ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.

01

ISBN 0-626-09815-7

SABS 0160-1989
(As amended 1990, 1991 and 1993)

SOUTH AFRICAN STANDARD
Code of practice for

The general procedures and loadings to be adopted in the design of buildings

Reprint 1994 First Revision Published by THE COUNCIL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS

Gr18

SABS 0160-1989

Amdt No.

Date

Text affected

I
I

I
I

ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.01

SABS 0160-1989
(As amended 1990,1991 and 1993)

SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS CODE OF PRACTICE

for
THE GENERAL PROCEDURES AND LOADINGS TO BE ADOPTED IN THE DESIGN OF BUILDINGS

Obtainable from the South African Bureau of Standards Private Bag X191 Pretoria Republic of South Africa 0001 Telephone Fax E-mail Website
: (012) 428-791 1 (012) 344-1568 : sales@sabs.co.za : http:llwww.sabs.co.za

COPYRIGHT RESERVED Printed in the Republic of South Africa by the South African Bureau of Standards

1982 (Act 30 of 1982). In terms of the regulations promulgated under the Standards Act. it is a punishable offence for any person to falsely claim compliance with the provisions of a code of practice published by the South African Bureau of Standards. 1: 15 May 1990 Reprint incorporating Amendment No. First Revision November 1989 Incorporating Amendment No. 2: 15 November 1991 No. Authorities who wish to incorporate any part of this code of practice into any legislation in the manner intended by section 33 of the Act should consult the South African Bureau of Standards regarding the implications. Comment will be welcomed and will be considered when the code is revised. 3: 18 October 1993 This code of practice supersedes SABS 0160-1980 ISBN 0-626-09815-7 .SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1991 and 1993) 2 NOTICE This code of practice was approved by the Council of the South African Bureau of Standards on 7 November 1989. This code will be revised when necessary in order to keep abreast of progress.

. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Limit-states design loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Vibration . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . NominallmposedLoadsQ. . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 SECTION 4 . . . . .2 4. . . . Design procedure . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . ..4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Limit-states Criterion of Failure . . SECTION 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 5. . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . .. . .1 5. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Integrity . . . . . . . . . . Uniform Load Factors and Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Codes for Individual Materials . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . .. .1 4. . . . . . Nominalwindspeed V.. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . .2 4. . . . .1. . . . . 23 LOADS . . . . Load reduction . . . . . . . . . . 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 29 30 31 32 34 34 36 41 Amdt 3. Nominal imposed roof loads . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . Determination of nominal wind loads . Nominal imposed floor loads in buildings containing occupancies other than industrial and storage occupancies . . . . . . . 1993 5. . . . . . .3 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Requirements . . . . ..1. .. . . . .. . . . .4. . . . . . . .. . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . .3 . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. SCOPE . . . ..2 5. . . . .. . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limit-states design methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NominalPermanentLoadsG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5.2 3. . . . . . Nominal imposed floor loads in buildings containing storage and industrialoccupancies . . . . . . . . .. . . . .5. . Limit-states Approach . . . . .4. Deformations under service loads . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . DEFINITIONS .. . . . . . . .5.. .. . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . balustrades and glazing . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 993 Amdt 3. . . . . . . . . . . Oct . . . . . . . . . . . Load Factors and Load Combinations . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 17 18 18 18 19 23 General . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . ..4. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Forces on walls. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 General . . . . . .2 SECTION 5 . GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 7 7 10 10 10 10 11 14 15 15 GENERAL GUIDANCE ON LIMIT-STATES DESIGN LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .3 5. . . Wind Loads W. . . .5 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..4 5. . Nominal wind pressures and forces . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . Working stress design methods . . . . . .3 3. . . . .. . . . . . .5..5 3. . . . . . . . .4 5. . 4. .. . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . 23 Assessment of partial material factors for material codes . . . . . . . .4 4. . . .. . . . . . Stability . . . . . . . . . .2 5.1. . . General . .3 SABS 0160-1 989 (As amended 1990 and 1993) CONTENTS COMMITTEE SECTION 1. . . . . .

SABS 0160-1989 Blank 4 .

. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . DEFORMATION OF BUILDINGS . Seismic hazard zones . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure and force coefficients . . . . . . . skylights and similar structures . . Lifting and handling equipment .1 6. . . . . .3 APPENDIX A . . . . . . . .6 5. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal transverse forces. . . . . .7. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Position of crane and crab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dynamiceffects . . . .8 5. . . . APPENDIX E. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1990) CONTENTS (continued) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . NOMINAL UNIT MASSES CIF MATERIALS . Vertical wheel loads . . . . . . . WIND FORCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 5. . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .5 5. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Testprocedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.2 6. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Forcesonendstops . . . . . . . More than one crane in a building . . . .5 5. Lateral and uplift forces . . .3 5. . . .. .6. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Structural component load effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . Combination of crane lateral forces and wind load . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal longitudinal force . . . . . . . . . Test precautions . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . NOMINAL IMPOSED LOADS . . . . . . . . .6 5. . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . Planning considerations for low-rise housing in Zone II . . .1 5.3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distribution of seismic forces . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . APPLICABLE PUBLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . .4 5. . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . Simplified wind load design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . .. . .7.. . . .1 6. . . . . .1 5. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX C. . . . .8. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Testing Authority .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. .7 5. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .8 5. . . . . . . Planning . . . . . . . . . . Conducting of tests . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.6 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAINFALL INTENSITY .. . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 5. . .4 5. . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX D. . .. . . . .8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . .. .5. . . . . . . . Ceilings. . . . .7 5. . . . . . Types of full scale load tests . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Provision for impact and vibration . ..1 . . . . . . . .. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . Otherloads 45 64 66 67 67 70 71 72 72 76 77 78 78 78 79 80 82 82 82 82 82 82 82 83 83 83 83 83 83 83 84 84 84 84 85 85 88 90 95 97 105 119 .. . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX F. . . . . . . . . .4 5. Design load effect and load combinations .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 6. . . . . . Inertia sway forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .4 5. . . . . . . . . . Loads due to Overhead Travelling Cranes . . . . . . . . Design considerationsfor multistorey buildings in Zone I and Zone II . . . Planning . .. . . . . . . . . .7 5. . . . . . . . . . .5 SECTION 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EarthquakeLoads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . Classification of travelling cranes . . . . .8. . . .7. . .3. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . .3 6. . . . . .7. . IN-SITU LOAD TESTING OF BUILDINGS AND BUILDING ELEMENTS . APPENDIX B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .3. . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seismic base shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

MR Newham South African Transport Services . . .. . . . . Steel and Engineering Industries' Federation of South Africa .. . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . The South African Association of Consulting Engineers .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. J Geldenhuys FH Pienaar DJW Wium BWJ van Rensburg AR Kemp A Goldstein . .. Stoffberg Incorporated . . . . ... . . . ... .. . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. RH Watkins (Chairman) I Jablonski (Standards Writer) A van Wyk (Committee Clerk) HJ Maoc JW Lane JAP Laurie RV Milford Bruinette. . ... .. . . . . . . ... . . . .. .. . . .. .. . . University of the Witwatersrand . . . .. . . . .... . . .. Kruger. . . . . ... . . . .. . Concrete Masonry Association . Division of Processing and Chemical Manufacturing Technology . . . .. . . . . . . University of Pretoria . .SABS 0160-1989 6 COMMITTEE South African Bureau of Standards . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. .. . . .... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ... . ... . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . CSlR Division of Building Technology . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . .

Permanent action. these terms should be selected from IS0 8930. silos. or the structure as a whole. be specified. and d) dynamic loadings due to plant and machinery (other than loadings covered in 5. c) loads on earth-retainingstructures and on structures subject to internal pressure from the contents (e. c) The assessment of floor loads in factories and warehouses is covered in Appendix C .3. e.. d) Further information on wind forces is given in Appendix D.2 SABS 0160-1989 SCOPE This code of practice details the general structural design procedures and the minimum design loads to be adopted in the design of buildings or their structural members.) NOTE a) The standards referred to in the code are listed in Appendix A-1 . 2. a.3 Loads incidental to construction c:annot. It may be a) a set of concentrated or distrihuted forces acting on the structure (direct action). b) Nominal unit masses of materials that may be used in the calculation of loadings are given in Appendix B.1 and 5.7 SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS CODE OF PRACTICE for THE GENERAL PROCEDURES AND LOADINGS TO BE ADOPTED IN THE DESIGN OF BUILDINGS 1.g.8.4. 2. or deformation of.g. bunkers.8.g. (See also 5.I 1. .2. water tanks. prestressing force. etc. however. This code of practice does not cover the following: a) Detailed design appropriate to particular construction materials or methods. Symbols such as a. must be chosen to designate each particular indirect action. that is used for the verification of the structural reliability of a structure for a limit state under the simultaneous influence of differerit actions. Any cause (load or imposed deformation) leading to internal forces in. The National Building Regulations and Building Standards Act. Free action. f) Guidance on the design of rainwater disposal from roofs is given in Appendix F. because of the wide variety and nature of the combinations. or for which the variation is always in the same direction until the action attains a certain limit value. NOTE: The term "load" may be used with essentially the same meaning as "action". DEFINITIONS NOTE: Where it is desired to use t e r m in addition to the terms listed below. etc. A set of values for the actions occurring in a structure.7. It is necessary. Action which is likely to act throughout a given design situation and for which the variation in magnitude with time is negligible in relation to the mean value. within certain limits.1 For the purposes of this code of practice the following definitions shall apply: Act. or b) imposed or constrained deforrnations within the structure (indirect action). e. 5. 1. E. Combination of actions.1.). and references that may be consulted for additional information are listed in Appendix A-2. e) Guidance on acceptable limits for deformations of various types of buildings is given in Appendix E. Action which may have any distribution in space over the structure.2(b).2). 1977 (Act 103 of 1977). that the designer give consideration to the effects of such loads on a partly completed structure. 1. action of vehicles on a bridge. 5. the members of a structure. self-weight. b) loads on bridges. Action.

As defined in the Act. and the weight of persons represents the "transient" action. plus the weight of all finishes. snow. A load case is determined by fixing the arrangement of each of the free actions. e. OccuDancv. Terminal deflection (Fig. Deviation of the middle of a member from the straight line or plane joining its ends. Deviation. Point-in-time load. As defined in the Act. and horizontal components of static and inertia forces. Movement of a defined point in a defined direction. Dwellincl house. Deflection.) Owner. A building. A dwelling other than a dwelling house comprising one or more rooms which have living. Deviation of the end of a member from the straight line or plane. ice and rain. Limit states related to normal use (often related to function). a competent person appointed by the owner to be responsible for the design of such building or part. Load consists of the weight of all the members of the structure itself. As defined in the Act. Imposed load (The term Preferred to "live load"). Nominal value of load. Code of practice. which are to be supported permanently by any member of the structure. . Design value of load. Desiqner. (See the National Building Regulations for clarification of the various types of occupancies. 2). arrangement of traffic loads on a bridge. cooking and sanitary facilities for one or more persons forming a household. 2). Partition. Limit state corresponding to the maximum load-carrying capacity of a structure or of a part of the structure. earth and hydrostatic pressures. Ground movement. Deflection of the middle of a member relative and normal to the line joining its ends. Serviceabilitv limit states. Load arranqement. An internal vertical structure that is employed solely for the purpose of subdividing any storey of a building into sections. Durabilitv. in a floor loading. the weight of the furniture represents the "sustained" action. Local authoritv. The most-likely load which is on the structure at any instant in time (not the lifetime maximum value). Arrangement of loads introduced into a calculation to allow for the variation in space of a free action. Medial deviation (Fig. and that supports no load other than its own weight. National Buildinq Reaulations. Self-weiqht (The term preferred to "dead load"). Load (see also Action) Desian load. Medial deflection (Fig. Load case. together with any outbuildings appurtenant thereto. States beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design (performance) requirements. In relation to the erection of a building or of part of a building. As defined in the Act. e. Deflection of the end of a member relative and normal to the line through the opposite end parallel to its undeflected position. sleeping.SABS 0160-1989 8 Sustained action/Transient action. 1). Terminal deviation (Fig. Dwellins unit. situated upon its own site and designed for occupation as a separate dwelling for one or more persons forming a household. Nominal load. Disturbance of foundations by influences not dependent on the loads applied by the building. Building. Ultimate limit state. As defined in the Act. Ability of the structure and its members to maintain adequate performance in time. The distance of a defined point from a defined datum. eating. Load due to intended occupancy (includes loads due to movable partitions and loads due to cranes). The use or purpose to which a building or site is normally put or intended to be put. Terms used for a qualitative classification of actions.g. Limit states. horizontal or vertical (as relevant) through the opposite end.g. including permanent partitions. 1).

Medial Deflection and Deviation Vertical line representing t h e i n t e n d e d p o s i t i o n o f t h e member (column) a = T e r m i n a l d e v i a t i o n in n o . 1 . c a u s e d b y the l o a d \ i '1/ I F r e e .Terminal Deflection and Deviation . 2 .s t a n d i n g (no l o a d ) p o s i t i o n o f the member New p o s i t i o n o f the member under l o a d Fig.9 SABS 01601989 Undef lected A Deflected i a + SABS 0160 Org.11902-EC/00-07 a and b a r e medial deviations b e f o r e and a f t e r deflection b is m e d i a l deflection Fig.l o a d condition b = T e r m i n a l d e v i a t i o n in l o a d e d condition c = Terminal d e f l e c t i o n o r movement o f t h e member.

factors (applicable to actions). having regard to the expected service life of such building. Ability of the structure and structural elements to perform adequately in normal use (serviceability limit-states related).the shorter span. assuming conditions of simple support. relevant to specific elements of a building. Partial safetv factor. 729 of 18 April 1986 and 798 o f 25 April 1986. This term describes all the y factors. (See also Nominal value. m. the value of which reflects the uncertainties of the material properties. 3) an evaluation of a full-scale building or a prototype by test loading. Storev heiaht.the overhang. Value (of a Darameter) Characteristic value.) Combination values. or a property of a member or of a material). The effective span of horizontal or inclined members.) Standard specification. 3. and also certain specified accidental phenomena.1. for example on experience acquired or on physical constraints. 1) Published by Government Notices 1211 of 6 July 1977.1 3.2 1) A code of practice other than prescribed above. Values obtained by application of partial safety factors to the relevant nominal values. As defined in the Act. 2) an analysis based on generally established theory. which are principally a) ?. which it will have to withstand during construction and anticipated use (ultimate limit-state related). the value of which reflects the uncertainties of the actions. Structural safety. Desian Procedure. Nominal value. For two-way spanning slabs .. The capacity of a structure to resist all the actions. Settlement Differential settlement. 3. Values associated with the use of combinations of actions to take account of a reduced probability of simultaneous occurrence of the most unfavourable values of several independent actions. In order that the design of a building or of part of a building may comply with the provisions of the National Building Regulations’).1 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS DESIGN REQUIREMENTS General. I 1. or c) the design is in accordance with one of the following alternative methods: 3. Value fixed on statistical bases to correspond to a prescribed probability of not being exceeded on the unfavourable side during the lifetime of the structure.1.SABS 0160-1989 10 Serviceability. (For cantilevers . They may be expressed as a certain part of the nominal value by using a factor y. Desian values. The principal representative value of a parameter (either an action. fixed on non-statistical bases. . Relative displacement of different parts of foundations under the action of loads applied by the building. Ensure that any building or any part of a building is designed to possess sufficient structural capacity to resist safely and effectively all loads and influences that may reasonably be expected to act upon it. The vertical distance between the points of support of horizontal supporting members at successive floor levels. or b) the design is in accordance with the empirical rules contained in SABS 0400. b) the ym factors (applicable to materials). R441 of 1 March 1985. ensure that a) the procedures adopted in such design are in conformity with this code and with any other code of the South African Bureau of Standards that is relevant to the materials used in such building or in part of such building.

3 Deformations under Service Loads.alternatives (a) and (b) above are deemed to satisfy the regulations and therefore must in all cases be accepted by the local authority. provided that where a material is used for which there is no SABS specification. NOTE: Table 1 is a summary of suggested deformation limits and should be read in conjunction with Appendix E. and c) possible damage to the building itself. b) possible damage to non-struct. . where significant. In terms of the National Building Regulations.1. of the additional effects of loads acting on the deformed building or member.11 SABS 0160-1989 4) studies of model analogues. and d) possible damage to the adjacent buildings. The deemed-to-satisfy requirements for the use of specific materials employed in the construction of a building or of part of a building are given in SABS 0100 for structural concrete SABS 0137 for glazing SABS 0161 for foundations SABS 0162 for structural steel SABS 0163 for structural timber SABS 0164 for structural masonry The empirical rules contained in SABS 0400 relate to Foundations Floors Walls Roofs Glazing (see Part H) (see Part J) (see Part K) (see Part L) (see Part N) 3. or 5) an authoritative document covering in detail the design of a building or a structural member for a specific purpose or a specific material or both. taking account. So design structural members that their deformations under expected service loads will be acceptable with regard to a) the intended use of the building or member. the design is in accordance with a safe method applicable to such material.uralmembers and materials. A design based on one of the methods given in (c) above may have to be justified by the designer to prove that it will ensure the level of safety and performance implicit in the regulations.

h = height of element. finishes.5 (floor below partition)§ 10-15 mm if Qlh < 3. ++If acting eccentrically. . **The creep component need only be included if the imposed loads are long-term actions.5511 Span1250 to span1125 Varies with construction Span1500 to span1300 (floor beneath partition) Varies with construction 10-15 mm§// Span1250 to span1125 Span1100 Span1500 Storey height1100 Storey height1500 C I I E **EC ** E Medial deflection of roofs or roof members Deflection Terminal deflection of cantilever floors Terminal deflection of cantilever roofs Terminal deflection of noncantilevered horizontal members Terminal deflection of vertical members Stability Damage at supports Ceiling damage Partition damage Roof covering damage Ceiling damage Partition damage Ceiling damage Partition damage C **E "E C EC EC EC *'EC **E **E E Damage at supports Damage at supports - 1 KEY: Q = length or span of member. 'Taking account of any camber provided. Hail and snow are not normally long-term actions in South Africa. E = elastic deflection. cladding. $Includes the self-weight load of the structure. Thermal and moisture movements may also be involved according to the construction arrangement and the environment. settlements+ -- Nind load Medial deflection of floors Stability Damage at supports Ceiling damage Partition damage Span1300 Span1300 Varies with construction (usually less critical than partitions) Span1500 to span1300 (floor beneath partition) 10 mm if Clh < 3.TABLE 1 . partitions and also pre-stress where this contributes to the deformation under consideration §In this case the floor or roof is considered to be isolated from the partition in question.SUMMARY OF SUGGESTED DEFORMATION LIMITATIONS (To be read in conjunction with Appendix E) 1 ~~ 4 5 6 Actions 7 a I displacements involvc load$ Type of deformation Particular deformation I -iail or snow load 9 10 Critical elements and criteri: Suggested limiting value Construction deviation* - Diff. C = creep deflection.5 (floor above partition)§ Span1300 Span1300 Varies with construction 10-15 mm if Qlh < 3. +Under all appropriate actions. /I Deflection at the nodes in the case of a roof truss.

C = creep deflection. ++If acting eccentrically. Thermal and moisture movements may also be involved according to the construction arrangement and the environment. partitions and also pre-stress where this contributes to the deformation under consideration. $Includes the self-weight load of the structure. §In this case the floor or roof is considered to be isolated from the partition in question. +Under all appropriate actions. **The creep component need only be included if the imposed loads are long-term actions. or 30 mm Span1300 Visible length/250. E = elastic deflection. or 30 mm Visible length1250. 'Taking account of any camber provided. or 15 mm SDan1lOO I Yes Yes Yes Yes I yes Stability Appearance Resonance Use Use ++EC ++EC **++EC **++EC "++E **++E KEY: P = length or span of member. or 15 mm Span1125 Span1100 Visible length1250. I/ Deflection at the nodes in the case of a roof truss. h = height of element. finishes. cladding. Hail and snow are not normally long-term actions in South Africa. .TABLE 1 (continued) 1 Type of deformation I 4 I 5 6 7 0 9 10 Particular deformation Critical elements and criteria Suggested limiting value Construction deviation" Yes Yes Medial deviation of floors Medial deviation of roofs and roof members Terminal deviation of cantilever floors Deviation Terminal deviation of cantilever roofs Terminal deviation of noncantilevered horizontal members Terminal deviation of vertical members Oscillations of members Oscillations Oscillations of the building as a whole Appearance Use (curvature) Appearance Appearance Use (curvature) Use (rotation) Appearance Use (slope) Visible length1250.

where necessary. such joints must be designed and suitably described in the design documents. 3. finishes and occupancy. overstressing or instability of elements of the building. which is the movement of a defined point in a defined direction. for control of cracking in partitions. and 3) the sensitivity of human beings to vibration.1. the following should be taken into account (See also Table 1. out of straightness or out of plumbness. which is the distance of a defined point from a defined datum (e. moisture and shortterm or long-term loading effects.): 1) The damping characteristics of the material. Where specific consideration of vibration is required by virtue of known repeated loading. such matters are normally the subject of legislation and are not appropriate to this code. as well as the foundation conditions and environmental conditions to which it is subject. commentary: a) In the majority of buildings. as well as effects due to deflection of members. the stiffness provided to conform to the deformation limit state will be such that no further consideration of vibration is necessary. to ensure that such vibration is acceptable for the intended occupancy of the building.g. and deviation. 2) the dynamic magnification effects on the structural members. The designer must satisfy himself that the deformations under service conditions will not be excessive. Whilst it is undesirable that the deformations of a building damage adjacent buildings. or inconvenience their occupants or other members of the public.4 Vibration a) Give special consideration to floor systems susceptible to vibration. Note that the deformation in question in a particular case is that due to the relevant portion of the loading or environmental effect. e. type of cladding. Nevertheless.g. attention may be drawn to the fact that the provision of movement joints between adjacent buildings and the avoidance of interference with neighbouring foundations are normal good building practice. including its size. having regard to the particular characteristics of the building. . partition construction. Where experience or analysis shows that movement or stress relief joints are necessary to avoid damage. check lateral accelerations of the building to ensure that such accelerations are acceptable for the intended occupancy of the building. it would be that portion of the elastic and creep deflection of the supporting floor that occurs after construction of the partition (this will also depend on when the floor props are removed). This consideration should cover the possible effects of differential axial deformations of members as a result of temperature. b) Investigate unusually flexible buildings and. whether due to deflection or to initial distortion). Note also that a distinction is made in Table 1 between deflection.SABS 0160-1989 14 Commentary: The deformation of a building or of any part of a building should not adversely affect the appearance or proper functioning of the building. Deviation limits are generally related to appearance factors but may in some cases involve use and stability.

e. gymnasia and similar occupancies.2.1. or alteration of the natural frequency of the structure. its ability to withstand local damage without it causing or initiating widespread collapse. continuous vibration and transient vibration. For very repetitive activities such as dancing. some resonance is possible when the beat is on every second cycle of floor vibration.2.7 times the effects of the stabilizing component of the self-weight load does not exceed the design resistance of the relevant parts of the building and its foundations. 3. i. vibration isolation. as full passive resistance generally comes into play only after movement has taken place. unless there is a largo amount of damping. or 2) minimizing by design or by protective measures the probability of failure of a load-bearing member whose failure is likely to result in widespread collapse (method of local resistance). and floor resonant frequencies of less than about 5 Hz should be avoided for light residential floors.3) a) The degree of safety of a structure depends not only on the strength of the load-bearing members and of the structure as a whole but also on the integrity of the structure. 3.15 SABS 0 160-1989 b) Two types of vibration problems require attention in building construction. Human beings can create periodic forces in the frequency rartge of approximately 1-4 Hz. .4. This requirement may be deemed to have been met if a) in analysis according to the (ultimate) lirnit-state method: The sum of the effects of the destabilizing nominal loads multiplied by the appropriate partial load factors that exceed unity as specified in 4. Ensure that adequate provision is made for the stability of a building as a whole and for that of its elements against overturning. foundation failure and stress reversal. combined with the effects of the stabilizing component of self-weight load multiplied by the load factor less than or equal to unity as specified in 4.6 lntearity (See also 4. Adequate structural integrity may be achieved by 1) designing the structure in such a way that. uplift. Continuous vibration results from the periodic forces of machinery or of certain human activities such as dancing. or b) in analysis according to the permissible working stress method: The sum of the effects of the destabilizing design loads combined with 0. Commentary: The adoption of the passive resistance of the soil as part of the resistance to sliding should be carefully considered.4. Transient vibrations are caused by footsteps or other impiactsfollowed by decay at a rate which depends on the available damping.e.1. These vibrations can be considerably amplified by resonance when the periodic forces are synchronized with a natural frequency of vibration of a building. and it is therefore recommended that the resonant frequency of such floors be 10 Hz or more. The undesirable effects of continuous vibrations caused by machines can be minimized by special design provision. does not exceed the ultimate resistance of the relevant parts of the structure and its foundations.5 Stability. schools. i. this will not cause collapse of the whole structure or any significant part of it within a period of time sufficient to make the necessary repairs (method of alternative paths of support). auditoria. such as location of machinery away from sensitive occupancies. sliding. if any single load-bearing member becomes incapable of carrying load.

it should be provided by other means. Although a building should have resistance to progressive collapse caused by "accidental" abnormal events. vehicle impact. depending on their stiffness and strength. The resistance to progressive collapse should be fully evaluated for any new system and if such resistance is not inherent in the system. This force may be shared between the elements of the structure. prefabricated systems in particular are often designed to resist the primary gravity and lateral forces only. when there is a reasonable chance of abnormal occurrences. consider rational means of limiting the spread of local failure to an extent disproportionate to the initial cause of local damage. falling or swinging objects. in terms of 3.SABS 0160-1989 16 b) Design every building to withstand. a tying together of elements and an ability to redistribute overloads. earthquakes (in certain areas of South Africa). 4) design for alternative load paths in the event of a local failure. it is accepted that well-placed explosives could bring down any such building. a horizontal force acting on the portion of the building above that level and acting in any plan direction. . the designer must. Some abnormal events that can occur are explosions due to gas. b) There are four general considerations that can be used in designing to prevent progressive collapse: 1) Reduction of the probability of the occurrence of an abnormal event. However. at any level. including that due to unlocated partitions exerting a force exceeding 3 kN/m of length.1. and corrosion. particularly building structures. Commentary: The following is intended to give guidance when progressive collapse is considered: a) It is clearly not feasible to design all buildings for absolute safety nor is it economical to design for abnormal events unless there is a reasonable chance that they will occur. In some traditional construction systems there is inherent structural integrity. but events such as fires.6. or very high winds such as cyclones or tornadoes. When a review of a structure's integrity indicates that the consequences of failure could be widespread or otherwise very serious or when the structural integrity of a new or unusual form of construction is being evaluated. the magnitude of the force being at least equal to the greater of 1) the wind load acting above that level. Most of the foregoing events would not in general be considered in design. adjacent excavation or flooding causing severe local foundation failure. boiler failures or ignition of industrial liquids. 3) design to resist abnormal loads. as a consequence. should also not cause progressive collapse. c) Traditional structures. 2) design using ductile connection. or 2) 1 o /' of the total nominal self-weight load above that level. specific provisions for structural integrity as indicated above should be incorporated in the design. often possess an adequate degree of structural integrity. which are taken into account in the normal course of design. This inherent integrity is frequently overlooked in new systems and.

as described in 4. 1) where progressionis vertical. and to the one on either side. to the storey where the event occurred and to the storeys immediately above and below. however. b) Subsequent evaluation of partial material factors. it is suggested that collapse be limited. as described in 4. 1993 Amdt 3. and resistance (or performance) factors appropriate to each limit state in each material code in order to achieve a consistent level of reliability. d) Severe deformation is temporarily acceptable in the vicinity of the local failure at the ultimate conditions. 1993 where Rd = design resistance Qd = design load or action effect and Rd and Qd are given by where R( ) = a function defining the resistance of the structure for a particular limit state fk ym = the characteristic:material strength = the partial material factor which allows for uncertainty in the material strength = the resistance (or performance) factor which allows for all other uncertainties in modelling the as-built structure by equation 4(a) for the limit state under [consideration. Oct.17 SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1993) c) It is difficult to apply limits to collapse resulting from an abnormal event.1 GENERAL. Oct.5. This section describes a standardized formulation for preparing limit-states codes for different structural materials. or roof panel damaged.2 LIMIT-STATES CRITERION OF FAILURE. precast strip floor.4.2. The criterion of fitness for purpose is: Amdt 3.and for brittle modes of failure @ Q .A load combinationof self-weight load plus one-third of the total of the specified imposed load plus wind load should be used in evaluating the ultimate stability and ultimate strength of the damaged building after the event. beam. b) See NOTE (b) to Section 5. i) to the truss. 4. 2) where the progression is horizontal. This is achieved through a two-phase process: a) Acceptance of a set of partial load factors and a uniform system for defining load combinations which would be applicable to all structural materials. ii) to a single bay of a full bay-sized floor or roof slab except that where the principal support at one end of a slab is removed. 4. 4. GENERAL GUIDANCE ON LIMIT-STATES DESIGN LOADS NOTE a) This section is not to be used unless there is a reference to it in the material code. two bay-sized panels may act together as a catenary.

