40

Course 13

Priests Huppah canopy 2647 Jeshebeab seat of (his) father 3428 Bilgah desistance 1083 Immer talkative 564 Hezir protected 2387 Aphses to dissever; disperse 6483 Pethahiah Yah has opened 6611 Jehezekel God will strengthen 3168 Jachin he (or it) will establish 3199 Gamul rewarded 1577 Delaiah Yah has delivered 1806 Maaziah rescue of Yah 4590

Singers Shubael (Heman/Kohath line) captive (or returned) of God 7619 Mattithiah (Jeduthun/Merari line) gift of Yah 4993 Jeremoth (Heman/Kohath line) elevations 3406 Hananiah (Heman/Kohath line) Yah has favored 2608 Joshbekashah (Heman/Kohath line) a hard seat 3436 Hanani (Heman/Kohath line) gracious 2607 Mallothi (Heman/Kohath line) I have talked 4413 Eliathah (Heman/Kohath line) God of (his) consent 448 Hothir (Heman/Kohath line) he has caused to remain 1956 Giddalti (Heman/Kohath line) I have made great 1437 Mahazioth (Heman/Kohath line) visions 4238 Romamti-ezer (Heman/Kohath line) I have raised up a help 7320

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

41

The Dedication of the First Temple


II Chronicles 5:11-14: 11 And it came to pass, when the priests were come out of the holy place: (for all the priests that were present were sanctified, and did not then wait by course: 12 Also the Levites which were the singers (7891), all of them of Asaph (623), of Heman (1968), of Jeduthun (3038), with their sons and their brethren, being arrayed in white linen, having cymbals (4700) and psalteries (5035) and harps (3658), stood at the east end of the altar, and with them an hundred and twenty priests sounding (2690) with trumpets (2689):) 13 It came even to pass, as the trumpeters (2690) and singers (7891) were as one, to make one sound (6963) to be heard in praising (1984) and thanking (3034) the LORD ; and when they lifted up their voice (6963) with the trumpets (2689) and cymbals (4700) and instruments (3627) of musick (7892), and praised (1984) the LORD , saying, For He is good; for His mercy endureth for ever: that then the house was filled with a cloud, even the house of the LORD . 14 So that the priests could not stand to minister by reason of the cloud: for the glory of the LORD had filled the house of God.

42

The Cleansing of the Temple Under Hezekiahs Reign


II Chronicles 29:2536: 25 And he set the Levites in the house of the LORD with cymbals (4700), with psalteries (5035), and with harps (3658), according to the commandment of David (1732), and of Gad the kings seer (2374), and Nathan the prophet (5030): for so was the commandment of the LORD by His prophets (5030). 26 And the Levites stood with the instruments of David, and the priests with the trumpets (2689). 27 And Hezekiah commanded to offer the burnt offering upon the altar. And when the burnt offering began, the song (7892) of the LORD began also with the trumpets (2689), and with the instruments (3627) ordained by David king of Israel. 28 And all the congregation worshipped, and the singers (7892) sang (7891), and the trumpeters (2689) sounded (2690): and all this continued until the burnt offering was finished. 29 And when they had made an end of offering, the king and all that were present with him bowed themselves, and worshipped. 30 Moreover Hezekiah the king and the princes commanded the Levites to sing praise (1984) unto the LORD with the words of David, and of Asaph (623) the seer (2374). And they sang praises (1984) with gladness (8057), and they bowed their heads and worshipped (7812). 31 Then Hezekiah answered and said, Now ye have consecrated yourselves unto the LORD , come near and bring sacrifices and thank offerings into the house of the LORD . And the congregation brought in sacrifices and thank offerings; and as many as were of a free heart burnt offerings. 32 And the number of the burnt offerings, which the congregation brought, was threescore and ten bullocks, an hundred rams, and two hundred lambs: all these were for a burnt offering to the LORD . 33 And the consecrated things were six hundred oxen and three thousand sheep. 34 But the priests were too few, so that they could not flay all the burnt offerings: wherefore their brethren the Levites did help them, till the work was ended, and until the other priests had sanctified themselves: for the Levites were more upright in heart to sanctify themselves than the priests. 35 And also the burnt offerings were in abundance, with the fat of the peace offerings, and the drink offerings for every burnt offering. So the service of the house of the LORD was set in order. 36 And Hezekiah rejoiced (8055), and all the people, that God had prepared the people: for the thing was done suddenly.

43

The Laying of the Second Temple Foundation


Ezra 2:6465: 64 The whole congregation together was forty and two thousand three hundred and threescore, 65 Beside their servants and their maids, of whom there were seven thousand three hundred thirty and seven: and there were among them two hundred singing men (7891) and singing women (7891). Ezra 3:1013: 10 And when the builders laid the foundation of the temple of the LORD , they set the priests in their apparel with trumpets (2689), and the Levites the sons of Asaph (623) with cymbals (4700), to praise (1984) the LORD , after the ordinance of David king of Israel. 11 And they sang (6030) together by course in praising (1984) and giving thanks (3034) unto the LORD ; because He is good, for His mercy endureth for ever toward Israel. And all the people shouted (7321) with a great shout (8643), when they praised (1984) the LORD , because the foundation of the house of the LORD was laid.12 But many of the priests and Levites and chief of the fathers, who were ancient men, that had seen the first house, when the foundation of this house was laid before their eyes, wept with a loud voice (6963); and many shouted (8643) aloud (7311) for joy (8057):13 So that the people could not discern the noise (6963) of the shout (8643) of joy (8057) from the noise (6963) of the weeping of the people: for the people shouted (7321) with a loud shout (8643), and the noise (6963) was heard afar off.

44

The Dedication of the Wall of Jerusalem


Nehemiah 12:2743: 27 And at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem they sought the Levites out of all their places, to bring them to Jerusalem, to keep the dedication with gladness (8057), both with thanksgivings (8426), and with singing (7892), with cymbals (4700), psalteries (5035), and with harps (3658). 28 And the sons of the singers (7891) gathered themselves together, both out of the plain round about Jerusalem, and from the villages of Netophathiti; 29 Also from the house of Gilgal, and out of the fields of Geba and Azmaveth: for the singers (7891) had builded them villages round about Jerusalem. 30 And the priests and the Levites purified themselves; and they purified the people, and the gates, and the wall. 31 Then I brought up the princes of Judah upon the wall, and appointed two great companies of them that gave thanks, whereof one went on the right hand upon the wall toward the dung gate: 32 And after them went Hoshaiah, and half of the princes of Judah, 33 And Azariah, Ezra, and Meshullam, 34 Judah, and Benjamin, and Shemaiah, and Jeremiah, 35 And certain of the priests sons with trumpets (2689), namely, Zechariah (2148) the son of Jonathan (3129), the son of Shemaiah (8098), the son of Mattaniah (4983), the son of Micaiah (4320), the son of Zaccur (2139), the son of Asaph (623). 36 And his brethren, Shemaiah (8098), and Azarael (5832), Milalai (4450), Gilalai (1562), Maai (4597), Nethaneel (5417), and Judah (3063), Hanani (2607), with the musical (7892) instruments (3627) of David the man of God, and Ezra the scribe before them. 37 And at the fountain gate, which was over against them, they went up by the stairs of the city of David, at the going up of the wall, above the house of David, even unto the water gate eastward. 38 And the other company of them that gave thanks (8426) went over against them, and I after them, and the half of the people, upon the wall, from beyond the tower of the furnaces, even unto the broad wall; 39 And from above the gate of Ephraim, and above the old gate, and above the fish gate, and the tower of Hananeel, and the tower of Meah, even unto the sheep gate: and they stood still in the prison gate. 40 So stood the two companies of them that gave thanks in the house of God, and I, and the half of the rulers with me. 41 And the priests; Eliakim (471), Maaseiah (4641), Miniamin (4509), Micaiah (4320), Elioenai (454), Zechariah (2148), and Hananiah (2608), with trumpets (2689); 42 And Maaseiah (4641), and Shemaiah (8098), and Eleazar (499), and Uzzi (5813), and Jehohanan (3076), and Malchijah (4441), and Elam (5867), and Ezer (5829). And the singers sang (7891) loud, with Jezrahiah (3156) their overseer. 43 Also that day they offered great sacrifices, and rejoiced (8055); for God had made them rejoice (8055) with great joy (8057). and the wives also and the children rejoiced (8055): so that the joy (8057) of Jerusalem was heard even afar off.

45

Celebration of an Oath to the Lord in Asas Reign


II Chronicles 15:815: 8 And when Asa heard these words, and the prophecy of Oded the prophet, he took courage, and put away the abominable idols out of all the land of Judah and Benjamin, and out of the cities which he had taken from mount Ephraim, and renewed the altar of the LORD , that was before the porch of the LORD . 9 (And he gathered all Judah and Benjamin, and the strangers with them out of Ephraim and Manasseh, and out of Simeon: for they fell to him out of Israel in abundance, when they saw that the LORD his God was with him. 10 So they gathered themselves together at Jerusalem in the third month, in the fifteenth year of the reign of Asa. 11 And they offered unto the LORD the same time, of the spoil which they had brought, seven hundred oxen and seven thousand sheep. 12 And they entered into a covenant to seek the LORD God of their fathers with all their heart and with all their soul; 13 That whosoever would not seek the LORD God of Israel should be put to death, whether small or great, whether man or woman. 14 And they sware unto the LORD with a loud voice (6963), and with shouting (8643), and with trumpets (2689), and with cornets (7782).15 And all Judah rejoiced at the oath: for they had sworn with all their heart, and sought Him with their whole desire; and He was found of them: and the LORD gave them rest round about. 16 And also concerning Maachah the mother of Asa the king, he removed her from being queen, because she had made an idol in a grove: and Asa cut down her idol, and stamped it, and burnt it at the brook Kidron. 17 But the high places were not taken away out of Israel: nevertheless the heart of Asa was perfect all his days. 18 And he brought into the house of God the things that his father had dedicated, and that he himself had dedicated, silver, and gold, and vessels.19 And there was no more war unto the five and thirtieth year of the reign of Asa.

46

Victory Celebrations
A Song of Moses and the Israelites after the Exodus from Egypt
Exodus 15:1, 2021: 1 Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD , and spake, saying, I will sing unto the LORD , for He hath triumphed gloriously: The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea. 20 And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel (8596) in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels (8596) and with dances (4246). 21 And Miriam answered them, Sing (7891) ye to the LORD , for He hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea.

A Song of Israel in the Wilderness


Numbers 21:17: 17 Then Israel sang (7891) this song (7892), Spring up O well; Sing (6030) ye unto it:

Women of Israel Celebrate Davids Defeat of Goliath


I Samuel 18:67: 6 And it came to pass as they came, when David was returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all cities of Israel, singing (7891) and dancing (4246), to meet king Saul, with tabrets (8596), with joy (8057), and with instruments (7991) of musick. 7 And the women answered one another as they played, and said, Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands.

