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ardinal C
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Spring 2004
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On the cover and inside the back cover:
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Spring 2004
4 An Exclusive Interview with Cardinal Castrilln Hoyos
a written interview granted on May 5, 2004, the Feast of Saint Pius V
8 Roman Landscape
by Alessandro Zangrando
10 Kierkegaard: Critic of Luther
by Alice von Hildebrand
16 Sacred Tradition A Many Splendored Thing (Part 3)
by Father Chad Ripperger, F.S.S.P.
20 How Malta Has Kept the Faith
by James Bemis
26 The Vocations Crisis of the Laity
by Edwin Faust
32 What to Do When There is Nothing to Do
by Diane Moczar
38 Liturgy: Responses to La Civilt Cattolica
by Father Romano Tommasi and Father Ignacio Barreiro
46 Scripture: The Douay Bible: A Testimony to Tradition (Part I)
by Salvatore J. Ciresi
50 Sermon: The Exaltation of the Commonplace
by Father Calvin Goodwin, F.S.S.P.
52 Theology: Traditional Catholic Moral Theology: A Thomistic Defense
by Pierre Reginald
56 Biography: Irelands Eamon de Valera: Dev Still Matters
by Steve OBrien
62 History: A Catholic at War: Douglas Jerrold and the Struggle
to Recast Christendom, 1914-1964
by Edward G. Lengel
66 Science: The Church and the Birth of Modern Science (Part 1)
by Thomas E. Woods, Jr.
72 Literature: In Defense of Christian Snobbery Evelyn Waugh Reconsidered
by Adam A. J. DeVille
78 Literature: Paradise Lost: The Quest for the Perfect Future
by Matthew Anger
82 Book Reviews
82 Sensous Worship by Jeffrey Chipps Smith; reviewed by Walter M. Hudson
84 Literary Converts by Joseph Pearce; reviewed by Father James Downey, O.S.B.
86 Saints for Every Occasion by Thomas J. Craughwell; reviewed by Father Ignacio Barreiro
88 The Rich Young Man
by Susan Lloyd
91 Learning Styles and Education
by Marie Siobhan Boland
A Final Thought
92 Successors of the Apostles: From Courage to Collectivism
by John W. Blewett
Spring 2004 38
by Father Romano Tommasi and Father Ignacio Barreiro
A Silly Article from a Once-Serious Journal
by Father Romano Tommasi
his writer is certain that Father
Cesare Giraudo, S.J. is a schol-
arly Jesuit, one who commands a
respectable academic reputation in
Rome. La Civilt Cattolica, the
Jesuit periodical in which Father
Giraudos article appeared, is still
considered the semi-ofcial vehicle
for the Secretariat of State to express
the Vaticans views. This journal has
been noted historically for its heavy-
hitting opinions and articles.
It is most unfortunate, there-
fore, that both Father Giraudo and
the editors of La Civilt Cattolica
have betrayed whatever academic
standards they may have had, to say
nothing of intellectual honesty, in
order to publish a purely emotional
and intellectually decient attack on
the traditional Roman liturgy. They
assault the traditional Mass while
simultaneously admitting to the
embarrassing and utter failure of the
modern liturgical movement.
The article is meant to be an
inspiring presentation of the great li-
turgical renewal that is said to be due
to the merits of Sacrosanctum Con-
cilium, the rst document produced
by the Second Vatican Council.
Following the very brief introductory
The Jesuit-published periodical La
Civilt Cattolica is known as one of
the most prestigious journals in the
Catholic world. Many believe that
its articles are advocated and/or re-
viewed by the all-powerful Vatican
Secretariat of State. Last December,
an article celebrating the anniver-
sary of Sacrosanctum Concilium,
the document on the liturgy of the
Second Vatican Council, was highly
critical of the traditional Mass. It
was most likely a reection of the
struggle within the Holy See about
the future of the traditional liturgy
(and the Vatican allies of those
bishops in France, Germany and
the United States who are furi-
ously opposing the establishment
of a universal traditional Apostolic
Administration). In reply, The Latin
Mass publishes the following two
essays, which expose the piece for
the juvenile propaganda that it is.
paragraph, Father Giraudo begins
offering proof that Sacrosanctum
Concilium and post-conciliar litur-
gical developments have been the
saving force of the Churchs liturgy.