(The results of this analysis are defined below. Astructure.4. fire or deformation. 2) excessive local damage (cracking or splitting. durability or appearance of the structure. imposed. transformation into a mechanism.4 UNIFORM LOAD FACTORS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS General. however. slip of connections) that affects the use. is considered unfit for use or to have failed when it exceeds a particular state. QnI Y I v/I 4.1 .3 LIMIT-STATES APPROACH. the summation reflects the combination of self-weight.SABS 0160-1989 18 = the effect of the nominal action or load defined in the loading code. 2) loss of load-bearing capacity of members. will be to design on the basis of the expected critical limit state and then to check that the remaining limit states will not be reached.2 is based on the assumption that the following two-stage procedure is a legitimate approach: a) Identification of partial load factors and load combination factors from available statistical data on common types of loading that give consistent combinations of design load effects possessing a maximum probability of occurrence comparable with existing practice. b) Serviceability limit states are those which restrict the normal use and occupancy or affect durability.) 4. e. be expressed in a limit-states format and will conform to a single set of partial load factors and a uniform system for defining load com binations. 3) overall instability of the structure. wind or other types of load effect appropriate to that limit state = the partial load factor defined for the type of action or load i which allows for variability in the action and an average uncertainty over all materials and limit states in the process of modelling the effect of the action = the load combination factor applicable to action or load i which allows for the probability of simultaneous occurrence of different load types in a particular load Combination. 4.g. It is intended that future issues and revisions of design codes for structural materials in South Africa will. whereverfeasible. fracture. overturning. They include: 1) Loss of equilibrium of the whole or of a part of the structure considered as a rigid body (e. buckling. spalling. or part of a structure. due to exceeding material strength. 4) very large deformation.4.g. the usual approach. 3) excessive vibration that affects the comfort of the occupants or the operation of equipment. fatigue. beyond which its performance or use is impaired. the appearance of structural or non-structural elements or the operation of equipment. and correspond to the maximum load-carrying capacity. They include: 1) Excessive deflection or rotation that affects the use of the structure. called a limit state. local yielding. uplift). The limit states are classified into the following two categories: a) Ultimate limit states are those concerning safety. All relevant limit states should be considered in the design. Cornrnentary: The uniform set of partial load factors and load combination factors defined in 4.

the partial load factors and load combination factors defined subsequently were therefore selected in order to achieve a consistent value of a load index a. The design load effect Q pertaining to the ultimate and serviceability limit states is obtained from equation 4(e) or 4(f). as applicable.19 SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1991 and 1993) b) Identification of partial material factors for each structural material and partial resistance factors for each limit state that.O at the serviceability limit state (equivalent to a 10 % probability of exceeding the design value). A practical problem associated with a full reliability analysis of this type is that the statistics of both the load effect and the resistance of the member are required. calculated as follows: where Qd = the design load effect = Z(wiyiQni) PQ = the curnulative probability of the load exceeding the design value The target value of the load index a used in this assessment is 2. related to the relevant materials codes. In terms of the above. from available statistical data on resistance of different limit states. as the case may be.2 Limit-states Desian Loads NOTE: The partial load factors and load combination factors described in this section are to be used only in cases where the relevant material design code has been drafted or modified to be compatible with these provisions. by multiplyingthe effects of the nominal loads by the partial load factors given in Column 2 or 3 of Table 2. . give consistent probabilities of failure. (This assessment will be undertaken by the individual code committees for the different structural codes. where the assessment of each limit state and load combination is undertaken ab initio. and by the relevant load combination factors given in Column 4 of Table 2 or derived from the recommendationsgiven in Table 3 (depending on the time-dependent nature of the additional load and its correlation to the dominant load). The actual minimum values of a at the ultimate limit state over a practical range of load combinations range from 1. owing to a desire to deviate from existing practice as little as possible.6 to 2. 4. allowing for variability in both load effect and resistance. In South Africa. are largely unavailable at present and it would be a lengthy process to collect the necessary information.) This is different from the approach adopted in North America and Australia.0. using the loading information obtained from (a) above.4.A further problem is that several of the materials codes are still in the process of preparation and it is also anticipated that some of the existing codes may undergo major revisions in the future. statistics for member resistance.O at the ultimate limit state (equivalent to a 1 % probability of exceeding the design value in the 50-year life of the structure) and 1.

.lD. 1993 171Dn + 1. and wind loads W. and the load factor 1. NOTE: The 0.Ofor roof loads. + 0. filing areas and storage areas and by 0. 1993 For self-weight D.3 must be replaced by 0. Oct. Nov. Amdt 2.5 for imposed loads must be replaced by 1.3Q. 1993 with the exception that the load factor 0.ui = the load combination factors given in Tables 2 and 3 The design point-in-time value of the load effect Qdpisobtained from equation 4(f) as follows: Qdp = YD D n + 2 (ViYiQnJ 4(9) The design point-in-time value obtained from equation 4(g) may be required in the following design situations: - determination of the sustained load contribution for analysis of time-dependent behaviour of materials at the serviceability limit state analysis of stability of structures with localized accidental damage at the limit state of accidental damage analysis of residual strength of structures at the limit state of progressive collapse. Oct.3 for wind loads must be replaced by 1. Amdt 3. 1991 . The following combinations can be used at the serviceability limit state: Amdt 3.. with the exception that the load factor 0.5 for chimneys and free-standing towers.6 for garages.Ofor garages. = the dominant imposed load effect for the load combinations and limit state under consideration Qni = additional imposed load effects relevant and significant to the load combination and limit state under consideration t.6 serviceability wind load factor should be used in conjunction with the 50-year mean return period of wind speed only. + 0.the following combinations can be used at the ultimate limit state: Amdt 3.6W.OQn l. filing areas and storage areas and by 0. imposed floor loads Q.SABS 1060-1989 (As amended 1991 and 1993) where yi 20 = the partial load factors given in Table 2 D.O for roof loads. Oct. = the nominal permanent load effect Q.

1993 1 Partial load factor Y. In the case of critical structural members of structures in which large numbers of the public gather and where there would be "very serious" consequences of a failure. 2) Prestressing k) Accidental loads I) Other types of imposed loads not considered above (e. Oct.1-1. cranes) in the absence of more detailed information 1.3 as above.6 2) Accessible roof h) Earthquakes i) Loads from fluids j) Imposed deformations 1) Temperature. etc.o 0 See Table 3 1 3 for slender non-redundant structures such as chimneys and free-standing towers that exhibit significant cross-wind response. material loads.2 should be used.g. Type of load Ultimate limit state Serviceability limit state 4 Load combination factor i.PARTIAL LOAD FACTORS AND LOAD COMBINATION FACTORS I Amdt 3.o 1. settlement.o 1. TABLE 2 .2 1 SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1991 and 1993) The sustained portion of the loads at the serviceability limit state is obtained from 1.o 1. a value of yc of 0.9 would be appropriate. a value of yc in the range 1. filing or storage areas) f) Loads on floor for garages.3Qn with the same proviso on the factor 0. The design load effect may be adjusted at the discretion of the designer by multiplying the design load effect in equation 4(e) and 4(f) by an importancefactor yc to allow for the consequences of failure.o 0 0. For structures with a very low degree of hazard to life and "not serious" consequences of failure.ui Permanent loadinq a) Maximum self-weight load acting in isolation (eqn 4(e)) b) Maximum self-weight load acting in combination with other loads (eqn 4(9) c)Minimum self-weight load Imposed loading d) Wind load e) Loads on floor (other than garages.3 0.lQ + 0.o See Table 3 1. filing or storage areas g) Loads on roof (other than those in (d) and (h)-(l)) 1) Inaccessible roof 1. .

where the additional load is assumed to be uncorrelated to the dominant load.2 (PERMANENT) + 1. Oct.SABS 1060-1989 (As amended 1991 and 1993) 22 It is necessary for the designer to assess the degree of dependence or correlation between the dominant load and the additional load.2 (PERMANENT) + 1.5 may be applied to the additional load from the second crane.5 (FLOOR) + 1.o Partial 03 Examples of common applications of Tables 2 and 3 are: Amdt 3.75 would frequently be appropriate.2 (CRANE HORIZONTAL) Commentary: No provision has been made for pattern loading of permanent loads. Examples of the influence of the time variation of loads are implied by the values of cy = 1 in Table 2. for a single crane where horizontal crane load is the dominant load and vertical crane load an additional load.9 (PERMANENT) + 1. In addition. it is expected that the designer would not include as additional loads those types of load that.8 (CRANE VERTICAL) 1. For cranes in adjacent bays that operate completely independently. a value of cy = 0. 1993 1 3 (PERMANENT) 1. .8 (CRANE HORIZONTAL) + 0. contribute in an insignificant manner to the total load. For two cranes working in tandem. and the variation of the additional load with time.e. the factored values of the self-weight and dominant load effects reflect the lifetime maximum load effects. Considering Tables 2 and 3. at the ultimate limit state. North American practice is adopted in which this effect is apparently absorbed in the portion of the partial load factors that allows for modelling uncertainties and in terms of the definition of permanent loading.s 1.RECOMMENDED LOAD COMBINATION FACTORS FOR TYPES OF IMPOSED LOADINGS NOT COVERED BY TABLE 2 I I 3 Correlation between dominant imposed load and additional imposed load None Variation of additional load with time.6 (FLOOR) 0. 1993 TABLE 3 . For example.6 (CRANE VERTICAL) + 0. when factored.3 (WIND) + 0. the ratio: Arbitrarv point-in-time value Lifetime maximum value Load combination factor '+"i 0. Amdt 3. cy = 1 would apply. i. the factored value of the self-weight and dominant load effects and the factored value of the additional load effect may be compared to the mean point-in-time value of the sustained portion of the load effect. At the serviceability limit state. cy = 0. for imposed loads of a semi-permanent nature such as storage loads or loads from fluids. Oct. and the factored value of the additional load effect reflects the instantaneous or arbitrary point-in-time value which is likely to occur simultaneously with the lifetime maximum of the dominant load.

where it is apparent that these are inappropriate. tural steel are likely to be adopted in codes applicable to those materials. an appropriate resistance or performancefactor (@@ in equation 4(b)) will be determined allowing for these partial material factors so that at least the following target values of safety index@are achieved: Ductile.2 Assessment of Partial Material Factors for Material Codes.30 (which covers most materials used in construction). It is clearly desirable that consistent partial material factors be adopted in different structural codes to allow for uncertainties in material strengths (for example. This is therefore a suitable definition of a design strength for ductile members. It is intended that codes for each structural material will include appropriate values for the partial material factors. owing to the greater uncertainty in the structural response. in accordance with equation 4(b). i.1 DESIGN CODES FOR INDIVIDUAL MATERIALS General. and not at an extreme wind speed. on the judgement of the designer. the resistance of not more than 1 % of members will be less than the design resistance).e. a safety index of@= 3. gradual modes of failure : J'= 3. For members with a coefficient of variation in the range . Load factors for other types of loading (vehicles. and therefore has a greater probability of occurrence.5. sudden modes of failure : @=4.lO-0. I 5 for reinforcement and 1. A specified magnitudeof importancefactory.SABS 0160-1 989 23 It should be emphasized that appropriate statistical information is not available for types of loading other than self-weight. 1. Partial factors will be established on a consistent basis.O Brittle. The wind load factor is also increased to take into account the likelihood that the maximum cross-wind response due to vortex shedding occurs at a relatively low wind speed.5. retail and residential.e. It has been shown that for material strengths and resistances with a coefficient of variation in the range 0. and resistance (or performance)factors applicable to the limit states in such codes. 4. wind and office floor loading.O (required for ductile failure modes) will be achieved if the partial material factors and partial resistance factors are selected on the basis of achieving a 1 % resistance fractile (i. the factors for composite beams should correspond to those in the concrete and steel codes). has a greater influence on the probability of failure for a limit state with a small coefficient of variation and is therefore material dependent.075 for strucPartial material factors of 1.3 for wind loads is increased to 1 3 for chimneys and free-standing towers that exhibit significant cross-wind response. material storage.0 Connection details between components : @ = 4 3 The safety index@is the inverse of the cumulative normal distribution function @-' of the probability of failure pfwhich is defined as the probability of the effect of the actions or loads exceeding the resistance of a particular limit state (equation 4(a)). In the assessment of individuallimit states.5 4.50 for concrete. 4. The load factor of 1. dimensions and loads which are consistent with existing practice. crane and temperature) should therefore be based either on the partial load factors and load combination factors given in Tables 2 and 3 or. using a procedure that involves identifying values for these partial factors that achieve probabilities of failure for different limit states over the practical range of properties. These partial material factors should correspond to existing practice in SABS codes.

or if it is known from experience. b) ImDosed loads Q .2 a) Where a building or structural member can be expected to be subjected to loads.1. earth and hydrostatic pressures.7 and 5.O is reduced by a factor of about 0.2. forces or other effects not listed in 5. as provided for in 5. 5. c) Wind loads W. In limit-states design procedures. using the most appropriate information available.7. the term "nominal" will be used in relation to load values.) of loads. the building or any part of the building is not damaged.2 5. shrinkage. that disregard of some or all of the effects resulting in deformations (as listed in 5. considered in the design of a building and its structural members and connections: a) Self-weiuht loads G. and the horizontal component of static or inertia forces.4. LOADS NOTE a) Since in general practice nominal values of loads are used more often than characteristic values in 2.I GENERAL Ensure that. 3) movement due to differential settlement or heave.8. as provided for in 5.1 .1 5. the following loads. ensure that these are taken into account in the design.O(required for brittle failure modes) will be achieved if the partial resistance factor forJ = 3.1 . or earthuuake loads E. 2) creep in component materials.1 . a safety index ofJ = 4. use the most adverse combinations of the various types of loads as specified in the appropriate limit-states material design codes of practice. I differ significantlyfrom those given in the relevant tables..SABS 1060-1989 (As amended 1991 and 1993) 24 0.3. moisture changes. e l Deformations due to one or more of the following: 1) Temperature changes. (See definition of b) Take the nominal values of loads given in this section for use with limit state design methods to be synonymous with the design or service loads for use with the permissible working stress methods of design .6-0.lO-0. b) Precautions must be taken in the design to ensure that. distorted or made unserviceable owing to the application of excess loads in the construction process. 5. as provided for in 5. whichever produces the more unfavourable effect. LOAD FACTORS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS Limit-states Desian Methods.5 (required for steel connections) will be achieved if the partial resistance factor forJ = 3. snow. due to intended occupancy (includes loads due to movable partitions and loads due to cranes).6. d) Loads due to overhead cranes and other loads applicable to special conditions.15 (which is typical of structural steel and reinforced concrete). during all stages of construction. ice and rain.1 . as provided for in 5. 5.1. forces and other effects are. and factored according to the partial load factors specified in such codes of practice for each load combination and limit state under consideration. where relevant.O is reduced by a factor of about 0. whereasp = 4. except as provided for in 5. 5.7-0.1.1 .5 and 5. or where the loads or forces listed in 5. I (e)) will not affect the safety and serviceability of the building or of any part of the building.8. calculation for these specific effects may be omitted. I .2. c) If it can be shown by the application of engineering principles.

such load being applied over either the entire floor area or such part of the floor area as will produce the most severe effects on the element under consideration.1. plus b) the weight of all finishes and materials of construction which are incorporated into the building or member and which are to be supported permanently by the building or member.J. make due allowance for such increase when calculating permanent loads. 1993 5.) or (G.4. use may be made of the data given in Appendix B. Where there is a reasonable possibility of a significant change in mass owing to the absorption of moisture by porous materials. self-weight load plus wind load or earthquake load (G.1. but excluding movable or unlocated partitions (see 5. + W. 5. since insufficient provision for partitioning may reduce the future utility of the building. . the value of the self-weight load to be used in this case is the nominal self-weight load multiplied by a reduction factor of 0. Nominal Imposed Floor Loads in Buildinas Containinq Occupancies other than Industrial and Storaae Occupancies Occupancies included in Table 4. + Q. Commentary : Where the unit masses of materials are not known or where approximations are sufficient for a preliminarydesign. NOMINAL PERMANENT LOADS G The nominal permanent load for a building or for a structural member of the building consists of a) the weight of the building or rnember itself.1. 5) any one of (1)-(4) above.2 Workina Stress Desian Methods. .2(c).5(b)).7 (see 3.J or (Gn+ Qn + E.1 5. Where a building or part of a building contains a class of usage listed in Column 2 of Table 4. which are treated as imposed loads. domestic appliances and sanitary appliances.3.1 NOMINAL IMPOSED LOADS Q.2.25 SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1993) 5.4. Commentary: Designers and owners are advised to give special thought to the likely types and positions of partitions.3 5.4. self-weight load plus imposed load plus wind load or earthquake load (Gn+ Qn + W.).4 5.1 . including permanent partitions. a) Where the design is to be executed by the permissible working stress method.. self-weight load plus imposed load (G. together with those dimensional change effects not exempted in terms of 5. Oct. for the design of its floors use nominal imposed loads of at least a) the appropriate uniformly distributed floor load given in Column 3.3. 5. Arndt 3.2 Calculate nominal permanent loads from the actual known masses of the materials to be used.3). use the following loads and load combinations: 1) 2) 3) 4) Self-weight load G . + En).1. b) Where the effects of self-weight loads counteract those of other loads or load combinations in any of (a) above.

4.4. NOTE 1) The loads in Columns 3 and 4 should not be considered as acting simultaneously.I. the imposed floor loads should be applied as in 5.1 .1.4.SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1993) 26 b) the appropriate concentrated load given in Column 4.3.2 OccuDancv classes not included in Table 4. The values so obtained should be in appropriate relationship to those in the most relevant categories of usage in Table 4. Where the category of usage of a floor area is not provided for in Table 4 or where it is desired to determine the intensity of a nominal imposed floor load (or floor loads) because of special circumstances. Generally. . 5. applied over the plan area given in Column 5 and placed in the position that produces the most severe effects on the element under consideration. 2) the loads in Column 3 may be reduced in accordance with 5. such load(s) may be determined from an analysis of the likely loads and their effects for the particular occupancy.

restaurants Dining rooms. These extreme loadings would tend to be confined to limited areas in the vicinity of points of congestion such as exit gates. private bathrooms and toilets in educational buildings.75 3. l x 0. +Offices where small printing presses. kN/m2 I I 1.2. . operating theatres Garages and parking areas for vehicles of gross weight less than 25 kN excluding garages where mechanical parking or stacking devices are employed Offices for general use* offices with data-processing and similar equipment* Cafes. lounges. hotels and offices Entertainment. it is implied that a) the number of occupants is controlled.75x 0.l 2 3 A 4 €3 Classrooms. It alSO takes account of the history of satisfactory performance of public assembly buildings that have been designed for this level of loading in many countries.O 0. kitchens.cn 2g : a $6 Q? . light industrial and institutional occupancies 2.o 5.1. lecture theatres X-ray rooms. are installed. and b) the removal of the seating and the use of the space for other purposes is improbable. the designer should consider designing or checking the relevant portions of the structure for an imposed load of 7 kN/m2. In the case of assembly areas with fixed individual seating.o 2.. communal bathrooms and toilets in educational buildings.INTENSITY OF NOMINAL IMPOSED FLOOR LOADS FOR OCCUPANCIES OTHER THAN INDUSTRIAL AND STORAGE Load category 1 I I I Access catwalks in buildings Occupancy class of building or floor zone (description of room or floor use') All rooms in a dwelling unit and a dwelling house including corridors. NOTE: Attention is drawn to the fact that it is possible for loading intensities to reach as much as 7 kNlm2 when large numbers of people are forced by panic or other urgencies to crowd together to the point where free movement is impossible and acute discomfort is experienced. $Attention is drawn to the possible need to increase floor ioadings where compacted filing systems are used. etc.O 10. dormitories.O 3. dining halls. stair landings. collating machines.4.TABLE 4 . hotels and other institutional occupancies Minimum uniformly distributed imposed floor load.o 23 9. stairs and lobbies to a dwelling house Bedrooms.O kN/mz in the table is based on a more probable level of loading consistent with the philosophy that the code of practice loadings are not the maximum attainable values.l x 0. hospitals.l 'For uses not listed in Column 2. Where public assembly type structures are PartiCUlarlY sensitive to overloads (such as might be the case with light foot-bridges or temporary grandstands).o 0.5 15 0 . refer to 5. wards. The highest prescribed crowd loading of 5. subways or foot-bridges at railway stations.O ro -4 5 5.

0 3. institutional occupancies. and terminals Stages to assembly halls. kN Area over which concentratedload in Co'umn is to be applied.O 5.0 0 5. theatres and cinemas Cantilever balconies accessible to the public Filing and storage areas to offices. all with fixed individual seating Light laboratories Sales and display areas in retail shops and departmental stores Banking halls Assembly halls.O I The same as the zone that they serve but not less than: The same as the zone that they serve but not less than: 4.TABLE 4 (continued) Load category Occupancy class of building or floor zone (description of room or floor use*) Assembly halls.0 Minimum concentrated load (applied over the area given in Column 5).O 0. and hotels* Shelved areas to libraries Exhibition halls Corridors. sports complexes. cinemas. grandstands. loggias and canopies irrespective of whether they are normally accessible to the public or not . l 9 50 10 I 5.O 4. landings and individual components of grandstands Public and assembly areas of airports. grandstands.O 3.O I 11 Cantilever balconies. sports complexes. kN/m2 4. all without fixed individual seating Stairs. theatres. corridors. m 6 7 3. railway stations.l x 0 . stairs and lobbies to all buildings other than dwelling houses (where Category 1 applies) Minimum uniformly distributed imposed floor load.

where creep deflection is a factor. Floors used for storage and floors in laboratories and in storage and industrial buildings. b) Where the Dartitions have a weiqht Der unit lenqth exceedina 3 kN/m: A series of line loads. e. in addition to the loadings in Table 4: a) Where the partitions have a weiaht Der unit lenqth not exceedina 3 kN/m and are SUDDOrted on a floor svstem with adeauate load-distributina DroDerties:An equivalent uniformly distributed floor load (in kilonewtons per square metre) of 0.g.6 ) Owners and designers are advised to give special thought to the possibility of later changes of occupancy involving loading heavier than was originally contemplated. As a guide.29 SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1993) 5. 5.1 .5times the weight per unit length of the partition (in kilonewtons per metre). The proportion of the nominal imposed load which may be considered as being of long duration varies with the type of usage. spaced at a maximum of 2.2. In doing this. as in the case of a dormitory being cleared for a dance or other recreational purpose and in the case of an institutional dining hall being used also as an assembly area. it is often only the permanent or long duration or regularly acting component of the imposed floor load that is of consequence. allow for the following nominal imposed floor loads for such partitions. Commentary: For serviceability limit-states analysis. offices .1. including the maximum load capable of being lifted.4. of storage occupancy. Determine the nominal imposed floor loads in a building or in part of a building. ) ) ) 0. Where provision is to be made for unlocated or movable partitions. Attention is drawn also to the possibility of temporary changes in the use of a building. the following proportions of the specified nominal distributed imposed loads may be taken as being of long duration: Floors in the following: Residential buildings. schools. wards. corridors ancl theatres in hospitals.3 Partitions.2 Nominal Imposed Floor Loads in Buildinas Containina Storage and Industrial OccuDancies Storaae OccuDancv. and thereby reduce its utility. placed in any position and direction and having a weight per unit length equal to that of the partitions. but with a minimum of 1 kN/m2.3 ) ) ) ) 0. 5. allowing for the densest stacking of materials and articles and the possible effect of the increase in density of some materials when stored for a long time. Ensure that the nominal imposed floor load adopted is at least 5 kN/m2.4. Allow for the weight of handling equipment.4. they may considerably restrict the use of the building at a later date. taking into consideration the type of stacked materials and methods of storage. They should not necessarily in every case select the lower loading appropriate to the first occupancy. assembly buildings. Take into account the greatest volume of materials (or the greatest number of stacked articles) which can be located on the area of the floor under normal operational conditions of the warehouse.5 m centres.

of industrial occupancy. but with a minimum value of 0. used for any purpose other than those in (a) above. Make provision.3 + g. used for an assembly of persons or for storage. that is supported by a column or bearing wall (the cumulative area of all floors so supported being taken) or a single span of a beam or girder. from the shifting of heavy loads over the floor.2. machine tools weighing not more than 5 kN each). and 2) 5 kN/m2for production rooms such as workshops in works and factories. b) the weight of the heaviest pieces under treatment or the weight of the maximum volume of the product being processed. See 5. such as a workshop. and 2) for rectangular two-way spanning slabs. Determine the nominal imposed floor load in a building. where necessary. the width of the tributary area does not exceed one-half of the span of such slab. and e) loads resulting from necessary maintenance or replacement of stationary plant.5 @ where A = the tributary floor area that complies with the requirements of (c) below.5 + 5.2 may be reduced as follows: a) Where the tributary area of a floor. manufacturing or garaging. the tributary area does not exceed that of a square of sides equal to the smaller dimension of the rectangle.3 for load reduction. exceeds 80 m2. m2 c) Provided that (in (a) or (b) above) 1) for one-way spanning slabs. d) the weight of handling equipment.4. for the influence of dynamic forces arising from operations with dynamically imbalanced equipment. taking into consideration the weight of manufacturing plant. or by a single panel of a slab (solid or ribbed). Load Reduction. for the design of the building or of part of the building.4.1. for the design of the building or of part of the building.7 @ where A = the tributary floor area that complies with the requirements of (c) below.3 4’5.3 Dynamic forces. The minimum uniformly distributed imposed floor load shown in Column 3 of Table 4 or derived from 5. the distributed loading may. but with a minimum value of 0. .4.the distributed loading may. or from falling or suddenly displaced goods in storage. or in part of a building. be multiplied by a factor equal to: 0. or flat-plate. or bya single span of a beam or girder. that is supported by a column or bearing wall (the cumulative area of all floors so supported being taken). 5.4. exceeds 20 m2. or a single panel of a slab (solid or ribbed) or flat-plate. including a) the weight of the plant.4.2 Industrial OccuDancv. be multiplied by a factor equal to 0. m2 b) Where the tributary area of a floor.SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1993) 30 5. Ensure that the nominal floor load adopted is at least 1) 3 kN/m2 for production rooms such as workshops with lightweight equipment (benches. c) the weight of gangways and working platforms.2.

Alternatively.4.2. l m.4.4.3 times the nominal imposed roof load shall be taken as acting concurrently with the nominal wind load. acting vertically downward.1 or 5.3 Inaccessible roof. 5. 60 mm of hail or 50 mm of rainwater.4.6 (inclusive) in addition to the wind loads detailed in 5.4. as appropriate provided that the load has a maximum intensity of 0.5 kN/m2where A is 3 m2or less and a minimum value of 0. Commentary: These are primarily maintenance or construction loads intended to represent the effects of workmen or stacked materials. l m in any position.2-5. but: a) for inaccessible roofs the nominal imposed roof loads and nominal wind loads shall not be taken as acting concurrently. etc.3 kN/m2where A is 15 m2or more.5. measured vertically). measured on plan.O kN applied over an area of 0 . or a concentrated load of 2. whichever is the most severe: a) A concentrated load of 0.4.1 General. or b) a uniformly distributed load.4.4. 5. hail or rainwater on roofs (approximately 250 mm depth of snow. whichever is more severe. Commentary: The above loading {makes no provision for impact effects or for brittle covering material.4. m2.9 kN.4. and b) for accessible roofs 0.4 Nominal Imposed Roof Loads NOTE: In this subsection. NOTE: Wind loading will usually be predominant where the roof slope is less than 30". It is necessary that safety measures (such as gang boarding) be introduced when work is carried out. allow for one of the following nominal loads. all roof slopes are measured from the horizontal and all imposed loads act in a vertical direction. allow for a uniformly distributed imposed load of 2. a distributed load corresponding to the expected depth of snow.4.4. So design all roofs that they are capable of sustaining the relevant nominal imposed loads set out in 5.O kN/m2 measured on plan. Where no access is provided to a roof (other than that necessary for cleaning and repair). . of (0.31 SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1993) 5. acting vertically downward and applied over an area of 0 .3 + 5-A) 60 kN/m where A = the tributary area for the member under consideration or the area of the roof slab confined by the perimeter of supporting members. the distributed load will cater for limited accumulations of snow. or c) where it is known that snow of depth exceeding 250 mm could be expected to accumulate on a roof. as appropriate.2 Accessible flat roof a) Where access is provided to a flat roof (in addition to access necessary for cleaning and repair). 5. l m x 0 . design it in accordance with 5. l m x 0 .4. b) When a roof has an intended use as a floor.