Judah Celebrates Defeat of Moabites and Ammonites in Jehoshaphats Reign


II Chronicles 20:1428 [see also Psalm 83]: 14 Then upon Jahaziel (3166) the son of Zechariah (2148), the son of Benaiah (1141), the son of Jeiel (3273), the son of Mattaniah (4983), a Levite (3881) of the sons of Asaph (623), came the Spirit of the LORD in the midst of the congregation; 15 And he said, Hearken ye, all Judah, and ye inhabitants of Jerusalem, and thou king Jehoshaphat, Thus saith the LORD unto you, Be not afraid nor dismayed by reason of this great multitude; for the battle is not yours, but God's. 16 To morrow go ye down against them: behold, they come up by the cliff of Ziz; and ye shall find them at the end of the brook, before the wilderness of Jeruel. 17 Ye shall not need to fight in this battle: set yourselves, stand ye still, and see the salvation of the LORD with you, O Judah and Jerusalem: fear not, nor be dismayed; to morrow go out against them: for the LORD will be with you. 18 And Jehoshaphat bowed his head with his face to the ground: and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem fell before the LORD , worshipping the LORD . 19 And the Levites, of the children of the Kohathites, and of the children of the Korhites, stood up to praise the LORD God of Israel with a loud voice on high. 20 And they rose early in the morning, and went forth into the wilderness of Tekoa: and as they went forth, Jehoshaphat stood and said, Hear me, O Judah, and ye inhabitants of Jerusalem; Believe in the LORD your God, so shall ye be established; believe His prophets, so shall ye prosper. 21 And when he had consulted with the people, he appointed singers unto the LORD , and that should praise the beauty of holiness, as they went out before the army, and to say, Praise the LORD ; for His mercy endureth for ever. 22 And when they began to sing and to praise, the LORD set ambushments against the children of Ammon, Moab, and mount Seir, which were come against Judah; and they were smitten. 23 For the children of Ammon and Moab stood up

47

against the inhabitants of mount Seir, utterly to slay and destroy them: and when they had made an end of the inhabitants of Seir, every one helped to destroy another. 24 And when Judah came toward the watch tower in the wilderness, they looked unto the multitude, and, behold, they were dead bodies fallen to the earth, and none escaped. 25 And when Jehoshaphat and his people came to take away the spoil of them, they found among them in abundance both riches with the dead bodies, and precious jewels, which they stripped off for themselves, more than they could carry away: and they were three days in gathering of the spoil, it was so much. 26 And on the fourth day they assembled themselves in the valley of Berachah; for there they blessed the LORD : therefore the name of the same place was called, The valley of Berachah, unto this day. 27 Then they returned, every man of Judah and Jerusalem, and Jehoshaphat in the forefront of them, to go again to Jerusalem with joy; for the LORD had made them to rejoice over their enemies. 28 And they came to Jerusalem with psalteries (5035) and harps (3658) and trumpets (2689) unto the house of the LORD .

Songs of the Redeemed


Revelation 5:810: 8 And when He had taken the book, the four beasts and four and twenty elders fell down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps (2788), and golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints. 9 And they sung (103) a new song (5603), saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for Thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by Thy blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation; 10 And hast made us unto our God kings and priests, and we shall reign on the earth. Revelation 14:23: 2 And I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of a great thunder: and I heard the voice of harpers (2790) harping (2789) with their harps (2788): 3 And they sung (103) as it were a new song (5603) before the throne, and before the four beasts, and the elders: and no man could learn that song (5603) but the hundred and forty and four thousand, which were redeemed from the earth. Revelation 15:24 2 And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire: and them that had gotten the victory over the beast, and over his image, and over his mark, and over the number of his name, stand on the sea of glass, having the harps (2788) of God. 3 And they sing (103) the song (5603) of Moses the servant of God, and the song (5603) of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvellous are Thy works, LORD God Almighty; just and true are Thy ways, Thou King of saints. 4 Who shall not fear Thee, O LORD , and glorify Thy name? for Thou only art holy: for all nations shall come and worship before Thee; for Thy judgments are made manifest.

48

Anointing of Kings
Anointing of Solomon
I Kings 1:3445: 34 And let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there king over Israel: and blow (8628) ye withthe trumpet (7782), and say, God save king Solomon. 35 Then ye shall come up after him, that he may come and sit upon my throne; for he shall be king in my stead: and I have appointed him to be ruler over Israel and over Judah. 36 And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada answered the king, and said, Amen: the LORD God of my lord the king say so too. 37 As the LORD hath been with my lord the king, even so be He with Solomon, and make his throne greater than the throne of my lord king David. 38 So Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah (1141) the son of Jehoiada (3077), and the Cherethites, and the Pelethites, went down, and caused Solomon to ride upon king David's mule, and brought him to Gihon. 39 And Zadok the priest took an horn (7161) of oil out of the tabernacle, and anointed Solomon. And they blew (8628) the trumpet (7782); and all the people said, God save king Solomon. 40 And all the people came up after him, and the people piped (2490) with pipes (2485), and rejoiced (8056) with great joy (8057), so that the earth rent with the sound (6963) of them. 41 And Adonijah and all the guests that were with him heard it as they had made an end of eating. And when Joab heard the sound (6963) of the trumpet (7782), he said, Wherefore is this noise (6963) of the city being in an uproar? 42 And while he yet spake, behold, Jonathan the son of Abiathar the priest came: and Adonijah said unto him, Come in; for thou art a valiant man, and bringest good tidings. 43 And Jonathan answered and said to Adonijah, Verily our lord king David hath made Solomon king. 44 And the king hath sent with him Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah (1141) the son of Jehoiada (3077), and the Cherethites, and the Pelethites, and they have caused him to ride upon the kings mule: 45 And Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet have anointed him king in Gihon: and they are come up from thence rejoicing, so that the city rang again. This is the noise (6963) that ye have heard.

Anointing of Jehu
II Kings 9:1114: 11 Then Jehu came forth to the servants of his lord: and one said unto him, Is all well? wherefore came this mad fellow to thee? And he said unto them, Ye know the man, and his communication. 12 And they said, It is false; tell us now. And he said, Thus and thus spake he to me, saying, Thus saith the LORD , I have anointed thee king over Israel. 13 Then they hasted, and took every man his garment, and put it under him on the top of the stairs, and blew (8628) the trumpets (7782), saying, Jehu is king. 14 So Jehu the son of Jehoshaphat the son of Nimshi conspired against Joram. (Now Joram had kept Ramoth-gilead, he and all Israel, because of Hazael king of Syria.

Anointing of Joash
II Chronicles 23:1215: 11 Then they brought out the kings son, and put upon him the crown, and gave him the testimony, and made him king. And Jehoiada and his sons anointed him, and said, God save the king. 12 Now when Athaliah heard the noise of the people running and praising (1984) the king, she came to the people into the house of the LORD : 13 And she looked, and, behold, the king stood at his pillar at the entering in, and the princes and the trumpets (2689) by the king: and all

49

the people of the land rejoiced, and sounded with trumpets (2689), also the singers (7891) with instruments (3627) of musick (7892), and such as taught to sing praise (1984). Then Athaliah rent her clothes, and said, Treason, Treason. 14 Then Jehoiada the priest brought out the captains of hundreds that were set over the host, and said unto them, Have her forth of the ranges: and whoso followeth her, let him be slain with the sword. For the priest said, Slay her not in the house of the LORD . 15 So they laid hands on her; and when she was come to the entering of the horse gate by the kings house, they slew her there. (See also II Kings 11).

50

Prophesying
Temple Singers
Jeduthun, one of the three directors of Temple worship, is called the kings seer (2374) in II Chronicles 35:15. Prophesying was one of the functions of the sons of Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun. 1 Chronicles 25:1: 1 Moreover David and the captains of the host separated to the service of the sons of Asaph (623), and of Heman (1968), and of Jeduthun (3038), who should prophesy (5012) (5030) with harps (3658), with psalteries (5035), and with cymbals (4700): and the number of the workmen according to their service was:

Saul and a Company of Prophets


I Samuel 10:18: 1 Then Samuel took a vial of oil, and poured it upon his head, and kissed him, and said, Is it not because the LORD hath anointed thee to be captain over His inheritance? 2 When thou art departed from me to day, then thou shalt find two men by Rachels sepulchre in the border of Benjamin at Zelzah; and they will say unto thee, The asses which thou wentest to seek are found: and, lo, thy father hath left the care of the asses, and sorroweth for you, saying, What shall I do for my son? 3 Then shalt thou go on forward from thence, and thou shalt come to the plain of Tabor, and there shall meet thee three men going up to God to Beth-el, one carrying three kids, and another carrying three loaves of bread, and another carrying a bottle of wine: 4 And they will salute thee, and give thee two loaves of bread; which thou shalt receive of their hands. 5 After that thou shalt come to the hill of God, where is the garrison of the Philistines: and it shall come to pass, when thou art come thither to the city, that thou shalt meet a company of prophets (5030) coming down from the high place with a psaltery (5035), and a tabret (8596), and a pipe (2485), and a harp (3658), before them; and they shall prophesy (5012): 6 And the Spirit of the LORD will come upon thee, and thou shalt prophesy (5012) with them, and shalt be turned into another man. 7 And let it be, when these signs are come unto thee, that thou do as occasion serve thee; for God is with thee. 8 And thou shalt go down before me to Gilgal; and, behold, I will come down unto thee, to offer burnt offerings, and to sacrifice sacrifices of peace offerings: seven days shalt thou tarry, till I come to thee, and shew thee what thou shalt do.

The Prophet Elisha Asks for a Minstrel


II Kings 3:1419:14 And Elisha said, As the LORD of hosts liveth, before Whom I stand, surely, were it not that I regard the presence of Jehoshaphat the king of Judah, I would not look toward thee, nor see thee. 15 But now bring me a minstrel (5059). And it came to pass, when the minstrel (5059) played (3068), that the hand of the LORD came upon him. 16 And he said, Thus saith the LORD , Make this valley full of ditches. 17 For thus saith the LORD , Ye shall not see wind, neither shall ye see rain; yet that valley shall be filled with water, that ye may drink, both ye, and your cattle, and your beasts. 18 And this is but a light thing in the sight of the LORD : He will deliver the Moabites also into your hand. 19 And ye shall smite every fenced city, and every choice city, and shall fell every good tree, and stop all wells of water, and mar every good piece of land with stones.

51

Your Sons and Your Daughters Shall Prophesy


Joel 2:2829: 28 And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out My spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy (5012), your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions: 29 And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out My spirit.