He entitles his rst sortie against
the traditional Mass A look at the
liturgy before the Council.
a title implies an examination of
universal liturgical aberrations before
the Council, but the author ends up
revealing that he is limiting himself
merely to his general sense, or per-
haps to personal experience of liturgy
in Italy before the Council. For he
says (all citations from his article are
my translations from the Italian):
Let us imagine entering, during the
celebration of Mass, into a church;
it doesnt matter if [one] of the city
or country, on whatever Sunday,
during the year 1950, or 1940, or
1930. The celebrative physiono-
myis always the same. We note
immediately that the faithful have
taken their place all in the nave,
as a barrierseparates them from
the space reserved to the priest.
Besides the barrier, known as the
balustrade, in the area that they
call the presbyterium [referring to
39 Spring 2004
the sanctuary], during the rites the
laity are not able to enter, above all
the women. They make an excep-
tionfor those clerics in miniature
that are the altar boys.
Although obviously critical, this
picture accurately generalizes what
one would notice about the arrange-
ment of any Catholic church before
the rst revolutionary changes inau-
gurated by Sacrosanctum Concilium.
Also obvious is the fact that Father
Giraudo disapproves of these pre-
sumed anti-liturgical customs.
The rest of my essay has a twofold
purpose. The rst is to evaluate his
critique based on unanimous histori-
cal agreement among liturgiologists
as regards the practice of authentic
liturgy of both East and West during
the entirety of the Christian tradition,
and the second is to look at the Coun-
cil to see if it actually changed or
permitted change in the tradition of
dividing the nave from the sanctuary
by a rail, and not allowing laymen,
particularly women, into the sanctu-
ary, with the exception of altar boys.
Father Giraudo nds it liturgically
offensive for there to be a separation
between priest and laity in a Christian
church. Of course, an Orthodox or
Eastern Christian would be offended
by Father Giraudos denigration of
this practice, since what he denounc-
es remains valid in the liturgical
tradition of both. Moreover, ample
numbers of these Oriental Christians
are found in Western countries and
many, though adopting Western
social culture, still continue to wor-
ship in their own liturgical traditions
(which Sacrosanctum Concilium
states to be of equal status). Ap-
parently, Father Giraudo is willing
to label as defective the Byzantine,
Syro-Antiochene, Alexandrian,
Abyssinian, East Syrian, and other
liturgies in order to defend the novel
praxis of the new Mass.
None of the above-mentioned
practices of the old Mass, which
Father Giraudo labels as anti-liturgi-
cal, is considered as such, either
explicitly or implicitly, by the
Council itself. The irony of a Jesuit
making such assertions comes from
that orders generally recognized lack
of liturgical sense, resulting from
their traditionally weak liturgical
studies. Thus it would probably seem
inconsequential to the Jesuit Father
Giraudo that the rst semi-public
worship space known in the early
Church (c. 250)

was already known
to have had the
division between
the lay and the
clerical sections
of the church,

which architecture
endured until the
period, and still
endures in all the
Oriental Churches.
The equality of
the sexes was not
so much an issue
with Christians
with respect to
seating (since it
was often merely
the side of the
nave upon which
they sat), but
rather purity, so
that at the sign of
peace and dur-
ing the entire act
of worship there
would be nothing
impure to distract
from proper adora-
tion, which was
radically directed
toward God. The
posture of early Christians praying
due East and their total separation
from any distracting elements from
within the congregation meant that
the communal act of worship was
more concerned with preparing for
the judgment that will mark the
Second Coming.
Father Giraudo goes on to lament,
as if it were a worldwide epidemic,
some typical Italian liturgical
practices which, by the way, are
still to be found in the post-conciliar
Church of some rural and even urban
parishes of Italy. The children, he
notes, are rigorously divided by age
and sex within the church. Of course,
division by gender has been the
traditional practice
of all three major
world religions
and one that may
still be found in
north Africa, Asia,
Eastern Europe
and even some
more conservative
diasporal ethnic
communities in the
western hemi-
Next, Father
Giraudo constructs
an impressive
straw man, one
that is supposed
to elucidate the
oppressive nature
of the pre-Vati-
can II liturgy. In
Italy everyone was
made to kneel for
most of the Mass!
Although this was
more or less the
de facto rule in
parish churches,
some observations
might help us see
the rather delicate
condition of this
straw man con-
cocted by Father Giraudo.
First, Father may have forgotten
that the instructions issued by the
Holy See, especially after the dia-
logue Mass was introduced and then
Generally, the faithful of
the Latin rite still prefer
to kneel, especially
in America and some
places in Europe.
