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0 Introduction The Learner and Learning environment subject is one of the courses taken by the student of PISMP Semester 2. In this subject, we are being exposed to a lot of theory of teaching and learning. There are a lot of exposures of new knowledge that can be learned in this subject. A lot of useful information can be learned from this subject. In this assignment, we are going to explore more on the importance of play to the children, the models of teaching, Constructivism Theory and also our own reflection about the whole assignment. In the first task, we will learn more about the play. We will eventually have the knowledge on the importance of the play. Besides, we can identify some of the useful plays that are suitable for the student. In this task, critical thinking is needed to think of the play that is appropriate for the children development. Other than that, in task 2, it is about the models of teaching. I have to build mind maps to about the models of teaching. Therefore, it will give a clearer picture of what the important point that is presented in every type of the models of teaching. The mind maps will be as simple as possible because only the main point will be taken out from each of the teaching models. The models of teaching are one of the important topics to be mastered in this subject. Moreover, while in task 3, I am supposed to write an essay on the application of the Constructivism theory in Malaysia Education. This task really tests the understanding of the theory of Constructivism. This task helps the student to know more about the theory of Constructivism. While in task 4, we have to write our own reflection regarding to the three tasks that we have done. We have to write an academic reflection that shows our understanding on all of the tasks given.

2.0 TASK 1

2.1 Task 1 Discuss the importance of play to children in the aspect of physical, emotional and social development by giving examples of games that are appropriate. Play is special for children. Not only is it fun, but it is also important and vital to the overall development of children. Through play, children try out new skills, explore their imagination and creativity, and develop relationships with other people in their lives. Play is playing an important role in the development of childrens potentials in various aspects. The aspects that children can develop through playing are the physical aspect, intellectual aspect, emotional and also the social aspect. The three main aspect of development that has been stressed through play is on the physical aspect, emotional aspect and also the social aspect. According to H. Spencer (1973), the main reason for play is to discharge the energy of the body. The development aspect that he is referring to is the physical aspect. In his opinion, play can develop a childrens physical potential. Playtime is an essential component of a childs physical development. A newborns first movements are mostly reflexes, but as the child develops physically, the child will learn how to use his muscle to reach for toys, to clap and to move around. Physical play naturally involves movement and as children get older and more mobile, they gain strength, control and coordination. When the children are playing, children are exposed to indoor and outdoor game where health and safety act as an important factor. Children are given the opportunity to participate and show their hidden talent. Both free and structured play helps children learn about themselves and explore their world, as well as gain important life skills, according to the Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center. In Play, professional child care trainer and author Lisa Murphy writes that in children, 97 percent of all learning is physical, taking place from the neck down. During the preschool years, childrens physical development depends on active, physical play , which helps strengthen gross motor and fine motor muscles. Play promotes physical development by helping children strengthen their upper and lower bodies. Many

activities that children consider fun play are in fact building their physical development. Play includes many types of activity, although in the context of physical development, it usually refers to activities involving gross motor skills. Children improve balance, agility, and coordination through climbing, running, jumping and navigating play equipment are all ways in which play can enhance the development of large muscles. Besides, fine motor skills are also readily developed through play. Colouring, cutting with child-sized scissors and playing with toys such as peg boards, or dressing dolls are a few ways that children develop small muscle coordination and dexterity. As skills increase, children naturally increase the difficulty of their play, constantly stretching their limits. A play also strengthens the body and also teaches coordination and confidence. We can encourage the physical development of a child through play by introducing activities that invite children to use their large and small muscles. An example of play that suits for the physical development of a child is swimming. This type of play will develop large muscles of the students. Swimming requires children to move aggressively which can revitalize their body. Swimming can develop childrens physical metabolism which can protect them from various disease. Besides, Swimming can build up leg strength and increase the concentration span. Swimming also builds up strength and endurance in every part of the body. It increases the cardiovascular muscle workout while working on stamina and decreases resting heart rate. Besides, according to Sigmund Fred (1968), he viewed play as a means to reduce anxiety by giving children a sense of control and an acceptable way to express forbidden impulse, in which it is vital for emotional and social development. Children need to play to learn how to control their emotion and how they socialize. When children are playing, they tend to interact with their peers, their teacher and also other children. They can inculcate helping and caring for others. During play, children increase their social competence. Smilansky and Shefatya (1990) contend that school success largely depends on childrens ability to interact positively with their peers and adults. Play is vital to childrens social development. It enables the children to practice both verbal and nonverbal communication skills by negotiating roles, trying to gain

