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ITEM

DESCRIPTION STEP 1 FIELD DATA Dimension of the grid in E alignment direction (m): Dimension of the grid in N alignment direction (m): Soil resistivity (Ohm*m): Total enclosed area by ground grid (m2): STEP 2 CONDUCTOR SIZE Symmetrical grid current (A): Duration of fault current (s): Material thermal capacity per unit volume in Joules/cm3/C: Ground conductor thermal coefficient of resistivity at 0 C: Ground conductor thermal coefficient of resistivity at reference temperature of 20 C: Ground conductor resistivity at reference temperature of 20 C: Ko = 1 / a0 Maximum allowable temperature (C): Ambient temperature (C): Required conductor cross-section (mm2): Actual conductor cross-section (mm2): STEP 3

SYMBOL

VALUE

1 2 3 4

LE LN r A

123 81 210 9963

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Ig tc TCAP a0 at rt Ko Tm Ta Sm Sr

1000.00 0.3 3.42 0.0042735 0.00393 1.72 234 250 40 3.23 240

16 17 18 19 20

TOUCH & STEP CRITERIA Surface layer thickness (m): Surface layer resistivity (Ohm*m): Surface layer derating factor: Tolerable touch voltage (V): Tolerable step voltage (V): STEP 4 INITIAL DESIGN No. of parallel conductors in E alignment direction (m) No. of parallel conductors in N alignment direction (m) Spacing between parallel conductors in E alignment direction (m) Spacing between parallel conductors in N alignment direction (m) Number of ground rods: Length of each ground rod (m): Grid burial depth (m): Total length of grid conductor (m): Total effective length of grounding system conductor (m): STEP 5

hs rs Cs Etouch50 Estep50

0.04 2,000 0.53 546.10 1549.03

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Nr Lr h Lc LT

5 4 30.75 27.00 17.00 3.05 0.75 939 990.85

30

GRID RESISTANCE Resistance of grounding system (W): STEP 6 AND 7

Rg

1.1375

31

IgxRg<E touch50 ?

NO

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STEP 8 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 MESH & STEP VOLTAGES Corrective weighting factor: Corrective weighting factor: Peripheral length of the grid (m): Geometric factor: Geometric factor: Geometric factor: Geometric factor: Geometric factor: Diameter of the conductor (m): Spacing factor for mesh voltage: Correction factor for grid geometry: Effective length for mesh voltage: Actual mesh voltage (V): Spacing factor for step voltage: Effective length for step voltage: Actual step voltage (V): STEP 9 48 Em<Etouch? STEP 10 49 Es<Estep? YES YES Kii Kh Lp na nb nc nd n d Km Ki Lm Em Ks Ls Es 1 1.32 408 4.60 1.01 1.00 1.00 4.65 0.02 1.20 1.33 1,020.68 330.33 0.23 748.32 86.40

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APPLIED EQUATIONS

A = LE L N
K = 1

11

14

Sm =

Ig K 0 + Tm ln K +T a 0 t c a t r t 10 4 TCAP

18

Cs

r 0 . 09 1 - r s = 12 h s + 0 . 09

19

Etouch = (1000+1.5Cs rs )

0.116 t

20

Estep = (1000 + 6 Cs rs )

0.116 t

29

LT = LC + N r xLr
1 Rg = r + LT 1 20 A 1 1 + 1 + h 20 / A

30

32 33

Kii=1 (for grids with ground rods along the perimeter)

K = 1+ h / h K hh = 1+ h / h00
na = 2 Lc Lp

(ho=1 m reference depth of grid)

35

36

nb =

Lp 4 A

37 38 39

nc = 1 for rectangular grids nd = 1 for rectangular grids

n = n a nb n c n d

4S
40

d=
Km =

p
1000
1 2p (D + 2h )2 - h + K ii ln 8 D2 + ln ( ) 16 h d 8 D d 4 d K p 2 n 1 h

41

42

K i = 0.644 + 0.148 n

43

Lr LM = LC + 1.55 + 1.22 L2 + L2 E N
Em =
Ks =

L N r r

44

r I g Km Ki
LM
1 1
n-2

45

+ + ( 1- 0.5 p 2h h + D D 11

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46

Ls = 0.75 LC + 0.85 Lr N r
Es =

47

r Ig Ks Ki
Ls

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