Kneeling persists even
at the reception of Holy
Communion despite
the efforts of American
and European bishops
and priests to deny
Communion and to
employ psychological
pressures to stop the
A Response to La Civilt Cattolica Liturgy
Spring 2004 40
promoted, mentioned the appropri-
ateness of standing for the sung and
recited parts of much of the Mass.

If certain parishes chose not to follow
these rubrical suggestions as promot-
ed by the Holy See, then perhaps the
blame belongs to the local devotion
and custom of the people. Gener-
ally, the faithful of the Latin rite still
prefer to kneel, especially in America
and some places in Europe. Kneeling
persists even at the reception of Holy
Communion despite the efforts of
American and European bishops and
priests to deny Communion and to
employ psychological pressures to
stop the practice.
Assist at a Mass at any church
in Rome, the center of reform, and
behold what the improvement has
wrought! Some people kneel, some
people stand, some people walk
around with their cell phones. Others
sit for the entire Mass. Finally, all of
us are duly impressed with Roman
women who must have their minia-
ture canines with them, particularly
at the reception of Holy Communion.
Thank God, according to Father
Giraudo, that the days of everyone
doing the same thing are over.
Father Giraudo goes on to lament
the practice of Communion being
distributed in Italy (and in many
other places) in those pre-conciliar
days: either before or after Mass but
generally not during Mass. Now, in
these heady days of reform, Commu-
nion is often distributed at a Com-
munion service outside of Mass.
This especially happens in Western
countries seemingly for the conve-
nience of the church consumer
and is most often presided over
by a lay woman. It is difcult to see
how what he considers as a former
abuse can be said to have been
corrected. It would seem, rather, that
the former abuse has been replaced
by another, still graver one.
The last part of the straw man is
that the celebrants chair was never
seen. The truth is that, depending
on the construction of the individual
church, the celebrants place general-
ly could be seen more or less imme-
diately or easily. However, in the new
Church, it is often the altar that takes
a back seat to the celebrants chair.
Some rather recent architectural
novelties place
the celebrants
chair at the
center of the
with the single
altar at the
left or right of
the sanctuary
the celebrant
to trump the
Father Gi-
raudo speaks
ingly about
the simple
praying the
Rosary during
Mass despite
the fact that
Mediator Dei,
which Anni-
bale Bugnini

as the Magna
Carta of the li-
turgical move-
ment, defended
the practice.
Instead of
the simple
faithful who
prayed the
Rosary during
Mass, the good
Father could
have correctly
lamented that
even the learned faithful were do-
ing so in the old days.
Many priests experience the frus-
tration of using vernacular texts on
an illiterate or semi-literate congrega-
tion (simple in Father Giraudos
lexicon). Relying solely on auricular
reception, there is little if any reten-
tion of either the Bible stories or the
themes regardless of the use of the
At least the
educated used
missals in the
old days and
the simple
faithful were
encouraged to
pray accord-
ing to their
abilities during
Mass. Now, at
the vernacular
liturgies, espe-
cially in South
and Central
America, the
priest reads in
Spanish while
many of the
simple and
educated still
pray the Rosary
and largely ig-
nore him.
Giraudo must
be easily satis-
ed in the new
Mass when
some simple
faithful sing a
couple of ver-
nacular songs
and respond
to the priests
Lord be with
you and
call it active
Yet there re-
mains near-total
ignorance of Scripture and a lack
of any understanding of the liturgy.
A Response to La Civilt Cattolica Liturgy
Assist at a Mass at any
church in Rome, the center of
reform, and behold what the
improvement has wrought!
Some people kneel, some
people stand, some people
walk around with their cell
phones. Others sit for the
entire Mass. Finally, all of
us are duly impressed with
Roman women who must
have their miniature canines
with them, particularly at the
reception of Holy Communion.
41 Spring 2004
Even worse now, the sacricial nature
of the Mass is totally unknown. One
who has spent time in these com-
pletely Catholic countries and had
this consistent experience cannot be
impressed with the fruits of the
new liturgy, purportedly so superior.
Father Giraudo proceeds to
address the positive highlights
of Sacrosanctum Concilium as a
reforming docu-
ment. Who would
not praise the strong
emphasis on the
need for a sermon
on Sundays and holy
days? In principle, a
more ample lection-
ary, especially for
Advent ferial days,
could have been
incorporated into the
existing traditional
Missal with great
prot. Few contest
that all these things
have the potential for
the articles lack
of academic rigor
soon rears its ugly
head specically
when Father Giraudo
begins to praise the
restoration of the
Prayer of the Faith-
ful. It is interesting,
and not entirely the
fault of professors, that the advances
made in one discipline or science
sometimes do not permeate or
inform another eld of study until
after some time. This is especially
true in Rome, since new discoveries
and advances occur so often. One
hopes that Father Giraudo is not a
full-edged liturgiologist, since he
would be crushed to learn that, as
one of my previous articles in The
Latin Mass explained, the existence
of a Prayer of the Faithful in the
early Church is a myth. One need
only refer to the monumental work
by Vincenzo Raffa to conrm that
there was no Prayer of the Faithful
in the liturgy in the early Church.