access to ongoing play and appreciating the feelings of others (Spodek & Saracho, 1998). Children also able to respond to their peers feeling while waiting for their turn and sharing the materials and their experiences (Sapon-Shevin, Dobbelgere, Carrigan, Goodman, & Mastin, 1998; Wheeler, 2004). Besides, children experiment with roles of the people in their home, school, and community by coming into contact with the needs and wishes of others (Creasey, Jarvis, & Berk, 1998; Wheeler, 2004). Lastly, the children experience others point of view by working through conflicts about space, materials, or rules positively (Smilansky & Shefatya, 1990; Spodek & Saracho, 1998). Social play usually occurs when two or more children are engaged in a certain play that has a common goal. Social play revolves around social interaction with peers. Various games can be attributed to social play. An example of social play that encourages childrens social development is rough and tumbles play. This type of play will help the children to learn how to interact with others. Boys find it especially

appealing because rough and tumble play addresses their need for power and motor skills competence. Theyre imitating what society gives them as male role models. Often, theyre imitating how adults play with them at home. For boys, it gives them an opportunity to touch each other. Society doesnt give men and boys the opportunity to touch each other. Rough and tumble play enables men to have contact with each other in a way that society agrees with. This game is classified under the social play because there are a lot of interactions going on between the children in this game. Besides, the children may realize that the emotion of every individual may be different at the different situation through playing. Play supports emotional development of children where children are provided a way to express and cope with feelings through playing. To express feelings, children also learn to cope with their feelings as they act out being angry, sad, or worried in a situation they control (Erikson, 1963). Children learn valuable emotional skills, such as increasingly realistic self-perceptions, the ability to manage their emotions, and self-control that improves over time through games and inventions. As older children engage in spontaneous and structured play activities, they come to see themselves as good in some areas and less good in others. These

opportunities monitor and discriminate among feelings and emotions contribute to childrens beliefs about their own capacity. Pretend play is a very nice example of play that can help children to improve their emotional skills and to express feelings. Pretend play allows them to think out loud about experiences charged with both pleasant and unpleasant feelings. It can help children to express feelings in four ways (Piaget, 1962). The first way pretend play help the children express their feelings is by simplifying events by creating an imaginary character, plot, or setting to match their emotional state. A child afraid the dark, for example, might eliminate darkness or night from the play episode. This means that the children do not want anything that is scary to be existed in the play that will spoil their mood. The next way to express their feelings is by compensating for situations by adding forbidden acts to pretend play. A child may, for example, eat cookies and ice cream, for breakfast in play, whereas in reality this would not be permitted. Other than that, the other way to express the childrens feeling is by controlling emotional expression by repeatedly reenacting unpleasant or frightening experiences. For example, a child might pretend to have an accident after seeing a real traffic accident on the highway. Lastly, the way for the children to express their feeling is by avoiding adverse consequences by pretending that another character, real or imaginary, commits inappropriate acts and suffers the consequences. Children whose television viewing is monitored at home, for instance, can pretend to allow the doll to watch indiscriminately and then reprimand the bad child for unacceptable TV viewing habits. In addition, a good example is Alexander, a 4-year-old whose dog was recently hit by a car. In his dramatic play in the pet hospital, his teacher heard him say to another child, Im sad because the car hurt my dog. Here he was trying to cope with unpleasant feelings from a frightening situation. Play enabled Alexander to express his feelings so that he could cope with his worry about his dog (Landreth & Homeyer, 1998). This shows that through play, the children can improve their emotional development where the children can begin to learn how to express and control their own feelings.

In conclusion, play is playing a very important role to help developing children in the aspects of physical, emotional, and also social development. Play is essential and critical part of all childrens development. Play starts in the childs infancy and ideally continues throughout his or her life. Play is how children learn to socialize, to think, to solve problems, to mature, and most importantly to have fun. Play connects children with their imagination, their environment, their parents, family and the world. Children need to be exposed to the play that really can develop their physical state, social and emotions. Therefore, every child needs to be allowed to play, they learn so many skills from playing, and from falling over. When children are playing with their peers, they somehow establish and strengthen the bonds that will last forever between them. It has also been said that children who are encouraged to express themselves freely through play are more able to adapt and learn new skills and perform better in their life. Play is essential to every childs development in that good play experiences as a child turn you into a well balanced grown up and prepare you with the essential life skills needed, to run your home, have children and to enjoy it.

