The ‘Kitchener Flag’ Australian red ensign.

The stars and Union Jack are also handmade and have been appliquéd to the flag. A square of white silk has been attached to the flag, signed in indelible pencil ‘George R.I. Mary R’, under the Union Jack, marked ‘THE WHITE HOUSE WASHINGTON’ and signed in ink ‘Woodrow Wilson’. The large Federation star is signed in pencil ‘J.Foch’, the smaller stars, in black ink or pencil ‘D.Haigh’, ‘David Beatty’, ‘J.Joffre’, ‘W R Robertson’, and ‘Jellicoe’. The white stripes of the Union Jack have been signed ‘Rudyard Kipling’, ‘H.H. Asquith’, ‘Devonshire’, ‘J.P. Morgan’, ‘A. Bonar Law’, ‘D Lloyd George’, ‘John Monash’, ‘E. Grey’, ‘Derby’, ‘Roseberry’, ‘Beresford’, ‘Kitchener’, ‘W. Birdwood’, ‘W.M. Hughes’, ‘Randall Cantuar’, ‘W Tewkesbury’, ‘R.W. Ferguson’, ‘Edward Wallington’, ‘Edward P’, ‘Stamfordham’ and ‘Beresford’. The signatures on the flag are those of : His Majesty King George V , King of England 1910-1936; Her Majesty Queen Mary, Wife of the King of England 1910-1936; Edward Windsor, Prince of Wales, later King of England (Edward VIII); President Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America 1912-1920; The Duke of Devonshire, Governor-General of Canada 1916-1921; Mr Rudyard Kipling, Author and Nobel Prize winner for literature 1907; The Right Honourable Andrew Bonar Law, Secretary of State for the Colonies 1916-1921; Sir Edward Grey (Viscount Grey), Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1905-1916; Lord Rosebery, Prime Minister of Great Britain 1894-1895; The Honourable William Morris Hughes, Prime Minister of Australia 1915-1922; Earl Kitchener of Khartoum and Broome, Secretary of State for War 1914-1916; Lord Birdwood of ANZAC and Totnes, Commander of the Australian Imperial Forces 1914-1919; Lord Stamfordham, Private Secretary to King George V 1910-1931; Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, Governor-General of Australia 1914-1920; The Honourable Herbert Henry Asquith, Prime Minister of Great Britain 1908-1916; Mr John Pierpont Morgan II, Industrialist said to be one of the world’s richest men; The Right Honourable David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of Great Britain 1916-1922; Lord Derby, Secretary of State for War1916-1918; The Right Honourable Arthur James Balfour, First Lord of the Admiralty 1915-1916; Admiral Lord Charles Beresford, Commander of the Channel Fleet 1907-1909; Sir Edward Wallington, Private Secretary to Queen Mary 1910-1919; The Most Reverend Randall Davidson, Archbishop of Canterbury 1903-1928; Marshal Joseph Joffre, Commander-in-Chief of the French Armies 1915-1917; Earl Haig of Bemersyde, Commander-in-Chief of British forces 1915-1919; Field Marshal Sir William Robertson, Chief of the Imperial General Staff 1916-1918; Viscount Jellicoe of Scapa, Commander of the Grand Fleet 1914-1916; Marshal Ferdinand Foch, Commander of Allied forces Western Front 1918; General Sir John Monash, Commander of the Australian Corps in France 1918; Admiral Sir David Beatty, Commander of the Grand Fleet 1914-1919; Mr William Tewksbury, Originator of the concept for the “Kitchener Flag” . AWM copyright First World War, 1914-1918

Rudyard Kipling was asked to write and epitaph for a War Cemetery. He wrote "Had our fathers not lied to us, so many of us would not be here."

The younger children usually like this image.

A better labelled example of the Flags of the nations involved on the allies side in world war one. The People's Flag - the 1901 flag design competition -was announced on 3 September 1901 and the selected design was subsequently modified and formally adopted from 20 February 1903, with a further change to the current design from 23 February 1908. The blue version of the Australian flag was limited to government use and the red intended for use by private shipping. At sea the use of the Union Jack was prohibited except on warships of the Royal Navy and there was -uncertainty as to whether ordinary people could use the Union Jack on land. During the 19th century in Britain and other parts of the Empire. The practice developed for the British Red Ensign to be used on land when private citizens wanted to fly a flag from a building. This practice explains why the flag of Canada until 1965 was a red ensign. Accordingly, from 1909 to 1954, the Australian Red Ensign was the flag used when businesses and individuals wanted to fly a local flag, either in addition to or in place of the Union Jack. Historically the Australian Red Ensign was the, ‘Peoples Flag’ though there was no contemporary use of this description. The Union Jack was the flag used by the Australian forces in the Sudan War (1885), the Boxer Rebellion (19001901), and the Boer War

Illustration 1: Australian Flag Bottom Left.
(1899-1902, i.e. both before and after Federation).

The Union Jack was predominant in the First World War. During the Second World War, "there was confusion about the Union Jack, the Defaced Red Ensign and the Defaced Blue Ensign". In the Korean War, Australians fought under the United Nations' Flag. As for Australians fighting under the present Commonwealth Flag, "the only war (undeclared) where that was definitively the case was the Vietnam War".

On November 7th 1920 the remains of an Australian soldier and a French soldier were buried in the Amiens Cathedral. The Bishop of Amiens and Marshal Foch expressed themselves thus:The Bishop of Amiens: "We bow to you, Messieurs les Australians, for the magnificent deeds that you did in those days, now happily at an end, for your country and for France, and for the victory of hope and sanity. The soil of France is transfigured to a new divinity by your sacrifices. In the whole of history we cannot find an army more marvellous in its bravery, and in the war there was none that contributed more nobly to the final triumph". Marshal Foch: "We intend today in Amiens to express to you and the Commonwealth of Australia our gratitude......Our aspirations and our will had to be agreed, they could not be too closely allied. Although our task was never easy, it was made less difficult by the patriotism and the passionate valour of the Australians that served as an example to the whole world. That wonderful attack of yours at Villers Bretonneux was the final proof, if any were needed, that the real task of the High Command was to show itself equal to its soldiers.

You saved Amiens. You saved France. Our gratitude will remain ever and always to Australia. (Note the Australian Red Ensign).

Here is the booklet produced by the US forces in WW2 to explain insignia used by the Australian Navy, Army, and RAAF, compared with the USN, US Army & USAAF.