5.4. greater depths of snow or hail than those referred to in 5. Refer to Appendix F for information on rainfall intensity. applied over a 100 mm length for beam elements and over a 100 mm x 100 mm area for plate elements and acting at the top or any other position of the guard. Take the following loads into consideration: a) For parapet walls. Wire mesh hail guards can be of value for this purpose but may not always be effective for fine hail. 2) the appropriate concentrated forces set out in (b)-(f) below. gangways and balconies other than those in places of public assembly. a few minutes): 1) The appropriate wind forces.5 5. ensure that an allowance is made for loads (in excess of the distributed loads prescribed in 5.4. accumulation of rainwater is possible and the resultant ponding must be considered. the following nominal imposed loads (which may be assumed to be of short duration. hail and rainwater.4) caused by snow.4.4. and that the capacity is clearly indicated.4.4.3 and 5. hail or rainwater. scuppers should be provided through the parapets to prevent an accumulation caused by blocked rainwater pipes.4 will be uncommon in most parts of the Republic of South Africa.4.4. The possibility that gutters and downpipes may be blocked by hail or snow should be borne in mind.4. or .2. or 3) the appropriate distributed forces set out in (b)-(f) below.4. whichever is the most severe. 5.5 5.5.4.3. balustrades and railings that guard a drop of more than 750 mm. together with members that give them immediate support.4. Ensure that where a roof truss (or any of its elements) or any other member is designed to sustain a specific load at a specific location. The value of such loads must be based on a knowledge of the local weather conditions and on the layout of the building concerned. Where flat roofs are provided with parapets.1 Forces on Walls.4. Consideration should be given to the possibility of greater accumulations of snow or hail at changes in slope and in valleys and behind parapets or similar projections.e. shackle or similar device. appropriate to its mean slope. Loads due to snow. whichever is the most severe. On flat roofs.4.4. open surfaces. Where the designer deems it necessary. b) For walls or railings guarding stairs.6 5.4.4. particularly those subject to deflection. Local knowledge should be applied in cases where the values in 5. in accordance with 5. landings.4.4 Curved roof. Balustrades and Glazinq ParaDet walls. Commentary: On flat. and parapet walls or railings to all roofs to which there is no access other than for maintenance purposes: 1) A concentrated force of 1 kN acting in any direction between vertically downward and horizontally inward or outward.4 may be exceeded.SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1993) 32 5. Provision for additional loadinqs on roof trusses or other members in buildinqs containinq industrial and storacre occupancies. Calculate the nominal imposed load on a curved roof by dividing the roof into an appropriate number of segments and calculating the load on each. such location is clearly identified by a suitable hook. i. balustrades and railinqs.

curtain walls and Dartv walls. For non-brittle materials and for masonry. e) For railings to catwalks and similar access areas in industrial buildings where crowding is unlikely: A concentrated force of 1 kN applied as in (b)(l) above.5 .3 5. Commentary: Reliable information on the calculation of resistance to human forces is not available. and to roofs to which the public has access: 1) A concentrated force of 1 kN applied as in (b)(l) above. Where it is possible to conduct impact tests.5. yard and garden walls higher than 1. Dartitions and alazina units. have a level of impact resistance which will prevent undue risk of injury resulting from failure. gangways and balconies that serve grandstands: 1) A concentrated force of 1 kN applied as in ( b ) ( l ) above.5 m length of barrier. partition or glazed panel. the ability to withstand the forces specified in 5.3 m above floor level or such lesser height as may be more critical. particularly in the case of brittle materials such as glass. ImDact forces in walls.2 with the normal safety factors for the materials concerned will generally ensure adequate resistance to human impact. or the appropriate wind force. 5. curtain walls and partitions. acting normal to the barrier and at a height of 550 mm above floor level.33 SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1993) 2) a distributed horizontal force of 500 N/m applied at the top of the guard and acting outward. landings.3 m above floor level. or 2) a distributed force of 1 3 kN/m applied as in (b)(2) above. Ensure that all walls. Lightweight sheeted or boarded partitions shall be capable of withstanding a nominal horizontal distributed force of 0.4.2. 5.8 m high.I m.5.l m at any point at a height of 1. distributed over any 1.5. except that.4 5. Ensure that all concrete or masonry boundary. or 2)a distributed force of 3 kN/m applied as in (b)(2) above. the framing to such walls. Ensure that all external walls.5kN/m acting at a height of 1. or a distributed horizontal force of 0.4. and all large glazed panels within 500 mm of the floor that may be exposed to impacts from a person falling against or bumping into them. fracture or penetration of the wall.5 m are capable of withstanding a nominal horizontal concentrated force of 1.5. f) For guardrails in elevated or rnultistorey parking garages for vehicles of a gross mass not exceeding 2 500 kg: A horizontal load of 30 kN. whichever is the most severe.4. gangways and balconies serving places of public assembly other than grandstands. landings.5. are capable of withstanding a nominal horizontal concentrated force of 500 N acting normal to the wall surface over an area of 0.2 Exterior walls. curtain walls and party walls in buildings or.4.4. in the case of sheathed and framed walls.36 kN/m acting at a height of 1. c) For walls or railings to stairs. d) For ramps and forwalls or railings to stairs.O kN acting normal to the wall at any point at a height of 1.3 m.5. an impact of 400 J delivered by means of a 250 rnm diameter bag filled with dry sand to a mass of 30 kg may be considered representative of the most severe conditions likely to occur.4. or a nominal horizontal distributed force of 500 N/m at a height of 1.l m x 0. Ensure that all partition walls other than those of lightweight sheeted or boarded construction are capable of withstanding the forces (other than wind forces) specified in 5. the force must be taken as liable to act inward or outward. vard and aarden walls. Boundarv. where the guard may be exposed to crowd surge loads from either side.8 m or at the top of the wall if it is less than 1. or the appropriate wind force. whichever is the most severe. Partition walls.

= a force coefficient A. N/m2 Pi = internal nominal wind pressure on surface. Determine the nominal wind forces on a building or on part of a building by one of the following methods: a) In accordance with the following formulae and the procedures given in 5. N = area of surface concerned. WIND LOADS W.5. m/s q. = projected or effective area of building or element.1 Pe = external nominal wind pressure on surface. = internal pressure coefficient V. = factor for converting regional wind speed into nominal wind speed allowing for the variation of wind speed with height. for a 50year return period at height 10 m in Terrain Category 2. according to regional location.6 Stackinq of materials aqainst walls. In addition. = nominal wind speed at height z above local ground level for given building or element. the designer must ensure that due allowance is made for such thrust in the design procedure. kg/m3 2 V = regional basic wind (gust) speed.5 5. according to terrain category and class or size of building or element Cpe= external pressure coefficient Cp. m2 A C. 5.5.3 and 5. Determination of Nominal Wind Loads. F = free stream velocity pressure of wind at height z.5.SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1993) 34 5.2. the details of such loading must be recorded.5. m/s kr = factor for adjusting V to other return periods (risk factor) (see Fig. m2 . N/m2 kp = factor for converting wind speed into velocity pressure - air density. Where materials are to be stored against a wall or partition in such a manner that a horizontal thrust is transmitted to such wall or partition.5.4 for the determination of the nominal wind pressures on the relevant surfaces : 5. N/m2 = resultant force on building or element.4. 4) k.

c) However. For instance. it will be necessary to consult the specialist literature in this field or resort to tests.2. the simplified rules in 5. will suffice.5 is concerned with wind loading and the response of buildings to such loading. However.1. Where a more accurate prediction IS desired. the fluctuations in the wind forces result in a dynamic response of the building.6.4 have been incorporated. as set out in the detailed procedure (and on which the simplified procedure is also based). and to establish whether the airflow induced at ground level may not seriously inconvenience or endanger people at that level. where a particular building is of such shape. for slender or flexible structures such as towers. or both. A high degree of precision in the determination of pressure or force coefficients for individual buildings is therefore not generally possible without recourse to wind tunnel tests that model surroundings as well as the building itself. Factors such as the scale and intensity of wind turbulence. the pattern of wind flow around and over a tall building or group of tall buildings should be investigated to ascertain its possible influence on ventilation. the nature of the surrounding buildings. and topographical features also have a profound influence. Wind tunnel or similar tests may be required to evaluate these problems. for the great majority of buildings with conventional shapes conforming to those covered in the various tables in this code.5.. . The magnitude of the response will depend on factors such as the turbulence of the wind and the shape. wind loading is not a critical parameter in the design of the structure and an overestimate of the wind forces will not be of consequence. 2) However. Small variations in shape or in surface roughness or in wind direction (horizontally or vertically) can cause significant changes in the flow and hence in the magnitude and distribution of the resulting pressures on the building. size. chimney stacks.35 SABS 0160-1989 b) A simplified design method in accordance with 5. and some tall buildings. provided that the following limitations on the shape and dimensions of the building are complied with: 1) The building is rectangular in plan. (See also A-2(a) and (b) of Appendix A. Outside these limitations.) d) In many buildings of simple squat shape and limited height. stiffness and damping characteristics of the building. it is sufficient and more convenient to use the typical pressure or force coefficients tabulated in this code. size or location that special consideration of these effects is necessary. it varies fairly rapidly with time) and since buildings are deformable to a greater or lesser degree.e. For these cases. 1) For the majority of buildings. the detailed procedure given in this code should be used. the effects of wind on a building may also influence non-structural aspects of its design and it is desirable that the designer familiarize himself with these possible effects so that. the dynamic response effects are small and a static wind loading design in which the wind forces are based on a peak gust speed with a limited probability of occurrence during the life of the building.5. Since they are based on a combination of the most severe cases. this can be given at an early stage of the design. e) Wind is a dynamic phenomenon (i. the size of the building. (See also A-2(c) of Appendix A. 3) the ratio of overall height to least plan dimension does not exceed 4. masts. air conditioning and rain penetration.) b) The nature of wind flow around a building is complex and a theoretical prediction is difficult. they will generally give a rather conservative estimate of the wind forces. the dynamic response effect may be significant and more refined methods of analysis should be employed. Commentary: a) Section 5. 2) the overall height does not exceed 20 m. weight. c) A design approach complying with the procedure set out in 3.

the characteristic wind speed V.2 Reaional basic wind speed V.) Amdt 3.2. There is no fixed relationship between the nature of the motion and the human response to it. the model is scaled with due regard to mass. 5. of Appendix A.2.5.4 and 5.SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1993) 36 Such methods are not covered in any detail in this code. 3) In tall. (See also A-2(b) of Appendix A. length. 2) Tests for dynamic response. Oct. f) The following comments are provided regarding wind tunnel testing: 1) Tests for mean and fluctuatina loads and pressures.5.5. 3 is discussed in Milford.5. stiffness and damping. slender buildings. Determine the regional basic wind speed V for a building.2. 'Annual maximum wind speeds for South Africa' (The civil enaineer in South Africa. 2) terrain category (see 5.2. flexible roof structures or claddings can lead to loosening of fasteners and occasionally to fatigue failure.3).5.2. which gives values of V for a 50-year mean return period (see 5. and 5) class of structure or element (see 5. 4) height above ground (see 5. from Fig. inclusive. Tests for determining the dynamic response of a structure may be considered properlyconducted only if the requirements of (f)(l) above are met and if.2. b) Obtain the nominal wind speed V. in addition. Commentary: The background to the derivation of the wind speeds given in Fig.5. but some approximate guidelines are given in the reference quoted in A-2(i) of Appendix A. may be considered properly conducted only if i) the natural wind has been modelled to take into account the scale and intensity of turbulence and the variation of wind speed with height. 3) local effects (see 5. c) For buildings for which a 50-year mean return period is prescribed.6).6). and similar tests employing a fluid other than air. must be at least 24 m/s.6).2 5. RV.2. determined in accordance with 5.2. 3.2.5. Wind tunnel tests used to determine mean and fluctuating loads and pressures. according to its geographical location. but guidance can be found in appropriate specialist texts referred to in A-2(d)-(o).5.5.2 and adjusted for 1) mean return period (see 5. and ii) tests on curved shapes are conducted with due regard to the effects of Reynolds numbers.2. the dynamic oscillations not only influence the design of the structure and the cladding but may also have a psychological effect on the inhabitants of the building.5). January 1987) and the values are based on a statistical analysis of data gathered by the Weather Bureau of the Department of Environment Affairs over many years and at a number of stations throughout the Republic. 5. at height z above ground level to determine the wind forces on a building or part of it. from the appropriate regional basic wind speed V. General a) Use the nominal wind speed V. It should also be noted that wind-induced vibration of light.1 Nominal Wind Speed V.5. 1993 .3 for other return periods).5.

4 Terrain cateaories a) General. Terrain having numerous closely spaced obstructions generally having the size of domestic houses.5. .g. etc. (See also (d) below.5. vears 50 100 25 10 5 In instances where such temporary structures will remain in position for a considerable period of time (e.g.g.) b) Cateaories. This category includes large city centres. b) For mean return periods other than 50 years.g. towns and industrial areas. obtained from Fig. lake shores and flat. formwork and falsework. tall. e. cornmunications buiIdings . In selecting a terrain category (see (b) below). with few trees. Cateaorv 2. Assess the terrain in which the building stands as being of one of the following categories: Cateaorv 1.. This category includes open sea coasts.2. the mean return period of 5 years may need to be increased and a value of ten times the period of exposure is suggested. Cateaorv 3. treeless plains with little vegetation other than short grass. etc. This category includes wooded areas and suburbs. This is the category on which the regional basic wind speed V is based. 5. 6 months and over). and roof coverings to all buildings For analysis of serviceability considerations Buildings and temporary structures used only during construction operations. site office. This category includes large airfields. Nature of buildina or element All buildings other than those given below Buildings which have special post-disaster functions. open parklands or farmlands and undeveloped outskirts of towns and suburbs. 3 by the appropriate correction factor k. Exposed smooth terrain with virtually no obstructions and in which the height of any obstruction is less than 1 3 m . etc.3 SABS 0 160-1989 Mean return Deriod a) Use a regional basic wind speed V having a mean return period as set out below or as selected by the designer for the particular nature or use of the building or element.2. closely-spaced obstructions.5 m and 10 m . fully or substantially developed. determine the regional basic wind speed Vby multiplying the value for 50 years obtained from Fig. Buildings representing a low degree of hazard to life and property in the case of failure.37 5. 4. hospitals. Mean return period. take into account the permanence of the features constituting the surface roughness and the distance (in a direction upwind of the building under consideration) over which the terrain remains unchanged. e. Terrain with numerous large. e. Open terrain with widely spaced obstructions (more than 100 m apart) having heights and plan dimensions generally between 1. side cladding to industrial buildings. isolated towers. A terrain category defines the characteristics of those surface irregularities of an area that arise from natural or constructed features and that create a surface roughness affecting the degree of turbulence and the variation of speed with height of the wind passing over the area. Cateqorv 4. farm buildings.

Fora building of height exceeding h. The wind speed profile for a given terrain category does not immediately develop to full height at the commencement of that terrain category but is gradually established. of the increase in exposure due to situations on or near the edge of a cliff.2. b) ExDosure.) d) Chanue in terrain cateaorv. of the effects of exposure resulting from a fetch of open (more severe) terrain in an otherwise rougher (less severe) terrain category.5.e. adjust the design wind speed accordingly.SABS 0160-1989 38 NOTE 1) It is expected that the majority of design situations will fall into Terrain Category 3 and that the selection of a more severe (Category 1 and 2) or less severe (Category 4) terrain category will be deliberate. c) Effect of wind direction. in accordance with 5. (See also D-3 of Appendix D. sufficient meteorological information is available. Make no allowance for shielding from adjacent objects other than that implied in 5..4 and 5. in accordance with 5. Where the local topography is such that increases in wind speed may occur as a result of funnelling or other effects.2. 2) Owing to the large differences in wind speeds between Terrain Categories 2 and 3. Commentary: A procedure for the determination of a combined wind profile due to the presence of two or more terrain categories is given in D-2 of Appendix D. design the building for wind speeds determined for the terrain category in which the building is situated. For a building of height h.5.5. The terrain category used in the design of a building may vary according to the direction of the wind. the distance the wind has blown over the new terrain) increases. situated at a distance xfrom a change in terrain category. the design wind speed may be obtained by interpolation between the values for these two categories. or less.5.6.5. on the basis of appropriate meteorological advice or tests. However. 5. Take account.2. bluff or escarpment.5. (See also 5. the regional basic wind speed Vmay be varied only if for design purposes according to specific wind directions. c) Local toDouraDhy.4(d). d) Sudden chanae in uround level.) . The relationship between the fully developed height h. Take account.2. starting nearest the ground and extending upwards as the "fetch" (i.e.2. situated at a distance x from a change in terrain category.6(c). 5 for each of the four terrain categories.5 Local effects on wind w e e d a) Shieldinq. the distance in a direction upwind of the building under consideration over which the terrain remains unchanged) is given in Fig. design the building for wind speeds determined for the less rough (more severe) terrain category or adopt a combined wind profile determined from the respective profiles of the terrain categories involved.2. of the wind speed profile and the fetch x (i.2. Particular attention is drawn to the possibility that the wake flow from large buildings can lead to increased cladding pressures on buildings downwind of such structures and that funnelling of the wind between groups of large buildings in close proximity can give rise to increased wind speeds which will affect both overall and local wind pressures. and where there is doubt whether the terrain under consideration falls into Category2 or Category 3.

L U L L a J 0 U 0.Correction Factor K. D . 3 .9 O J 5 10 20 30 40 50 100 200 300 400 500 Mean r e t u r n period. m/s (Isopleths of 3 Second Gust Speeds at 10 IT 1 Height in Terrain of Category 2.39 SABS 0160-1989 m aJ U Fig. 4 .Regional Basic Wind Speed V. years Fig.I ) . Estimated to be Exceeded on Average Only Once in 5 C1 Years) L 0 4 U 0 Lc c 0 . by which Regional Basic Wind Speeds from Fig. 3 must be Multiplied to Obtain Values for Other Mean Return Periods (Also Applicable to Mean Wind Speeds in Fig.

k m 40 60 Fig.For Fetch Distances up to 2 km 2 500 E x E c c 'F250 f U 0 200 150 100 D z (U 50 0 Ir 8 12 16 20 Fetch x. 5(a) .For Fetch Distances over 2 km and up to 60 km Fig. krn Fig. 5(b) .Fetch/Height Relationship .SABS 0160-1989 40 180 160 E 140 120 w 60 40 20 I I I I I 0 1 Fetch X . 5 .

Measure the height zfrom site ground level in the immediate vicinity of the building or. glazing and their immediate fixings. 5. Commentary: Where a building is situated at or near the edge of a sudden change in ground level (e. class of structure and terrain a) Wind speed multiplier. by multiplying the regional basic wind speed Vor k. 5 s or 10 s gust speed will be appropriate : 3 s for cladding design 5 s for trusses. Amdt 2. 3) Class C: For the determination of the overall resultant forces and overturning moments on buildings where the height or the width or the depth exceeds 50 m. the longer the averaging time. a cliff). roofing. for design purposes. D-6 of Appendix D.6 Variations of characteristic wind speed with heiqht. c) Measurement of heiaht. 1991 . B or C in accordance with the following: 1) Class A: For the determination of forces on units of cladding. are based on published empirical data.2. together with their variations with height as set out in Table 5. the determination of which is given in D-3 of Appendix D.5. b) Class of structure or element. Commentary: The free wind speed fluctuates from moment to moment as a result of turbulence and it can be averaged over any chosen period of time. portals and other main structural elements and for overall forces on buildings whose height or plan dimensions are not more than 50 m 10 s for overall forces on buildings wider or taller than 50 m .g. from an artificial ground datum (see D-3 of Appendix D). make allowance for this by the introduction of an artificial ground datum.V by the applicable wind speed multiplier k. For this reason. including roof battens and minor purlins supporting small areas of roofing. Nov.. at a height z above site mean ground level for the assessed terrain category and class of building or element being designed. and on individual members of unclad frames. Classify as Class A. It has been found that the shortest duration of fluctuation (2-3 s) that the normal Weather Bureau anemometer is capable of recording satisfactorily corresponds to a gust whose size is insufficient to envelop obstacles of dimensions exceeding about 20 m . given in Table 5. where neither the height nor the width nor the depth of the building exceeds 50 m.3 Nominal Wind Pressures and Forces NOTE: See Fig. corresponding respectively to situations where a 3 s. A. Determine the characteristic wind speed V . of wind speeds of 3 s duration will therefore overestimate the overall forces on most buildings and larger structural elements. 2) Class B: For the determination of forces on main structural members as well as for the overall resultant forces and for overturning moments on buildings.41 SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1991) 5. although it will be appropriate for local forces on small elements such as cladding. The relation between the 5 s and 10 s wind speed and the basic 3 s limit speeds. the lower the speed.5. The use. B and C have been adopted. three classes of structure. for sites on top of steeply sloping hills or cliffs.

36 1.31 Up to 5 10 15 20 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1.lO 1.5.03 1. to the free stream velocity pressure by means of the following equation: q z = k.57 0.27 1.11 1.36 1 1 % 1.36 1. Values of k.21 1.1 Conversion of wind speed to velocity pressure.27 1.36 1.23 1.34 1.36 * The wind speed multipliers for heights exceeding the height of the obstructions producing the surface rough- ness (reference plane height). HEIGHT AND CLASS OF STRUCTURE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Wind speed multiplier. b) Intermediate values of k.31 1. Convert the characteristic wind speed V.94 1.36 1.53 0.28 1. may be obtained by linear interpolation.99 1.23 1.28 1.33 1.36 1.02 1. = characteristic wind speed at height z.67 0.20 1.36 0.50 0.36 1.31 1.18 1.36 1.13 1. N/m2 V.36 1.36 1. but less than the gradient height are based on the variation of gust speeds with height.34 0.80 0.09 1.17 1.36 1.56 0.36 E: Above 500 I -- - 1. rn Terrain Category 2 j Terrain Category 3 Terrain Category 4 -B of building or element' C I C 1.36 1.V.17 1.36 1.86 1.98 1.36 1.36 1. A temperature of 20 " C has been selected as appropriate for South Africa and the variation of mean atmospheric pressure with altitude is allowed for above.3.47 NOTE: a) kpis half the density of the air under the relevant conditions and therefore varies with temperature and atmospheric pressure. = free stream velocity pressure (above atmospheric pressure) at height z.12 1.22 1.09 1.08 1. TABLE 5 -VARIATION OF CHARACTERISTIC WIND SPEED WITH TERRAIN. determined by the formula .31 1.02 1.04 1.23 1.36 1.36 0.05 1.11 1. Terrain Category 1 Height z.15 1.78 0.64 0.36 1.31 1.36 1.57 0.36 1.36 1.36 1.98 1.05 1.26 1.07 1.27 1.36 1.34 1.36 1.57 0.04 1.11 1.11 1.13 1.60 0.36 1.951 0.21 1.36 1.OO 1.34 1.2 5(d) where q.557 0.95 1.36 0.27 0.14 1.81 0.34 1. m/s = a constant dependent on the site altitude k.83 0. for a range of site altitudes are given below: Site altitude above sea level.71 0.16 1.30 1.27 A B C 0.23 1.36 1.88 0. m 0 500 1000 1500 2 000 -P k 0.92 0.74 0.36 1.31 1.oo 1.27 1.SABS 0160-1989 42 5. k.22 1.34 1.OO 1.02 1.36 1.

Determine the characteristic wind pressure on a surface of a building by means of the equation Pz = c. the surface may be subdivided into height zones and the specific pressures applied over the relevant areas.2 Determination of surface pressures a) Characteristic wind pressure.qz 5(e) where p. .3. having regard to the effects of wind direction and the probable levels of internal pressure in the building.36 V Where zgis the gradient height (height above which the ground roughness no longer influences the wind speed). = a pressure coefficient for the particular surface or part of the surface of the building q. Measure the values of z.4 to determine the wind forces on a building as a whole and on its walling and roofing elements. suction). Use the most adverse applicable pressure coefficients or combinations of pressure coefficients tabulated in 5. 1 Terrain Category 1 2 3 4 2 ZQ 3 2 . = pressure on the surface at height z. z . is the height of the reference plane and a is an exponent for a short period gust.079 0. N/m2. = 1.15 0.5. the period being 3 s for Class A 5 s for Class B 10 s for Class C. 4 I 5 a I 6 (rn) 250 300 400 (m) 0 0 5 12 Class~ Class B 0.09 0. = the velocity pressure.18 500 5.e.5. N/m2 C . to the top of each height zone.14 0.from equation 5(d) in 5. where qz varies with height.16 0. The pressure is taken as uniformly distributed over the designated surface or part of the surface except that.43 SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1991) and for heights exceeding the gradient height V.07 0.073 0. in such cases. i.095 0.19 Classc 0. b) Pressure coefficients. and C .21 0.105 0.3.1 p. may be positive (pressure acting normal to and towards the surface) or negative (pressure acting normal to and away from the surface.5.

Where interaction is possible. For rectangular buildings. this addition is necessary only where the ratio d/h or d/b exceeds 4.5. it is necessary to allow for wind forces arising from frictional drag on the roof and the walls parallel to the wind direction.5. d) Resultant pressures and forces on walls and roofs. may be subdivided into height zones and the appropriate value of 9. m2 Where it is necessary to allow for the variation of 9. Thus where f. 5. where h = the height of the building to eaves or parapet b = the breadth (normal to the wind direction) d = the depth (parallel to the wind direction) . Do not apply these local pressures concurrently with the average pressures. = a force coefficient as given in 5.3. determine the overall resultant force on the building by vectorial summation of the forces resulting from the wind pressures on the various surfaces. is that for the building as a whole. For clad buildings of certain proportions.5.5. 5. A. Use the external pressure coefficients Cp. in addition to the wind forces calculated in accordance with 5. take the local external pressures as acting simultaneously with the appropriate levels of internal pressure. b) Alternatively. over the height of the building.4 Determination of frictional forces.3.3 Determination of overall forces on clad buildinss a) Determine the resultant nominal wind forces on a building as a whole by means of the following equation: where f = the resultant characteristic wind force in the direction of the wind C. for buildings for which appropriate force coefficients are not available.5.SABS 0160-1989 44 c) External and internal pressure coefficients. = the total effective frontal area of the building (projected area normal to the wind direction).4 A.5. applied to each zone.3.2 and 5. Calculate the resultant wind force on the surfaces of a wall or roof element from the algebraic difference between the external and internal pressures on the element. to determine the pressure on the external surface of a space-enclosing element such as a wall or roof and the internal pressure coefficient Cpito determine the pressure on the internal surface of the element.3. there are local external pressure coefficients defining the higher localized negative pressures in certain regions (generally at corners of walls and edges and ridges of roofs). as they are intended only for use in the design of claddings and their immediate supporting members and fixings in the specified regions.3.5. at height z e) Local pressure coefficients. The value of C.3. Refer also to the commentary to 5. Note that in addition to average external pressure coefficients defining the pressures over a roof or wall surface as a whole. = the resultant wind force on an element of area A.