3.0 TASK 2

4.0 TASK 3

4.1 Task 3 Constructivism is a learning theory that sees students as a builder of knowledge, rather than as recipients of knowledge. Students build knowledge about a topic studied by connecting them with existing knowledge or experience, respectively, rather than receiving the whole given knowledge. It says that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences (Shake Seigal, 2004). When we encounter something new, we have to reconcile it with our previous ideas and experience, maybe changing what we believe, or maybe discarding the new information as irrelevant. In the learning context, Constructivism Theory assumed that knowledge will not exist outside the mind, but can be created in the mind based on actual experience. The term constructivism refers to the idea that learners construct knowledge for themselves. The idea of Constructivism was originated from Piagets Cognitive Development Theory and Vygotskys Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). In my opinion, I agreed that Constructivism can really be applied effectively in Malaysia Education System because Constructivism gives a lot of benefit to the students. Constructivism approach emphasizes the construction of knowledge based on their existing experience and knowledge to understand and acquire new knowledge is seen to provide a meaningful learning to children. Application of Constructivism in classroom can also cultivate students talent. Among the important elements in constructivism are teacher take into account existing knowledge, learning is students own efforts, and learning take place when students relate the original idea with a new idea to restructure more ideas. Constructivism encourages the students to form new knowledge out of their already existing knowledge. I think this theory can be applied effectively in Malaysia because the teachers in Malaysia are efficient. According to John Dewey, teacher should be efficient to implement teaching and learning as the process of compiling or building experience and stressed the importance of continued participation of pupils in each teaching and learning activities. The strength of this theory is that teacher acts as assistant, facilitator and planner for the children. Teacher's role is only to deliver the teaching and relate to

students experience for understanding. Teachers choose the closest idea to the principles to be taught to students. This means that the student is a key role in learning activities. Engage directly with the solution implemented in the class. At present, the theory of constructivism found more relevant and suitable to be applied during the teaching and learning session because it helps the students to pick up lesson more quickly. Besides, Constructivism also instills the cooperative & collaborative values among the pupils. Pupils are asked to work in groups to give their own hypotheses (can determine misconception). This method can motivate, guide, and encourage students to participate actively in the teaching and learning activities. The pupils are able to work together own their own to solve problems. The constructivism theory believes that the pupils are active creators of their own knowledge. For example, a group of students in a science class are discussing a problem in physics. Though the teacher have the "answer" to the problem, but he did not tell the student, instead she focuses on helping students restate their questions in useful ways. She prompts each of the students to reflect on and examine his or her current knowledge. When one of the students comes up with the relevant concept, the teacher seizes upon it, and indicates to the group that this might be a fruitful avenue for them to explore. They design and perform relevant experiments. Afterward, the students and teacher talk about what they have learned, and how their observations and experiments helped (or did not help) them to better understand the concept. Third, this theory does not use traditional methods or techniques such as, lectures, memorizing and remembering (Manasi Ghandi, 2004). Rote memorization is a thing of the past. In the olden traditional school system there was a lot of emphasis on rote memorization, and the students were expected to regurgitate the information at the right time. However, little learning took place in this environment. On the other hand in a constructivist classroom, emphasis is laid how to think and understand. These tools go a long way in helping the students. Pupils gain knowledge based on experience built up in the mind rather than the external existence in their minds. The activities implemented and variety of interesting teaching aids make children easy to understand and makes

them fun. The teaching aids can be the computers, projector, and even the latest teaching aid which is called the smart board. The involvement of these teaching aids is important to foster the students interest in studying and gain knowledge more efficiently. The involvement of Smart board surely gives much help on the application of constructivism at school. It is suitable to apply the constructivism method in Smart school where there are provided with a lot of technology for teaching. For example, teacher can use diagram in the form of a slide show to attract students to learn effectively and to make the teaching and learning session more interesting and more effective. Fourth advantage is to promote social and communication skills. Students are encouraged to ask questions, discuss and debate on a topic, express their opinions and so on. This develops their social and communication skills. Teachers often ask open ended questions, and this helps the students in forming their own individual belief and value systems. Teacher may ask different types of questions for the students to think of their answers. Constructivism also promotes social and communication skills by creating a classroom environment that stresses on collaboration and exchange of ideas. Students must learn how to articulate their ideas clearly as well as to collaborate on tasks effectively by sharing in group projects. Students must therefore exchange ideas and so must learn to "negotiate" with others and to evaluate their contributions in a socially acceptable manner. This is essential to success in the real world, since they will always be exposed to a variety of experiences in which they will have to cooperate and navigate among the ideas of others. The next advantage in the constructivism method is where the learner is selfdirected, creative, and innovative. The purpose of the learner in the education is to become creative and innovative through analysis, conceptualizations, and synthesis of prior experience to create new knowledge. The teachers role is to mentor the students during heuristic problem solving of ill-defined problems by enabling quested learning that may modify existing knowledge and allow for creation of new knowledge. Each student forms his or her understanding of the concepts based on their own experiences. Every student has an ownership of their own learning, and this helps them in learning