52

Rejoicing
Psalm 22:22: 22 I will declare Thy Name unto my brethren: in the midst of the congregation will I praise (1984) Thee. Psalm 33:1-3: 1 Rejoice (7442) in the LORD , O ye righteous: For praise (8416) is comely for the upright. 2 Praise (3034) the LORD with harp (3658): Sing (2167) unto Him with the psaltery (5035) and an instrument of ten strings (6218). 3 Sing (7891) unto Him a new song (7892); Play (5059) skilfully with a loud noise (8643). Psalms 71:2223: 22 I will also praise Thee with the psaltery (3627)(5035), Even Thy truth, O my God: Unto Thee will I sing with the harp (3658), O Thou Holy One of Israel. 23 My lips shall greatly rejoice (7442) when I sing (2167) unto Thee; And my soul, which Thou hast redeemed. Psalm 98:4-6: 4 Make a joyful noise (7321) unto the LORD , all the earth: Make a loud noise, and rejoice (7442), and sing (2167) praise. 5 Sing (2167) unto the LORD with the harp (3658); With the harp (3658), and the voice of a psalm (2172). 6 With trumpets (2689) and sound (6963) of cornet (7782) make a joyful noise (7321) before the LORD , the King. Psalm 150:36: 3 Praise (1984) Him with the sound (8629) of the trumpet (7782): Praise (1984) Him with the psaltery (5035) and harp (3658). 4 Praise (1984) Him with the timbrel (8596) and dance (4234): Praise (1984) Him with stringed instruments (4482) and organs (5748). 5 Praise (1984) Him upon the loud cymbals (6767): Praise (1984) Him upon the high sounding (8643) cymbals (6767). 6 Let every thing that hath breath praise (8643) THE LORD. Praise ye THE LORD. Proverbs 29:6: 6 In the transgression of an evil man there is a snare: But the righteous doth sing (7442) and rejoice (8056). Jeremiah 31:7-13: 7 For thus saith the LORD ; Sing (7442) with gladness (8057) for Jacob, and shout (6670) among the chief of the nations: publish ye, praise (1984) ye, and say, O LORD , save Thy people, the remnant of Israel. 8 Behold, I will bring them from the north country, and gather them from the coasts of the earth, and with them the blind and the lame, the woman with child and her that travaileth with child together: a great company shall return thither. 9 They shall come with weeping, and with supplications will I lead them: I will cause them to walk by the rivers of waters in a straight way, wherein they shall not stumble: for I am a father to Israel, and Ephraim is My firstborn. 10 Hear the word of the LORD , O ye nations, and declare it in the isles afar off, and say, He That scattered Israel will gather him, and keep him, as a shepherd doth his flock. 11 For the LORD hath redeemed Jacob, and ransomed him from the hand of him that was stronger than he. 12 Therefore they shall come and sing in the height of Zion, and shall flow together to the goodness of the LORD , for wheat, and for wine, and for oil, and for the young of the flock and of the herd: and their soul shall be as a watered garden; and they shall not sorrow any more at all. 13 Then shall the virgin rejoice (8055) in the dance (4234), both young men and old together: for I will turn their mourning into joy (8342), and will comfort them, and make them rejoice (8055) from their sorrow. Matthew 26:30: 30 And when they had sung an hymn (5214), they went out into the mount of Olives.

53

Mark 14:26: 26 And when they had sung an hymn (5214), they went out into the mount of Olives. Acts 16:2526: 25 And at midnight Paul and Silas prayed, and sang praises (5214) unto God: and the prisoners heard them. 26 And suddenly there was a great earthquake, so that the foundations of the prison were shaken: and immediately all the doors were opened, and every ones bands were loosed. Romans 15:9 (quotation of Psalm 18:49): 9 And that the Gentiles might glorify God for His mercy; as it is written, For this cause I will confess to Thee among the Gentiles, and sing (5567) unto Thy name. 10 And again He saith, Rejoice (2165), ye Gentiles, with His people. 11 And again, Praise (134) the LORD , all ye Gentiles; and laud (1867) Him, all ye people. 12 And again, Esaias saith, There shall be a Root of Jesse, and He That shall rise to reign over the Gentiles; in Him shall the Gentiles trust. I Corinthians 14:1516; 26: 15 What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, and I will pray with the understanding also: I will sing (5567) with the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also. 16 Else when thou shalt bless with the spirit, how shall he that occupieth the room of the unlearned say Amen at thy giving of thanks, seeing he understandeth not what thou sayest? 26 How is it then, brethren? when ye come together, every one of you hath a psalm (5568), hath a doctrine, hath a tongue, hath a revelation, hath an interpretation. Let all things be done unto edifying. Ephesians 5:1820:18 And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit; 19 Speaking to yourselves in psalms (5568) and hymns (5215) and spiritual (4152) songs (5603), singing (103), and making melody (5567) in your heart to the Lord; 20 Giving thanks (2168) always for all things unto God and the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ; Colossians 3:1617:16 Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom; teaching and admonishing one another in psalms (5568) and hymns (5215) and spiritual (4152) songs (5603), singing (103) with grace (5485) in your hearts to the Lord. 17 And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by Him. Hebrews 2:1112: 11 For both He That sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of One: for which cause He is not ashamed to call them brethren, 12 Saying, I will declare Thy Name unto My brethren, in the midst of the church will I sing praise (5214) unto Thee. James 5:13: 13 Is any among you afflicted? let him pray. Is any merry? let him sing psalms (5567).

54

Merrymaking
Laban to Jacob
Genesis 31:27: Wherefore didst thou flee away secretly, and steal away from me, and didst not tell me, that I might have sent thee away with mirth (8057), and with songs (7892), with tabret (8596), and with harp (3658)?

Associated With Peace, Happiness, and Plenty


Isaiah 16:10: 10 And gladness (8057) is taken away, and joy (1524) out of the plentiful field; and in the vineyards there shall be no singing (7442), neither shall there be shouting (7321): the treaders shall tread out no wine in their presses; I have made their vintage shouting (7321) to cease. Jeremiah 48:33: 33 And joy (8057) and gladness (1524) is taken from the plentiful field, and from the land of Moab; and I have caused wine to fail from the winepresses: none shall tread with shouting (1959); their shouting (1959) shall be no shouting (1959). Isaiah 24:8-9: 8 The mirth (4885) of tabrets (8596) ceaseth, the noise (7588) of them that rejoice (5947) endeth, the joy (4885) of the harp (3658) ceaseth. 9 They shall not drink wine with a song (7892); strong drink shall be bitter to them that drink it.

Christs Parable
Luke 15:2532: 25 Now his elder son was in the field: and as he came and drew nigh to the house, he heard musick (4858) and dancing (5525). 26 And he called one of the servants, and asked what these things meant. 27 And he said unto him, Thy brother is come; and thy father hath killed the fatted calf, because he hath received him safe and sound. 28 And he was angry, and would not go in: therefore came his father out, and intreated him. 29 And he answering said to his father, Lo, these many years do I serve thee, neither transgressed I at any time thy commandment: and yet thou never gavest me a kid, that I might make merry with my friends: 30 But as soon as this thy son was come, which hath devoured thy living with harlots, thou hast killed for him the fatted calf. 31 And he said unto him, Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I have is thine. 32 It was meet that we should make merry, and be glad: for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found.

55

Mourning
Job 30:31: [Job lamenting] 31 My harp (3658) also is turned to mourning, and my organ (5748) into the voice of them that weep. II Samuel 1:1718: 17 And David lamented (6969) with this lamentation (7015) over Saul and over Jonathan his son: 18 (Also he bade them teach the children of Judah the use of the bow: behold, it is written in the book of Jasher.) Lamentations 5:14: 14 The elders have ceased from the gate, the young men from their musick (5058). 15 The joy (4885) of our heart is ceased; our dance (4234) is turned into mourning (60). Matthew 9:2325: 23 And when Jesus came into the rulers house, and saw the minstrels (834) and the people making a noise (2350), 24 He said unto them, Give place: for the maid is not dead, but sleepeth. And they laughed Him to scorn. 25 But when the people were put forth, He went in, and took her by the hand, and the maid arose.

56

Trumpet as Warning Signal and Alarm


Hosea 5:89: (one of many examples): 8 Blow ye the cornet (7782) in Gibeah, and the trumpet (2689) in Ramah: cry aloud at Beth-aven, after thee, O Benjamin. 9 Ephraim shall be desolate in the day of rebuke: among the tribes of Israel have I made known that which shall surely be.

57

Singing Men and Singing Women


II Samuel 19:3536: 35 I am this day fourscore years old: and can I discern between good and evil? can thy servant taste what I eat or what I drink? can I hear any more the voice of singing men (7891) and singing women (7891)? wherefore then should thy servant be yet a burden unto my lord the king? 36 Thy servant will go a little way over Jordan with the king: and why should the king recompense it me with such a reward? II Chronicles 35:25: 25 And Jeremiah lamented for Josiah: and all the singing men (7891) and the singing women (7891) spake of Josiah in their lamentations (7015) to this day, and made them an ordinance in Israel: and, behold, they are written in the lamentations. Ecclesiastes 2:811: 8 I gathered me also silver and gold, and the peculiar treasure of kings and of the provinces: I gat me men singers (7891) and women singers (7891), and the delights of the sons of men, as musical instruments (7705), and that of all sorts. 9 So I was great, and increased more than all that were before me in Jerusalem: also my wisdom remained with me. 10 And whatsoever mine eyes desired I kept not from them, I withheld not my heart from any joy; for my heart rejoiced in all my labour: and this was my portion of all my labour. 11 Then I looked on all the works that my hands had wrought, and on the labour that I had laboured to do: and, behold, all was vanity and vexation of spirit, and there was no profit under the sun.

58

Dancing Women
Jephthahs Daughter
Judges 11:3435: 34 And Jephthah came to Mizpeh unto his house, and, behold, his daughter came out to meet him with timbrels (8596) and with dances (4246): and she was his only child; beside her he had neither son nor daughter. 35 And it came to pass, when he saw her, that he rent his clothes, and said, Alas, my daughter! thou hast brought me very low, and thou art one of them that trouble me: for I have opened my mouth unto the LORD , and I cannot go back.

Men of Benjamin Take Wives of Daughters of Shiloh Who Dance


Judges 21:21: 21 And see, and, behold, if the daughters of Shiloh come out to dance (2342) in dances (4246), then come ye out of the vineyards, and catch you every man his wife of the daughters of Shiloh, and go to the land of Benjamin.

59

The Spirit That Troubled Saul


I Samuel 16:1423: 14 But the Spirit of the LORD departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the LORD troubled him. 15 And Saul's servants said unto him, Behold now, an evil spirit from God troubleth thee. 16 Let our lord now command thy servants, which are before thee, to seek out a man, who is a cunning player (5059) on an harp (3658): and it shall come to pass, when the evil spirit from God is upon thee, that he shall play (5059) with his hand, and thou shalt be well. 17 And Saul said unto his servants, Provide me now a man that can play well, and bring him to me. 18 Then answered one of the servants, and said, Behold, I have seen a son of Jesse the Beth-lehemite, that is cunning in playing (5059), and a mighty valiant man, and a man of war, and prudent in matters, and a comely person, and the LORD is with him. 19 Wherefore Saul sent messengers unto Jesse, and said, Send me David thy son, which is with the sheep. 20 And Jesse took an ass laden with bread, and a bottle of wine, and a kid, and sent them by David his son unto Saul. 21 And David came to Saul, and stood before him: and he loved him greatly; and he became his armourbearer. 22 And Saul sent to Jesse, saying, Let David, I pray thee, stand before me; for he hath found favour in my sight. 23 And it came to pass, when the evil spirit from God was upon Saul, that David took an harp (3658), and played with his hand: so Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him.