45 SABS 0160-1989 For such buildings. (See also D .2h(d if h > b. each of which is proportional to a Reynolds number if the kinematic viscosity of the air is assumed to be constant. In the tables.4 5.2of Appendix D.5. Average and local external pressure coefficients for walls and roofs of rectangular buildings of various types are given in Tables 6-9 (inclusive). Table 10 gives values of internal pressure coefficients for rectangular buildings under various conditions of roof and wall permeability.5.5.Ol for smooth surfaces without corrugations or ribs across the wind direction.4. 0. 5.b.5. determine the total frictional force Ff in the direction of the wind by means of the following equations: if h s b .q.4. Ff = Cf. 0.5 Determination of overall forces on unclad buildinas and frames.5. or individual structural members by means of the procedures and force coefficients given in 5.a. . and q. and separate values of C. However. C.) 5. Com mentary: Most of the force coefficients given in 5.I . It should also be noted that for buildings or structural shapes with curved surfaces. lattice towers.4b) + C. the force coefficient is dependent on Reynolds numbers. The first term on the right-hand side in each equation gives the frictional force on the roof and the second term gives the frictional force on the walls.04 for surfaces with ribs across the wind direction. Table 22.2h(d where Ff - 4h) or 4b) 5(h) 5(i) - = the total frictional force in the direction of the wind = a frictional drag coefficient having one of the following values: 0. the resultant time averaged loading acts in the direction of the wind.3.4h) + C. these are identified by the value of the parameters DV. there will be a component of force transverse to the wind direction as well as one in the along-wind direction. Ff = Cf.q. Determine the resultant characteristic wind forces on unclad buildings. frames. or V.a. or both may be adopted for the roof and for the walls. This is therefore likely to be a critical design condition since the bending resistance of a square section would generally be smaller in the diagonal plane than in the plane parallel to its sides. for asymmetrical sections and for winds oblique to the major or minor axes of symmetrical sections. provides an indication of the influence of wind direction and building shape on the normal and transverse forces. A point worth noting is that the along-wind force on a square cross-section with the wind directed along the diagonal is slightly greater than that with the wind normal to a side. are therefore given for subcritical and supercritical flow conditions. which gives force coefficients for a variety of symmetrical and asymmetrical structural shapes for various wind approach angles.4 are for regular cross-sections with one or more axes of symmetry and for winds blowing along one of these axes.1 Pressure and Force Coefficients Pressure coefficients.b(d .02for surfaces with corrugations across the wind direction. Different values of C.b(d . In such cases.

to be used with the coefficients may be varied over the height of the building in accordance with the wind speed variations given in 5. For the purposes of these tables. because of the unusual problems created by this type of structure. In addition. except in the case of the average and local coefficients for the leeward and side walls of rectangular buildings as indicated in Table 6. Table 13 gives values of pressure coefficients for grandstands with a 5 " roof slope.2. 1993 Tables 1I A . the value of g. Oct. Table 14 gives external pressure coefficients for the surfaces of cylindrical structures. Attention is drawn to the fact that no standard set of values can deal adequately with all the variations which can occur in this type of structure. If the grandstand is of a size and an importance that justifies an individual assessment of the pressure distribution and loading. NOTE: The value of q. . are of minimal extent. applicable at the top of the walls should be used. assessments should be carried out by a person versed in this type of design. a wind tunnel test must be undertaken.5.6(a). if present. In the latter cases.SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1993) 46 Arndt 3. 11B and 11C give values of pressure coefficients for canopy roofs of various shapes. a canopy roof is considered to be one supported on a structural frame and where walls or cladding.

.6(a).2. applicable at top of wall. applicable at top of wall or as a function of height in accordance with wind speed variation as given in 5.47 SABS 0160-1989 NOTE a) h is the height to eaves or parapet.: For windward walls: q. b is the greater horizontal dimension of a building.5. and w is the lesser horizontal dimension of a building. for leeward and side walls: q. b) Use the following values of q.

8 -0.6 --0.8 -0..6 -2.o -1.3 0.8 -0.5 -0.6 -0.o -0.o -1.8 -0.l +0.5 -0.7 -0.o -2.9 40 50 60 +0.5 -0.6 -0.8 -0.5 -1.8 -0.8 -0.0 -U -U -1 .5 -1.5 -1.7 y h o r 0.2 -1.5 -1.o -2.7 -0.7 -0.5 -2.o -2.8 -0.8 -0.0 -0. 0 5 10 15 20 30 h/w s ?4 -0.8 -0.8 -0.5 h/w = 1 +0. .5 -0.o -1.6 -0.8 -0.8 -0.o -2.0 NOTE a h is the height to eaves or parapet and w is the lesser horizontal dimension of a building.6 -0.8 -0.6 -0. legrees 3 Win 4 Average C ngle 5 for surface Win1 6 igle 7 8 Loc 9 10 _.5 -2 -1 .5 -0.3 -0.7 -U -2.7 -0.6 -0.8 -0.8 -1.5 -1.8 -0.5 -1.5 -U -1 .8 -0.7 -0.5 -1.5 -0.o -2..8 -2.2 -2 -U -0.o -1.8 -0.5 -0.5 -1.4 -0.o -1 .4 -0.8 -2.5 -0.8 -0. the overall coefficients apply.2 -2.2 -1.7 Amdt 2.o -2. '.9 -0.o -1.o -2.2 -0.8 -0.o -1.8 -0.o +0.8 -0.5 -1.8 -0.s -l.5 -0.6 -0.o -0.o -2.2 -1.8 -0. FOR PITCHED ROOFS OF RECTANGULAR CLAD BUILDINGS 1 2 3oof ingle.8 -0.o -1.6 -0. Where no local coefficients are given.o -1.7 -0.o -1..7 -0.9 0 4 I h/w I 6 5 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 -0.8 -0.4 -0.l +0.6 -0.5 -2.o -1...8 -0.5 -0.o -2.7 -0. 1991 h/w = .o -2.9 -0.4 -0.8 -0.8 -0.o -1.3 +0.5 -0.7 -U -1.o -1.2 -1.8 -0.5 -2.8 -1.8 -0.6 -0.5 -U -1 .o -2.6 -0.8 -2.o -2.7 -1.9 -1 . Nov.15 w.6 -0.o -2.o -2.5 -1 .3 -0.2 -1.4 -0.EXTERNAL PRESSURE COEFFICIENT C.2 +0.o -1.9 -0.8 -U -1.5 -0.3 +0.5 -2.7 -0.5 -0.5 -0.8 -1.7 -0.8 -0.2 -0.5 -0.5 -0.1 -1. . c) Use the value of q.o -2..5 -0.Q -0.2 +0.o -1..6 -2.8 -0.7 -0..1 -1.7 -0.7 -0.5 -0.5 08 +0.l -0..6 -0.2 -1 .0 -U -1.4 -0.8 -0.8 -0.5 -0..8 -0.7 -0.8 -0.5 -0.2 -U +0. Building height ratio 6 - I" GH 0: EG I" FH EF R -2.-- -0.8 -0.2 -1.9 -1.1 -0.8 -0.1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.3 +0.6 -0.8 -0.1 -1 .4 -0.6 -0.5 -0. .8 -0.a -0. applicable at ridge height.8 -0.o 0 g I.5 -0.2 -G -1.9 -1.4 -0.9 -1.4 -1.8 -0.5 -0.6 -0.5 -0.--0.5 -1.5 -1.8 -0.8 -0.2 -2 -U -2.8 -0.8 -0.0 -13 -U -1.7 -0.o -2. .7 -0.8 -0.5 -60 50 0 -0.8 -0.SABS 0160-1 989 (As amended 1991) 48 TABLE 7 .9 -1.8 -2.7 -0.8 -0.8 -0.6 -0.8 -0.8 -0.7 5 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 -0.6 -0.o h/w = 2 0 5 10 15 20 30 40 -0.6 -0.6 -0.6 -0.4 -0.6 -0.7 -0.4 -1. b j Take the pressure coefficient on the underside of any roof overhang as that on the adjoining wall surface.6 - -0. : .7 -0.8 -0.8 -0.o -2.5 -1.7 0 5 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 -0. whichever is the lesser 1 Ora SABS 0160 12165-EC/00-07 .6 -0.6 -0.8 -0.8 -1 .

1991 Wind __ “ 1 y = h or 0.6 -0.5 -0.4 -2.15 w .9 -1.0 -l.8 -1.8 -1. FOR MONOPITCHED ROOFS OF RECTANGULAR CLAD BUILDINGS WITH h/w e 2 Amdt 2.5 -0:5 -210 NOTE a h is the hei ht to eaves at lower side.5 -0. .7 -0.3 -0.6 -0.9 -0. . Nov.8 30 -05 -0. and w is the lesser horizontal dimension of a building.8 -1.5 -0. applicable at ridge height. b is the greater horizontal dimension of a building.9 -061 -0.0 -0.0 -1 0 -1:O -0.l -0.5 -0.9 -09 -0.5 -05 -0.O -2 0 -0.8 -0.8 -0. b{ Use the “ a t e of g.TABLE 8 . whichever is the l e s s e r b 7 NOTE: A r e a H and area L r e f e r t o the whole quadrant P CO 20 25 -0.8 -0.6 -0.7 -0.2 -1.6 -1.6 -0.5 -0.EXTERNAL PRESSURE COEFFICIENT C .8 -0.5 -1.

5 -0..6 -0.SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1991) 50 TABLE 9 .EXTERNAL PRESSURE COEFFICIENT C . Roof slope 1st windward 1st leeward 2nd windward 2nd leeward 3rd windward 3rd leeward 4th windward 4th leeward 5th windward All succeeding -a -b -c -d -e -f -9 -h -i -j 0 or 180 ) Use values from Table 7 with ) roof angle a for windward ) slope h/w = 2 -0.. applicable at ridge height. .3 -0. 1991 1 Wind angle 8.8 h2 h 3 -0. over distance 90 Local CO*: Roof angle a up to 45” h.3 -1. -0.4 -0. FOR SYMMETRICAL AND ASYMMETRICAL PITCHED ROOFS OF MULTI-SPAN BUILDINGS (ALL SPANS EQUAL) w’ _I_ W’ W1 W1 _ I_ w’ Roof plan y = h or 0.5 -2 0 NOTE: Use the value of 9.11903-EC/00-07 Amdt 2. = h ___) Wind I = Section Wind c _ _ ff. .180° 1 SABS 0160 Drg.4 -0.5 -0. degrees 2 3 Average C.3 Average C. Nov.3 -0.l w whichever is t h e t h e Lesser 1 h l = h.

05% of the wall area.whichever is the more severe for +0. d) The value of Cpican be limited or controlled to advantage by deliberate distribution of permeability in the wall and roof. e) For buildings where internal pressurization is utilized.O. for side external wall surface in Table 6 Value of C . depending on the degree of draughtproofing. the permeability of a surface is measured by the total area of openings in the surface under consideration.3 +0. under all directions of wind. other walls impermeable: a) Wind normal to permeable wall b) Wind normal to impermeable wall Four walls equally permeable Dominant opening on one wall.8 Value of C .whichever is the more severe for combined loads NOTE a) Internal pressures developed within an enclosed building may be positive or negative. to be used with these coefficients is that applicable to the relevant external pressure coefficient for the surface in which the opening is situated. i FOR RECTANGULAR BUILDINGS OF OPEN INTERIOR PLAN 1 Condition Two opposite walls equally permeable. c) As a guide.3 or O. b) In the context of this table. f) The value of q.Ol % and 0.2 -0. and this. for external surface of roof segment in Tables 7-9 c) Dominant opening in side wall d) Dominant opening in a roof segment A building effectively sealed and having non-opening windows -0.6 +0. or by the deliberate provision of a venting device which can serve as a dominant opening at a position having a suitable external pressure coefficient. this additional pressure must also be considered. for leeward external wall surface in Table 6 Value of C . .1 13 2 3 6 or more b) Dominant opening on leeward wall +0. depending on the position and size of the openings. having a ratio of permeability of windward wall to total permeability of other walls and roofs subject to external suction equal to 1 or less combined loadings Average CDi +0.51 SABS 0160-1989 TABLE 10 . other walls of equal permeability: a) Dominant opening on windward wall. can reduce the uplift force on the roof. the typical permeability of an office block or house with all windows nominally closed is between 0.O. An example of such is a ridge ventilator on a low-pitch roof.2 or O.5 +0.AVERAGE INTERNAL PRESSURE COEFFICIENT C .

8 -1.3 -0.3 -1.6 -1.3 +0.4 -1.< L W 3 R o o f angle R o o f angle I 3 1 .2 -1.9 -2.2 +I . .4 -1.9 -1.9 +I .3 -1.6 -1.9 -1.4 -0. FOR CANOPY ROOFS NOTE: The term "canopy root" in the table refers to a free-standing structure without walls.4 -2.9 -1.5 Maximum all @ Minimum = 0 Minimum = 1 Maximum all @ Minimum = O Minimum = 1 Maximum all @ Minimum = O Minimum = 1 -10 8 8 -0.3 -0.I -2. Nov.I +0.2 +0.7 -0.4 -1.8 -20 -15 Maximum all @ Minimum = O Minimum = 1 +0.PRESSURE COEFFICIENT C.6 -0.I +0.8 -1 .4 -1.o -3.4 -2.9 +0.5 -1.3 -1.7 +1.4 -1.8 -2.7 +I .8 +0. TWO-PITCH CANOPY ROOFS COMPLYING WITH THE FOLLOWING LIMITATIONS --< 1 4 --< h w 1 a n d 1 -< .8 +0.9 +0.4 +0.9 -0.7 -1.I +0.3 -1.8 -1.l +I .6 -1.6 -0.O * See footnote following Table 11C.o -3.9 + I .6 -1.6 -1.8 +I .7 $ -0.1 -1.6 -0.8 -0.5 -1.6 -1.9 + I .6 +0.3 -1.7 +I .4 +0.O +0.4 +0.5 -2.4 -2.9 -1.6 -0.4 -1.9 -1.6 -0.3 + I .o -1.4 -2.7 -2.2 -1.4 -1.6 -0.4 + I .O +0.4 -1.4 -0.SINGLE BAY.4 +0..1 + I .4 -1 .8 +I .5 -5 +5 +I0 +I5 $ $ +0.7 -2.2 +I .8 -1 .SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1991) 52 TABLE 11 .5 -1.7 -1.9 -1.o +1.6 -1.2 + I .8 -1.o -1.4 -1.7 -1 .6 -0.8 -0.6 -1.8 + I .2 -1.I -0.8 Maximum all @ Minimum = O Minimum = 1 Maximum all @ Minimum = O Minimum = 1 Maximum all @ Minimum = O Minimum = 1 8 $ +20 +25 +30 Maximum all @ Minimum = O Minimum = 1 Maximum all @ Minimum = O Minimum = 1 $ $ Maximum all @ Minimum = O Minimum = 1 +0.9 -1.5 -2.3 +0.5 -0.9 +0.9 +0.9 -1. 1991 1 2 3 I 4 I 5 L I al 6 I 7 Pressure coefficient CRoof angle.2 +0.6 -1.7 +I . The tables take into account the effects of blockage caused by stacked contents.6 -1.5 +1. TABLE 11A .7 +1.4 -0.7 -0.7 -1 .4 -1.o -3.9 +0.4 -0.3 +0.2 +0.4 -2.9 +I .7 -1. 51 0 Negative roof angle Positive r o o f angle Amdt 2.8 -2.6 -1.l +0.4 -1. degrees Solidity ratio @* Overall I +0.6 -1.8 + I .3 -1.8 -1.4 -0.5 -1.9 -2.7 -0.

8 30 * See foo .7 -2.6 -2. degrees Solidity ratio (P Overall 0 Maximum all @ Minimum @ = 0 Minimum ($ = 1 Maximum all @ Minimum @ = 0 Minimum @ = 1 Maximum all @ Minimum @ = 0 Minimum @ = 1 Maximum all @ Minimum @ = 0 Minimum @ = 1 Maximum all @ Minimum @ = 0 Minimum @ = 1 Maximum all @ Minimum @ = 0 Minimum @ = 1 Maximum all ($ Minimum @ = 0 Minimum @ = 1 +0.4 -2.a +2.6 +1.3 +0.7 -1.5 +I .4 -0.2 -0.a -2.MONOPITCH CANOPY ROOFS COMPLYING WITH THE FOLLOWING LIMITATIONS 1<-<3and%<-<l W W L n Roof angle Section c W/lO -1 c W/lO t K e y plan 1 SABS 0160 Org.1 -2.4 +0.I -1.2 -1 .5 -3.6 +2.3 -3.0 -2.2 -3.2 +2.5 25 +2.l -1.3 -1 .53 SABS 0160-1989 TABLE 11B .6 -1.a +2.1 -2.8 -3.6 10 15 20 -1.2 +O.7 +I .9 -2.3 -1.8 -1.7 -2.a -1 .o +0.5 -0.5 +3.2 -3.o -2.a -2.5 -0.7 +I .B -3.9 -1.9 -3.B +I .2 +2.l +0.8 +0.2 -3.5 -2.0 5 -1 .3 -1.3 + I .7 -1.l +1.l -1.o -1.6 -1. 1 6 Local Roof angle.4 -1 .4 -2.2 -2.1 -3.1 -1.5 -1 .2 -3.7 -2.O +3.8 +2.6 -2.B -2.9 +2.O -3.9 +I .11899-EC/00-07 1 5 Pressure iefficient C .2 -1.3 +I .

only the more severe of these two forces need be taken into account as the presence of a fascia tends to reduce the frictional effect. @ = 0 represents a canopy with no obstructions underneath. For monopitch canopies. On minimum overall coefficient 0. For any wind direction.SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1991) 54 TABLE 11C . the centre of pressure should be taken to act at the centre of each slope. and the whole canopy should be able to support one slope at the maximum pressure with the other slope at the minimum pressure. Each slope of a duopitch canopy should be able towithstand both the maximum and the minimum pressure. for intermediatesolidity ratios may be interpolated linearly between these two extremes.4. Where the local coefficient areas overlap. the centre of pressure should be taken to act at 0.87 0. 1 2 3 7 Location End bay Second bay Third and subsequent bays I 3 I Modifying factor* 4 On maximum overall coefficient 1 .68 *The Coefficientstake account of the combined effect of the wind on both upper and lower surfaces of the canopy for all wind directions.81 0. For duopitch canopies.Deleted by Amendment No. 1 Bay No. the more severe of the two given values should be taken. Oct. Fascia loads should be calculated on the area of the surface on the windward side. In addition to the pressure forces normal to the canopy.oo . both areas being seen in elevation and normal to the wind direction. Frictionaldrag should be calculated using the coefficients given in 5. 1993 TABLE 12 . @ = 1 represents the canopy fully blocked to the level of the downwind eaves. and apply upwind of the position of maximum blockage only. Values for C. The solidity ratio @ is equal to the area of obstruction under the canopy divided by the gross area under the canopy. there will be horizontal loads on the canopy owing to wind pressure on any fascia and to friction over both upper and lower surfaces of the canopy. the coefficientsfor @ = 0 may be used. Amdt 3.63 0.MODIFYING FACTORS FOR MULTIPLE-BAY CANOPY ROOFS Pressures on each slope of multiple-bay canopy roofs are determined by applying the following factors to the overall coefficients for isolated two-pitch canopies.25Wfrom the windward edge. using a force coefficient of 1.64 0.3. Downwind of the position of maximum blockage. .3.5. 3.

g.0 +0. 3 Wind angle 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Pressure coefficient C . and extent of end walls) which must be considered.O -0. d) For 8 = go". of -2. degrees 0 45 135 180 A -1.5 -0.O -1.6 -0. FOR GRANDSTANDS.8 -1. .3 -0.9 +0.9 -0. spillage through the stand.= + I.9 L M -0.9 +0. obstructions to windward.55 SABS 0160-1989 TABLE 13 .6 -0.PRESSURE COEFFICIENT C .6 +0. ROOF SLOPE 5" Allow for local external pressure coefficient C .O for the shaded area of the upper surface of the roof.s +0.5 F G -0.9 +0.7 -1.4. O0 t K - M The width of the shaded areas may be taken as one-tenth of the total length of the roof and one-seventh of the total width (in the direction of the cantilever span).3.3 -0. for Top and bottom surfaces of roof of stand Front and back of wall of stand H e. .6 -0.3 -0. allow for frictional drag Ff in accordance with 5.9 -0.8 -1.6 +0.2 to the area of any end screen wall.4 -0.4 -0. which should therefore provide a safe but excessive and uneconomic design in a number of situations.6 +0.9 +0.7 -0.9 +0.l +0.5 J K -0.9 +0.3 -0.5.O B C -1. c) The majority of simple cases will need less severe loadings than those obtained from the above coefficients.l +O.3 +O. and apply a force coefficient C.0 +0.4 +O. b) The internal pressure is dependent on a number of factors (e. the maximum load will occur when the wind is blowing into the open front of the stand.3 -0.4 -1.7 -0.7 -0.o -0.3 -1.4 -1.g NOTE a) In general.7 D E -0.l -0.

25 -1.9 +0. take C. c) Use interpolation to obtain values of C . . take C .65 -0.o -0.e.35 0 -0. silos) and to cylinders having their axes parallel with the ground plane (i. as -0.7 +0.35 -0.4 0 -0.05 -0.2 -1.5 0 10 20 +1.4 * h is the height of a vertical cylinder or length of a horizontal cylinder. degrees 2 I 3 I 4 1 Surface smooth 5 Pressure coefficient CO.PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION AROUND CYLINDRICAL STRUCTURES 1 Position on periphery 8.45 -1. For open-ended cylinders where h/D 1.3.35 0 -0. for Surface rough or with projections h*ID = 10 h*lD 1.35 -0.5 -1.into account.7 +0. for intermediate values of h/D.o h*ID = 10 +I .o h*lD 2 2.e.25 -0.7 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 +0.4 0 +0.05 -1.6 -0.6(a).7 +I .5 -0. take h as half the length when calculating h/D. 2.5 +1. they should only be used where D > 0.as -0.2 -0.5. For open-ended cylinders where h/D < 0.0 +0.25 -1.4 -1. in the table may be used for the purpose of calculating the wind forces that act in such a way as to a) The values of C deform a cylindrical structure.8 -0.3.35 -0.3 -0.5 -0.9 +0.8 -1.l -1. e) The value of q. .35 -0.3 -1. chimneys.e.4 -0.9 +0.9 +0.8.2.l -0. . b) The values may be used for wind blowing normal to the axes of cylinders having their axes normal to the ground plane (i.3m)..25 -1.251 -0. take the value of C .3 -0. d) In the calculation of the load on the periphery of the cylinder.4 -0.7 +0. . 0.4 -0. to be used may be varied over the height of the cylinder in accordance with the wind speed variation as given in 5. They apply only to supercritical flow (i.SABS 0160-1989 56 TABLE 14 .0 +0.4 -0.5.3 -1. Where there is a free flow of air around both ends of a cylinder. horizontal tanks) provided that the clearance between the cylinder and the ground is not less than D.85 -0.85 -0.4 -l.95 +0.2 -1. NOTE .

57 5. or ii) members of circular cross-section. < 6 m’/s) and the larger members will be in the supercritical flow range (i. Ae = the total effective frontal area of the frame (i. When single frames are composed of members of circular cross-section. the wind force acting on the composite frame should be calculated by using an effective force coefficient equal to: where Z . sub) = the force coefficient of the subcritical range for circular sections from Table 17 = the force coefficient of the flat-sided sections from Table 22 = the effective area of the subcritical circular sections = the effective area of the flat-sided sections A (Flat) A (Sub) .4.and there may also be some details fabricated from flat-sided sections. in which all the members of the frame have DV. 6 m2/s). the value of 9. In general.3 but take A.may be varied over the height of the building. Force coefficients for determining the overall resultant along-wind force in accordance with 5.5. as the net (i. the net solid area) = the force coefficient of the supercritical range for circular sections from Table 17 cf( SUP) cf(Sub) cf(Flat) A(Circ. DV.e. The relevant force coefficients are given in Table 17 for a single frame consisting of i) members of flat-sided cross-section.e. it is possible that the smaller members will be in the subcritical flow range (i. and in Table 16 for low walls or hoardings on or above the ground. Calculate the resultant wind force on a single frame for the case where the wind direction is normal to the plane of the frame unless it can be shown that another wind angle is more appropriate. values equal to or exceeding 6 m2/s. 6 for rectangular clad buildings. ~ In this situation.Area of the frame in a supercritical flow A.e. frames. values less than 6 m2/sor all members have DV.5. screens and lattice structures 1) Sinale frames.e.3. excluding the openings between members.3 are given in Fig.3. in Table 15 for clad buildings of uniform sections as shown. sub) + A(Flat) .5. hoardinas and similar structures. b) Unclad buildinas.A(Circ.2 Force coefficients SABS 0160-1989 a) Clad buildinas. DV. Determine the force by means of equation 5(g) in 5. solid) projected area. free-standina walls.

10831-EC/00-07 3. for Rectangular Clad Buildings with Flat Roofs (Force Acting in the Direction of the Wind) .I - d L r U c d 01 n \ L c L : m .SABS 0160-1989 58 -a -E: \ 0 .25 0.0 2.8 1.O To be used with value o f 9.o Breadth/depth ratio b / d 7 1 SABS 0160 Org.Force Coefficients C._ a J I 0.6 0. 6 . a t height h o r with q as a function o f height Fig.O 4.4 0.

7 up to Y 7 1 215 0.5 l.3 0.2 0.2 1.b. m2/s eighffbreadtt tio 10 20 I -~6 for all surfaces 0.3 - Qb - b/d=1/2 -8 1.o 0.o 0.2 1.(ACTING IN THE DIRECTION OF THE WIND) FOR CLAD BUILDINGS OF UNIFORM SECTION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Force coefficient C. .5 1.7 l.3 0.7 0.7 Ellipse < 10 10 0.l 0.3 1.6 0.8 0.59 SABS 0160-1989 TABLE 15 .o 0.8 -4 < 10 0.6 0.9 l.3 l.2 1.o 6 for smooth surfaces 0.7 6 for rough' surtaces 0.6 0.5 0.l 0.5 c6 6 0.6 0.8 - r j 1 6 d b/d=l r / b =1/3 b/d=l r / b =1/6 <4 0.for: Plan shape V.3 10 <3 -3 - All values 0.FORCE COEFFICIENT C .6 All values 1.6 *Rough surfaces are those with projections exceeding 1 % of the diameter.6 0.

7 0.4 1. the heighvwidth ratio becomes the length/width ratio.8 0.8 0.9 11 r / b =1/12 All values 0.2 0.7 0.SABS 0160-1989 TABLE 15 (continued) 1 60 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Force coefficient C+ for: Plan shape V.b.9 l.o l.l 1. d) The table may also be used for horizontally orientated members or structures.5 1.9 5 10 08 l.9 1.8 0.7 r / b :1/4 0.9 0.l 1.2 < r/b < 1/12 All values c 12 0.8 2 0.4 1.8 0.9 0.5 l. V.9 1.o 0.6 -- 8 1/40 0.4 0.9 0.l 1.5. Structures that because of their size and the design wind speed are in the supercritical flow range. may be varied over the height of the building in accordance with.the wind speed variation as given in 5. the effective length should be taken as half the actual length. except where otherwise shown.4 0.b is used as an indication of the air flow regime.5 1.7 0.7 0.o 12 0.0 r/b <I140 All values 0.o 0.9 - r / a =1/48 All values 0. i.4 l.o 0.5 0.l 1. c) In this table. where the given shape is the end elevation rather than the plan.4 0.2 NOTE a) Where strakes are used.o 1.2 10 All values 0.8 0. .7 0.2.6(a). Where flow around both ends is orevented. may need further calculation to ensure that the greatest loads do not occur at some wind speed below the maximum when the flow will be subcritical.8 0.5 1.e.2 c 11 r / b =1/4 0.7 0. the ratio should be taken as infinitv. e) Theialue of q. In such cases. m2/s u p to % c 10 Height ?adth ratio m 1 0.8 All values 1 .7 0. b) The coefficients are for the buildings without projections.5 0. Where there is a free flow of air around both ends of the structure.7 0.2 1. when calculating the lenath/width ratio for use in the table.4 1. b may be taken as the width over the strakes.l 0.

