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Impact of Mass Media on cultural change: A Sociological study on Teenager, Dhaka city-Kadomtoli area Chapter:-01 Introduction: Modern age

is the age of mass media. All shorts of people across the world is directly on indirectly involeve with masss media. Throuh the preocess of globalization, advancemenet of modern technology and rrapid urbanization the access of the people into mass media is rapidly increased. Bangaldesh is not beyoundof this now everyhwere of he country not only cities but also illeges are covered with mass communicaiton. Basically is towrs spread rate is high and in village is low. But mass common\unicaitoin has great significant in modern development. Electronic communication is accessible even to those who are completely illiterate and in the most isolated area of third world countries are common to find out people owning radios televisions. In short, mass media provides the in fabric with which our lives are ordered. The novel World tour by 80 days of Julvern and later in the sixties the film World tour by $8 of Rajkapoor was created curiosity among people once. Only before one eve teen people try to sort out these types of books in the entire book houses. Now we can visit the world only 8 mega bites cost in front of computer screen which change our life style a lot. The 21 st century is through out by 8 mega bites. This is neither a novel nor a film. There is vast development in computer, internet, and several software communications. This limitation is not only in computer but also in satellite TV, mobile phone, land phone, crystal disk, cassette player etc. electronic media is improved tremendously last one or two eve. Bangladesh as 3rd world country, the influence of mass media is crystal clear. Now we can visit more than 100 TV channels by remote in a minute and can read most of the popular newspaper by using internet. We have much freedom in choosing TV channel and reading several newspapers. There was a time when we have depended only newspaper for getting information. In the last one or two era,

mass media is turned in modern position. Now we dont wait for information on newspaper of tomorrow. We can know the news of Engo Markin attack in Iraq by BBC, CNN or AL-JAJERA TV channel at the same time with Bush and Saddam. We can contact with our relatives in a second for that we need not to wait 15 or 16 days now. Only telephone is enough for contact. Another advantage is Mobile phone, local areas cover under its network and rural people can also contact with their relatives who stay in abroad and price level is so cheap. We can mention here internet phone which is now available almost every district sub-district also. Which film release in Bollywood and holly wood, Samsu miah knows. Cable TV broadcasts this new film in term of D.V.D we are still in Develop in country, but we already used all type of electronic and mass media. This medias availability changed our life style. Child, Young, Adult and Old all are influenced by media. Our speaking style, behavior, attitudes, food habit everything is changed a lot. Now we like to wear Devdas choppol, Sharee, Churi, Pamjabi in our Eid festival dress-up. Expensive the Indian dress Lehanga is so popular in our country. The young girl in our country try to cut their hair as like as Indian actress. Another entertainment way is internet chatting for gossiping. Face book and twitter are most popular website for communicating in social network. Miss call and SMS in Mobile phone is entertained also to teenagers and young people. Now people dont buy books but buy DVDs regularly. This media use in urban and rural area, but some media are reached in rural arena. The history of electronic media is not new in our country. The first transmission of radio in our country started in our country at 1936. After one decade when the electricity started to reach in individual, the radio turned into most popular mass media. Two dry cell batteries, which made transistor radio broadcasting in easy, had been come after Second World War. Then radios become most popular effective media for people. Through highly powered medium web and short medium trans-meter, low cost transistor people knew the news and views of the entire world. This achievement is one of the greatest successes in mass communication.

The television programs started to broadcast in our country at December 1964. But this broadcasting took several times to reach in individual. Because of the transmission power in our TV centre was in low level. Another reason was the high cost of TV, which was bought by rich people only. Another cause was increased high license fee every year. Electricity the power of TV didnt available every where. Through transmission power among local TV broadcast can connect rural area & villages. But the low mobility of electricity and high cost of TV set didnt make this media available for all. But today full scenery is changed. Today is time for satellite dish TV antenna & cable network, which make easy to connect with different culture. Recently internet techniques make easy in communicating, which is made the world in global village. Through the internet people can read several books & novels, can hear worlds music news & views, can watch film & movies in computer. By using internet one can open web page and gather or spread information about commercial exchange, shopping, museum, tourism etc. Before one or two decades this techniques was unthinkable. This is turned into famous in Bangladesh very soon.