His conclusions were published by
the prestigious Centro Liturgico
Vincenziano a sign that his work
is taken seriously in the liturgical
academic world.
Finally, Father
Giraudo dismisses
those who wish to
return to the liturgy
of iron (as he refers
to the ancient Mass),
as proponents of
nostalgia. He unfa-
vorably contrasts the
nostalgics who desire
an ordered, uniform
and Latin liturgy
with those who abuse
the rubrics and in-
structions of the new
liturgy. According to
Father Giraudo, these
abusers and radicals
are not people of bad
will (as he opines
of the traditional-
ists); they are merely
indubitably sincere
people who just
want to celebrate
their naturalism and
Yet after his
verbose defense
of the reforms, Father Giraudo is
ultimately left to admit that the new
liturgy makes it difcult to distin-
guish between church and plaza.
In other words, when one is at the
new Mass it is not obvious that he
has left the secular and pedestrian
world and entered into what by its
very nature should be a sacred at-
mosphere. The trafc, nonchalance,
and chaos remind the worshipper
of little more than his experience at
the local shopping mall or plaza.
In his conclusion the author
It is undeniable that there are
abuses. These are not the respon-
sibility of the liturgical reform.
Such abuses are not corrected with
reprimands. They are corrected
with that formation that the Council
Fathers did not tire of recommend-
ing: formation of teachersforma-
tionof youth in the seminaries and
faculties, formationfor all, priests
and laymento penetrate into the
spirit of the Church in prayer.
This writer never fails to be as-
tounded by the experts who continue
to recommend that, to address the
problems of the Church, the Church
should continue to do what amounts
to nothing. After decades of forma-
tion in the new Pentecost, new
evangelization, new springtime,
new openness and renewed liturgy,
a great many of the worlds Catholics
live in a new environment of endless
abuse and unmitigated crisis.

1. Uno sguardo alla liturgia prima del Concilio
2. INDICE dei sommarietti del quaderno 3684 del 20 dicembre
2003 (Civ. Catt. 2003 IV 521-656; numero 24 del 2003)
II - Cesare Giraudo S.I. All parenthetical citations are
translations of the original text.
3. JUNGMANN, JOSEPH A. Public Worship, Liturgical Press,
Collegeville, 1957 (trans Clifford Howell), pp. 56-70.
4. SCIENTIA LITURGICA, Manuale di Liturgia, ed. profes-
sori del Ponticio Istituto Liturgico S. Anselmo, 5 vol.,
Piemme, Casale Monferrato 1998. Edizione Italiana. (vol.
5, pp. 379-380). Available in English as the Handbook for
Liturgical Studies published by Pueblo.
5. See: Documenta ad instaurationem liturgiam spectantia,
CLV-Edizioni Liturgiche, Roma, 2000. De missa dialogata
moderatione under Pius XI is the beginning of gradual
legislation to alleviate both the silence of the faithful and
eventually other legislation under Pius XII encourages
singing and standing and sitting at various times.
6. BUGNINI, A. Reform of the Liturgy 1948-75, Collegeville,
Minnesota. The Liturgical Press, 1990 (1st English edition.
Trans. Matthew J. OConnell).
7. Liturgia eucaristica. Mistagogia della Messa: dalla storia
e dalla teologia alla postorale practica (BEL, 100), CLV-
Edizioni Liturgiche (Ed. 2a), Roma 2003.
8. Ibid.
9 . Supra.
A Response to La Civilt Cattolica Liturgy
Father Giraudo must
be easily satised
in the new Mass
when some simple
faithful sing a
couple of vernacular
songs and respond
to the priests
Lord be with you
and call it active
participation. Yet
there remains near-
total ignorance of
Scripture and a lack
of any understanding
of the liturgy. Even
worse now, the
sacricial nature of
the Mass is totally
Father Romano Tommasi received his
Licentiate in Sacred Theology (S.T.L.)
from the Pontical University of San
Anselmo in Rome.