5 to 6 10 16 20 40 60 80 or more Wall on around From 1 to 12 20 32 40 80 120 160 or more 12 1.FORCE COEFFICIENT C.25 h 1 I 2 I 3 Force coefficient C .EFFECTIVE FORCE COEFFICIENT C.61 SABS 0160-1989 TABLE 16 . (wind normal to the face) Width to height ratio b/h Wall above around From 0.5 1.3 1. for: * The solidity ratio I$ = the effective area of a frame normal to the wind direction divided by the area enclosed by the boundary of the frame and normal to the wind direction. FOR LOW WALLS OR HOARDINGS (LESS THAN 15 r n HIGH) I- b Tek.10831pAC/00-07 h' 3 0.75 18 2. .0 TABLE 17 . FOR SINGLE FRAMES 1 2 I I 3 I 4 Force coefficient C.4 1.

SABS 0160-1989

62

2) Multiple frames. For structures having two or more frames in parallel where the windward frame(s) may have a shielding effect on the leeward frame(s), calculate the resultant wind force on the windward frame(s) and on any unsheltered parts of other frames as in (1) above, but multiply the force on the sheltered frame(s) (calculated in the same manner) by a factor rl, which is taken from Table 18. Where there are more than two frames of similar geometry and spacing, take the wind force on the third and subsequent frame(s) as being equal to that on the second frame. Add together the loads on the various frames to obtain the total load on the structure. TABLE 18 - SHIELDING FACTOR t l
1

2

I

3

I

4

I

5

I

6

I

7

I

a

I

9

I
Spacing ratio* 0,1 u p to l , o 2.0 1,o 1,o 1,o 1,o 1,o 1,o 092 0,96 0,97 0,97 o,ga 0,98 0,99 03 0,90 0,91 0,92 0,93 0.94 0,95

Value of shielding factor r l for: brodynan 0,4 solidity ratis

03
0,6a 0,71 0,74 0,77 0,49 0,63

0,8 and

o,ao
o,a2 o,a4 o,a6

0,43

3,O
40 5,O 6,Oand over

o,aa
0,90

o,ao

o,a3 * The spacing ratio = the distance, centre to centre, of the frames, beams or girders divided bythe leastoveralldimension of the frame, beam or girder measured at right angles to the direction of the wind. For triangular framed structures or rectangularframed structures diagonal to the wind, calculate the spacing ratio from the mean distance between the frames in the direction of the wind. + x a constant where the solidity ratio is as given in the footThe aerodynamic solidity ratio fi = solidity ratio = 1,6 for flat-sided members note to Table 17 and the constant = 1,2 for circular members in the subcritical range and for flat-sided members in conjunction with such circular members = 0,5 for circular members in the supercritical range and for flat-sided members in conjunction with such circular members.

(a)

3) Lattice towers. Lattice towers of square and equilateral triangular plan form are special cases of multiple frame structures that are commonly encountered and for which it is more convenient to use an overall force coefficient in calculating resultant wind forces.

Calculate the resultant wind force in the along-wind direction by means of equation 5(g) in 5.5.3.3, using a force coefficient C, taken from Table 19 for towers composed of flat-sided members and from Table 20 or 21 for towers composed of rounded members and having all members in the same flow range, whether subcritical or supercritical.
NOTE i) For convenience, the calculation is based on the wind blowing normal to a face, and the effective area A, is therefore the net (solid) area of the front face alone. For triangular towers, the along-wind force may be assumed to be constant for any inclination of the wind to the face. For square towers, the maximum along-wind force occurs when the wind blows onto a corner. Tables 19 and 20 therefore give an additional set of (larger)coefficients to cover this case; the effective area for the calculation,however, remains the same as for the wind normal to the face, and only the direction of the resultant force and the force coefficient change. ii)Tables20and 21 applyonlywhenall membersforming thetowerareeitherinsubcriticalor in supercritical flow. Where this is not the case, the wind force should be calculated as for the multiple frames with appropriate allowance for shielding of the leeward frames as set out in (2) above.

63

SABS 0160-1989

TABLE 19 - OVERALL FORCE COEFFICIENT Cf FOR LATTICE TOWERS COMPOSED OF FLAT-SIDED MEMBERS
1
Solidity ratio @

I

2

I

3

I

4
Equilateraltriangular towers

Force cof Kcient C, for: Square towers

All wind directions

2,9 2,9

3,1 23 23

2.2

22 2,o

13

1

2

1

3

I

4

I

5

Force coefficient C, for: Solidity ratio of front face @ Subcritical flow, DV, < 6 m2/s Onto face Onto corner Supercritical flow, DV, 1 6 m2/s Onto face Onto corner

0,05 0,l
0.2

2,1 1,9 1,7

2,4 22 2,o

1,4

13
1,3 1,3

03 0,4 03

13
1,4 1,4

1 3
1,9 1,9

13 12

1 . 6 1 . 5 1,5 1,6 1,7 1,7

TABLE 21 - OVERALL FORCE COEFFICIENT Cf FOR EQUILATERAL TRIANGULAR LATTICE TOWERS COMPOSED OF ROUNDED MEMBERS
1
Solidity ratio of front face @

I
1

2

I

3

I

4

I
~

5

Force coefficient C,for:

1

Subcritical flow, DV, < 6 m2/s All wind directions

Supercritical flow, DV, 6 m2/s All wind directions

13
1,7

13 13 13

1,1 1 ,I 1,l

1.1 1.1

NOTE: For all towers and frames, the value of qz may vary over the heights of the structure in accordance with the wind speed variation as given in 5.5.2.6(a).

c) Individual structural members. Calculate the resultant along-wind force on individual structural members by means of equation 5(g) in 5.5.3.3, using the appropriate force coefficients from Table 15.

SABS 0 160-1989

64

In the case of shapes of more complex cross-section such as angles, channels or fabricated sections, calculate the normal and transverse components of the resultant force on the member as follows:

Transverse force Ft = C , 9,KOj

5(1)

where C , and C , are coefficients for members of infinite length as given in Table 22

K = a reduction factor for members of finite length as given in Table 23

Q
j

= the length of the member
= the reference dimension of the member's cross-section as given in Table 22

The coefficients apply to wind normal to the longitudinal axis of the member and the reference plane for the normal and transverse force components is given in Table 22. 5.5.5 Dvnamic Effects. Carry out appropriate analyses or tests to ascertain the significance of windinduced excitation or oscillation of buildings or structural elements whose shape, mass, natural frequencies of vibration, and damping characteristics render them susceptible to such dynamic effects. Such investigations should cover the effects of dynamic behaviour on the strength and stability of the structure and, in addition, the possible effects of building motion on the occupants or activities within the building. Commentary: a) The dynamic response of buildings to wind forces can be broadly classified into the following two categories:
1) Effects which arise from fluctuations in wind force owing to the natural turbulence or gustiness of the wind. These are commonly known as buffeting and the forces and motion of the building are primarily in the along-wind direction, although asymmetry of the structure or the fluctuation of the wind forces can give rise to transverse or torsional motion. 2) Effects which arise from fluctuations in wind force owing to interaction between the wind flow and the building. These are distinguished by the fact that the forces and motion of the building are essentially transverse to the mean wind direction. These effects include

i) vortex excitation which results from fluctuating forces owing to unsteadiness in the wake flow of a bluff body such as a cylinder; ii) galloping and flutter which are instability phenomena peculiar to certain cross-sectional shapes and involve forces related to, and in phase with, the transverse motion of the structure. In practice, along-wind and cross-wind effects tend to occur in combination, leading to complex response modes such as the elliptical motion traced by the tip of a slender chimney stack. Both categories of dynamic response may also be significantly affected by the wake flow of structures in close proximity to one another. b) The following is a guide to the conditions under which investigation of the various dynamic effects is desirable (where doubt exists, specialist advice should be sought):

70 0. TABLE 23 .95 1.6 0. .5 0 +0.2 +2.6 +1.55 0 0 +I.0 +1.1 +0.9 +2.NORMAL AND TRANSVERSE FORCE COEFFICIENTS Cfn .65 SABS 0160-1989 TABLE 22 ." and C .9 +1.05 +1. are given in relation to the dimension j and not.% +2.6 +2.8 0 0 +0.4 0 0 +0.2 0 0 +1.75 +2.6 +0.5 0 0 +1. in relation to the effective frontal area A.95 +0.85 0.80 0. FOR INDIVIDUAL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS OF INFINITE AND C LENGTH AND OF FLAT-SIDED CROSS-SECTION 0 45 90 +1. as in other cases.4 +1.90 0.1 +2.0 NOTE: In this table the normal and transverse force coefficients C.5 +1.0 .REDUCTION FACTOR K FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS OF FINITE LENGTH AND SLENDERNESS AND OF FLAT-SIDED CROSS-SECTION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Lengthlfrontal width Qlis 5 10 20 30 50 100 00 K 0.0 +1.7 +0.1 +1.

Oct. towers and stacks.I q. such as the so-called gust-energy methods.4 q. D-I of Appendix D includes a map of mean hourly wind speeds with a 50-year return period. Wind tunnel tests are commonly used to investigate the problem. 4) Flutter: This is typically a problem with long-span bridge decks of low stiffness such as those in suspension bridges. and -the ratio of its overall height to its lesser plan dimension does not exceed 4. Reference should be made to A-2 of Appendix A for a list of publications in relation to the above phenomena.it is rectangular in plan. 3) Galloping: This tends to be confined to extremely slender.) a) For the overall wind forces for stability analysis: 1) A horizontal force due to a pressure of 1. are based on the use of a maximum mean hourly wind speed rather than a maximum 3 s gust speed. 2) Vortex excitation: Lightly damped. N/m2or -1. slender structures of circular or near circular cross-section such as unlined. low mass.its overall height does not exceed 20 m. a pressure on the external surFace of the wall of +I . towers and unusually slender. The simplified wind forces set out below may be adapted for design purposes. Some analytical methods for predicting the response of structures to buffeting.SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1991 and 1993) 66 1) Along-wind buffeting: Significant dynamic response may occur in tall buildings.5.15 w (whichever is less). or other slender structures exceeding 100 m in height or with a ratio of height to minimum effective width of 5 or more or with natural periods of vibration longer than 1 s . 5.6q.6 q. and it is seldom a problem in building structures. b) For the design of a wall as a whole and for the design of wall claddings and their fixings in regions other than those given in (c) below. (Refer also to Subsection (a) of the Commentary to 5. tall buildings of similar cross-section may also require investigation. lightly damped structures or elements of triangular. or 0. and . The classical example is that of iced powerlines or iced stay cables. Wind tunnel testing may be required to determine the critical parameters. masts. a pressure on the external surface of the wall of +I . N/m2 . N/m2acting on the plan area of the roof. provided that the building complies with the following requirements: .6 Simplified Wind Load Desian. 1993 c) For the design of wall claddings and their fixings in areas within a distance h from the corners of the building.1 . 2) an upward force due to a pressure of 1. N/m2acting on the projected area of the building (including its roof) normal to the wind direction. N/m2 Amdt 3.or D-shaped cross-section. The values given allow for internal positive or negative pressurization resulting from a dominant opening in one wall. rectangular. welded steel chimney stacks are particularly prone to this form of excitation but slender concrete stacks. N/m2or -1 .8q.6 q.5.

8 q.VELOCITY PRESSURE q. Oct.6. a pressure on the external surface of +I . Two zones are identified. namely Zone I : Low natural seismic activity. 1993 Height to top of building m 1009 1 110 1 180 1230 2 820 930 1000 1060 3or4 390 480 590 670 5. N/m2or -1. m the height of the walls to eaves or parapet level. N/m2or -2. FOR SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE 4z(N/m2) Terrain category 1 5 10 15 20 Amdt 3. . as given in Table 24. N/m2 where q.67 SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1990. N/m2 e) For the design of roof claddings and their fixings in areas within a distance h from any edge of the roof.15 w (whichever is less).1991 and 1993) d) For the design of roof elements and for the design of roof claddings and their fixings in areas other than those given in (e) below.3 q. TABLE 24 .6 5. or 0. N/m2 the width of the building.3 q. Seismic zones applicableto South Africa are given in Fig. Negative pressure acts normal to and away from the surface. 7. rn w = h = NOTE: Positive pressure acts normal to and towards the surface. = free-stream velocity pressure at the top of the building. a pressure on the external surface of +I .1 EARTHQUAKE LOADS Seismic Hazard Zones. Zone II: Regions of mining-induced seismic activity.6 q.

SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1990 and 1993) 68 22' 22' 26 ' 26 ' 3 0 ' 3 0 ' 34' 34' Fig. 1993 . The zones are defined in terms of the peak ground acceleration with a 10 % probability of being exceeded in a 50-year period.7. as shown in the design seismic hazard map of South Africa given in Fig. continuity and anchorage. Buildings situated in Zone II need only comply with the minimum requirements for structural and non-structural components as detailed in 5.6. The estimates of seismic hazard for the gold mining areas are gross estimates. 7 .5. Oct. 1989). as given in 5. owing to the fact that seismic activity changes substantially in time and space according to the changes of mining activity. Commentary: South Africa is characterized by low seismicity. and include both natural and mining-induced seismicity. and a more detailed analysis would be required for specific applications.1 and with the requirements for ties. NOTE: Peak ground accelerations with a 10 % probability of being exceeded in a 50-year period are given in Table 25 for selected stations in South Africa.Seismic Hazard Zones of South Africa Buildings and structures situated in Zone I are required to comply with the detailed seismic design.6. 8. This map is based on an assessment of the known seismic history of the region since the beginning of the 19th century (Shapiro and Fernandez.7. as detailed in 5.6. 1987.7. Fernandez and Shapiro. Amdt 3.3.2 and 5.6.

035 0.69 SABS 0 160-1 989 (As amended 1990) 22 26 30 34 Fig.030 0.. A peak ground acceleration of 0.PEAK GROUND ACCELERATIONS a. A selected list of ground accelerationsof mining-induced seismicity recorded during 1986 is given in Table 26 (Milford.040 0. Peak ground accelerations exceeding 0.022 0.050 0. and the highest recorded peak acceleration during this period was 0. I 2 a 1 0 (9) 0.070* 0. 1987).100 0.2g are common.013 The highest natural seismic activity for which the peak ground acceleration exceeds 0.080 0.45g at Carletonville. WITH A 10 % PROBABILITY OF BEING EXCEEDED IN A 50-YEAR PERIOD 1 Station Johannesburg Cape Town Maseru Port Elizabeth Mbabane Bloemfontein Pretoria Mmabatho Durban ‘Natural events only.05g occurs in the south-eastern Cape and around Lesotho.39g was recorded at Klerksdorp in 1977 (Fernandez and van der Heever.Seismic Hazard Map of South Africa TABLE 25 . . 1982). 8 .

247 0.094 0. Astructure should be designed to have a uniform and continuous distribution of strength and stiffness.263 0.029 0.004 0. The load-bearing members should be uniformly distributed.SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1990 and 1993) 70 TABLE 26 . 9 .034 0.002 0.003 0. The structure should have adequate redundancy and multiple ways of resisting lateral forces.004 0. b) Continuitv of structural strenath.450 Klerksdorp 0.033 0. Symmetry is important in both directions in plan.079 0.071 0. Abrupt changes in structural strength or stiffness from one floor level to another or from one part of a floor to another should be avoided (see Fig. 9).139 0.019 0.RECORDED PEAK GROUND ACCELERATIONS a(g) AND VELOCITIES v DUE TO MINING-INDUCED SElSMlClTY 1 Station Carletonville 2 3 v(m/s) 0.061 0.Continuity of Structural Strength .293 0. and H-shaped plans should also be avoided.2 Desiqn Considerations for Multistorev Buildinqs in Zone I and Zone II a) Svmmetrv in plan.292 0.051 0.067 0.002 4s) 0. as lack of symmetry produces torsional effects that are difficult to assess properly and can be very destructive.6.052 5.009 0.003 0. Recommended N o t recommended a) Avoid cantilevers: No fail-safe mechanism b) Avoid changes of stiffness w i t h height Shear wall Fig. T-shaped and L-shaped plans should not be used.059 0.009 0.012 0.046 0.

6. the ability of these piles to sustain repeated loads should be carefully examined.3 Plannina Considerationsfor Low-rise Housina in Zone II a) Svmmetrv in dan. and both reinforced beams and columns require sufficient stirrups to provide confinement. iH7R a) Satisfactory (b) Unsatisfactory Fig. frequently resulting in severe damage to the columns. 1O(a)). Slender wings should be avoided. In the latter case. Very slender columns should be avoided. 11 . e) Non-structural elements. ( a ) Satisfactory (b) unsatisfactory Org 12122-EC/00-07 Fig.Where friction piles are used. particularly in external walls near corners (see Fig. The ability of a structure to absorb energy is dependent on the ductility of the members. 10(b)). The distribution of openings in walls should be as uniform as possible. Openings for doors or windows require care in positioning and detailing in order to obtain a uniform distribution of strength.Plans of Shear Walls in Low-rise Housing b) ODeninqs in walls.71 SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1990) c) Horizontal and vertical members. lnfill panels of partial-height should be avoided as these create short column conditions. In certain soils. Beams should be free of offsets. using strong columns with weaker beams to ensure that the horizontal members fail before the vertical members fail. Large openings in masonry walls are undesirable. Full-height infill panels should be used with movement joints that can accommodate horizontal and vertical movement in the range 20-40 mm . and the total area of openings should not exceed one-third of the wall area. d) Foundations. A good seismic-iresistant form of a structure is such that the vertical loading is likely to be symmetrical. care shall be taken to ensure adequate detailing to provide lateral stability of the elements to out-of-plane forces.Openings in Low-rise Masonry Construction . 5. liquefaction of the :jail may be possible. Single-storey buildings should be so planned that there is a good distribution of bracing walls and should preferably be of simple box plan providing reasonably symmetrical resistance in two orthogonal directions (see Fig. as well as buildings and rooms with essentially three resisting walls (see Fig. 11). Joints between beams and columns shall be as monolithicand fully continuous as possible. as large second order effects can result in high ductility. 10 .

h) Articulation. but the earthquake effects in the two principal directions are unlikely to reach their maximum simultaneously. should be avoided. in which the design base shear is defined in terms of the nominal base shear coefficient C. as specified in 5. where C. and preference given to hipped roofs. = nominal seismic base shear coefficient. Such movements should be allowed for in the structure by providing suitable continuity or articulation of the structure.5.6. Heavy roof structures such as tiled roofs are undesirable.5.6.6. 5. This procedure is only applicable to areas of natural seismicity. If masonry gables and parapet walls are used.. Orthoaonal effects. e) Gables and parapet walls. and such continuity should go around facade corners. d) Walls. The design load effect shall be obtained by multiplying the effects of the nominal loads by the relevant partial load factors and the relevant combination factors and.6.1 Desian Load Effect and Load Combinations Load factors and importance factors. q) Chimneys and decorative panels. they should be reinforced. Considerable amounts of differential horizontal and vertical movement can be imposed on a low-rise building that has conventional foundations.6. It is recommended that 40 mm wide continuous vertical joints at intervals of 10 m be used above the base level of the bui Iding. such as masonry chimneys and heavy decorative panels.1991 and 1993) 72 c) Roofs. The roof framing must be well braced against lateral movement. The seismic forces are based on the equivalent static lateral force procedure...5 5.6.2 Arndt 3. = nominal sustained vertical load acting on the structure. f) Horizontal continuity.4. Gable construction should be avoided. These elements.= c.6 . Oct. The total horizontal nominal seismic force V.2 W..4 5. where applicable. 1993 v. Earthquake forces act in both principal directions (in plan) of the building simultaneously. Elements that are stiffer and heavier than the rest of the building. The direction of application of the seismic forces used in design shall be that which will produce the most critical load effect combination.5.SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1990. by an importance factor as set out in Section 4. especially on lightweight wall construction. and the factored sustained portion of the gravity load. especially at roof level.1 Seismic Base Shear Seismic forces. and the adjoining elements. are very susceptible to damage.on a structure shall be calculated as follows: 5. Masonry walls reinforced with steel bars or wire will minimize deformation and possibly prevent catastrophic collapse.. 5. Horizontal continuity at roof level should be provided by special connections or lapping reinforcement.w. as specified in 5.6. Commentary: The provisions for representing the combined maximum effect have been adopted from ATC3-06.4. This condition may be assumed to be satisfied if the following combination is used: 100 % of the forces for one direction plus 30 % of the forces for the perpendicular direction.

5.5 Amdt 3.Deleted by Amendment No. = nominal ground acceleration. 3. TABLE 28 . as in 5. for T > To Amdt 2.5. 1993 K Where the fundamental period T lis not calculated. = 0.2 SABS 0160.3 NormalizedresDonse spectrum. shall be determined in accordance with the following formula: a" .6. 1993 where the parameters Ro. 5.6.5.1989 (As amended 1990) Seismic base shear coefficient. Nov. 12.Deleted by Amendment No. 3.= - K where Ro is as defined in 5.6.Deleted by Amendment No. normalized by the acceleration due to gra- vity g. The normalizedresponse spectrum R(T) corresponding to three soil profiles is given in Fig.3.6.Rcl c. and defined below: R(T)=RoforO< T < To R(V = Ro(T0mR and R(T) > 0. Oct.3R.3 T = fundamental period of vibration of the structure (in seconds). the value of C .73 TABLE 27 . Oct. as in 5. Toand 0 are as given in Table 30. a. as in 5. .4 = a behaviour factor.lO in Zone I Amdt 2. When the natural period of the building is computed. the .5.6.6. TABLE 29 . Nov.5. 3. 1991 Amdt 3.5. 1991 R(T) = normalized design response spectrum.shall be determined in accordance with the following formula: base shear coefficient C where a .5.

Oct.4 0.o n 213 213 213 s1 s2 s3 The three soil profiles are defined as follows: Soil profile S1: Rock (shear wave velocity exceeding 1 000 m/s) or stable deposits or unconsolidated minerals as for S2.5. .12127-EC/00-07 Fig.Normalized Response Spectra R(T) TABLE 30 . Soil profile S2: Stable deposits (compact sands and gravels or stiff clays) of depth exceeding 50 m on a solid rock base. and assuming that the base of the building is fixed. 1993 Fundamental period of vibration.NORMALIZED RESPONSE SPECTRUM PARAMETERS 1 Soil 2 3 4 R. The value of T may not exceed 1. When the site conditions are not fully known or if the site investigations do not enable any of the profiles to be used.4 Amdt 3 . 12 . then the most unfavourable of the three curves shall be used. the value of T may be taken as equal to the approximate period of the building T . Alternatively. obtainable from the following formula: For moment-resisting structures where the frames are not enclosed or do not adjoin more rigid components tending to prevent the frames from deflecting when subjected to seismic forces: .6 1.o 0. 23 2. stiff clays) having a depth of 10 m or more. Soil profile S3: Soft-to-medium-stiff deposits (sands. The fundamental period of vibration T(in seconds) may be determined by taking into consideration the properties of the building in the direction being analysed.2T.6.5 20 To 0.SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1990 and 1993) 74 I s1. s2 rl 0. with a depth of less than 50 m on a solid rock base.s Period T s Drg. 5.

75

SABS 0160-1 989
(As amended 1990)

T, = C, . h,3’4
where

C, C, h,

= 0,09for steel frames = 0,06 for concrete frames = height above the base to the highest level of the frame of the building, m

For buildings with shear walls or exterior concrete frames utilizing deep beams,

.T,

=

0,09 h + l f i

where L = overall length of the building at the base in the direction under consideration, m 5.6.5.5 Behaviour factor a) The behaviour factor K depends on the structural system used. In the absence of a more detailed assessment and taking into account the required detailing requirements, the factors given in Table 31 shall be used. b l Structural svstems. For the purposes of Table 31 structural systems are defined as follows: 1) Bearincl wall svstems. A system of walls or frames as vertical elements for resistance to lateral seismic forces. Horizontal elements of the seismic-resisting system may be diaphragms or trusses. 2) Buildina frame svstem. A system with essentially a complete space frame providing support for vertical loads, with shear walls or vertical bracing trusses to resist the lateral seismic force. The frame and :shear walls shall conform to the requirements of SABS 0100 for reinforced concrete and of SABS 0162 for structural steel. 3) Moment-resistincl frame svstern. A structural system with an essentially complete space frame providing support for vertical loads. Seismic force resistance is provided by moment-resistingforces by flexure as well as the total prescribed forces along the axis of the member. i) Ordinarv reinforced concrete frame. A moment-resistingframe of ordinary reinforced concrete without special provision for ductility in the load-carrying system and that complies with the provisions of SHBS 0100. ii) Ordinarv steel frame. An ordinary steel frame that complies with the provisions of SABS 0162. iii) Space frame. A structural system composed of interconnectingmembers, other than bearing walls, which is capable of supporting vertical loads and may also provide resistance to seismic forces.

SABS 0160-1989
(As amended 1990,1991 and 1993)

76

TABLE 31 - BEHAVIOUR FACTOR K
1 Structural system* Bearing wall system: Unreinforced masonry walls Reinforced concrete or reinforced masonry walls or braced frames One-, two-, or three-storey steel frame systems Building frame system: Moment-resisting frame system: Ordinary concrete frames Ordinary steel frames Elevated tanks and inverted pendulum type structures: Structures required to remain elastic
* See the definitions applicable to structural systems given in (b) above. + The behaviour factors shall be reduced by a factor of 1,2 for use with

2 Behaviour factor K+

structures comprising reinforced concrete flat or waffle slabs, and by the factor of 1,4 for use with structures comprising prestressed concrete flat or waffle slabs

5.6.5.6

Sustained vertical load. The sustained vertical load shall be taken as the total nominal weight of the building (including partitions and permanent equipment) and the sustained portions of the imposed vertical loads. In the absence of other information, the sustained portion of the imposed vertical loads W shall be taken as:
W = D, + CYL,,
I

where

D, = nominal self-weight load
Lni = imposed vertical loads
= load combination factor (see Table 2)

5.6.6 5.6.6.1

Distribution of Seismic Forces Vertical distribution of seismic forces. The lateral seismic shear force Fx,induced at any level shall be determined in accordance with the following formula:

where V,, = seismic base shear (see Section 5.6.5)

Amdt 3, Oct. 1993

c,,

=

Wxh Wihr
I

:

77

SABS 0160-1989
(As amended 1990,1991 and 1993)

where

k

= 1,Ofor buildings having a period of 0,5s or less = 2,O for buildings having a period of 2,O s or more = 1 + (2T- 1)/3 for a period of between 0,5s and 2,O s

W,,Wi h,,hi
5.6.6.2

= portion of the vertical load at or assigned to level x or i, respectively
= height above the base to level x or i, respectively

Horizontal shear and torsion. The nominal seismic shear force V,,, at any level shall be determined in accordance with the following formula: t V,, = ZFi,
I=x

where F,, = the lateral shear force induced at any level, determined in accordance with 5.6.6.1 The force V,, shall be distributed to the various vertical components of the seismicresisting system in the storey below level x, with due consideration given to the relative stiffnesses of the vertical components and the diaphragm. For asymmetric buildings, the design shall provide for the torsion moment M,, resulting from the location of the building masses plus the tensional moments M,,, caused by assumed displacementof the mass each way from its actual location by a distance equal to 5 % of the dimensions of the Ixdding perpendicular to the direction of the applied forces. 5.6.7 5.6.7.1 Structural ComDonent Load Effects Lateral forces on elements of structures and non-structural comDonents. Parts of structures, non-structural components, and their anchorages to the main structural system shall be designed to resist a lateral force equal to

Amdt 3, Oct. 1993

where

Fpn = nominal seismic force acting on the element
a, = nominal peak ground acceleration normalized by g, but at least 0,l
Amdt 2, Nov. 1991

C ,

= a seismic force coefficient given in Table 32

Wpn = weight of the element under consideration, plus imposed load if applicable
The distribution of these forces shall be in accordance with the vertical loads pertaining thereto.