60

Bells on the High Priests Garments


Exodus 28:3335: 33 And beneath upon the hem of it thou shalt make pomegranates of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, round about the hem thereof; and bells (6472) of gold between them round about: 34 A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, upon the hem of the robe round about. 35 And it shall be upon Aaron to minister: and his sound (6963) shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the LORD , and when he cometh out, that he die not. Exodus 39:2526: 25 And they made bells (6472) of pure gold, and put the bells (6472) between the pomegranates upon the hem of the robe, round about between the pomegranates; 26 A bell (6472) and a pomegranate, a bell and a pomegranate, round about the hem of the robe to minister in; as the LORD commanded Moses.

61

Bells on Horses
Zechariah 14:1821: 18 And if the family of Egypt go not up, and come not, that have no rain; there shall be the plague, wherewith the LORD will smite the heathen that come not up to keep the feast of tabernacles. 19 This shall be the punishment of Egypt, and the punishment of all nations that come not up to keep the feast of tabernacles. 20 In that day shall there be upon the bells (4698) of the horses, HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD; and the pots in the LORD s house shall be like the bowls before the altar. 21 Yea, every pot in Jerusalem and in Judah shall be holiness unto the LORD of hosts: and all they that sacrifice shall come and take of them, and seethe therein: and in that day there shall be no more the Canaanite in the house of the LORD of hosts.

62

Wickedness and Sinfulness


Jubal - A Descendant of Cain
Genesis 4:21: 21 And his brothers name was Jubal (3106): he was the father of all such as handle (8610) the harp (3658) and the organ (5748).

Idolatry
Exodus 32:1719: 17 And when Joshua heard the noise (6963) of the people as they shouted (7452), he said unto Moses, There is a noise (6963) of war in the camp. 18 And he said, It is not the voice (6963) of them that shout (6030) for mastery, neither is it the voice (6963) of them that cry (6030) for being overcome: but the noise (6963) of them that sing (6031) do I hear. 19 And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf, and the dancing (4246): and Moses anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hands, and brake them beneath the mount. Job 21:12 [Job speaking of the wicked]: 12 They take the timbrel (8596) and harp (3658), and rejoice (8055) at the sound of the organ (5748). Isaiah 5:12: 12 And the harp (3658), and the viol (5035), the tabret (8596), and pipe (2485), and wine, are in their feasts: but they regard not the work of the LORD , neither consider the operation of His hands. Daniel 3:3-7: 3 Then the princes, the governors, and captains, the judges, the treasurers, the counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces, were gathered together unto the dedication of the image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up; and they stood before the image that Nebuchadnezzar had set up. 4 Then an herald cried aloud, To you it is commanded, O people, nations, and languages, 5 That at what time ye hear the sound of the cornet (7162), flute (4953), harp (7030), sackbut (5443), psaltery (6460), dulcimer (5481), and all kinds of musick (2170), ye fall down and worship the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath set up: 6 And whoso falleth not down and worshippeth shall the same hour be cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace. 7 Therefore at that time, when all the people heard the sound of the cornet (7162), flute (4953), harp (7030), sackbut (5443), psaltery (6460), and all kinds of musick (2170), all the people, the nations, and the languages, fell down and worshipped the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up. Amos 6:17: 1 Woe to them that are at ease in Zion, and trust in the mountain of Samaria, which are named chief of the nations, to whom the house of Israel came! 2 Pass ye unto Calneh, and see; and from thence go ye to Hamath the great: then go down to Gath of the Philistines: be they better than these kingdoms? or their border greater than your border? 3 Ye that put far away the evil day, and cause the seat of violence to come near; 4 That lie upon beds of ivory, and stretch themselves upon their couches, and eat the lambs out of the flock, and the calves out of the midst of the stall; 5 That chant (6527) to the sound (6310) of the viol (5035), and invent to themselves instruments (3627) of musick (7892), like David; 6 That drink wine in bowls, and anoint themselves with the chief ointments: but they are not grieved for the affliction of Joseph. 7 Therefore now shall they go captive with the first that go captive, and the banquet of them that stretched themselves shall be

63

removed. Matthew 6:2: 2 Therefore when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet (4537) before thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward. I Corinthians 13:1: 1 Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding (2278) brass (5475), or a tinkling (214) cymbal (2950). Revelation 18:2122: 21 And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all. 22 And the voice (5456) of harpers (2790), and musicians (3451), and of pipers (834), and trumpeters (4538), shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee;

Herodias Daughter Charms Herod With Dancing and Asks for the Head of John the Baptist
Matthew 14:612: 6 But when Herods birthday was kept, the daughter of Herodias danced (3738) before them, and pleased Herod. 7 Whereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she would ask. 8 And she, being before instructed of her mother, said, Give me here John Baptists head in a charger. 9 And the king was sorry: nevertheless for the oaths sake, and them which sat with him at meat, he commanded it to be given her. 10 And he sent, and beheaded John in the prison. 11 And his head was brought in a charger, and given to the damsel: and she brought it to her mother. 12 And his disciples came, and took up the body, and buried it, and went and told Jesus.

64

Glossary of Musical Terms and Name Meanings


Old Testament
29 byh, ab-ee-yaw; or prol. byhw, ab-ee-yaw-hoo; from 1 and 3050; father (i.e. worshipper) of Jah; Abijah, the name of several Isr. men and two Israelitesses:Abiah, Abijah. 30 byhw, ab-ee-hoo; from 1 and 1931; father (i.e. worshipper) of Him (i.e. God); Abihu, a son of Aaron:Abihu. 54 Ebythr, eb-yaw-thawr; contr. from 1 and 3498; father of abundance (i.e. liberal); Ebjathar, an Isr.:Abiathar. 175 Ahrwn, -har-one; of uncert. deriv.; Aharon, the brother of Moses:Aaron. 193 wl, ool, from an unused root mean. to twist, i.e. (by impl.) be strong; the body (as being rolled together); also powerful:mighty, strength. 288 chymelek, akh-ee-meh-lek; from 251 and 4428; brother of (the) king; Achimelek, the name of an Isr. and of a Hittite:Ahimelech. 352 ayl, ah-yil; from the same as 193; prop. strength; hence anything strong; spec. a chief (politically); also a ram (from his strength); a pilaster (as a strong support): an oak or other strong tree:mighty (man), lintel, oak, post. ram, tree. 385 Iythmr, eeth-aw-mawr; from 339 and 8558; coast of the palm-tree; Ithamar, a son of Aaron:Ithamar. 387 ythn, ay-thawn; the same as 386; permanent; Ethan, the name of four Isr.:Ethan. 410 l, ale; short. from 352; strength; as adj. mighty; espec. the Almighty (but used also of any deity):God (god), x goodly, x great, idol, might (-y one), power, strong. Comp. names in -el. 446 lyb, el-ee-awb; from 410 and 1; God of (his) father; Eliab, the name of six Isr.:Eliab. 448 -lythh, el-ee-aw-thaw; or (contr.) -lythh, el-ee-yaw-thaw; from 410 and 225; God of (his) consent; Eliathah, an Isr.:Eliathah. 454 Elye hwynay, el-ye-ho-ay-nahee; or (short.) Elywynay, el-yo-ay-nahee; from 413 and 3068 and 5869; towards Jehovah (are) my eyes; Eljehoenai or Eljoenai, the name of seven Isr.:Elihoenai, Elionai. 461 -lyezer, el-ee-eh-zer; from 410 and 5828; God of help; Eliezer, the name of a Damascene and of ten Isr.:Eliezer. 466 -lyphe lhw, el-ee-fe-lay-hoo; from 410 and 6395; God of his distinction; Eliphelehu, an

65

Isr.:Elipheleh. 471 Elyqym, el-yaw-keem; from 410 and 6965; God of raising; Eljakim, the name of four Isr.:Eliakim. 475 Elyshyb, el-yaw-sheeb; from 410 and 7725; God will restore; Eljashib, the name of six Isr.:Eliashib. 499 Elzr, el-aw-zawr; from 410 and 5826; God (is) helper; Elazar, the name of seven Isr.:Eleazar. 511 Elqnh, el-kaw-naw; from 410 and 7609; God has obtained; Elkanah, the name of seven Isr.:Elkanah. 564 Immr, im-mare; from 559; talkative; Immer, the name of five Isr.:Immer. 622 aph, aw-saf; a prim. root; to gather for any purpose; hence to receive, take away, i.e. remove (destroy, leave behind, put up, restore, etc.):assemble, bring, consume, destroy, fetch, gather (in, together, up again), x generally, get (him), lose, put all together, receive, recover [another from leprosy], (be) rereward, x surely, take (away, into, up), x utterly, withdraw. 623 ph, aw-sawf; from 622; collector; Asaph, the name of three Isr., and of the family of the first:Asaph. 833 shar, aw-shar; or shr, aw-share; a prim. root; to be straight (used in the widest sense, espec. to be level, right, happy); fig. to go forward, be honest, prosper:(call, be) bless (-ed, happy), go, guide, lead, relieve. 840 sarl, as-ar-ale; by orth. var. from 833 and 410; right of God; Asarel, an Isr.:Asareel. 841 sarlh, as-ar-ale-aw; from the same as 840; right towards God; Asarelah, an Isr.:Asarelah. Comp. 3480. 1083 Bilgh, bil-gaw; from 1082; desistance; Bilgah, the name of two Isr.:Bilgah. 1122 Bn, bane; the same as 1121 [mean. a son]; Ben, an Isr.:Ben. 1141 Be nyh, ben-aw-yaw; or (prol.) Benyhw, ben-aw-yaw-hoo; from 1129 and 3050; Jah has built; Benajah, the name of twelve Isr.:Benaiah. 1232 Buqqyh, book-kee-yaw; from 1238 and 3050; wasting of Jah; Bukkijah, an Isr.:Bukkiah. 1265 be rwsh, ber-sh; of uncert. der.; a cypress (?) tree; hence a lance or a musical instrument (as made of that wood):fir (tree). 1269 Birzwth, beer-zoth; prob. fem. plur. from an unused root (appar. mean. to pierce); holes; Birzoth, an Isr.:Birzavith [from the marg.].