better. The learning goal is the highest order of learning. Wertsch, 1997, mentioned that constructivism not only acknowledges the uniqueness and complexity of the learner, but actually encourages, utilizes, and rewards it as an integral part of the learning process. The classroom is no longer a place where teacher pours knowledge into passive students, who wait like empty vessels to be filled. In the constructivism method, the students are urged to be actively involved in their own process of learning. Furthermore, the advantage of applying constructivism method in the education system is when in the classroom, the constructivist view of learning can point towards a number of different teaching practices. In the most general sense, it usually means encouraging students to use active techniques (experiments, real-world problem solving) to create more knowledge and then to reflect on and talk about what they are doing and how their understanding is changing. Constructivism stimulates and engages students learn to question things and to apply their natural curiousity to the world. The teacher makes sure she understands the students' preexisting conceptions, and guides the activity to address them and then build on them. The teacher usually encourages the student to do hands on learning in the classroom so that the student can learn more effectively and quick. Students feel a sense of ownership when hands-on learning occurs rather than just tell them something. Constructivist teachers encourage students to constantly assess how the activity is helping them gain understanding. By questioning themselves and their strategies, students in the constructivist classroom ideally become "expert learners." This gives them ever-broadening tools to keep learning. With a well-planned classroom environment, the students learn how to learn. Moreover, constructivism allows students to experience an environment firsthand, thereby, giving the student reliable, and trustworthy knowledge. The knowledge gain by the students is all reliable because the students experience them by themselves rather just some knowledge taught by the teacher. For example, during the teaching and learning for science subject, the students are given the chances to do the experiments themselves and get their own experiences rather than the teacher herself does the experiment and at the end of the teaching session, she just give whatever result of the experiment that she had done by herself. By hands-on learning, the

students are given the chance to explore the knowledge by themselves and teacher only act as a facilitator. In addition, Constructivism taps into and triggers the student's innate curiosity about the world and how things work which will encourage the students to learn more (Shake Seigal, 2004). Students do not reinvent the wheel but, they will rather attempt to understand how it turns, and also how it functions. They become engaged by applying their already existing knowledge and real-world experience, learning to hypothesize, testing their theories, and ultimately drawing conclusions from their findings. This can help the students to be independent and improve their skills more efficiently because if the entire problem is to be solved by the teacher, then the students will never learn. However, Apart from the advantages, when constructivism teaching method is to apply to the Malaysian Education, it will also have its own drawbacks. Among the weaknesses that can be detected is an obstacle to the understanding of the concepts of learning as not consistent with the scientific view. As such it poses a hardship for students to assimilate and organize new scientific ideas. This is most probably because of the lack of structure in the constructivism method. Some students require highly structured environments in order to be able to perform well and excel in their studies. Most students need more structure and evaluation to succeed. This is against the idea of the constructivism theory itself where it encourages the student to construct knowledge for themselves. The next weakness is the unwillingness of students to plan their strategy, thinks, and evaluates their own teaching theory based on their own experiences. Not all students have the same experience or to meet what will be taught by the teacher. This problem, sometimes the cause of teaching and learning becomes ineffective. Teachers are aware that existing ideas need to be modified, expanded or replaced by more scientific ideas by students. This is what is sometimes not understood by students. Therefore, there are critics saying that constructivism only works when the students have an already existing interest in a topic. If the students do not have early knowledge on certain topic, they will not learn.