7. The provisions for ties and continuity.2. times the weight of the diaphragm and other elements of the building attached thereto. and chimneys on buildings Load-bearing and non-load-bearing wall elements.4 DiaDhraams. cantilever walls. Nov. machines.1-1982. etc Seismic force coefficient C.2 .7.5to 1.O 5.4. 2. The design procedures described in the relevant subsections relate to the following types of cranes: Class 1: Liaht Dutv Hand cranes 5.SABS 0 160-1 989 (As amended 1990 and 1991) 78 TABLE 32 .6. Classification of Travellina Cranes. required to be transferred to the components of the vertical seismicresisting system because of offsets or changes in stiffness of the vertical components above and below the diaphragm.SEISMIC FORCE COEFFICIENT C .o 1. cladding elements. Commentary: The provisions for lateral forces on elements and non-structural components have been adopted largelyfrom ANSl A58. pipes. in accordance with Section 5. but categorized to bring them more into line with the provisions in use in this code of practice. Where overhead travelling cranes are intended or likely to be installed in a building.1-1982). FOR ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURES AND NON-STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS Amdt 2. Floor and roof diaphragms shall be designed to resist a minimum horizontal force FDn equal to a) 0. 5.7.4 of Appendix E. make provision in the design of the building or of any part of the building for the characteristic or service loads imposed by such cranes. and partitions Various installations in buildings such as pumps.7 LOADS DUE TO OVERHEAD TRAVELLING CRANES (See also E-6. tanks.1 General. concrete and masonry wall anchorages and diaphragms have been adopted from ATC3-06 (which is similar to that used in ANSl A58.5a.o O.6.6. plus b) the portion of V.) 5. 1991 1 2 Structural element or non-structural component Cantilever elements such as parapets.

preferably in consultation with the crane supplier. this should be checked against the actual loads once these are finalized.7. . In the case of crane types not covered.continuous operation Scrapyard cranes Rolling mill cranes Grab and magnet cranes . It should never be assumed that incorrect loading information can be compensated for by the impact factor.intermittent operation Power station cranes Machine shop cranes Foundry cranes Class 3: Heavv Dub Warehouse cranes . Take as the vertical wheel loads imposed on the gantry by a crane the values provided by the crane manufacturer or specified by the owner.3 Vertical Wheel Loads.continuous operation Soaking pit cranes Ingot stripping cranes Furnace charging cranes Forging cranes Claw cranes Commentary: The types of cranes listed cover most of those likely to be encountered in practice.79 SABS 0160-1 989 (As amended 1990) Class 2: Medium Dutv Cranes for general use in factories and workshops Warehouse cranes .251 Class 4 cranes : 1. The designer or owner may.30 Commentary: It is important that crane loads be accurately ascertained as regards both the wheel loads and their spacings.20 Class 3 cranes : 1. Make an allowance for impact and other dynamic effects in the vertical direction by multiplying the static wheel load by the appropriate of the following factors: Class 1 cranes : 1.intermittent operation Ladle cranes in steelworks Class 4: Extra Heavv Duty Grab and magnet cranes . but the list cannot be all-inclusive. I 0 Class 2 cranes : 1. allocate to any crane a higher classification than is indicated in this subsection. at his discretion. the owner should decide the class of crane. 5. Where it is necessary to use a preliminary assessmentof crane loads in the design. These are referred to as the static wheel loads.

Commentary: The above factors are based on the assumption of reasonably even distribution of vertical load among the crab wheels. the resultant vertical loads on the driven or braked crab wheels should be ascertained or calculated and the relevant horizontal forces assessed.4-5. whichever is the most severe.6 need not be assumed to act simultaneously. owing to inertia or momentum effects. . to be the most adverse of the following: a) Allowance for acceleration or brakinq of the crab. specify higher wheel loads than those given by the crane supplier to allow for the possible future uprating of existing cranes or the installation of cranes of higher capacity. 5. Apply a force equal to the combined weight of the crab and load lifted.20 Divide such force among all the crane wheels.05 : 0. the distribution of vertical load during acceleration or braking will not be even.15 : 0. In certain types of crane where the centre of gravity of the crab and other components rigidly attached to it (e.4 Horizontal Transverse Forces NOTE: The horizontal forces detailed in 5.SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1990) 80 The designer or owner may. at his discretion. to act in either of the direction combinations shown in Fig. Apply at each wheel a force P. multiplied by the appropriate of the following factors: Class 1 cranes Class 2 cranes Class 3 cranes Class 4 cranes : 0. such that p = -X M ' N where X = the appropriate of the following factors: : 0.g. the mast of a claw crane) is appreciably below the level of the crab rail. Take the horizontal forces imposed on the gantry by a crane and acting at the top of the crane rails in a direction transverse to the direction of travel of the crane. taking into account the relative transverse stiffness of the crane rail supports. b) Allowance for Dossible misaliqnment of crane wheels or qantw rails.20 Class 1 cranes Class 2 cranes Class 3 cranes Class 4 cranes and M = combined weight of crane bridge.12 : 0. 13. assuming a coefficient of friction of 0. or any other cases where appreciably uneven distribution is likely to be present.15 : 0. and load lifted N = total number of crane travel wheels Assume the forces P.20 between wheels and rails.05 : 0. In such cases.7.lO : 0.7.7. crab.

Plan View of Crane Showing Direction of Transverse Forces P3 . 15 such that the couple produced by the forces is equal to 1. apply at each wheel a force P2 equal to 1. 13 are intended to allow respectively for a toe-out or toe-in misalignment of the wheels. (see (b) above). are equal on both ends of the crane. I SABS 0160 Drg.3 times the couple that would have been produced by the forces P2 at one end of a crane not guided by such rollers. 13 .ll433bEC/00-07 I Fig. 1) In the case of a crane not guided by rollers. Commentary: The two direction combinations of forces P. 14. or a correspondingmisalignmentof the gantry rails.SABS 0160-1989 81 Fig. whichever is the most severe. shown in Fig. The forces are specified as being applied at both ends to enable an assessment to be made of the transfer of forces through the roof structure of a building. caused by wheel or gantry rail misalignment or by braking or acceleration of the crane with the crab at the extremity of its travel. I Fig. 15 . Assume the forces P2 to act in either of the direction combinations shown in Fig. c) Allowance for skewinq of crane in plan. This is of particular importance in portal frame buildings and buildings having lightly constructed roof trusses. where the presence of such forces might otherwise be overlooked. apply a force P3at each pair of rollers as shown in Fig.Plan View of Crane Showing Direction of Transverse Forces P2 SABS 0160 Dra.Plan View of Crane Showing Direction of Transverse Forces P.5 times the force P. 14 .ll&33-EC/00-07 2) In the case of a crane guided by horizontal rollers located at one end of the bridge. Note that the forces P.

3 Horizontal forces as given in any one of 5.5 times the nominal crane loads shall be taken as acting concurrently with the nominal wind load.6. Ensure that where loads (arising from machinery runways. for the action of guide rollers and is intended to ensure that gantry rails. Take the horizontal force imposed bya crane on each line of rails.9 Amdt 3.7.8 5.7.1 .7.7.7. b) a force calculated on the assumption that the crane strikes the end stop while travelling at its full rated speed. acting longitudinally in the direction of travel and caused by acceleration or braking. and other plant producing significant dynamic effects) are supported by or communicated to the framework.4-5.5 Horizontal forces as given in either of 5. allowance is made for these dynamic loadings.4(b). 5.7. The reason for relating the forces P3to a couple and not directly to forces f 2 is that the forces P3 depend upon the spacing of the guide rollers. 5. NOTE: In (a) and (b) above.6. are adequately catered for in the design. In determining the crane loads set out in 5. Forces on End Stow. Take the horizontal force imposed on each end stop by a crane in the direction of travel to be the lesser of the following: a) A force equal to the combined weight of the crane bridge and crab.6 5. and the number of wheels per end carriage. and therefore a direct relationship could not have been presented in a simple form.8.7 Position of Crane and Crab. the position of the crab on the crane bridge.8 5.7. regardless of the number of bays. Oct.7.7. More than One Crane in a Buildinq.lO times the sum of the maximum static wheel loads on that line of rails. their fixings. to be such as will produce the most adverse effect upon the building or part of the building being designed. This subsection makes provision.7.4(c) or 5.7.SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1993) 82 Commentary: The forces imposed by guide rollers are difficult to determine accurately but are known to be severe.7. then 0.7. and the position of the crane on the gantry. 5.4 5. to be 0. assume the magnitude of the load lifted by a crane (up to its rated capacity). 5.5 Horizontal Lonqitudinal Force. the spacing of the wheels. take the total forces imposed by such cranes to be as follows: Static wheel loads Allowance for impact as given in 5. OTHER LOADS Provision for ImDact and Vibration. albeitempirically.7.7. 1993 Combination of Crane Lateral Forces and Wind Load.6 from all cranes from any two cranes from any two cranes from any one crane 5. and the lateral support of the girders.4(a). Where the effects of wind are to be considered in combination with the horizontal forces as given in any one of 5. the weight of the load carried by the crane may be ignored unless it is restrained in a horizontal direction as in a mast or claw crane. Where more than one crane is to operate in a building. and 5. taking into account the resilience of the end stops and crane buffers.

in order to assess whether they are in accordancewith the basic standards of safety or serviceability (or both) inherent in the national building regulations and the associated codes of practice. 5. or because of possible impairment of load-bearing capacity as a result of fire. or similar agencies. the designer must give consideration to such forces in the design process. 5. Where lifting or handling equipment.4.4 Inertia Swav Forces a) Design all grandstands to resist the following inertia sway forces applied as indicated below to each row of seats or eac:h row of standing accommodation. b) Tests undertaken to monitor the quality or performance characteristics of serially produced buildings or components. and from electrical fittings.1. including forklift trucks and trolleys for heavy loads or cranes. the activities within such building are liable to produce inertia effects.8. which are used as an aid to the design of a structure or series of structures yet to be built. as applicable: 300 N/m parallel to each row. c) In-situ tests applied to a specific building. 2) fixed or moving loads on the surface of the adjacent soil. due allowance must be made for upward hydraulic forces.1 or 5. b) Basement floors. either because of alleged or known inadequacies in design. etc. a set of buildings. Such loads can be derived from materials or workmen during construction and maintenance. because of the occupancy of any building other than a grandstand.5 Ceilinas. Give consideration to the loads likely to be supported by joists and hangers for ceilings. ancl 150 N/m normal to each row.4. and coverings of ceiling access hatches. b) Where. construction or materials. etc. 6. air-conditioning ducting and other services. Commentary: In-situ load testing is an aid to the assessment of the fitness of a building or of part of a building to support a specified set of loads within a prescribed 6. and any similar structures. ribs or skylights.83 5.1 6. Skvliahts and Similar Structures.8.2 SABS 0 160-1 989 Liftina and Handlina Eauimnent.2 being imposed on any area of slab or on any beam. make provision in the design of the members concerned for the resultant maximum concentrated load or loads.1 . completed or under construction.8. Full scale load tests fall into three main categories: a) Tests. Lateral and UDlift Forces a) Basement walls.3 5. In the design of basement floors and other similar members below ground level and below the level of a free water surface. or because of an intended extension of or change in use. frames. due allowance must be made for the following forces: 1) The lateral force applied by adjacent soil. In the design of basement walls and other similar members below ground level. corrosion. and 3) hydraulic force. is intended to be or is likely to be placed on any floor of a building and would result in loads in excess of those set out in 5. Show in the documentation such maximum concentrated load or loads for which the members have been designed.1.8.2. as provided for in 3. or parts of buildings. IN-SITU LOAD TESTING OF BUILDINGS AND BUILDING ELEMENTS GENERAL TvDes of Full Scale Load Tests.

etc. and (r) of Appendix A. execution and interpretation of the results of load tests.2 Planninq.. whereas in a category (c) test. number and extent of the part(s) of the structure to be tested. Load testing should be preceded by a thorough analysis of the nature and extent of the problem so that the objectives of the test or tests can be defined in detail and testing planned accordingly. Furthermore.2) will plan. b) damage or deterioration occasioned by fire or other agencies. The competent authority (see also 6. as far as possible.) . Tests of category 6.2 TESTING AUTHORITY. agreement between the parties concerned in regard to the following aspects: a) The exact location. there is. non-destructive material tests. execute and evaluate a load test or load tests in accordance with the principles and guidelines contained in Section 6. Load testing should normally not be undertaken until alternative avenues of investigation such as calculation. Probably the most significant difference between the three categories of load test is that. 6. the tests of categories (a) and (b) can be deliberately continued to failure to give a direct measure of the safety reserves of the structure.1 Planninq. where it is considered necessary to carry out such test or tests on a building or part of a building for any of the following reasons: a) Doubts about the adequacy of the design or construction of an existing building or one that is under construction.1 . TEST PROCEDURES NOTE: Refer also to A-2(p). core drilling and testing. whenever possible.1.l(a) are usually applied to specially constructed assemblies and are more in the nature of development or quasi-research activities. 6. (q). Ensure that at the planning stage of the test. the objective is to assess whether the building will support the service loads with an adequate margin of safety but without so overloading it as to cause serious damage or collapse since. and each individual case should be treated on its merits by the designer or by the competent research or testing authority (or by both).3. if the structure is found to be satisfactory. 6. Tests of category 6.l(b) are part of the quality control specification for a contract and may therefore generally fall outside the scope of this code of practice. Tests of category 6. the section is mainly concerned with tests on suspended floor and roof constructions which are the cases most commonly encountered and which are covered in the structural design codes for various building materials. I (c) are the primary concern of this section.1. This should be borne in mind in the planning. Ensure that the load test is designed. in collaboration with the designer to ensure that the test effectively deals with those aspects of the construction that are in doubt. measurement. in general. it must still be capable of being placed in service after the test. (This will depend on the extent of the investigation.SABS 0160-1989 84 set of criteria. have been found insufficient. supervised and certified by a competent authority acting.1 . c) changed loading conditions. It is an adjunct to and not a substitute for engineering analysis or the exercise of competent professional judgement. although some of its principles may also apply to tests of categories (a) and (b).3 6.

6) the response parameters to be measured. within practical limits. wind). The deformation may be considered to have stabilized when the increase in deformation under constant load during a given time interval (e. or not more than one-quarter of the total time for which the load incrementis maintained) . 5) the method of application of the load.85 b) The test procedure to be adopted. 4) the duration of each stage of loading and unloading. moisture or temperature changes) which may be in force during the test. or both. or crack formation. d) Ensurethat measurementsof the deflection of members allow for settlement or elastic deformation of the supports of the members. 5 min. 7) the possible influence of.3. including making up for any part of the self-weight which may still be missing in a partially completed structure. 6. Commentary: When tests are conducted.g. c) The criteria against which the results of the test and therefore the acceptability of the structure will be judged.1. e) Ensure that adequate safety precautions are taken to prevent injury to persons and to avoid damage to property during the test. attention should be given to the following: a) The loading should preferably be applied in a sufficient number of increments (at least four) to enable a graph of load versus response (generally deflection) to be plotted during the test so that discontinuities or non-linearity in behaviour can be detected. 6.3 Test Precautions a) Ensure that the condition of the structure and its materials (e. and methods of allowing for. c) Adopt methods of measuring the response of the structure that have an inherent accuracy of at least k 5 % of the maximum value expected in the test. creep behaviour should be allowed for by maintaining each incrementof load until the response (deformation) has stabilized. having regard to the nature of the service load being simulated. the external environmental factors (e. 2) the levels of loading at each stage.the competentauthority must ensure that procedures and interpretations are carried out in accordance with such prescriptions. having regard to the creep characteristics of the materials of construction involved and the short-term or long-term nature of the service loads being simulated. such as deflection. to the minimum conditions assumed in the design. especially with regard to the possibility of collapse of the element under test.3. maturity of concrete) is similar.2 Conductina of Tests a) Where the elements and materials concerned are designed in accordance with a specific code of practice and such code prescribes the load testing procedures and interpretationsfor such elements and materials. 3) the allowances or procedures to be adopted to cater for lateral interaction or load transfer between the loaded and adjacent unloaded parts of the structure or for loads transferred to non-structural elements. rotation. b) For loads other than short-term transient loads (e. presence of floor screeds. b) Where the elements and materials concerned are not designed as set out in (a) above. and the positions and rnethods of measurement. strain.g. b) Adopt a method of loading that will ensure that the error in the applied load does not exceed 5 % of the applied load under service load conditions or 2 % of the maximum applied load in the overload test. whichever is the greater. including the following: SABS 0 1 60-1 989 'I) The various stages of loading and unloading. follow the planning procedure as given in 6.g.3.g.

0 G. The test proper should not commence until the deformation under the compensating load has stabilized. especially where the test extends over one or more days. these may have to be removed or cut free of slabs to ensure that they do not influence the test. e) To allow for deformations of the structure and errors in measurement caused by temperature or other environmental changes. to carry out a preliminary "dry run" during which no loads are applied but deformations are measured over a period of time corresponding to that over which the test will take place. Generally. For ribbed floors and similar constructions. using the same incremental levels as for loading.5% to the sum of the deformations of the loaded and interacting elements are regarded as being effectively interactive. Measurements of residual deformation after unloading should continue until the response has stabilized. which should be monitored.SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1993) 86 does not exceed 15 % of the increase in deformation in the preceding (equal) time increment at the same load. d) Before the commencement of the loading test proper. All beams or strips of slab that contribute more than 2. such an analysis may be dispensed with if a width of slab extending at least 1. each increment of load should be maintained for at least 30 min .0 Q . At this stage it may be advantageous to unload the structure and repeat the . in others. Amdt 3. it is often advantageous. then the deformations obtained in the dry run may be used for correcting the deformations measured during the loading test proper. shear strength.5 times the span on either side of the portion under investigation is loaded in the test. it may sometimes be possible to separate a narrower test section from the adjacent floor by cutting. The number of one-way or two. in such a test. the applied test load(s) should normally be the nominal value(s) of the imposed loading. g) For checking the serviceability of the structure under working load conditions. remain reasonably stable. 1993 where G .e. Oct. = nominal self-weight 0. i.way spans to be loaded will depend on whether the concern is with positive or negative moment behaviour (or both). the interactive width or number of elements may be determined by a preliminary load-sharing test up to a lower level of loading (not more than the characteristic or service load). For example. = nominal imposed load The load should be maintained until the response has been stabilized. For two-way spanning floor panels. a load to compensate for the effect of that portion (if any) of the self-weight load not already present in the assembly should be applied and maintained until all testing has been completed. c) Unloading may be done in one step but more useful information can often be obtained if unloading is done in step-wise fashion. etc. This may be determined by analysis in some cases. the selected beam or strip of a one-way slab is loaded and its (midspan) deformation and those at the corresponding points of the potentially inter-acting beams or strips of slab on either side are measured.+ 1. Where non-load-bearing elements (such as partitions) with significant load-bearing properties are present. For wide one-way spanning slabs. f) Lateral interaction or load sharing should be allowed for by loading a sufficient width of slab or panel or number of interconnected beams or trusses to ensure that all elements which are effectively interactive with the element under test are loaded. If weather conditions. the total load acting in the test is given by: 1. it will generally be necessary to load the whole panel.

reduced as may be necessary to allow for any part of the loading effects or time effects not covered by the test measurements. The values should also be adjusted according to whether a single test is to serve as the basis for assessing a number of nominally similar structures or only the structure being tested. A distinction is necessary between pre-existingcracks or deformations (which may have led to the need for a test) and those arising or extending during the test. . The duration of the intervals should be sufficient to enable the increments in deformation to be measured with sufficient accuracyfor a valid comparison to be made. deformation or cracking under service loads. For example.87 SABS 0160-1989 loading procedure to allow for "bedding in" of the structure and instrumentationand to provide a check on observationaltechniques before proceeding with the overload test for structural safety. 3) Cracking or other local damage spreads significantlyunder constant load. 4) The increase of deformation under constant load that occurs during each of three successive equal time intervals shows no decrease.4 Q. be used during the test. it is suggested that in the absence of other specific prescriptions. the total load appropriate for the test might reasonably be about 0. k) When tests are performed on very stiff structures.85 times the factored loads used in design for the ultimate limit state. j) The structure under test may be deemed to have failed the test for safety or ultimate strength if one or more of the following conditions are attained: 1) The structure collapses or shows signs of distress or instability indicating that collapse is imminent. h) For assessing the safety (ultimate strength) of the structure. 2) The maximum deflection exceeds span/50. but not so large as to be likely to cause failure of an acceptable structure. The load should be maintained until stabilization of deformation has occurred. the load levels should be sufficiently in excess of the nominal values to provide a reliable indication of the overload behaviour. a maximum total load of 1.2 G . + 1. I) When structures are tested that are likely to exhibit brittle failures or instability failures. the assessment of performance becomes difficult since the response measurements may give no indication of the imminence of faiIure. (This value may be increasedto 85 % for metal structures.) 6) The residual (permanent) deformation or cracking (under dead load only) arising from the test exceeds the values permitted in design for full service loading. to ensure safety. On this basis. in limit-statedesign terms. decreased to 70 % for timber structures and decreased to 60 % for plastics structures. 5) The recovery of deformation after removal of the test load (after allowing for stabilization to occur) is less than about 75 ?40 of the maximum deformation during the test. the deformations may be so small that they cannot be reliably determined and the criteria in (j)(4) and (5) above cannot reasonably be applied. These values may need modification to allow for duration of load effects with materials whose strength is highly time dependent. i) The criteria for assessing compliance with the test for serviceability at working loads should normally be the design limits for deflection.

Oct. Vol. (Along.) g) Australian Standard 1170. structures or elements that are not adequately covered or where special conditions apply or where additional information is desired by the designer. HMSO. Structural Division. published by the Weather Bureau.List of equivalent terms I S 0 2631 IS04356 I S 0 8930 SABS 0100 The structural use of concrete SABS 0137 The installation of glazing materials in buildings SABS 0161 The design of foundations for buildings SABS 0162 The structural use of steel SABS 0163 The design of timber structures SABS 0164 Structural use of masonry SABS 0400 The application of the National Building Regulations A-2 The information contained in this code of practice is considered adequate for the design of the majority of buildings. Journal. published by the Building Research Establishment. CSIR. 1975. 93. Wind loadina handbook. Pretoria.) f) DAVENPORT. 1978. APPLICABLE PUBLICATIONS (This appendix does not form part of the provisions of the code) A. published by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Part2.1 Design loads for buildings and other structures. the following publications should be consulted: - Amdt 3.SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1990 and 1993) 88 APPENDIX A. (Along-wind response: method and charts.) e) Commentaries on Part 4 of the national buildinq code of Canada 1977. published by the National Research Council of Canada. London. (Wind characteristics. a) NBRl Information Sheet WBOU 2-41. January 1987.1 Reference is made to the latest issues of the following standards: ANSI A58. minimum ATC 3-06 Applied Technology Council. AG. published in The civil enaineer in South Africa. 1975. Pretoria. Department of Environment Affairs. London. 1978 Evaluation of human exposure to wholebody vibration Bases for the design of structures. For those buildings. published by the Construction Industry Research and Information Association. Part 12. RV 'Annual maximum wind speeds for South Africa'.and cross-wind response discussed in an appendix. 'Wind flows around and pressures on buildings'. flutter. 1993 Milford. 1971. b) Weather Bureau Report WB 38. 1974. 'Climate of South Africa. vortex excitation. Gust loadinq factors. c) NEWBERRY and EATON. published by the National Building Research Institute. d) The modern desiqn of wind sensitive structures. accelerations.) . published by the Standards Association of Australia. June 1967. Deformations of buildings at the serviceability limit states General principles on reliability for structures . (Along-wind response: method and charts. Surface winds'. 'SAA loading code: "Wind forces"'. 1977. along-wind response. vortex excitation. galloping.

Part 2.89 SABS 0160-1989 (As amended 1990) h) VICKERY. DW. and CARRUTHERS. HJ and CULLIGAN. v) SCHWARTZ. Pretoria.) 0)DAVENPORT. Extreme values of rainfall.lnterscience Publication. 1/72. et al. CE 13. Geological Survey. Reinforced concrete chimnevs and towers. 1975. 'Load tests of building structures'.) I) HOUGHTON. PT. NB. A manual for engineersand architects'. Wiley. published by the Weather Bureau. published by the National Bureau of Standards. published by the Weather Bureau. R and FITZSIMONS. edited by Harris and Crede. Pretoria. . M. VAL. wind-induced discomfort in and around buildings. 1972. commenced in February. September . 1. y) Weather Bureau Report WB 20. publishedin Materials and structures. May 1975. US Dept. Geological Survey. preliminaryrecommendationsof the 20-TBS Committeeof RILEM. August 1976. December 1978. (Analysis for thunderstorm winds. Dissertation.Seismological Series. published by EdwardArnold. Wiley . (All aspectsofwind loading. published by the American Society of Civil Engineers. r) BARES. temperature and wind for selected return periods'. London. published by Viewpoint Publications.) j) SIMIU. z) DOWRICK. 'Load testing of concrete building structures'.Sc. Part 2. EL. published by Prentice Hall. LM and GUSMAN. (Along-wind response: method and charts. Report No. published by Applied Science Publishers.) n) CHASTEAU. Johannesburg. L'ol. University of the Witwatersrand. 9 'Seismic history of Southern Africa' No. Australia.) m) AYNSLEY RM. PT. 1977. 1987. April. No. Desian flood determination in South Africa. BJ. DJ. New York. USA. published by McGraw-Hill. M. 1976. vortex excitation. 101.October 1976. 'Wind effects on structures'. 1977. 1971 and concluded in March. cc) SHAPIRO. (Dynamic wind forces on chimneys. Wind forces on buildinas and structures: an introduction. NewYork. No. Civil Enaineerina Transactionsof the Institute of Engineers. Pretoria. Johannesburg. Department of EnvironmentAffairs. t) Geological Survey . 1977. 1971. vortex excitation. Probabilitiesof exceedance for prescribed peak ground accelerations(PGA) at selected SouthernAfrica locations. (Along-wind response: method and charts. (All aspects of wind loading and environmental effects of wind. Vol 56A.publishedby John Wiley. Architectural aerodvnamics. 1975. University of the Witwatersrand. flutter.Report No. (Wind characteristics. DJ. 'On the reliability of gust factors'.) i) SIMIU. JA: No. Wind effects on structures . AG and NOVAK. compiled by FERNANDEZ. GM. London. E and LOZIER. cornputer program. The civil enqineer in South Africa. Compilation of a manual for the desian of roof drainaae svstems. 1976. A.an introduction to wind enqineering. 'Earthquake resistantdesign. E and SCANLEN. John Wiley & Sons. 'Climate of South Africa. U)Weather Bureau Report WB 36. s ) Earthquake enaineerinq. Vol. RH. The buffetina of tall structures bv strona winds. No. q) MENZIES. 1974.LM. galloping. along-wind response: method and charts. JB. N. Department of Transport. (1989. bb) FERNANDEZ. 1971 issues. 'Climate of South Africa. London. Rainfall statistics'. Vibrations of structures induced bv wind: Shock and vibration handbook. published in The civil enaineer in South Africa. 1987-0100. 1978. NBS Building Science Series 74. p) 'General recommendation for loading tests of load-bearing structures in situ'. 'Roof drainage of large buildings in South Africa'. 10 'Earthquake hazards in Southern Africa'. Maps of the probabilities of earthquake occurrence in South Africa. of Commerce. In press). ST5.) k) PINFOLD. 53. Pretoria.A and FERNANDEZ. x) CULLIGAN. 1975. 'Earthquake resistant design'. Washington. Structural Division. w) Hydrological Research Unit. aa) DOWRICK. published in The structural engineer. Journal. co-ordinating editor RL WIEGEL. LM and SHAPIRO.

. . .3 SUNDRY BUILDING MATERIALS Density Cork: Granular . . . .. .. . . .. . . . .. Foamed polyurethane . . .. . .. Glassfibremat . . . NOMINAL UNIT MASSES OF MATERIALS (This appendix does not form part of the provisions of the code) B-1 GENERAL. The required information on the materials to be used in the construction of the building should be calculated on values determined in practice. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. ... . . . .. .. . . . . .. . U 3 k q h 2per mm thickness 0. . . . . . . .. . . Glass . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. Copper: Cast . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . Iron: Cast .... . . .. . . . Steel . . . . . . 8-2. . The degree of accuracy necessary in subsequent calculations should be determined by the designer. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . Bronze .. . . . . . . . . .. . . Macadarn. . ... . .. Wrought . The schedule endeavours to provide approximate information that can be used in preliminary calculations. . Wrought .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . .. . . . ... . . . as appropriate. . due allowance for increase in mass must be made. . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . Felt. . .. . . unless otherwise stated and. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .2 METALS Densitv Aluminium alloys .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The values are given either as densities or as masses per unit area for a specific thickness. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. where materials susceptible to moisture absorption are used in positions exposed to rain or water. . This appendix sets out a schedule of nominal unit masses of some materials used in the building process and of some liquids and semi-liquids. . . Compressed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .02 02 0..1 BUILDING MATERIALS . . . . .. .. . . .. . . .. . . .. .... . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Such calculations should also take into account the variations likely to be encountered in the manufacturing process and in the climatic conditions of the particular area where the materials are to be used. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . .... . . . .. . . . . . . . . ... ... . . . .waterbound . . . . . ... . . . . The values given in this appendix assume the materials to be in the dry state. . . . Tarmacadam . ..... . . . . .. . . . . ... .SABS 0160-1989 90 APPENDIX B. It is not possible to include a full range of all materials generally available or the many different forms of composite construction now in use because of the many combinations and variations which are possible and available. .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lead . . .. . .. .1 0. . . . . . . . .... . . B-2. ... . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .04 kn/m3 2 800 8 500 8 900 8 700 8 900 7 200 7 700 11 300 7 900 7 800 7 100 160 350 2 700 2 600 2 300 . . . . . . . . ... .. . .... GENERAL INSULATING MATERIALS Masshnit area Expanded polystyrene foam . . Stainless steel . . . . . . . . . . . . Zinc: Rolled ... . . . . .. . . . . . insulating .. . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . ... B-2 B-2.. . . . . . . . . Brass . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .. . .. . . . .. . ...