66

1296 Berekyh, beh-rek-yaw; Berekyhw, beh-rek-yaw-hoo; from 1290 and 3050; knee (i.e. blessing) of Jah; Berekjah, the name of six Isr.:Berachiah, Berechiah. 1436 Ge dalyh, ghed-al-yaw; or (prol.) Ge dalyhw, ghed-al-yaw-hoo; from 1431 and 3050; Jah has become great; Gedaljah, the name of five Isr.:Gedaliah. 1437 Giddalty, ghid-dal-tee; from 1431; I have made great; Giddalti, an Isr.:Giddalti. 1523 gwl, gheel; or (by perm.) gwl, gool; a prim. root; prop. to spin round (under the influence of any violent emotion), i.e. usually rejoice, or (as cringing) fear:be glad, joy, be joyful, rejoice. 1524 gyl, gheel; from 1523; a revolution (of time, i.e. an age); also joy: x exceedingly, gladness, x greatly, joy, rejoice (-ing), sort. 1562 Gllay, ghe-lal-ah-ee; from 1561; dungy; Gilalai, an Isr.:Gilalai. 1577 gmwl, gaw-mool; pass. part. of 1580; rewarded; Gamul, an Isr.:Gamul. See also 1014. 1647 Gre shm, gay-resh-ome; for 1648; Gereshom, the name of four Isr.:Gershom. 1648 Gre shown, gay-resh-one; or Gre shwm, gay-resh-ome; from 1644; a refugee; Gereshon or Gereshom, an Isr.:Gershon, Gershom. 1732 Dvd, daw-veed; rarely (fully) Dvyd, daw-veed; from the same as 1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse:David. 1806 De lyh, del-aw-yaw; or (prol.) De lyhw, del-aw-yaw-hoo; from 1802 and 3050; Jah has delivered; Delajah, the name of five Isr.:Dalaiah, Delaiah. 1956 Hwthyr, ho-theer; from 3498; he has caused to remain; Hothir, an Isr.:Hothir. 1959 hydd, hay-dawd; from an unused root (mean. to shout); acclamation:shout (-ing). 1968 Hymn, hay-mawn; prob. from 539; faithful; Heman, the name of at least two Isr.:Heman. 1984 hlal, haw-lal; a prim. root; to be clear (orig. of sound, but usually of color); to shine; hence to make a show, to boast; and thus to be (clamorously) foolish; to rave; causat. to celebrate; also to stultify:(make) boast (self), celebrate, commend, (deal, make), fool (-ish, -ly), glory, give [light], be (make, feign self) mad (against), give in marriage, [sing, be worthy of] praise, rage, renowned, shine. 2139 Zakkwr, zak-koor; from 2142; mindful; Zakkur, the name of seven Isr.:Zaccur, Zacchur. 2148 Ze karyh, zek-ar-yaw; or Zekaryhw, zek-ar-yaw-hoo; from 2142 and 3050; Jah has remembered; Zecarjah, the name of twenty-nine Isr.:Zachariah, Zechariah. 2167 zmar, zaw-mar; a prim. root [perh. ident. with 2168 through the idea of striking with the fingers]; prop. to touch the strings or parts of a musical instrument, i.e. play upon it; to make music, accompanied by the voice; hence to celebrate in song and music:give praise, sing forth praises,

67

psalms. 2170 ze mr (Chald.), zem-awr; from a root corresp. to 2167; instrumental music:musick. 2172 zimrh, zim-raw; from 2167; a musical piece or song to be accompanied by an instrument:melody, psalm. 2287 chgag, khaw-gag; a prim. root [comp. 2283, 2328]; prop. to move in a circle, i.e. (spec.) to march in a sacred procession, to observe a festival; by impl. to be giddy:celebrate, dance, (keep, hold) a (solemn) feast (holiday), reel to and fro. 2342 chyl, khool; or chyl, kheel; a prim. root; prop. to twist or whirl (in a circular or spiral manner), i.e. (spec.) to dance, to writhe in pain (espec. of parturition) or fear; fig. to wait, to pervert:bear, (make to) bring forth, (make to) calve, dance, drive away, fall grievously (with pain), fear, form, great, grieve, (be) grievous, hope, look, make, be in pain, be much (sore) pained, rest, shake, shapen, (be) sorrow (-ful), stay, tarry, travail (with pain), tremble, trust, wait carefully (patiently), be wounded. 2372 chzh, khaw-zaw; a prim. root; to gaze at; mentally to perceive, contemplate (with pleasure); spec. to have a vision of:behold, look, prophesy, provide, see. 2374 chzeh, kho-zeh; act. part. of 2372; a beholder in vision; also a compact (as looked upon with approval):agreement, prophet, see that, seer, [star-] gazer. 2387 Chzyr, khay-zeer; from the same as 2386; perh. protected; Chezir, the name of two Isr.:Hezir. 2485 chlyl, khaw-leel; from 2490; a flute (as perforated):pipe. 2488 chlytsh; khal-ee-tsaw; from 2503; spoil:armour. 2490 chlal, khaw-lal; a prim. root [comp. 2470]; prop. to bore, i.e. (by impl.) to wound, to dissolve; fig. to profane (a person, place, or thing), to break (ones word), to begin (as if by an opening wedge); denom. (from 2485) to play (the flute):begin, (x men began), defile, x break, defile, x eat (as common things), x first, x gather the grape, thereof, x take inheritance, pipe, player on instruments, pollute, (cast as) profane (self), prostitute, slay (slain), sorrow, stain, wound. 2603 chnan, khaw-nan; a prim. root [comp. 2583]; prop. to bend or stoop in kindness to an inferior; to favor, bestow; causat. to implore (i.e. move to favor by petition): beseech, x fair, (be, find, shew) favour (-able), be (deal, give, grant) gracious (-ly), intreat, (be) merciful, have (shew) mercy (on, upon), have pity upon, pray, make supplication, x very. 2607 Chnny, khan-aw-nee; from 2603; gracious; Chanani, the name of six Isr.:Hanani. 2608 Chnanyh, khan-an-yaw; or Chnanyhw, khan-an-yaw-hoo; from 2603 and 3050; Jah has favored; Chananjah, the name of thirteen Isr.:Hananiah. 2646 chupph, khoop-paw; from 2645; a canopy:chamber, closet, defence.

68

2647 Chupph, khoop-paw; the same as 2646; Chuppah, an Isr.:Huppah. 2689 chtstse rh, khats-o-tser-aw; by redupl. from 2690; a trumpet (from its sundered or quavering note):trumpet (-er). 2690 chtsar, khaw-tsar; a prim. root; prop. to surround with a stockade, and thus separate from the open country; but used only in the redupl. form. 2766 Chrm, khaw-rim; from 2763; snub-nosed; Charim, an Isr.:Harim. 2811 Chshabyh, khash-ab-yaw; or Chshabyhw, khash-ab-yaw-hoo; from 2803 and 3050; Jah has regarded; Chashabjah, the name of nine Isr.:Hashabiah. 2986 ybal, yaw-bal; a prim. root; prop. to flow; causat. to bring (espec. with pomp):bring (forth), carry, lead (forth). 2988 ybl, yaw-bawl; from 2986; a stream:[water-] course, stream. 2989 Ybl, yaw-bawl; the same as 2988; Jabal, an antediluvian:Jabal. 3034 ydh, yaw-daw; a prim. root; used only as denom. from 3027; lit. to use (i.e. hold out) the hand; phys. to throw (a stone, an arrow) at or away; espec. to revere or worship (with extended hands); intens. to bemoan (by wringing the hands):cast (out), (make) confess (-ion), praise, shoot, (give) thank (-ful, -s, -sgiving). 3038 Ye dwthwn, yed-oo-thoon; Ye dthwn, yed-oo-thoon; or Ye dythwn, yed-ee-thoon; prob. from 3034; laudatory; Jeduthun, an Isr.:Jeduthun. 3041 Ye dyde yh, yed-ee-deh-yaw; from 3039 and 3050; beloved of Jah; Jedidejah, a name of Solomon:Jedidiah. 3042 Ye dyh, yed-aw-yaw; from 3034 and 3050; praised of Jah; Jedajah, the name of two Isr.:Jedaiah. 3050 Yhh, yaw; contr. for 3068, and mean. the same; Jah, the sacred name:Jah, the Lord, most vehement. Cp. names in -iah, -jah. 3063 Ye hwdh, yeh-hoo-daw; from 3034; celebrated; Jehudah (or Judah), the name of five Isr.; also of the tribe descended from the first, and of its territory:Judah. 3076 Ye hwchnn, yeh-ho-khaw-nawn; from 3068 and 2603; Jehovah-favored; Jehochanan, the name of eight Isr.:Jehohanan, Johanan. Comp. 3110. 3080 Ye hwyrb, yeh-ho-yaw-reeb; from 3068 and 7378; Jehovah will contend; Jehojarib, the name of two Isr.:Jehoiarib. Comp. 3114. 3083 Ye hwnthn, yeh-ho-naw-thawn; from 3068 and 5414; Jehovah-given; Jehonathan, the name of four Isr.:Jonathan. Comp. 3129.

69

3100 Ywl, yo-ale; from 3068 and 410; Jehovah (is his) God; Jol, the name of twelve Isr.:Joel. 3104 ywbl, yo-bale; or ybl, yo-bale; appar. from 2986; the blast of a horn (from its continuous sound); spec. the signal of the silver trumpets; hence the instrument itself and the festival thus introduced:jubile, rams horn, trumpet. 3106 Ywbl, yoo-bawl; from 2986; stream; Jubal, an antediluvian:Jubal. In The Companion Bible, E. W. Bullinger says joyful sound. Jubal was Jabals full brother by their mother Adah and their father Lamech (Genesis 4:1821). This Lamech is the one who said in Genesis 4:24, If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, Truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold. Jabal was the father of such that dwell in tents and have cattle. 3129 Ywnthn, yo-naw-thawn; a form of 3083; Jonathan, the name of ten Isr.:Jonathan. 3130 Ywph, yo-safe; fut. of 3254; let him add (or perh. simply act. part. adding); Joseph, the name of seven Isr.:Joseph. Comp. 3084. 3146 Ywshpht, yo-shaw-fawt; a form of 3092; Joshaphat, an Isr.:Joshaphat. 3156 Yizrachyh, yiz-rakh-yaw; from 2224 and 3050; Jah will shine; Jizrachjah, the name of two Isr.:Izrahiah, Jezrahiah. 3166 Yachzyl, yakh-az-ee-ale; from 2372 and 410; beheld of God; Jachazil, the name of five Isr.:Jahaziel, Jahziel. 3168 Ye chezql, yekh-ez-kale; from 2388 and 410; God will strengthen; Jechezkel, the name of two Isr.:Ezekiel, Jehezekel. 3171 Ye chyl, yekh-ee-ale; or (2 Chron. 29:14) Yechavl, yekh-av-ale; from 2421 and 410; God will live; Jechil (or Jechavel), the name of eight Isr.:Jehiel. 3174 Ye chyh, yekh-ee-yaw; from 2421 and 3050; Jah will live; Jechijah, an Isr.:Jehiah. 3199 Ykyn, yaw-keen; from 3559; he (or it) will establish; Jakin, the name of three Isr. and of a temple pillar:Jachin. 3268 Yazyl, yah-az-ee-ale; from 3267 and 410; emboldened of God; Jaazil, an Isr.:Jaaziel. 3273 Ye yl, yeh-ee-ale; from 3261 and 410; carried away of God; Jeel, the name of six Isr.:Jeiel, Jehiel. Comp. 3262. 3339 Yitsry, yits-ree; from 3335; formative; Jitsri, an Isr.:Isri. 3356 Yqym, yaw-keem; from 6965; he will raise; Jakim, the name of two Isr.:Jakim. Comp. 3079. 3406 Ye rymwth, yer-ee-mohth; or Ye rymwth, yer-ay-mohth; or Ye rmwth, yer-ay-mohth;

