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Lecture 2 6/26/13

Instructors: Prof. Connie Chang-Hasnain Dr. Wenbin Hsu

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 1 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Lecture 2 Outline

Introduction, Circuits, Analog, Digital, Units Electrical quantities

Charge, Current, Voltage, Power

The ideal basic circuit element Sign conventions Circuit element I-V characteristics Kirchhoffs Current Law Kirchhoffs Voltage Law

Slide 2

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Symbol: v Units: Joules/Coulomb Volts (V)

where w = energy (in Joules), q = charge (in C) Note: Potential is always referenced to some point. Subscript convention: vab means the potential at a minus the potential at b.

vab va - vb

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 3 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Quiz 1

Slide 4

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Electric Power

Definition: transfer of energy per unit time Symbol: p Units: Joules per second Watts (W)

= = =

Slide 5

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

i

+ v _ Polarity reference for voltage can be indicated by plus and minus signs Reference direction for the current is indicated by an arrow

Attributes: Two terminals (points of connection) Mathematically described in terms of current and/or voltage Cannot be subdivided into other elements

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 6 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

A problem like Find the current or Find the voltage is always accompanied by a definition of the direction:

i - v +

In this case, if the current turns out to be 1 mA flowing to the left, we would say i = -1 mA. In order to perform circuit analysis to determine the voltages and currents in an electric circuit, you need to specify reference directions. There is no need to guess the reference direction so that the answers come out positive.

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 7 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Suppose you have an unlabelled battery and you measure its voltage with a digital voltmeter (DVM). It will tell you the magnitude and sign of the voltage.

a 1.401 DVM b

With this circuit, you are measuring vab. The DVM indicates 1.401, so va is lower than vb by 1.401 V.

Note that we have used the ground symbol ( ) for the reference node on the DVM. Often it is labeled C for common.

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 8 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Quiz 2

What is vcb ? (a) 1 V (b) 2 V (c) -3 V (d) -1 V (e) 3V

a

1 V

b d

vcd

+

vbd

Note that the labeling convention has nothing to do with whether or not v is positive or negative.

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 9 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Passive sign convention i + v _

p = vi

If p > 0, power is being delivered to the box.

an element is absorbing power, positive charge is flowing from higher potential to lower potential.

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 10 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Find the power absorbed by each element:

Conservation of energy total power delivered = total power absorbed

Aside: For electronics these are unrealistically large currents milliamperes or smaller is more typical vi=p (W) 918 - 810 - 12 - 400 - 224 1116

Slide 11

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Circuit Elements

5 ideal basic circuit elements:

voltage source current source resistor inductor capacitor

active elements, capable of generating electric energy

passive elements, incapable of generating electric energy

Many practical systems can be modeled with just sources and resistors

The basic analytical techniques for solving circuits with inductors and capacitors are similar to those for resistive circuits

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 12 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Electrical Sources

An electrical source is a device that is capable of converting non-electric energy to electric energy and vice versa.

Examples: battery: chemical electric dynamo (generator/motor): mechanical electric (Ex. gasoline-powered generator, Bonneville dam)

Slide 13

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Maintains a prescribed voltage across its terminals, regardless of the current flowing in those terminals.

Voltage is known, but current is determined by the circuit to which the source is connected.

Independent DC Independent voltage-controlled current-controlled AC _ vs=m vx + _ v =r i +

s x

Slide 14

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Circuit element that maintains a prescribed current through its terminals, regardless of the voltage across those terminals.

Current is known, but voltage is determined by the circuit to which the source is connected.

either independent or dependent on a voltage or current elsewhere in the circuit Constant or time-varying.

is=a vx

voltage-controlled

Slide 15

is

independent

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013

is=b ix

current-controlled

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Electrical Resistance

Resistance: the ratio of voltage drop and current. The circuit element used to model this behavior is the resistor.

Circuit symbol R

The current flowing in the resistor is proportional to the voltage across the resistor:

v=iR

Ohms Law

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 16 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

p = vi = ( iR )i = i2R

p = vi = v ( v/R ) = v2/R Note that p > 0 always, for a resistor a resistor dissipates electric energy

Slide 17

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

R = 0 no voltage difference v=0 all points on the wire are at the same potential. Current can flow, as determined by the circuit What about power?

Open circuit

R = no current flows i=0 Voltage difference can exist, as determined by the circuit What about power?