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paving. . . . . . . Sapele . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meranti . . . . . . . . . .7 650 520 530 570 660 500 700 670 550 kdm2per mm thickness 8-3 8-3. South African timber: Structural up to Grade 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . uptoGrade10 . Hardwood . . . . . . . . . . . expanded clay . . . . . . . . . . . .1 CEMENT. . . . . . . . . expanded clay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mahogany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Imported timber: Structural pitch pine . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glass fibre (GRP) products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coarse aggregates: Normal weight natural aggregates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kn/m3 1450 1 600 700 1 600 1000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Floorboarding and blocks: Softwood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 SABS 0160-1989 kn/m2 Mass/unit area Damp-proof coursing . . . . . . . . . . . . foamed slag. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teak . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fine aggregates: Normal weight: Sand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plywood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lightweight: Clinker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Masslunit area Timber boarding: Blockboard . . . . . . . . . . . stonework . . . Douglasfir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONCRETE AND CONCRETE PRODUCTS AGGREGATES Densitv Cementin bulk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 kdm2per mm thickness Asphalt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . foamed slag. Fibreboard . . . . . . . ka/m3 22 02 177 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hardboard (dense) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Woodwool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PVCproducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lightweight: Clinker. . . . . . . . .4 TIMBER Densitv Finishing: lroko . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chipboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. Using broken brick aggregate . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . ... . .. . . . .. .... . . . . . . . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . .. . . terrazzo . . ... . . . . .. . . .. . Rubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . Floor coverings: Flexible PVC . . . . kq/m2per mm thickness 4. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . 2 300 2 000 1500 2 400 2 500 2 600 3 200 5 200 kq/m2per mm thickness 23 1. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. unreinforced: Nominal .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . ... . .. . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . ... . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . Special heavyweight concrete: Using natural heavy aggregates .o 8-4 FLOORING Mass/unit area Clay floor tiles. . ... .2 CONCRETE 92 Density Plain. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Long span roofing elements . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .3 FINISHES Mass/unit area Plaster: Cement and sand . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . terrazzo.4 REINFORCED SLABS Mass/unit area Solid slabs: Thickness 2. . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Reinforced: Nominal . . Lightweightaggregate .. 190 240 360 610 730 B-3... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . including laps and fixings and at moisture content of 15 %) Masdunit area Corrugated roof sheets . . . . . .. . 2 % reinforcement . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . .. . . . .4 ks/m2 75 mm 100mm 150mm 250mm 300mm . .. . .. . . . .. screeds . . . .7 03 13 Granolithic. . . . .. . . . . . . .... Paving slabs. .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .... . precast . . . .. . . . .. Gypsum . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .4 23 1. . . . NOTE: The above are average values to cover the main types of sheeting in general use. . . . . .. . . . Lime . . .. . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .SABS 0160-1989 8-3..... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . including screed . . ... . . . .. . . . . kn/m2 150 20. . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1. . . . . . .. .. . . . .5 FIBRE-CEMENT ROOF SHEETING (Laid. . . . . . .. ... . .. . . . . . ..3 2. . . 8-3. . . . . .7 22 . . . . . . Using steel shot aggregates . . . . . ... . Granolithic. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Lightweight vermiculite . . . . . . Vinyl asbestos . 3 % reinforcement . . . 8-3.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . packed . . . . . . .1 STORED MATERIALS LIQUIDS AND SEMI-LIQUIDS Bulk densitv For a liquid stored in carboys. . . . . . . . For a liquid stored in drums. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-6 B-6.3 CONCRETE BLOCK WALLING Mass/unit area Nominal 200 mm wide blocks made from: Stone aggregate: Solid blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . consolidated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL Masshnit area SABS 0160-1 989 260 220 Blocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perforated bricks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . use 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . commercial .4 STONEWORK Densitv Granite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hollow blocks . . . . . . . . . .5 of the bulk density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sandstone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alcohol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limestone . . . . . . . . 8-5. . . . . . . . . . Commonclay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 B-5 B-5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ammonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 BRICKWORK AND BLOCKWORK. . Slate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 800 Stonerubble. . . . . . Hydrochloric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 of the bulk density ka/m3 kn/m3 440 280 260 210 2700 2500 2300 2200 1500 1900 Acids: Acetic . . . . . . . . . . hollow clay . . . . . use 0. . . . .1 WALLING BRICKWORK Mass/unit area Nominal 120 mm wide clay bricks in half-brick walling Solid bricks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Facingclay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hardcore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quarrywaste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1050 1150 1350 1850 800 900 . . . . Bricks: Calcium silicate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nitric . . . . B-5. . . . . . . . . . . . . Refractory . . . . . . . . . Lightweight aggregate: Solid blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sulphuric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hollow blocks . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .SABS 0160-1989 Beer: Bulk . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bitumen . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paraffin . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turpentine . . . . . . . . . Wine: Bulk .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..pitch . . . Sea-water . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Benzine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Methylated spirits . . .. . Petroleum oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Tar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linseedoil .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . Petrol . . . . . . Bottlesin cases . . .. . . . Bottlesincases .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 000 450 550 900 1 400 850 1050 750 800 700 900 750 1200 850 1 000 1 050 1 000 600 . . . . . . . Pulp(wood) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water: Fresh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Mineral oils: Naphtha . . . . . 900 Milk . Barrels . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

as well as the characteristics of machinery installed. that are due to the following manufacturing equipment: 1) Stationary plant and suspended manufacturing equipment.7). overall dimensions and position of items. account should be taken of possible simultaneous actions of imposed floor loads. overhead cranes (see 5. including waste products and animals. If erection loads are to be taken into account. c) Forces due to staircases. should be taken into consideration. and 2) mobile handling equipment (trucks. For certain loading conditions which are interdependent. In the absence of the necessary statistical data. account should be taken of the least favourable position relative to the structural members being calculated for. by calculating the structures dynamically or by using suitable dynamic coefficients. that are due to the following handling equipment: 1) Fixed handling equipment (conveyors. c-2. the nominal value should be chosen in accordance with the given (or expected) conditions of normal use of the building and N t i s various floor zones.1 NOMINAL IMPOSED LOADS IN GENERAL The characteristic value of the imposed floor load is the 95 % value of the least favourable load which has a probability. or from goods in storage falling or becoming suddenly displaced.2 C-2. c-2 c-2. static and dynamic). b) Forces.ventilating. determined on the basis of information available concerning weight. The influence of dynamic forces arising from operations with dynamically unbalanced equipment. e) Forces due to materials and products. d) Forces due to service equipment (heating. ramps and access gangways.3 c-3 C-3. cars.) When structural members are being designed and calculations made. 9 Loads due to people (operational staff. g) Forces of an unusual nature (for example. and 2) industrial pipelines. NOMINAL IMPOSED LOADS (This appendix forms part of the provisions of the code) SABS 0160-1989 c-1 NOMINAL IMPOSED FLOOR LOADS IN FACTORIES AND WAREHOUSES Imposed floor loads in factories alnd warehouses consist of the following: a) Forces.from the shifting of heavy loads over the floor. etc.). of not being exceeded during the service life of the building. probable visitors).) and associated equipment..accepted from the outset. including movable building parts such as partitions. etc. including dynamic effects if any. elevators. directions and any application diagrams for floor loads (uniformly distributed. the characteristic value should be determined statistically for the least favourable combination of the loads.). etc. including dynamic effects if any.1 . etc. and the fixing of equipment to floors. ESTABLISHMENT OF IMPOSED FLOOR LOADS Data concerning loads for calculations in respect of load-bearing structures should include the values. etc.95 APPENDIX C. For floor loads whose floor position may alter. rollers.their values and their possible positions on the lifting gear (including positions of material already lifted and of the gear and its heaviest parts) should be determined. forces resulting from the failure of hoppers or mechanical equipment). (This nominal value should be verified from similar buildings. concentrated. used in production.

etc. probable service equipment. etc. allowance should be made for the weight of fuel. effects of the increase in moisture). . d) data supplied by the users of the building. Account should be taken of the greatest volume of materials (the greatest number of stacked articles) located on the area of the floor under normal operational conditions of the warehouse.7 When stresses and deformation in buildings are being calculated. Nominal loads in garages depend on the weights of vehicles. spare parts. b) the weight of the heaviest pieces under treatment or the weight of the products being processed (liquids.e.4 c-3. c) the weight of gangways and working platforms.2 When the nominal load from the weight of manufacturing plant is being determined. c-3. The weight of the product being processed should be determined by using its maximum possible volume under normal operation in the plant.5 C-3. c) advice from experts responsible for the technicalside of the building being designed. allowing for the densest stacking of materials and articles and the possible effect of the increase in density of some materials when stored for a long time (e.6 c-3. b) loads due to materials and semi-finished products temporarily stored near the processing equipment (at intervals between machining operations or ready for transport to the warehouse).3 When nominal loads due to handling equipment are being determined. the weight of the machine should be taken as its weight under working conditions (i. d) loads accruing from necessary maintenance or replacement of stationary plant. additional bearing devices. etc. Nominal loads in warehouses should be determined with regard to the types of materials stacked and the methods of storage. When loads on floor zones not occupied by stationary equipment and in warehouses are being defined.g. account should be taken of a) the weight of the plant (including the weight of the drive. provision should be made for loads from mobile handling equipment and for the following loads: a) Loads due to crowds of people possible during normal operation of the structure. power sources. c-3. the actual floor loads may be replaced by simplified load diagrams of equivalent effect.) and the load carried should be taken as equal to the nominal load-lifting capacity of the machine. b) data supplied by the equipment suppliers..SABS 0160-1989 96 The chief sources of the data referred to above are as follows: a) Standards and catalogues of equipment. with provision for the values of possible loads on the vehicles depending on the types of vehicles and conditions of garage use. C-3. and insulation). materials in bulk). c) loads due to the weight of waste products.

Three basically similar methods of analysis which nevertheless involve slightly different assumptions and simplifications are covered in detail in A-2(e).g. Reference A-2(n) of Appendix A gives a method of analysing the response of a structure to the sequence of peak gusts which characterize the initial stage of a thunderstorm. D-I . This approach involves certain rather arbitrary assumptions and has not yet been calibrated with the use of field observations. The latter component takes account of the distribution of energy in the wind fluctuations in relation to the size. and the variation of wind speed with height is known to be less than for large-scale storms.15 for rectangular cross-sections.2 VORTEX EXCITATION a) The asymmetrical shedding of vortices into the wake of a bluff body and the resultant variation in cross-wind force tend to be periodic with a frequency which varies with the (mean) wind speed and is given by where n = the vortex shedding frequency S V. All three methods are based on determining the effective peak loading or response as the sum of the (static) mean corriponent associated with the mean (e.97 APPENDIX 13. the relationship between thunderstorm wind speeds and different types of terrain has not yet been quantified. Gust factor methods should not be used for buildings of height less than 75 m in areas of Terrain Category 4 or less than 30 m in areas of Terrain Category 3. (f) and (g). Of these. . = the Strouhal number = the mean wind speed = the breadth of the structure (across wind) b Values of S are approximately 0. Such thunderstorms are characterized by low mean speeds and high gust speeds. the last appears to be based on the most realistic set of assumptions. ALONG-WIND RESPONSE. Furthermore. hourly) wind speed and an equivalent static cornponent due to the short-term fluctuations (gustiness) of the wind about this mean. These methods of analysis have become known as gust factor or gust energy methods. they apply only to wind originating in mature large-scale storms (extreme pressure system winds) and not to winds in localized storms such as the thunderstorms which are a primary source of extreme gusts on the Highveld. A-2(h) and A-2(i) and (j) of Appendix A.2 for circular cross-sections and 0. As presently formulated. WIND FORCES (This appendix forms part of the provisions of the code) D-I DYNAMIC EFFECTS SABS 0160-1989 I D-I . natural frequency and damping characteristics of the structure.

the dynamic effect of resonant vortex shedding may be approximated by the influence of a static lateral force per unit height. even when the wind speed changes somewhat. a range of Strouhal numbers should be considered. Thus the 3 s gustwill be an overestimate while the hourly mean will be an underestimate. the problem arises of deciding on the appropriate wind speed averaging time. in the region of 10'). b) If the frequency of vortex shedding at some wind speed within the expected range of design speeds coincides with the natural frequency of vibration of a flexible. According to this approach. at the top such that . the method given in A-2(0) of Appendix A provides a simple and reasonably conservative estimate of the response. the appropriate mean wind speed is that which persists for long enough to ensure that appreciable oscillation amplitudes can build up.SABS 0160-1989 98 but the actual values are dependent on the Reynolds number and on the amplitude of oscillation of the structure. c) An estimate of the wind speed averaged over a time interval of T seconds may be obtained by multiplying the relevant hourly mean speeds (see D-I .e. Where V. for cylindrical structures. S has a value in the range 0. In the use of the above formulae and in the assessment of the resonant response. lightly damped structure. lies well above the design range of wind speeds at the top of the structure. resonance may occur and further analysis is necessary to assess the magnitude of the response and whether methods of reducing the response or preventing resonance are necessary.15 to 0. then resonance and correspondingly large amplitudes of cross-wind oscillation can occur. resonant) wind velocity is thus given by where no = the natural frequency of the structure The calculation should normally be based on conditions at the top of the structure ( z = h). acting in the direction of oscillation. having regard to the many uncertainties still existing in this area..25. If the amplitudes of oscillation are large enough. The critical (i.g. for structures of approximately uniform cross-section. resonance will not occur. An averaging time corresponding to about 30 cycles of oscillation would seem to be appropriate.e.3) by the following factors: TABLE D-I -WIND SPEED MULTIPLYING FACTORS Terrain category Of the many methods of calculating vortex shedding response it is suggested that. and there is some uncertainty about the values at large Reynolds numbers (i. and varying in the same manner as the mode shape from the base to a value F. the resulting interactive effects may force the frequency of vortex shedding to "lock in" to the natural frequency of the structure. Where Vcritis within the design wind speed range. Clearly. For assessing the likelihood of occurrence of vortex shedding. e.

ll zg = 250 m. . The correction factor in Fig. = I SABS 0160-1989 n where 13 = the critical damping ratio which may range from 0. depending on whether the construction is for instance an unlined welded steel stack or a reinforced concrete frame building with infill walls = a lift coefficient which is dependent on turbulence.1 CHANGES IN TERRAIN CATEGORIES GENERAL.99 0 5 C. = 12 m where V is the hourly mean speed at a height of 10 m in Terrain Category 2. = 1.3 HOURLY MEAN WIND SPEEDS FOR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS. the wind speed profile for that particular condition does not develop to the full height h immediately but develops to a lesser height h..bq.001 to 0.15-0. C. NOTE: The variation with height of the hourly mean wind speed differs significantly from that for gust speeds and the power-law exponents U in Table 5 do not apply. which increases with the fetch or distance upwind x. D-I. Where a change in terrain category occurs. Reynolds number and aspect ratio or amplitude of oscillation.02.67 V (z z g . =0 zo Terrain Cateaorv 2 V..25 for cylinders C L qcdt = the velocity pressure for the critical speed Vcrit.67 V ( z z g - zo) zo o. As in the case of gust speeds. which may often only be known approximately D-I . 4 may be used to obtain an estimate of the values for other return periods. zo= 5 m Terrain Cateaorv 4 zg = 500 m.ZO) - o. D-2 D-2. z . surface roughness. zo= 0 Terrain Cateclorv 3 zg = 400 m. = 1.15 zg = 300 m. generally lies in the range 0. 2 and 3 and 20 m in Terrain Category 4. Maximum values of hourly mean wind speeds for a 50-year return period at a height of 10 m in Terrain Category 2 for use in gust energy and vortex shedding calculations are given in Fig. z . The following expressions may be used to describe the variation with height of the hourly mean wind speed: Terrain Cateaorv 1 V. it is considered advisable not to allow for any decrease in wind speed below heights of 5 m in Terrain Categories 1. F. Note that the value of qcht and hence of Fpis very sensitive to the choice of values for parameters S and no.

SABS 0160-1989
D-2.2

100

LOW TO HIGH NUMBER. Where transition is from an area of low terrain roughness to an area of rougher terrain (i.e. from a low category number to a high category number), the wind speed profile over the rougher terrain is determined as follows (see Fig. D-2): a) Below height h,, the speed is determined in relation to the rougher terrain. b) Above height h,, the speed is determined in relation to the less rough (more distant) terrain.

25

w i
rir
( U

U
al

U

c c

7

1

30

35
15
20

25
Longitude, deg. E

30

Fig. D-I - Maximum Mean Hourly Wind Speeds (m/s) for a 50-Year Return Period in Terrain Category 2
(NOTE: For Other Return Periods, see Fig. 3.)

D-2.3

HIGH TO LOW NUMBER. Where transition is from an area of rough terrain to an area of less rough terrain (i.e. from a high category number to a low category number), the wind speed profile over the less rough terrain is determined as follows (see Fig. D-3): a) Above height h,, the speed is determined in relation to the rougher terrain. b) Below height h,, the speed is taken as the lesser of

1) that determined in accordance with the less rough terrain, and 2) the speed at height h, as determined in relation to the rougher terrain.

101
0 0 0

SABS 0 160-1989

x q = fetch h, height for 0.000 Profile ---- Profile Design

Category 4 (TabLe 5) for Category 4 for Category 2 profile a t A

0

0


4
Wind direction
/’

/

/

Category 2
Drg.1143O-EC/00-07

Fig. D-2 - Wind Speed Profiles - Wind Blowing from Terrain of Lower to Higher Category Number

x 2 = fetch hg height for Category 2 (Table

51

* * * * * * Profile for Category 4 _ _ _ _ Profile for Category 2 Design profile a t A

I

-

I I
1

h 2 ex2

I---

, / -

Wind direction

---+
/

/0

JO--’

**

://

/

/

Category 4

Fig. D-3 -Wind Speed Profiles - Wind Blowing from Terrain of Higher to Lower Category Number

D-2.4

MORE THAN ONE CATEGORY. Terrain changes involving more than one category are treated in a manner similar to those changes described in D-2.2 and D-2.3 (see example given in Fig. D-4).

SABS 0160-1989

102

xb= fetch h,= height f o r C a t e g o r y 4 ( T a b l e 5) x, = f e t c h 4 = h e i g h t for C a t e g o r y 1
---D

h,. x,

h > , -5
, I

h 1. x
/

l b / / 2 1 g 7 /

/----

Wind d i r e c t i o n
0
0
/

0

/'

Category 3

........

._-_____-___-

Profile Profile Profile Design

f o r Category 4 f o r Category 3 for C a t e g o r y 1 profile

Speed

Speed
1 -

Speed
SABS 0160 Dra.11435-EC/00-07

I
I

Fig D-4 -Wind Speed Profiles where More than One Terrain Category is involved D-3 D-3.1 THE EFFECT OF A CLIFF OR AN ESCARPMENT ON THE HEIGHT z ABOVE

GROUND
GENERAL. The design wind speed of a building on or near the edge of an escarpment or a relatively sudden change in ground level should be determined by using an effective height measured from an artificial ground datum Z, as determined in 0-3.2. DETERMINATION OF ARTIFICIAL GROUND DATUM a) Where the average slope of the escarpment given by the ratio helye(see Fig. D-5) is equal to or less than 0,3, measure the effective height from the natural ground surface adjacent to the building. b) Where the ratio helye exceeds 0,3, measure the effective height from the artificial ground datum Z, obtained as in Fig. D-5, i.e. from A-D take Z,to be AB, and from D-E obtain Z, by interpolation. Beyond E take Z, to be CDE where AB BC CDE
= the average ground level at the bottom of the escarpment = the average face of the escarpment = the average ground level at the top of the escarpment

D-3.2

Z , he
ye

= the artificial ground datum = the vertical height of the escarpment
= the horizontal length of the escarpment

D-5 . D-6. . The value of velocity pressure q.1 DETERMINATIONOF VELOCITY PRESSURE q.103 SABS 0160-1989 I Fig.Determination of Artificial Ground Datum D-4 D-4. may be found from Fig.

_ a .SABS 0160-1989 104 s/w' A paads 0 2 PUIM 0 N m 0 7 0 0 0 N N E \ z Y N U (U L 3 VI VI ( U L a + % U - I 0 0 0 0 N > (U m N O - I m 0 c 0 t r n 0 " a T - o o M N Y - a J .- L L 2 U (U a J n IA U U G c ._ 3 3 o - - ~ v O r O f r O n O ~ O - O S/UI ''A p a a d s PUIM .

Some suggestions are therefore made in regard to the methods for controlling the assessment of deformations.2 ADJACENT BUILDINGS. Attention is drawn to the fact that the provision of movement joints between adjacent buildings and the avoidance of interference with neighbouring foundations are normal good building practice.1 . Any action that occurs only at certain times during the construction or existence of the structure. and that it is undesirable that the deformations of a building damage adjacent buildings or inconveniencetheir occupants or other members of the public. Deformations are caused by major ground movements.1 AP PLCATION TYPE OF BUILDING. particularly as the economics of modern building designs are increasingly controlled by deformation and maintenance during use. b) offices and commercial buildings. and in view also of the difficulties of estimating deformations. E-2. E-2 E-2. E-3 E-3. Temporaw action. CAUSES OF DEFORMATION GENERAL. namely a) residential and institutional buildings. and to suggest criteria by which the performance of the building can be assessed. In addition. and d) storage and general industrial buildings. In view of the wide range of acceptable values of some of the criteria. by environmental and occupational loads. The recommendationsfor criteria of deformation. This appendix refers to the deformations at the serviceability limit states of buildings that are covered by this code of practice. Any actiori that occurs only for short periods of time and that affects the structure infrequently. by pre-stressing forces and by movements of building materials owing to creep and changes in temperature. E-I GENERAL The aim of this appendix is to assist the designer to identify those aspects of deformation that affect the suitability of a building for the purposes for which it is intended. or whose magnitude cannot in practice be considered constant. numericalvalues for some of these criteria are suggested in order to give some guidance where this might be desired. in moisture content iand in chemical composition. Short-term temporary action.and the suggestions for limiting values. b) The following definitions relate only to words or phrases appearing in this appendix: Lonq-term temporary action. by differential settlements of foundations. it is believed that some guidance towards uniformity and degree of compliance would be of assistance. DEFORMATION OF BUILDINGS (This appendix does not form part of the provisions of the code) NOTE a) The information contained in this appendix is based on information given in IS0 4356.105 SABS 0160-1989 APPENDIX E. c) public buildings. Any action that occurs either for relatively long periods of time or for short periods of time that recur repeatedly over a long period. are given in Table 1 and in Tables E-I to E-5 of this appendix.

the designer may have no option but to provide sufficient stiffness to limit the deformations and thus reduce their effects to acceptable levels. these requirements are specified throughout this document in terms of deflection. The limitation of beam or slab deformations may be basically a matter of deflection. since this is the most easily observable parameter. and the degree of accuracy of any estimates of the effects likely to be produced. In many such cases. to inclinations.1 L IMlTATl0NS GENERAL. this will inevitably increase the first cost of the structure. Limitations may need to be applied to vertical or horizontal deflections or deviations. A knowledge of this is essential if designers and the local authorities are to find a common basis for assessing and controlling deformations. This course of action has the advantage that it avoids the problem of precisely estimating the magnitudes of causes and their effects. Camber can be used to reduce the final value of deflections. in the absence of sufficient data it becomes necessary to adopt other means of expressing the reduced magnitudes of several actions that should be assumed to be present simultaneously. In connection with (c) above it will be noted that both spatial and chronological variations of disturbing actions are involved and also that. . in view of the duration of the action in question.2 LEVELS OF MAGNITUDE. the designer may be able to avoid troublesome effects either by removing the original cause or by taking suitable precautions in the process of design and construction to permit some or all of the deformation to occur freely. However. Some troubles that may often be dealt with in this way are listed in E-8. In other cases. before or after completion of the building. E-4. and masking the remainder by suitable constructional or decorative treatment. to the widths of cracks or to the effects of vibrations. It can be adopted when the deformations. E-4 E-4. Beside possibly affecting the strength or stability of a structure.SABS 0160-1989 E-3. c) the probability of the simultaneous occurrence of several actions contributing to a given kind of deformation. or of deflection in relation to span. and the radius of curvature at the middle as equal to the span divided by 10 times the deflection/span ratio. the slope at the ends may be taken as equal to 3 times the ratio of medial deflection to span. The normal use of camber is to reduce the contribution to deformations that is made by self-weight and other permanent or long-term temporary action. an estimate of the combined probability might be made. it is necessary to consider the levels of magnitude at which the actions that cause deformations should be assumed to occur.2 106 EFFECTS AND REMEDIES. do not conflict with other requirements of the design. given the necessary data. When specifying limitations. b) the possible response of the building or member. Some of the factors that enter into this consideration are a) the extent to which information is available about the actions or properties involved. The designer may choose this course or choose to combine both approaches. rotation or curvature. or by preventing proper use of the building. For simply supported spans under uniformly distributed loading. by disturbing or harming the occupants. to curvatures. and the constructional measures taken. deformations may affect serviceability by causing damage to adjacent parts of the building. d) the consequent levels of dissatisfaction.

in auditoria. however.e. the effects may be progressive and lead to collapse. The degree of resonance may be reduced by appropriate adjustment of either of the two frequencies. necessary that designers be aware of certain cases involvingstatic or dynamic instability where the conditions existing during normal use of the building may have a considerable effect on the ultimate limit state. In both cases. The presence of properly designed stiffening elements such as shear walls. or containing machines with large unbalanced forces. the reactions of individual persons. It is. Deformations affecting the strength and stability of a building or of its parts are taken into account in the process of structural design for the ultimate limit state. exist together with serviceability limit states and there is usually a wide range of acceptable levels of deformation. whose characteristic values are based on time-related rather than space-related probabilities. the design levels of magnitude of these actions should be the characteristic values.1 STRENGTH AND STABILITY GENERAL. . Such changes of dope may be due to the effects of permanent and imposed and snow loads on the floors or roof members. for long-term temporary actions and for short-term temporary actions affecting many buildings in the course of a single year. It is suggested that the limitations be based on the following: 1) The actions to be taken into account when deformations are specified or checked should be those having a duration that is appropriate to the response of the building or member affected. E-5. as may be the case if the member is not designed by him. ECCENTRIC LOADING OF WALLS AND COLUMNS a) Eccentric loading of walls and columns may occur as a result of excessive constructional deviation through inclination of these members or through deflections of floors or roof members. it is to be noted that in the case of widespread natural actions such as wind. It is difficult for the designer to assess the problem if he is not aware of the probable deformation of the floor or roof member. may produce loading of the latterthat is both eccentric and inclined. The problem arises mainly where the disturbing force is of large magnitude. snow and earthquake. that takes place after construction. 2) for permanent actions. c) Any change of slope of floors alr roofs at junctions with supporting walls or columns. and in buildings having long span suspended floors with a natural frequency of about 1-5 Hz. central service cores. E-5 E-5. in general. In this connection.3 E-5.107 SABS 0160-1989 In connection with (d) above it will be noted that the sharp limit to acceptability that is exceeded at the ultimate limit state does not. depending on the propertiesof coritiguous materials.2 RESONANCE. or when a short-term action is not likely to affect many buildings in the course of a single year. or by the provision of vibration insulation or adequate damping. the acceptable level of troubles due to deformation depends on the number of buildings simultaneously at risk and on the acceptability of some of the results of a natural calamity. i. enclosed liftwells or staircases may improve stability. 3) a lower value than the characteristic may be specified when two or more of the above actions occur simultaneously. Near-coincidence of forced and natural vibrations may produce resonance of any building element. or of permanent and imposed loads or snow loads acting eccentrically or causing differential settlement. the permanent load causing creep deflection and the imposed and snow loads causing elasticdeflectionand possibly creep deflection. and the possibilities and economics of repair. in dance halls and in grandstands. b) Inclination of vertical members may be due to constructional deviations or to the effects of wind load.