70

fem. plur. from 7311; elevations; Jerimoth or Jeremoth, the name of twelve Isr.:Jeremoth, Jerimoth, and Ramoth [from the marg.]. 3428 Yeshebb, yeh-sheb-awb; from 3427 and 1; seat of (his) father; Jeshebab, an Isr.:Jeshebeab. 3434 Yshobm, yaw-shob-awm; from 7725 and 5971; people will return; Jashobam, the name of two or three Isr.:Jashobeam. 3436 Yoshbe qshh, yosh-bek-aw-shaw; from 3427 and 7186; a hard seat; Joshbekashah, an Isr.:Joshbekashah. 3442 Yshwa, yay-shooah; for 3091; he will save; Jeshua, the name of ten Isr. also of a place in Pal.:Jeshua. 3470 Ye shayh, yesh-ah-yaw; or Ye shayhw, yesh-ah-yaw-hoo; from 3467 and 3050; Jah has saved; Jeshajah, the name of seven Isr.:Isaiah, Jesaiah, Jeshaiah. 3480 Ye sarlh, yes-ar-ale-aw; by var. from 3477 and 410 with directive enclitic; right towards God; Jesarelah, an Isr.:Jesharelah. Comp. 841. 3498 ythar, yaw-thar; a prim. root; to jut over or exceed; by impl. to excel; (intrans.) to remain or be left; causat. to leave, cause to abound, preserve:excel, leave (a remnant), left behind, too much, make plenteous, preserve, (be, let) remain (-der, -ing, -nant), reserve, residue, rest. 3615 klh, kaw-law; a prim. root; to end, whether intrans. (to cease, be finished, perish) or trans. (to complete, prepare, consume):accomplish, cease, consume (away), determine, destroy (utterly), be (when . . . were) done, (be an) end (of), expire, (cause to) fail, faint, finish, fulfil, x fully, x have, leave (off), long, bring to pass, wholly reap, make clean riddance, spend, quite take away, waste. 3627 ke ly; kel-ee; from 3615; something prepared, i.e. any apparatus (as an implement, utensil, dress, vessel, or weapon):armour ([-bearer]), artillery, bag, carriage, + furnish, furniture, instrument, jewel, that is made of, x one from another, that which pertaineth, pot, + psaltery, sack, stuff, thing, tool, vessel, ware, weapon, + whatsoever. 3658 kinnwr, kin-nore; from an unused root mean. to twang; a harp:harp. 3663 Ke nanyh, ken-an-yaw; or Ke nanyhw, ken-an-yaw-hoo; from 3661 and 3050; Jah has planted; Kenanjah, an Isr.:Chenaniah. 3769 krar, kaw-rar; a prim. root; to dance (i.e. whirl):dance (-ing). 3878 Lvy, lay-vee; from 3867; attached; Levi, a son of Jacob:Levi. See also 3879, 3881. 4234 mchwl, maw-khole; from 2342; a (round) dance:dance (-cing). 4238 Machzywth, makh-az-ee-oth; fem. plur. from 2372; visions; Machazioth, an Isr.:Mahazioth.

71

4246 me chwlh, mekh-o-law; fem. of 4234; a dance:company, dances (-cing). 4320 Mykyh, me-kaw-yaw; from 4310 and (the pref. der. from) 3588 and 3050; who (is) like Jah?; Micajah, the name of two Isr.:Micah, Michaiah. Comp. 4318. 4326 Mymn, me-yaw-meem; a form for 4509; Mijamin, the name of three Isr.:Miamin, Mijamin. 4413 Mallwthy, mal-lo-thee; appar. from 4448; I have talked (i.e. loquacious):Mallothi, an Isr.:Mallothi. 4441 Malkyh, mal-kee-yaw; or Malkyhw (Jer. 38:6), mal-kee-yaw-hoo;from 4428 and 3050; king of (i.e. appointed by) Jah; Malkijah, the name of ten Isr.:Malchiah, Malchijah. 4450 Mllay, mee-lal-ah-ee; from 4448; talkative; Milalai, an Isr.:Milalai. 4482 mn, mane; from an unused root mean. to apportion; a part; hence a musical chord (as parted into strings):in [the same] (Psa. 68:28), stringed instrument (Psa. 150:4), whereby (Psa. 45:8 [defective plur.]). 4509 Minymyn, min-yaw-meen; from 4480 and 3225; from (the) right hand; Minjamin, the name of two Isr.:Miniamin. Comp. 4326. 4517 me nana, men-ah-ah; from 5128; a sistrum (so called from its rattling sound):cornet. 4590 Maazyh, mah-az-yaw; or Maazyhw, mah-az-yaw-hoo; prob. from 5756 (in the sense of perfection) and 3050; rescue of Jah; Maazjah, the name of two Isr.:Maaziah. 4597 Mai, maw-ah-ee; prob. from 4578; sympathetic; Maai, an Isr.:Maai. 4641 Masyh, mah-as-ay-yaw; or Masyhw, mah-as-ay-yaw-hoo; from 4629 and 3050; work of Jah; Maasejah, the name of sixteen Isr.:Maaseiah. 4698 me tsillh, mets-il-law; from 6750; a tinkler, i.e. a bell:bell. 4700 me tsleth, mets-ay-leth; from 6750; (only dual) double tinklers, i.e. cymbals:cymbals. 4737 Miqnyhw, mik-nay-yaw-hoo; from 4735 and 3050; possession of Jah; Miknejah, an Isr.:Mikneiah. 4847 Me rry, mer-aw-ree; from 4843; bitter; Merari, an Isr.:Merari. See also 4848. 4853 mass, mas-saw; from 5375; a burden; spec. tribute, or (abstr.) porterage; fig. an utterance, chiefly a doom, espec. singing; mental, desire:burden, carry away, prophecy, x they set, song, tribute. 4872 Msheh, mo-sheh; from 4871; drawing out (of the water), i.e. rescued; Mosheh, the Isr. lawgiver:Moses.

72

4885 msws, maw-soce; from 7797; delight, concr. (the cause or object) or abstr. (the feeling):joy, mirth, rejoice. 4953 mashrwqy (Chald.), mash-ro-kee; from a root corresp. to 8319; a (musical) pipe (from its whistling sound):flute. 4983 Mattanyh, mat-tan-yaw; or Mattanyh; mat-tan-yaw-hoo; from 4976 and 3050; gift of Jah; Mattanjah, the name of ten Isr.:Mattaniah. 4993 Mattithyh, mat-tith-yaw; or Mattithyh, mat-tith-yaw-hoo; from 4991 and 3050; gift of Jah; Mattithjah, the name of four Isr.:Mattithiah. 5012 nb, naw-baw; a prim. root; to prophesy, i.e. speak (or sing) by inspiration (in prediction or simple discourse):prophesy (-ing), make self a prophet. [This is the word translated prophesy in Joel 2:28: . . . and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy . . .] 5030 nby, naw-bee; from 5012; a prophet (or gen.) inspired man:prophecy, that prophesy, prophet. 5034 nbl, naw-bale; a prim. root; to wilt; gen. to fall away, fail, faint; fig. to be foolish or (mor.) wicked; causat. to despise, disgrace:disgrace, dishonour, lightly esteem, fade (away, -ing), fall (down, -ling, off), do foolishly, come to nought, x surely, make vile, wither. 5035 nebel, nehbel; or nbel, naybel; from 5034; a skin-bag for liquids (from collapsing when empty); hence, a vase (as similar in shape when full); also a lyre (as having body of like form):bottle, pitcher, psaltery, vessel, viol. 5059 ngan, naw-gan; a prim. root; prop. to thrum, i.e. beat a tune with the fingers; espec. to play on a stringed instrument; hence (gen.) to make music:player on instruments, sing to the stringed instruments, melody, minstrel, play (-er, -ing). 5070 Ndb, naw-dawb; from 5068; liberal; Nadab, the name of four Isr.:Nadab. 5128 nwa, noo-ah; a prim. root; to waver, in a great variety of applications, lit. and fig. (as subjoined):continually, fugitive, x make to [go] up and down, be gone away, (be) move (-able, -d), be promoted, reel, remove, scatter, set, shake, sift, stagger, to and fro, be vagabond, wag, (make) wander (up and down). 5375 ns, naw-saw; or nh (Psa. 4:6 [7]), naw-saw; a prim. root; to lift, in a great variety of applications, lit. and fig., absol. and rel. (as follows):accept, advance, arise, (able to, [armour], suffer to) bear (-er, up), bring (forth), burn, carry (away), cast, contain, desire, ease, exact, exalt (self), extol, fetch, forgive, furnish, futher, give, go on, help, high, hold up, honourable (+ man), lade, lay, lift (self) up, lofty, marry, magnify, x needs, obtain, pardon, raise (up), receive, regard, respect, set (up), spare, stir up, + swear, take (away, up), x utterly, wear, yield. 5417 Ne thanl, neth-an-ale; from 5414 and 410; given of God; Nethanel, the name of ten

73

Isr.:Nethaneel. 5418 Ne thanyh, neth-an-yaw; or e thanyhw, neth-an-yaw-hoo; from 5414 and 3050; given of Jah; Nethanjah, the name of four Isr.:Nethaniah. 5440 bak, saw-bak; a prim. root; to entwine:fold together, wrap. 5443 abbe k (Chald.), sab-bek-aw; or sabbe k (Chald.), sab-bek-aw; from a root corresp. to 5440; a lyre:sackbut. 5654 Obd -dwm, o-bade ed-ome; from the act. part. of 5647 and 123; worker of Edom; ObedEdom, the name of five Isr.:Obed-edom. 5481 wmpwne yh (Chald.), soom-po-neh-yaw; or wmpne yh (Chald.), soom-po-neh-yaw; or yphne y (Dan. 3:10) (Chald.), see-fo-neh-yaw; of Greek origin (); a bagpipe (with a double pipe):dulcimer. Smiths: The dulcimer (SUMFONIAH), an Assyrian instrument (Dan. iii. 5, 15); a triangular chest, with 50 wires (18 to 36 inches), played with two small hammers. 5689 gab, aw-gab; a prim. root; to breathe after, i.e. to love (sensually):dote, lover. 5748 wgb, oo-gawb; or ggb, oog-gawb; from 5689 in the orig. sense of breathing; a reed instrument of music:organ. 5813 Uzzy, ooz-zee; from 5810; forceful; Uzzi, the name of six Isr.:Uzzi. 5816 Uzzyl, ooz-zee-ale; from 5797 and 410; strength of God; Uzzil, the name of six Isr.:Uzziel. 5828 zer, ay-zer; from 5826; aid:help. 5829 zer, ay-zer; the same as 5828; Ezer, the name of four Isr.:Ezer. Comp. 5827. 5832 zarl, az-ar-ale; from 5826 and 410; God has helped; Azarel, the name of five Isr.:Azarael, Azareel. 5867 ylm, ay-lawm; or wlm (Ezra 10:2, Jer. 49:36), o-lawm; prob. from 5956; hidden, i.e. distant; Elam, a son of Shem, and his descend., with their country; also of six Isr.:Elam. 5961 lmwth, al-aw-mth; plur. of 5959; prop. girls, i.e. the soprano or female voice, perh. falsetto:Alamoth. 6022 msay, am-aw-sahee; from 6006; burdensome; Amasai, the name of three Isr.:Amasai. 6030 nh, aw-naw; a prim. root; prop. to eye or (gen.) to heed, i.e. pay attention; by impl. to respond; by extens. to begin to speak; spec. to sing, shout, testify, announce:give account, afflict [by mistake for 6031], (cause to, give) answer, bring low [by mistake for 6031], cry, hear, Leannoth, lift