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 18 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Open circuit: no path for current flow (R = ) Short circuit: no voltage drop (R = 0)

All rights reserved. Do not reproduce or distribute. 2013 National Technology and Science Press

Voltmeter: measures voltage without drawing current Ammeter: measures current without dropping voltage

All rights reserved. Do not reproduce or distribute. 2013 National Technology and Science Press

Q

Should a Voltmeter be an equivalent open circuit or short circuit?

Slide 21

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Voltage sources, current sources, and resistors can be described by plotting the current (i) as a function of the voltage (v)

i

+ v _

Passive? Active?

Slide 22

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

i

a i + + _ v Vab s _ b

v (0,0)

Vs>0

>0 (c) dont know 1. Repeat (a) (1) i<0 for(b) vs i< 0.

2. What is the I-V characteristic for an ideal wire? EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 23 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

i + v _

is v (0,0)

1. Plot the I-V characteristic for is > 0. Q4: For what values of v does the source absorb power?

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 24 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

a + v _ b i

R v (0,0)

1.

Slide 25

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Wire (short circuit): R = 0 no voltage difference exists

(all points on the wire are at the same potential)

Voltage difference can exist, as determined by the circuit

Slide 26

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Node: A point where two or more circuit elements are connected

Slide 27

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

A node is a point where two or more circuit elements are connected. A loop is formed by tracing a closed path in a circuit through selected basic circuit elements without passing through any intermediate node more than once

Slide 28

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Kirchhoffs Laws

Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL): The algebraic sum of all the currents entering any node in a circuit equals zero. Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL): The algebraic sum of all the voltages around any loop in a circuit equals zero.

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 29 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Use one node as the reference (the common or ground node) label it with a symbol The voltage drop from node x to the reference node is called the node voltage vx. The voltage across a circuit element is defined as the difference between the node voltages at its terminals

v1 + R1

Example:

b + R2 vb _ REFERENCE NODE

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

+ _ v va + s _ c

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 30

Consider a node connecting several branches:

i2

i3 i1

i4

Use reference directions to determine whether currents are entering or leaving the node with no concern about actual current directions

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 31 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

(Charge stored in node is zero.)

Formulation 1: Sum of currents entering node = sum of currents leaving node Formulation 2: Algebraic sum of currents entering node = 0

Currents leaving are included with a minus sign.

Currents entering are included with a minus sign.

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 32 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

KCL tells us that all of the elements in a single branch carry the same current. We say these elements are connected in series.

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 33 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

KCL Example

Currents entering the node: i

5 mA 15 mA Currents leaving the node:

-10 mA

What is i?

Slide 34

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

50 mA 5mA 2mA i i2

Slide 35

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Consider a branch which forms part of a loop:

+ v1 _

loop

Use reference polarities to determine whether a voltage is dropped No concern about actual voltage polarities

Slide 36

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

(Conservation of energy) Formulation 1: Sum of voltage drops around loop = sum of voltage rises around loop

Voltage rises are included with a minus sign.

(Handy trick: Look at the first sign you encounter on each element when tracing the loop.)

Voltage drops are included with a minus sign.

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 37 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

KVL tells us that any set of elements which are connected at both ends carry the same voltage. We say these elements are connected in parallel.

+ va _

+ vb _

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 38 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

KVL Example

Three closed paths:

a b

+ va

3 Path 1: Path 2: Path 3:

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013

+ vb -

Slide 39

+ v2

v3

+ vc

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

No time-varying magnetic flux through the loop

Otherwise, there would be an induced voltage (Faradays Law)

Note: Antennas are designed to pick up electromagnetic waves; regular circuits often do so undesirably.

B( t )

How do we deal with antennas? EECS 117A

+

v( t )

Slide 40

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Quiz What is the power dissipated in the 80W resistor? (a)80*1.62 (b)80*2.42 (c)80*4.82 (d)90*1.62 (e)90*1.62+30*1.62

Slide 41

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Quiz

Are these interconnections permissible? (a) Yes (b) No

Slide 42

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Quiz

Are these interconnections permissible? (a) Yes (b) No

Slide 43

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

a + Vab _ b i R

+ _

vs

Slide 44

Prof. Chang-Hasnain

Resistors in Series

Consider a circuit with multiple resistors connected in series. Find their equivalent resistance.

I R1 R2 VSS

+

KCL tells us that the same current (I) flows through every resistor

KVL tells us

R3 R4

EE42/43/100 Summer 2013 Slide 45 Prof. Chang-Hasnain

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