Another disadvantage of applying constructivism theory in teaching is that it can actually lead the students to be confused and frustrated because they may not have the ability to form relationships between the knowledge they already have and the knowledge they are learning for themselves (wendyppp, 2012). Constructivism assumes that all knowledge is constructed from the learners previous knowledge, rega rdless of how one is taught. The student may not be able to relate their previous knowledge with the knowledge which has been taught by the teacher where they cannot produce a new knowledge. The students may be hampered by contextualising learning in that, at least initially, they may not be able to form abstractions and transfer knowledge and skills in new situations (Merrill, 1991). Not all the students have the ability to relate the existing experience with the new learn experience. Therefore, they cannot develop a new knowledge based on their previous knowledge. They most probably are not able to analysis, conceptualizations and synthesis of prior knowledge. Moreover, there is disadvantage to apply constructivism theory into the education system because in constructivism, it is believed that learning is based on the students ability to discover new knowledge (mlegan31, 2011). It removes grading in the traditional way and instead places more value on students evaluating their own progress, which may lead to students falling behind but without standardized grading and evaluations teachers may not know that the student is struggling. Since there is no evaluation in the traditional sense, the student may not be creating knowledge as the theory asserts, but just be copying what other students are doing. The students may start copying the work done by other students because they cannot adapt themselves to the constructivism method. The students do not always actively construct meaning and building an appropriate knowledge structure (Merrill, 1991) but they simply copy what the better students do. Teacher may not take responsibility for poor learning (mlegan31, 2011). Teacher may not have the time to observe the students which cannot follow the lessons. This is because constructivism is more concern about the ability of the students themselves. Teacher cannot afford to teach the poor student until the teacher may abandon other students in the class. Difficulties arise as teachers aim to design lessons that can

involve all of their students while taking into account individual prior knowledge and giving the teacher-directed guidance required to enhance the learning experience. With the introduction of numerous and frequent assessment procedures and quality analysis, following a constructivist model can limit the means by which teachers are able to measure and prove their success at promoting learning. Following the constructivist model may be theoretically appealing, but practically very difficult, especially within state education, which lacks the funding available to independent schools. By applying the constructivism method may also lead the students to take a majority rules attitude rather than individual approach to decision making (mlegan31, 2011). The students may not have their own decisions and need to take majority decision to account. They must wait for others decision and cannot make their own decision. Although there are disadvantages to apply the constructivism theory to the education system, but still I am strongly agree that this theory should be applied at school. As I mentioned, I believed that there are so many benefits in the constructivist classroom. The advantages of constructivism theory are obviously much more if to compare to the disadvantages of the theory. I believed constructivism in todays classroom has carved a greater niche in this vast world of educational theories more due to the benefits it carries along. Therefore, it is appropriate to implement constructivism theory into the Malaysia Education System. Other than that this constructivism also match the teaching and learning strategy in the KSSR where the process of teaching and learning in KSSR is student-centered and the goal is the same which is to encourage students to think creatively, critically and innovative.

5.0 TASK 4

5.1 Task 4 -Reflection There are 4 tasks in this learner and learning assignment. In the first task, I need to find out the importance of the play that can develop the children in their physical, emotion and their socialization. While completing this task, I found out that I have the ability

to get as many information as possible. I have searched the information that is needed to complete the task in the internet and also the library. There is a lot of websites regarding to the importance of play. Therefore, I have used the information to complete my task 1 question. Besides, I already have some of the knowledge on how to answer the tasks. The little knowledge that I have on the topic actually gives me the hint to start doing my assignment. I gained this knowledge during the lecture time with Pn. Hanisa and also by my own reading in the free time. Thanks to Pn. Hanisa, I have the rough idea in answering the tasks in the assignment. Besides, I also noticed that I am able to identify the useful information which is needed to be included into my essay in task 1. There is actually a lot of information that could be found in the internet but not all can be use in completing the tasks. Therefore, I have to look through the information that I have found in the internet one by one to select the useful information only. I need to identify whether the information mentioned in the websites is relevant to answer the tasks given in the assignment. Other than that, I can also have the ability to evaluate the data which I received from the internet and the books in the library. I am able to value the data which I can use to elaborate more in the essay rather than to be using the data which I am not able to elaborate. In this task, I have chosen 3 most suitable games, 1 game to be discussed under the physical aspect, 1 game to develop the emotion of the children and also 1 game to develop the social aspect of the children. After completing task 1, I have learnt a lot of new knowledge about the importance of the plays to the children in their development. Now, I also know which type of game is appropriate to the children whether in developing their physical aspect, emotion or social development. I realize that plays are too much important to a child for their development. They need to play in order to develop themselves to become healthier, able to control their emotions and also to make a lots of friends which I before