74

up, say, x scholar, (give a) shout, sing (together by course), speak, testify, utter, (bear) witness. See also 1042 and 1043. 6042 Unny, oon-nee; from 6031; afflicted; Unni, the name of two Isr.:Unni. 6086 ts, ates; from 6095; a tree (from its firmness); hence wood (plur. sticks): + carpenter, gallows, helve, + pine, plank, staff, stalk, stick, stock, timber, tree, wood. 6095 tsh, aw-tsaw; a prim. root; prop. to fasten (or make firm), i.e. to close (the eyes):shut. 6218 swr, aw-sore; or sr, aw-sore; from 6235; ten; by abbrev. ten strings, and so a decachord:(instrument of) ten (strings, -th). 6235 eser, eh-ser; masc.; srh, as-aw-raw; from 6237; ten (as an accumulation to the extent of the digits):ten, [fif-, seven-] teen. 6237 sar, aw-sar; a prim. root (ident. with 6238); to accumulate; but used only as denom. from 6235; to tithe, i.e. take or give a tenth:x surely, give (take) the tenth, (have, take) tithe (-ing, -s), x truly. 6284 ph, paw-aw; a prim. root; to puff, i.e. blow away:scatter into corners. 6310 peh, peh; from 6284; the mouth (as the means of blowing), whether lit. or fig. (particularly speech); spec. edge, portion or side; adv. (with prep.) according to:accord (-ing as, -ing to), after, appointment, assent, collar, command (-ment), x eat, edge, end, entry, + file, hole, x in, mind, mouth, part, portion, x (should) say (-ing), sentence, skirt, sound, speech, x spoken, talk, tenor, x to, + twoedged, wish, word. 6339 pzaz, paw-zaz; a prim. root [rather ident. with 6338]; to solidify (as if by refining); also to spring (as if separating the limbs):leap, be made strong. 6460 pe anryn, (Chald.), pes-an-tay-reen; or pe antryn, pes-an-tay-reen, a transliteration of the Gr. psaltri4n; a lyre:psaltery. 6470 pam, paw-am; a prim. root; to tap, i.e. beat regularly; hence (gen.) to impel or agitate:move, trouble. 6471 paam, pah-am; or (fem.) pamh, pah-am-aw; from 6470; a stroke, lit. or fig. (in various applications, as follow):anvil, corner, foot (-step), going, [hundred-] fold, x now, (this) + once, order, rank, step, + thrice, ([often-]), second, this, two) time (-s), twice, wheel. 6472 pamn, pah-am-one; from 6471; a bell (as struck):bell. 6483 Pitststs; pits-tsates; from an unused root mean. to dissever; dispersive; Pitstets, a priest:Apses [includ. the art.]. 6527 prat, paw-rat; a prim. root; to scatter words, i.e. prate (or hum):chant.

75

6611 Pethachyh, peth-akh-yaw; from 6605 and 3050; Jah has opened; Pethachjah, the name of four Isr.:Pethakiah. 6659 Tsdwq, tsaw-doke; from 6663; just; Tsadok, the name of eight or nine Isr.:Zadok. 6670 tshal, tsaw-hal; a prim. root; to gleam i.e. (fig.) be cheerful; by transf. to sound clear (of various animal or human expressions):bellow, cry aloud (out), lift up, neigh, rejoice, make to shine, shout. 6750 tslal, tsaw-lal; a prim. root; [rather ident. with 6749 through the idea of vibration (comp. 6754); to tinkle, i.e. rattle together (as the ears in reddening with shame, or the teeth in chattering with fear):quiver, tingle. 6767 tse ltsal, tsel-aw-tsal; from 6750 re- dupl.; a clatter, i.e. (abstr.) whirring (of wings); (concr.) a cricket; also a harpoon (as rattling), a cymbal (as clanging):cymbal, locust, shadowing, spear. [This is the word translated shadowing in Isaiah 18:1.] 6817 tsaq, tsaw-ak; a prim. root; to shriek; (by impl.) to proclaim (an assembly):x at all, call together, cry (out), gather (selves) (together). 6874 Tse ry, tser-ee; the same as 6875; Tseri, an Isr.:Zeri. Comp. 3340. 6875 tse ry, tser-ee; or ts4ry, tsor-ee; from an unused root mean. to crack [as by pressure], hence to leak; distillation, i.e. balsam:balm. 6955 Qe hth, keh-hawth; from an unused root mean. to ally oneself; allied; Kehath, an Isr.:Kohath. 6963 qwl, kole; or ql, kol; from an unused root mean. to call aloud; a voice or sound: + aloud, bleating, crackling, cry (+ out), fame, lightness, lowing, noise, + hold peace, [-pro] claim, proclamation, + sing, sound, + spark, thunder (-ing), voice, + yell. 6969 qwn, koon; a prim. root; to strike a musical note, i.e. chant or wail (at a funeral):lament, mourning woman. 6975 qwts, kotse; or qts, kotse; from 6972 (in the sense of pricking); a thorn:thorn. 6976 Qwts, kotse; the same as 6975; Kots, the name of two Isr.:Koz, Hakkoz [includ. the art.]. 6984 qwshyhw, koo-shaw-yaw-hoo; from the pass. part. 6983 and 3050; entrapped of Jah; Kushajah, an Isr.:Kushaiah. 7015 qynh, kee-naw; from 6969; a dirge (as accompanied by beating the breasts or on instruments):lamentation. 7030 qythr (Chald.), kee-thaw-roce; of Gr. origin (h); a lyre:harp.

76

7160 qran, kaw-ran; a prim. root; to push or gore; used only as denom. from 7161, to shoot out horns; fig. rays:have horns, shine. 7161 qeren, keh-ren; from 7160; a horn (as projecting); by impl. a flask, cornet; by resembl. an elephants tooth (i.e. ivory), a corner (of the altar), a peak (of a mountain), a ray (of light); fig. power: x hill, horn. 7162 qeren (Chald.), kehren; corresp. to 7161; a horn (lit. or for sound):horn, cornet. 7311 rwm, room; a prim. root; to be high act. to rise or raise (in various applications, lit. or fig.):bring up, exalt (self), extol, give, go up, haughty, heave (up), (be, lift up on, make on, set up on, too) high (-er, one), hold up, levy, lift (-er) up, (be) lofty (x a-) loud, mount up, offer (up), + presumptuously, (be) promote (-ion), proud, set up, tall (-er), take (away, off, up), breed worms. 7320 Rwmamty Ezer (or Rmamty), ro-mam-tee eh-zer; from 7311 and 5828; I have raised up a help; Romamti-Ezer, an Isr.:Romamti-ezer. 7321 rwa, roo-ah; a prim. root; to mar (espec. by breaking); fig. to split the ears (with sound), i.e. shout (for alarm or joy):blow an alarm, cry (alarm, aloud, out), destroy, make a joyful noise, smart, shout (for joy), sound an alarm, triumph. 7442 rnan, raw-nan; a prim. root; prop. to creak (or emit a stridulous sound), i.e. to shout (usually for joy):aloud for joy, cry out, be joyful, (greatly, make to) rejoice, (cause to) shout (for joy), (cause to) sing (aloud, for joy, out), triumph. 7540 rqad, raw-kad; a prim. root; prop. to stamp, i.e. to spring about (wildly or for joy):dance, jump, leap, skip. 7619 She bwl, sheb-oo-ale; or Shwbl, shoo-baw-ale; from 7617 (abbrev.) or 7725 and 410; captive (or returned) of God; Shebul or Shubal, the name of two Isr.:Shebuel, Shubael. 7645 She banyh, sheb-an-yaw; or She banyhw, sheb-an-yaw-hoo; from the same as 7644 and 3050; Jah has grown (i.e. prospered); Shebanjah, the name of three or four Isr.:Shebaniah. 7703 shdad, shaw-dad; a prim. root; prop. to be burly, i.e. (fig.) powerful (pass. impregnable); by impl. to ravage:dead, destroy (-er), oppress, robber, spoil (-er), x utterly, (lay) waste. 7705 shiddh, shid-dah; from 7703; a wife (as mistress of the house): x all sorts, musical instrument. 7782 shwphr, sho-far; or shphr, sho-far; from 8231in the orig. sense of incising; a cornet (as giving a clear sound) or curved horn:cornet, trumpet. 7788 shwr, shoor; a prim. root; prop. to turn, i.e. travel about (as a harlot or a merchant):go, sing. See also 7891. 7797 sws, soos; or sys, sece; a prim. root; to be bright, i.e. cheerful:be glad, x greatly, joy, make mirth, rejoice.