The permissible degree of cracking is largely subjective but depends on the use of the building. Estimation of this damage depends on a determination of the total tensile or compressive effects arising from all causes. a more severe limitation. Finally. More severe limitation may be necessary if deep edge stiffening beams are incorporated into the walls.2 Crackina and SDallina of Ceilinas. Thermal and moisture movements in finishes are also involved. or in the supporting structure. E-6. deflection of floors or roofs. E-6. and the degree of cracking that can be tolerated for the given type of surface finish and the given use of the building.2.2 E-6. the effects on the number and width of cracks of any restraints to movement. Crackina and Spallina of Brittle Partitions and Non-loadbearinq Walls a) Apart from cracking. Differential settlement and wind forces may also cause such cracking and spalling. The actions involved are permanent load causing creep deflection and the imposed floor load and any roof load (including snow) causing elastic deflection and creep deflection. Curvature of the floor or roof may cause cracking in decoration on the underside of concrete slabs. may be called for. The suggested limiting values may permit a certain amount of cracking.2.SABS 0160-1989 E-6 E-6. The actions involved are the permanent loading of the floors or roofs causing creep deflection and the imposed loading causing elastic deflection and possibly creep deflection.1 SERVICEABILITY 108 GENERAL. spalling and local bulging due to thermal and moisture movements in the partitions themselves. Deformations. Repeated thermal and moisture movements in the plaster may also be involved. Some deformations may produce more than one kind of effect. including that of the partitions. or more tolerant partitions. and all long-term temporary actions capable of influencing settlement. The actions involved are the self-weight load. damage to brittle partitions may arise as a result of the differential settlement of foundations. Good extensibilityof the plaster and good distribution of concentrated loads are ameliorating factors as is also the fact that cracks may be covered by redecoration. Change of slope of floors and roofs at junctions with supporting walls or columns and lifting of the insufficiently restrained corners of torsionally stiff floor slabs may cause horizontal cracking (particularly undesirable where floors are carried through to the face of the external wall) and also spalling of internal or external finishes. or lateral movements of the building. together with information about the limiting tensile and compressive properties of the partitions. although possibly not affecting the strength or stability of a building.3 . Where this cannot be accepted. They may produce unpleasant psychological effects. even to the extent of causing alarm. they may be physically such as to effectively prevent the use of the building for its intended purpose or to impair the health of the occupants. E-6. Curvature subsequent to plastering may cause cracking of the plaster in the span and spalling in regions of negative curvature. may cause damage to members (load-bearing or otherwise) and to finishes and claddings. b) Differential settlement of foundations subsequent to the erection of partitions may produce diagonal cracking across the body of the latter. Such procedure is not yet sufficiently developed and it is meanwhile recommended that the deformation arising from various causes be dealt with separately.1 DEFORMATIONS CAUSING DAMAGE TO THE BUILDING Crackina and SDallina of Walls.2.

. The type of damage is the same as in (2) above. or other support underneath).e. their formation may be limited to the floor level where they can Subsequently be masked by the provision of a chase or a separation layer. The cracks can then be masked by a skirting board fixed to the floor. a partition parallel (or in some cases transverse) to the span tends to support itself by arching horizontallyor diagonally. there is a greater possibility of cracking in the upper part of the partition and damage to fascias owing to non-uniform deflection of supporting cantilevers. or is not longitudinally restrained by the structure or by contiguous partitions.5 approximately for non-cantilevered spans). This type of behaviour is most likely to occur where the partition is of relatively long span (length/height exceeding 3.i3 partition parallel to the span deforms in its own plane to follow the deformations of the floor below it. the partition is loaded by the upper floor and carries these loads by strut-action to the ends of the span of the lower floor. This is most likely to occur where the partition has a high compressive modulus and limit of deformability. Diagonal cracks radiating from the corners of the openings may also be produced. or a horizontal or arc-shaped crack may be formed in the lower portion of the partition. In the case of a cantilevered span. 5 3 5 approximately.109 SABS 0160-1989 c) Deflectionsof floors or roofs may damage partitions in a number of ways. on the other hand. the partition tends to be crushed and there may be vertical cracks in the lower part and diagonal cracks across the upper corners. When the partitions have openings. and in some cases that of the partitions. the floor or roof above the partition deflects more than does the partition and there is no compressible packing at the head of the partition. where the ratio of length to height lies in the range 1 . apart from the weight of the partition concerned. the self-weight load of the floor or roof. the worse are the effects of its deformations. possibly producing vertical cracks in the bending tension zone. Three main types of behaviour are known: 1) With the first type of behaviour. curvature and other movements of the floor may be caused by possible unrestrained moisture movements. In all cases the effects involved are those occurring after the erection of partitions. assuming that this can be transmitted to the partition in question. diagonal shear cracks. Some horizontal or inclined reinforcementat such places is therefore advisable where it is not possible to break the continuity of the partition above or below the opening. This is most likely to happen when the ratio of length to height of the partition is less than 1 3 approximately. causes creep deflections. a horizontal crack may be formed along the base of the partition. or contains many openings. or a gap above the partition.) If. d) Lateral deflection of a building as a result of wind forces may cause diagonal cracking across the body of a partition. Strong shear walls. In this case. a combination of some of the above phenomena is likely to occur or there may be simple rotation of the parts of the partition. in such case. The action involved is that of the wind gust in having a duration of sufficient length to produce the necessary deflection. the imposed floor or roof load (including snow load and any self-weight loads such as screeds and floor finishes applied after erection of partitions) causes elastic deflection and creep deflection. also. If. central core zones or enclosed staircases have an ameliorating effect. where the partition is longitudinally restrained by the structure or by contiguous walls or partitions. the greater the rigidity of the floor transverse to the span. 2) With the second type of behaviour. or is of low rigidity. (If such horizontal cracks are likely to occur. 3) With the third type of behaviour. together with any pre-stress. In general. i. one of the actions involved is the contributionfrom the weight of partitionson the floor or floors above. the floor below the partition deflects more than the partition (possibly owing to the absence of a partition. and where there are few openings or continuous vertical slidingjoints to interfere with the arching. a stiffening beam. together with diagonal cracks across the upper corners owing to extension of the undersurface of the floor above. Low-cycle fatigue damage may occur.

2 E-6. such as nearby industrial and transport activities.1 DEFORMATIONS AFFECTING APPEARANCE Visible Saa of Floors and Ceilinas. or prevent the carrying on of required activities. Claddinq and Glazinq. including alarm. lack of horizontality of floor supports causes a number of the effects referred to in E-6.) The acceptable magnitudes of such oscillations. trough or ribbed construction). Recommendations for the limitation of oscillations of frequency exceeding 1 Hz are given in IS0 2631.3. in the case of cantilevers.3 E-6. on the activity to be pursued. its height and its relationship to other elements of the construction (particularly elements that are horizontal or in a horizontal plane). Curvature may be due to constructional deviations and to elastic deflections and creep deflections (possibly upward) under permanent load alone or under permanent load and imposed floor loads. The cladding fixing should be so designed that structural loads are not transferred to cladding panels when the structural frame deforms.4. E-6. and on the duration of the impulses and the interval between them.4.2. The provision of a camber or of a false ceiling can improve matters. Visible deviation of vertical members from the vertical (unless obviously intentional) is also a source of subjective unrest. on the degree of damping present. Non-horizontalitv of Floor S U R R O ~Unintentional ~S.4.5.2 Visible Lean of Walls and Columns. and/or wind gusts of appropriate duration. The actions involved are the production of creep deflections by the permanent load and the production of elastic deflections by any imposed load. (Earthquakes are dealt with in E-6.1 E-6. snow or hail loading.SABS 0160-1989 E-6. and also constructional deviations and thermal and moisture movements and. whose effects are not a matter for this appendix. Subjective appraisal depends on the type of roof or floor (whether flat soffit. beam and slab.4 E-6. The actions involved are those of the dead (self-weight) loads and imposed loads causing differential settlements. E-6. Deflections of roofs may cause damage to roof coverings of felt or metal. Curvature of floors and the inclinations that it produces may cause people to stumble or slip.4. Apart from man-made external sources of vibration. which may cause unpleasant sensations. together with wind gusts. It may be due to constructional deviations or to differential settlement under dead (self-weight) loads and imposed floor loads. DEFORMATIONS AFFECTING USE Curvature of Floors. but constructional deviations and the overturning effects of eccentric and inclined loads on walls and columns may be contributing factors. the main sources of oscillations of buildings are foot traffic and machinery within the building. trolleys to move. and spilt liquids to spread. E-6. or to thermal or moisture movements. Visible deviations of floors and ceilings from the straight line or plane (unless obviously intentional) cause subjective feelings that are unpleasant and possiblyalarming.4 110 Damaae to Roof Coverinas. furniture and equipment to tilt or rock. Oscillations Generated Within the Buildinq or bv Wind Forces.1. Persons vary in their appraisal of lean but are often guided by neighbouring vertical elements. depend on human sensitivity. The actions involved are those of the permanent load and the imposed loads in producing elastic deflections and possibly creep deflections.2. The limitation of deflection may need to be more restrictive for roofs covered with sheet materials which become brittle with age. to roof sheeting or to roof glazing or tiling. The provision of screeds or a camber may be appropriate. or to rotation of the point of support in the case of cantilevers.3. and the lighting conditions.3 . differential settlement. the area of it that is visible.

for example. Examples of problems that may arise are 1) vibration of weighing and measuring apparatus. permit corrosion of reinforcing elements or allow penetrationof liquids.4. for example.) In the case of vertical deflection:. 2) damage to impermeable membranes used for isolation or protection of liquids and gases. 4) inclinations affecting co-linearity of apparatus or levels of liquids. and 2) horizontal lateral and longitudinal deflections of the supporting columns owing to the forces of acceleration and braking. These requirements should be agreed upon in consultation with the owner and the suppliers of any equipment involved. are the overloading of the means of propulsion owing to the slope of the runway girders when under load and the maintenance of steady motion over the points of support. in certain types of buildings there may be special requirements in connection with. E-6.4.1 Deformations Affectina Special Reauirements in Use SABS 0160-1989 General.5. there may be a problem of clearances. The principal problems.111 E-6. Cracks may also constitute disfigurement or cause alarm. before design and construction commences.4 E-6.4. b) Other special requirements.2). however. of the runway girders. dust or light). or becoming dislodged. by means of appropriate initial design and construction measures. Examples of such requirements are as follows: a) Deflections of overhead travellins crane airders. 3) twist of floors carrying machines operating on sheet materials. it must be borne in mind that design and construction measures may be only partially successful in controlling cracking. In the case of horizontal deflections of the columns. .1 to E-6. and also to limit both transverse and longitudinal deflections to prevent excessive deformations of the supporting columns from leading to damage to cladding and fixings (or to instability. it is necessary to impose a general overall limitation on the width of cracks. Any upward deflection due to pre-stress may be taken into account. and that.3 refer to deformations affecting the use of common types of buildings within the scope of this code of practice.5 E-6.4. cracks may occur in circumstances other than those provided for in standards.1 DEFORMATIONS REQUIRING GENERAL OVERALL CONTROL General. particular activities of occupants or the use of machinery or precision apparatus. E-6. see E-6. (They are unlikely to cause structural collapse unless extremely wide and extensive. reducing thermal or airborne sound insulation. 5) interference with fine manual movements. may be located in one or more convenient places or may be hidden.4. In other cases. (It is assumed here that the effects of constructional deviations and any subsequent movements of supports have been negated by the levelling and lining up of the crane rails. However. Travelling cranes produce 1) vertical deflections of the runway girders (and of supporting brackets in some cases) owing to their self-weight and that of the load carried. in any event. or admitting rain. However. the requirements of standards for other types of deformation may prevent the formation of cracks. Cracks in building elernents may damage coverings. it is necessary to limit the transverse deflection to prevent the crane gantry itself from rotating excessively about the vertical (slewing). cracks may be avoided.) In many cases. but they are early evidence of excessive action. gases or radiation(thus.

2 Deformations Due to Earthauakes. The widths of cracks and any resulting out-of-plane dislocations may be controlled by prestressed (or other) reinforcement. and dimensions). When deformations are determined by calculation. . A probability of not exceeding limits of 97 % is suggested as a desirable minimum. the assistance received from various sources (for example. that cannot be sufficiently relied upon when strength properties are assessed. it should be such that it gives an acceptable probability of meeting the requirements given in this appendix.2(c)) for any appropriate combinations of other parameters. Methods of predicting and assessing the damage are still the subject of disagreement between experts.5. Apart from the hammering of adjacent buildings owing to insufficient clearance as referred to in E-8(d). may be taken into account. oscillations during an earthquake may cause considerable damage. it is suggested that the magnitude of the action involved be the mean value. such calculation should be based on the characteristic values of actions (loads.. cracking of reinforced materials. In the case of possible corrosion of reinforcement. It is therefore not possible at present to make any recommendation regarding limitation of deformation during an earthquake. 1) through-cracks should not be permitted at positions where the transfer of water (e. 3) if cracks are likely to be permanent. etc. he may determine deformations by calculation or by model or prototype testing. in the presence of corrosive or humid atmospheres). in view of the intended use of the building.SABS 0160-1989 112 In laying down limitations. moisture movements. E-7 METHODS OF ASSESSING PROBABLE DEFORMATIONS The method used to assess or control the probable deformation is a matter for the structural designer. thermal movements) and of properties of members (elastic properties. thermal movements. the permissible width of cracks should be laid down in consultation with specialist organizations. creep and thermal coefficients of materials. he may control them by the adoption of limiting span/depth ratios or other measures. Where corrosion of reinforcement is not in question. consideration must be given to the building materials involved. The deformation limitation to be met should be the most severe of any values suggested for any particular criterion. or such lower figure as may be required in particular circumstances (for example. partial support from partitions). The calculations should take into account constructional deviations. Whatever the method used. by gravity. whether the cracks are through-cracks or surface cracks. wind pressure or capillary actions) to the inside surfaces of rooms could occur. and research continues. whether they are likely to open further or close. neither through-cracks nor surface cracks should individually exceed an average width of 2 mm.g.2 mm if it is intended that they be coverable by redecoration. 2) cracks should individually not exceed an average width of 0. and creep of materials under permanent and long-term temporary loads. For example. whether penetration of liquids. is a factor. In addition. In calculating any required camber. and the probable attitude of persons affected. due allowance being made (as provided for in E-4. partial fixity at ends of beams and slabs. E-6. moisture movements. whether they are repairable or capable of being covered by decoration.

or at the point of entry or exit of services. I) upward creep deflection of unrestrained prestressed roof members. g) differential settlement causing nipping of windows and doors and jamming or demounting of sliding doors. and floor coverings. E-9 Tables E-I to E-5 (inclusive) give information on damage caused by various forms of deformation. particularly of roofs and exposed columns. e. b) relative movement between contiguous buildings. The references giver1 in the tables are to the relevant subsections in the text of this appendix.g. due to differential settlement. f) vibrations of cladding. e) ponding on roofs. d) hammering of inadequately spaced buildings during an earthquake. possibly at different stages in their moisture movement.113 E-8 COMMON CAUSES OF DEFLECTION AND DEFORMATION SABS 0160-1989 The following is a summary of the more common actions that are responsible for deflection and deformation in buildings: a) Major ground movementsor movementsof moisture-reactivesoils (where movements are usually so great that special constructional measures are required). fascias. partitions and services on a ground-bearing floor slab. h) thermal expansion. k) chemical deterioration. and noises due to oscillations produced by wind. j) long-term expansion of clay products. i) differential shrinkage of different building materials or of different qualities of the same material. particularly in parapets. c) differential settlement causing nipping of walls. . and differential thermal expansion of different building materials or of thin exposed members such as cladding. forrriation of sulpho-aluminatesor of rust or other corrosion products.

2 Damage due to eccentric loading of walls and columns Cause E-5. grandstands. as a measure of rotation Adjustment of frequencies Vibration insulation Damping No simple criterion Dynamic analysis required Differential settlement a matter for the designer Machinery.DEFORMATIONS AFFECTING STRENGTH AND STABILITY (SEE E-5) 1 7 I 3 Defect E-5. dance halls. long span floors E-5. auditoria. stopping) Foot traffic Synchronous crowd movements I 4 I 5 7 Possible ameliorating fartnrc I Recommended criterion Terminal deviation of vertical members Suggested limiting value None suggested in view of various remedies available About span/300 Comments A matter for the designer Shear walls Central core zones Enclosed staircases E-5.2(b) Inclination of walls and columns I I Actions involved (Constructional deviations) Differential settlement Wind load Eccentric vertical loads Permanent load Imposed load Snow load Differential settlement Unbalanced machinery (starting. running.TABLE E-1 .3 Damage due to resonance Near-coincidence of forced and natural oscillations None suggested .2(c) Rotation of floors and roofs Medial deflection of floor or roof member.

as a measure of tendency to crush partition From about span1500 to about span/300 according to limit of deformability Tensile deformability involved Horizontal cracking in lower part Gap at bottom Crushing of upper part Excessive deflection of floor below ~~ About 10 mm Excessive deflection of floor above. as a measure of curvature (Terminal deflection for cantilevers) About storey heighV500 Low-cycle fatigue damage may be involved Measured normal to the roof coverings.2. as a measure of curvature (Terminal deflection for cantilevers) Vone suggested See text Iepends on personal 'actors and type of luilding E-6.3(d) Lateral movements of building (see Shear walls Central core zones Enclosed staircases Terminal deflection of vertical members Medial deflection of supporting element. cladding and glazing Permanent load Imposed load Snow load Wind load About span1125 for tiles and ductile sheetings About span1250 for brittle sheetings Q) ? .2.2. or of roof See text From about 10 mm to about Compressive deformability involved 15 mm as limit of deformability increases Diagonal cracking across body E-6.3(b) Differential settlement (see also E-6. as a measure of arching tendency in partition Medial deflection of floor.2.DEFORMATIONS AFFECTING SERVICEABILITY (SEE E-6) 1 2 Cause 3 Actions involved Permanent load Imposed load Snow load Wind load Differential settlement Thermal and moisture movements Permanent load Imposed load Snow load Thermal and moisture movements Defect 4 Possible ameliorating factors I 5 Recommended criterion a) Medial deflection of floor.2.TABLE E-2 .1 Cracking and a) Deflection of floors spalling of walls at points b) Movement of vertical of support of floors and members roofs E-6.2 Cracking and spalling of ceiling Curvature of floors or roofs Sood extensibility of finishes Sood distribution of :oncentrated loads Redecoration Medial deflection of floor.3fd)l Partition follows movement of floor beneath I Self-weight and other long-term gravity effects Terminal deflection of horizontal members About span1500 E-6. as a measure of rotation under floor loads b) Terminal deflection of horizontal or vertical members 6 Suggested limiting value About span/300 I ) About span/100 or storey ieightllO0 I) Comments E-6.2.3(c) Deflection of fli 3rs or roofs Bending-typecracking Gap at top Permanent load Imposed load Thermal and moisture movements Permanent load Imposed load Thermal and moisture movements Permanent load Imposed load Snow load Thermal and moisture movements Wind load See text as a measure of curvature in plane of partition (Terminal deflection for cantilevers) Medial deflection of floor.3(a) Cracking and spalling of brittle partitions Diagonal cracking across body E-6.2.

DEFORMATIONS AFFECTING APPEARANCE (SEE E-6. or simple beam and slab.3. visible length/250 or 15 mm) Approximate storey heighU250 6 Comments Assumed slab.cn D cn TABLE E-3 . type construction 2 t o CO a E-6.2 Visible lean of walls and columns . whichever is less (For cantilevers.3.1 Visible sag of floors and ceilings 2 Actions involved (Constructional deviations) Permanent load Imposed load Thermal and moisture movements (Constructional deviations) Differential settlement Eccentric or inclined forces from self-weight and imposed loads m 0 3 m I 3 Possible ameliorating factors Camber False ceiling 4 Recommended criterion Medial deviation of member (or of its visible Parts) (Terminal deviation for cantilevers) Terminal deviation of vertical members 5 Suggested limiting value Approximate visible length/250 or 30 mm.3) 1 Defect E-6.

as a measure of slope b) Horizontal deflection of supports (see also E-6.DEFORMATIONS AFFECTING USE (SEE E-6.TABLE E-4 .4.4.2) a) About span1500 b) About height of support1200 Assumes support maintained level and in line To be agreed upon before design and construction commences .4.4.4) 1 2 Cause or actions involved (Constructional deviations) Permanent load Imposed load I 3 Possible amelioratina factors Camber Screed or floor finishes 4 Recommended criterion Medial deviation of floor surface with and without imposed load (Terminal deviation for cantilevers) Terminal deviation of horizontal members Suggested limiting value About span/300 (About span/125 for cantilevers) 6 Comments Defect E-6.4 Deformation affecting special requirement? in use a) Permanent load Imposed load b) Longitudinal and transverse forces I a) Medial vertical deflection of girder.2.4.3 Oscillations generated within the building or by wind forces Oscillations of members Unbalanced machinery Foot traffic Crowd movements Wind gusts Vibration insulation Adjustment of machine frequencies DamDina Damping No recommendation No recommendation Oscillations of the building as a whole E-6.2 Non-horizontality of floor supports I (Constructional deviations) Differential settlement I Screed in certain cases About span/lOO E-6.4(a) Deflection of overhead crane runways a) vertically b) horizontallv E-6.4.2 not applicable where slope is intentional E-6.4(b) Other special requirements I E-6.4.1 Curvature of floors I I E-6.

DEFORMATIONS REQUIRING GENERAL OVERALL CONTROL (SEE E-6.1 Cracking Cause Multiple causes Actions involved All actions in appropriate circumstances Possible ameliorating factors Good building practice (see E-8) Provision of crack-control reinforcement See E-8 Recommended criterion Average width of widest individual crack Suggested limiting value See E-6.5.5 Comments Not necessarily adequate where corrosion of reinforcement may occur E-6.5) 1 L 3 4 5 6 7 Defect E-6.2 Deformations due to earthquakes Earthquake All actions in appropriate circumstances No recommendation yet possible .TABLE E-5 .5.

A value of about 200 mm/h is sometimes used by some authorities.This is particularlynecessarywhenstormwater drainage is designed for buildings that house machinery. with valley gutters and box gutters. repair and redecoration costs. short duration rainstorms.119 SABS 0160-1989 APPENDIX F. in the majority of cases. it is considered desirable to include in this appendix a brief guide to rainfall intensity as related to horizontal surfaces and to rainwater disposal from roofs. it is essential that these outlets always be kept free of obstructions. storms of high intensity and short duration being encountered in a number of localities. any overflow can result in serious damage to the contents of the building and involve the owner in heavy compensation. Such a lack of capacity can be due either to an underestimation in the design criteria or to lack of maintenance and repair on the part of the owner. The data are based usually on a rainfall intensity which is not necessarily related to the actual rainfall intensity of the area under consideration. The increase in recent years in the number of reports of water damage to the contents of buildings has been. The authority concerned has either established that such a value is adequate for design purposes. relate to horizontal areas and associated tributary areas. In the case of flat roofs. it will be necessary to give special attention to the waterproofing and design of such roofs. On the other hand. the direct result of an inadequate capacity of the drainage facilities for these high intensity. These charts are related to roof area when the size of gutters and discharge pipes is determined. ponding is responsible for water penetration into the building where waterproofing membranes or flashings (or both) are either ruptured or inadequate. F-2 DESIGN APPROACH The general approach to the design of rainwater discharge has been to use charts prepared (generally) by the manufacturers of the various materials used. in relation to rainfall. On sloping roofs. or is possibly prepared to admit responsibility for any excess volurne. short duration storms. It is necessary for the designer to select a design intensity that is realistic for the area under consideration. The application of a general design value relieves the designer of the responsibility of establishing the design intensity criteria. This is particularly necessary for any roof where the construction is subject to increasing deflection with increasing load or where such a roof is surrounded by parapet walls or other upstands. RAINFALL INTENSITY (This appendix does not form part of the provisions of the code) F-I GENERAL While the code of practice covers loads and loadings that. . The concept of peak flow reduction of stormwater by "storage ponding" (or detention) is employed by a number of overseas countries to reduce the high initial flows experienced during high intensity. F-I). stock or materials whose replacement cost is high. the overflow from eaves gutters that falls free of the building will not affect the building or its contents. If such an approach is consideredwithin the Republic of South Africa for flat roofs (in the context of this code of practice).1 RA1NFALL INTENSITY ROOF FLOODING. Large variations in rainfall are encountered throughout the Republic of South Africa (see Fig. Where a flat roof is provided with rainwater outlets built into the construction of the roof. F-3 F-3.

0 N 10 ' 12' 14' 16' 180 20' 22' 2 4 " 26' 28' 30° 32O 34' 36O Fig F-I -Annual Rainfall .

discharge pipes) and the degree of damage to which such commodity is liable.121 SABS 0160-1989 It is suggested that the design load for rain on such a flat roof be based on the 24 h rainfall intensity for the area and tributary area of the roof. Alternatively. namely the winter rainfall. This is generally felt to be too long and a period of 5 min has been suggested as being more realistic (see A-2(v) of Appendix A). . a 5-year return period but that internal box gutters be designed on a greater return period depending on the type of damage likely to be suffered. 50. which covers 62 stations in Namibia. The designer must decide on the suitable return period after having considered all the relevant facts. the designer may use a value from a reliable station in the area concerned. F-4 and F-5. the commodity being considered (e. for various return periods. F-2). An external eaves gutter with an overhang of. in which case a time base of at least 15 years is the desired minimum. reference should be made to Table II in the Weather Bureau Report referred to in A-2(y) of Appendix A.g. From the meteorological point of view. Work carried out by the Hydrological Research Unit of the University of the Witwatersrand (see A-2(w) of Appendix A) and by PT Culligan (see A-2(x) of Appendix A) has produced. say.and 100 years can be obtained from A-2(u) of Appendix A. If a more accurate value of annual rainfall for a particular locality is desired. These values are reproduced in Fig. F-2 Rainfall Zones For a conventional building. The 24 h rainfall intensity for return periods of 25. gutters. 450 mm will cause less damage internally than will a box gutter or valley gutter if overflow should occur. 5-min duration intensities for the three rainfall zones (see Fig. which gives the average annual rainfall and the period over which this value has been calculated.2 GUTTERS. The shortest duration given in A-2(u) of Appendix A for a storm is 15 min . I I Windhoek 0 I 3 I Piet!rsburg I I I I I I Fig. F-3. the rainfall in the Republic of South Africa can be divided into three basic zones. the critical period or critical duration for a storm is very short. and year-round rainfall zones (see Fig. The value of this intensity must take into consideration the type of building and its occupancy. based on the mean annual precipitation. F-2). and the designer must establish the appropriate return period. The annual precipitation may be obtained from Fig. say. which gives four categories of values. summer rainfall. The return period to be used for 21 particular design will depend on the type of building and the occupancy. It is suggested that an overhanging eaves gutter be designed on. F-3. F-I .

l 200 c .- c ( U 150 100 50 c .Summer Rainfall Zone Design Curve I I 200 150 I I Return period.I n c 250 c 0 ._ LL 100 200 500 750 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 200 Mean annual rainfall. rnrn Fig. F-4 -Winter Rainfall Zone Design Curve . rnm Fig.SABS 0160-1989 122 Return period. years 400 350 r \ 100 50 20 10 E 300 E h L . F-3.E I (U 3 w . years 100 50 100 200 500 L : 100 50 = : 1 20 10 - 5 2 - 750 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 200 Mean annual rainfall.

mm Fig F-5 . years 100 400 350 50 300 250 20 10 200 150 100 5 2 50 100 200 500 750 1 000 1 500 2 000 2 200 Mean annual rainfall.Year-round Rainfall Zone Design Curve sabs pta (Pdf) .123 SABS 0160-1 989 Return period.