this do not know. All I know only is that play will make the children to enjoy themselves only. After I have done this task, I come to know the proper game that the children should be playing to make sure that they develop themselves in their physical, emotion and also in socialization While completing task 2, I am able to find the information in the internet and also in the book which I have bought from the lecturer and also the books that I have borrowed from the library. The books itself have already given me a lot of information regarding to the question in task 2. However, I face the problem in completing this task because of too many information in this topic. This is because, to complete task 2, we need to transfer the information about the models of teaching into mind maps which only require us to make it in 4 pages only. This really makes me frustrated because I do not know how to organize the mind maps into 4 pages only. I spent a lot of time to organize the mind maps but still at last, I have no choice but to make it 5 pages for the mind maps. After completing task 2, I have increased my knowledge on the topic of model teaching. Last time, I do not know what teaching models are and how many types of the teaching models that we are learning. Besides, my notes on the teaching models are not organized at all. While completing task 2, I got the chance to organize my notes about the teaching models into graphic organizers and mind maps. After I have organized them into simpler form, my understanding towards the topic are higher and I can learn about the teaching model more effectively and it is easier to memorize a simple sentence in a mind map rather than a complicated sentences in an essay. Other than that, I also learn how to make my own mind map which is very useful not only to help me learn faster in this subject but I also can apply this method to the other subject where it makes the learning process become easier. I realize that task 2 helps me a lot when I need to do my revision. I can read my own mind maps when I need to do my revision instead of a long essay in the book. Besides, I realize that every types of teaching model has its own characteristics which I have listed down in the mind maps to help me to become understanding more on each

type of the teaching model. Nevertheless, the mind maps that I have done n task 2 have given me a clearer picture on the topic of the teaching model. Other than that, while I am completing task 3 of this assignment, I think I have the talent to elaborate the points which I have collected. This task requires me to write about 7-8 pages long. At first I have a doubt that I could not finish this task because of the large amount of pages that requires me to write. However, I have successfully done it and I am able to elaborate so much on certain point also because of the information that I found on some points is quite a lot. Besides, the problem that I faced when doing this task is that I do not know the requirement of the question mainly because the question is so confusing. Although I have the rough idea to do it but I do not know what criteria the answer should be about. I stuck at this question about a few days but still I do not know how to begin the task. Therefore, I cannot take the risk to start my task 3. However, my problem has been solved after I have some interaction with my lecturer during the lecture time to confirm the right way to answer the questions. I am also being lack of confidence in completing this task because some of the point that I found in the internet are not the same with the information in the book. Therefore, I feel hard to decide whether which information I should put into my essay. So, I went to discuss with my friends about the information that I have gathered and ask about their opinions. By the help from my friends, I manage to choose the relevant information to be put into my essay. Then, problem comes in again regarding to the amount of pages which we are going to have for task 3. If based on the marks, 20%, we need to have 4 pages, then if 40%, we will have to write about 8 pages of essay. Therefore, I feel scare because I afraid that I would not be able to do that much of writing. However, I have succeeded in writing that much in task 3 based on all the information that I have collected from the books and also the internet. In overall, after completing this learner and learning assignment, I have been refresh myself about the knowledge on the constructivism theory, the importance of play and also the teaching model. Now, I have more knowledge on these 3 topics. I realize that some factors that are existed in the theory that I am not sure have become clear enough when I am completing the tasks. Last time I do not know the importance of the

Constructivism but now I already know what the importance of it to the students are especially. Besides, I also realize that there are also the disadvantages of the theory of constructivism to the students at school besides the advantages. If I do not do this assignment, I would not know about this fact. I noticed that I have gain a lot of new knowledge and increase my understanding on the three topics. In conclusion this assignment really teaches me a lot of new things to improve my understanding on the topics. This assignment can help me a lot in the future. In the future, when I am becoming a teacher, I will know what plays that are important to the students are and also what kind of model teaching is suitable for the students that I am teaching based on their ability and character. Besides, when Constructivism theory is widely used in the Malaysias Education system, I would have the knowledge to teach the students using the theory. Therefore, the knowledge that I have gained through this assignment would be handy when I am becoming a teacher in the future.

6.0 Conclusion In conclusion, this assignment consists of 3 tasks which each and every one of them is very useful to provide me with a lot of knowledge that is very important when I become a teacher in the future. There are a lot of exposures that this assignment has given to me. Task 1 has teaches me the details of the importance of play to the students in their 3 development aspects which are the physical, emotion and the social aspect. Besides, Teaching Models such as the information processing model, behavioural model of teaching, personal model and also the social model are needed to organize learning process in the classroom based on the students ability and talents. The teaching models are very important to be applied at school to make sure the students learn comfortably. Then, the Constructivism theory is said to be very useful to the education system because of the advantages that the theory can bring to the system and therefore can produce good students in Malaysia and produce young generation with high quality.

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