77

7832 schaq, saw-khak; a prim. root; to laugh (in pleasure or detraction); by impl. to play:deride, have in derision, laugh, make merry, mock (-er), play, rejoice, (laugh to) scorn, be in (make) sport. 7891 shyr, sheer; or shwr (1 Sam. 18:6), shoor; a prim. root [rather ident. with 7788 through the idea of strolling minstrelsy]; to sing:behold [by mistake for 7789], sing (-er, -ing man, -ing woman). 7892 shyr, sheer; or fem. shyrh, shee-raw; from 7891; a song; abstr. singing:musical (-ick), x sing (-er, -ing), song. 7935 She kanyh, shek-an-yaw; or (prol.) She kanyhw, shek-an-yaw-hoo; from 7931 and 3050; Jah has dwelt; Shekanjah, the name of nine Isr.:Shecaniah, Shechaniah. 7969 shlwsh, shaw-loshe; or shlsh, shaw-loshe; masc. she lwshh, shel-o-shaw; or she lshh, shel-o-shaw; a prim. number; three; occasionally (ordinal) third, or (multipl.) thrice: + fork, + often [-times], third, thir [-teen, -teenth], three, + thrice. Comp. 7991. 7991 shlysh, shaw-leesh; or shlwsh, shaw-loshe (I Chron. 11:11, 12:18); or shlsh (2 Sam. 23:13), shaw-loshe; from 7969; a triple, i.e. (as a musical instrument) a triangle (or perh. rather three-stringed lute); also (as an indef. great quantity) a three-fold measure (perh. a treble ephah); also (as an officer) a general of the third rank (upward, i.e. the highest):captain, instrument of musick, (great) lord, (great) measure, prince, three [from the marg.]. 8055 smach, saw-makh; a prim. root; prob. to brighten up, i.e. (fig.) be (caus. make) blithe or gleesome:cheer up, be (make) glad, (have, make) joy (-ful), be (make) merry, (cause to, make to) rejoice, x very. 8056 smach, saw-may-akh; from 8055; blithe or gleeful:(be) glad, joyful, (making) merry ([hearted], -ily), rejoice (-ing). 8057 simchh, sim-khaw; from 8056; blithesomeness or glee; (religious or festival): x exceeding (-ly), gladness, joy (-fulness), mirth, pleasure, rejoice (-ing). 8066 she myny, shem-ee-nee; from 8083; eight:eight. 8067 she mynyth, shem-ee-neeth; fem. of 8066; prob. an eight-stringed lyre: Sheminith. 8070 She myrmwth, shemee-raw-mth; or She mrymwth, shemaw-ree-mth; prob. from 8034 and plur. of 7413; name of heights; Shemiramoth, the name of two Isr.:Shemiramoth. 8085 shma, shaw-mah; a prim. root; to hear intelligently (often with impl. of attention, obedience, etc.; caus. to tell, etc.): x attentively, call (gather) together, x carefully, x certainly, consent, consider, be content, declare, x diligently, discern, give ear, (cause to, let, make to) hear (ken, tell), x indeed, listen, make (a) noise, (be) obedient, obey, perceive, (make a) proclaim (-ation), publish, regard, report, shew (forth), (make a) sound, x surely, tell, understand, whosoever [heareth], witness. 8096 Shimiy, shim-ee; from 8088; famous; Shimi, the name of twenty Isr.:Shimeah [from the

78

marg.], Shimei, Shimhi, Shimi. 8098 She mayh, shem-aw-yaw; She mayh, shem-aw-yaw-hoo; from 8085 and 3050; Jah has heard; Shemajah, the name of twenty-five Isr.:Shemaiah. 8188 Se rym, seh-o-reem; masc. plur. of 8184; barley grains; Serim, an Isr.:Seorim. 8231 shphar, shaw-far; a prim. root; to glisten, i.e. (fig.) be (caus. make) fair:x goodly. 8319 shraq, shaw-rak; a prim. root; prop. to be shrill, i.e. to whistle or hiss (as a call or in scorn):hiss. 8426 twdh, to-daw; from 3034; prop. an extension of the hand, i.e. (by impl.) avowal, or (usually) adoration; spec. a choir of worshippers:confession, (sacrifice of) praise, thanks (-giving, offering). 8596 tph, tofe; from 8608 contr.; a tambourine:tabret, timbrel. 8608 tphaph, taw-faf; to drum, i.e. play (as) on the tambourine:taber, play with timbrels. 8610 tphas, taw-fas; a prim. root; to manipulate, i.e. seize; chiefly to capture, wield; spec. to overlay; fig. to use unwarrantably:catch, handle, (lay, take) hold (on, over), stop, x surely, surprise, take. 8611 tpheth, tofeth; from the base of 8608; a smiting, i.e. (fig.) contempt: tabret. 8612 Tpheth,tofeth; the same as 8611; Topheth, a place near Jerus.:Tophet, Topheth. 8613 Tophteh, tof-teh; prob. a form of 8612; Tophteh, a place of cremation: Tophet. 8628 tqa, taw-kah; a prim. root; to clatter; i.e. slap (the hands together), clang (an instrument); by anal. to drive (a nail or tent-pin, a dart, etc.); by impl. to become bondsman (by handclasping):blow ([a trumpet]), cast, clap, fasten, pitch [tent], smite, sound, strike, x suretiship, thrust. 8643 te rwh, ter-oo-aw; from 7321; clamor, i.e. acclamation of joy or a battle-cry; espec. clangor of trumpets, as an alarum:alarm, blow (-ing) (of, the) (trumpets), joy, jubile, loud noise, rejoicing, shout (-ing), (high, joyful) sound (-ing).

New Testament
103 aid, ad-o; a prim. verb; to sing:sing. 109 ar, ah-ayr; from ami (to breathe unconsciously, i.e. respire; by anal. to blow); air (as naturally circumambient):air. Comp. 5594. 134 ain., ahee-neh-o; from 136; to praise (God):praise.

79

136 ain4s, ahee-nos; appar. a prim. word; prop. a story, but used in the sense of 1868; praise (of God):praise. 214 alalaz, al-al-ad-zo; from alal, (a shout, halloo); to vociferate, i.e. (by impl.) to wail; fig. to clang:tinkle, wail. 832 aul.4, 4w-leh-o; from 836; to play the flute:pipe. 834 aults, 4w-lay-tace; from 832; a flute-player:minstrel, piper. 836 aul4s, 4w-los; from the same as 109, a flute (as blown):pipe. 1867 .pain., ep-ahee-neh-o; from 1909 and 134; to applaud:commend, laud, praise. 2095 u, yoo; neut. of a prim. us (good); (adv.) well:good, well (done). 2165 .uphrain, yoo-frah-ee-no; from 2095 and 5424; to put (mid. or pass. be) in a good frame of mind, i.e. rejoice:fare, make glad, be (make) merry, rejoice. 2168 ucharist, yoo-khar-is-teh-o; from 2170; to be grateful, i.e. (act.) to express gratitude (towards); spec. to say grace at a meal:(give) thank (-ful, -s). 2170 ucharist4s, yoo-khar-is-tos; from 2095 and a der. of 5483; well favored, i.e. (by impl.) grateful:thankful. 2278 ch, ay-kheh-o; from 2279; to make a loud noise, i.e. reverberate:roar, sound. 2279 ch4s, aykhos; of uncert. affin.; a loud or confused noise (echo), i.e. roar; fig. a rumor:fame, sound. 2350 th4rub., thor-oo-beh-o; from 2351; to be in tumult, i.e. disturb, clamor:make ado (a noise), trouble self, set on an uproar. 2351 th4rub4s, thor-oo-bos; from the base of 2360; a disturbance:tumult, uproar. 2360 thr4., thr4-eh-o; from thr.4mai (to wail); to clamor, i.e. (by impl.) to frighten:trouble. 2788 kithara, kith-ar-ah; of uncert. affin.; a lyre:harp. 2789 kithariz, kith-ar-id-zo; from 2788; to play on a lyre:harp. 2790 kitharid4s, kith-ar-o-dos; from 2788 and a der. of the same as 5603; a lyre-singer (-player), i.e. harpist:harper. 2949 kuma, koo-mah;from ku (to swell [with young], i.e. bend, curve); a billow (as bursting or toppling):wave. 2950 kumbal4n; koom-bal-on; from a der. of the base of 2949; a cymbal (as hollow):cymbal.

80

3451 m4usik4s, moo-sik-os; from M4usa (a Muse); musical, i.e. (as noun) a minstrel: musician. 3738 4rch.4mai, or-kheh-om-ahee; mid. from 4rch4s (a row or ring); to dance (from the ranklike or regular motion):dance. 4152 pnumatik4s, pnyoo-mat-ik-os; from 4154; non-carnal, i.e. (humanly) ethereal (as opposed to gross), or (dmoniacally) a spirit (concr.) or (divinely) supernatural, regenerate, religious:spiritual. 4154 pn, pneh-o; a prim. word; to breathe hard, i.e. breeze:blow. 4536 salpigx, sal-pinx; perh. from 4535 (through the idea of quavering or reverberation): a trumpet:trump (-et). 4537 salpiz, sal-pid-zo; from 4536; to trumpet, i.e. sound a blast (lit. or fig.):(which are yet to) sound (a trumpet). 4538 salpists, sal-pis-tace; from 4537; a trumpeter:trumpeter. 4858 sumphnia, soom-fo-nee-ah; from 4859; unison of sound (symphony), i.e. a concert of instruments (harmonious note):music. 4859 sumphn4s, soom-fo-nos; from 4862 and 5456; sounding together (alike), i.e. (fig.) accordant (neut. as noun, agreement):consent. 4862 sun, soon; a prim. prep. denoting union; with or together (but much closer than 3326 or 3844), i.e. by association, companionship, process, resemblance, possession, insturmentality, addition, etc.:beside, with. In comp. it has similar applications, includ. completeness. 5214 humn, hoom-neh-o; from 5215; to hymn; i.e. sing a religious ode; by impl. to celebrate (God) in song:sing an hymn (praise unto). 5215 humn4s, hoom-nos; appar. from a simpler (obsol.) form of hud. (to celebrate; prob. akin to 103; comp. 5667); a hymn or religious ode (one of the Psalms):hymn. 5350 phth.gg4mai, ftheng-gom-ahee; prob. akin to 5338 and thus to 5346; to utter a clear sound, i.e. (gen.) to proclaim:speak. 5353 phth4gg4s, fthonggos; from 5350; utterance, i.e. a musical note (vocal or instrumental):sound. 5424 phrn, frane; prob. from from an obsol. phra (to rein in or curb; comp. 5420); the midrif (as a partition of the body), i.e. (fig. and by impl. of sympathy) the feelings (or sensitive nature; by extens. [also in the plur.] the mind or cognitive faculties):understanding. 5456 phn, fo-nay; prob. akin to 5316 through the idea of disclosure; a tone (articulate, bestial, or artificial); by imp. an address (for any purpose), saying, or language:noise, sound, voice.

81

5463 chair, khahee-ro; a prim. verb; to be cheerful, i.e. calmly happy or well-off; impers. espec. as salutation (on meeting or parting), be well:farewell, be glad, God speed, greeting, hail, joy (fully) rejoice. 5483 chariz4mai, khar-idzom-ahee;mid. from 5485; to grant as a favor, i.e. gratuitously, in kindness, pardon, or rescue:deliver, (frankly) forgive, (freely) give, grant. 5485 charis, khar-ece; from 5463; graciousness (as gratifying), of manner or act (abstr. or concr.; lit., fig., or spiritual; espec. the divine influence upon the heart, and its reflection in the life; including gratitude):acceptable, benefit, favour, gift, grace (-ious), joy, liberality, pleasure, thank (-s, worthy). 5525 ch4r4s, khor-os; of uncert. der.; a ring, i.e. round dance (choir):dancing. 5567 psall, psal-lo; prob. strengthened from psa (to rub or touch the surface; comp. 5597); to twitch or twang, i.e. to play on a stringed instrument (celebrate the divine worship with music and accompanying odes):make melody, sing (psalms). 5568 psalm4s, psal-mos; from 5567; a set piece of music, i.e. a sacred ode (accompanied with the voice, harp, or other instrument; a psalm); collect. the book of the Psalms:psalm. Comp. 5603. 5603 id, o-day; from 103; a chant or ode (the gen. term for any words sung; while 5215 denotes espec. a religious metrical composition, and 5568 still more spec. a Heb. cantillation):song.

82

Song Lyrics

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102