Urban people use most of the media (printed & electronic). They show welcome to modern science achievement willingly. The absence of effective and efficient laws Govt. has not control over mass media. Because of there is no option in choosing products for people, which media broadcast or consuming. We can sort out negative side vise versa positive one in our society. In this way our teen & young people or future generation are in danger, because they grew up at this time. This is the time of growing up mentally for them. They will be the future leader of our nation. Mean while they need correct direction for healthy cultural practice. We should took-care them and need to check out, what do they get from mass media. In Bangladesh we can see the entrance of foreign culture is easier, which dont match with our local culture. Our mass media exposure the foreign culture so vastly that influences the mass people specially the teenagers. It changes the belief, values, attitudes, behaviors, styles, food habit as a whole the way of life. 3

Mass media doesnt change only the above matters but also it can create sexual interest and violence, which is harmful both for individual and society itself. Now we can feel this at every moment. Mass media can convert and dominate ones own culture and cultural trends, through affecting the peoples life style. Teen & young people oar too much sufferer of this media impact. Because they are used broadly by mass media. So, it is a serious matter to study the impact of mass media over mass media. Bangladesh is also a member of mass media society, where most of the people both urban and rural area are accustomed with the form of media. The most recent forms are satellite television and internet, which are used by urban peoples. Urban people in Bangladesh have interacted with people across the globe via mediated mass communication more than interpersonal means. Cultural change and domination by mass media within the society thus has eventually been a major concern in sociological inquiry. Cultural change and domination has drawn attention from government, local media industries and social researchers. But the fact is that the early studies focus on some issue s mass media. For example- media affect, satellite/ TV channels impacts, violence of media. So I think that there are some sort of issues which dont discuss thoroughly yet. In Bangladesh we can easily see the entrance of foreign culture, which dont match with our own culture. Our mass media exposures the foreign culture so vastly that influences the mass people specially youth age people. It changes the belief, values, attitudes, behaviors, styles, food habits as a way of life.

1.1 Statement of the problem: To search matters, this is related with cultural change by mass media. To acquire the way of media impact. And to ensure the way of solving this problem. Mentioned the contiguous research: there was a research entitled Mass media and changing society by a group of (M.S.S final year-2001) students in Dhaka University. There they mentioned the much of society changing in negative position. But there havent any research over Youth age people about the impact of mass media. So it hands over proposed research.

Mankind has another fundamental need beyond the physical requirements of food and shelter, the need is to communicate with each other. This urge is a primal one for communication. And a necessary survival in our contemporary civilization. Mass communications are uniquely a feature of modern societies for their development. It has accompanied to increase in the scale and complexity of societal activities agreements, rapid social change, technological innovation, rising personal income & standard of life and the decline of some traditional forms of control and authority. The Bangladesh television landscape had changed dramatically in last few years. Bangladesh television was started as a pilot project in Dhaka at 1964 ( Goonasekera and Holyday, 1993, p-7 ). It continued to make a steady progress till 1990. The first live trans-boarder television transmissions were happened in 1991, where an extraordinary event the Gulf war transmitted from CNN. Thus an unprecedented proliferation of television channels had seen in 90s. For rapid advances of satellite broadcasting and ground technologies, the cost reductions and entrepreneurial drive has led to amazing rapid growth of cable TV infrastructure for compelling attraction and entertaining programs. Since the advent of transitional satellite television in Bangladesh, it had captured the imagination of the audience, under the satellite broadcast foot-print who had been long accustomed unimaginative conversation. They had controlled by commercial broadcasting. The transitional medium fostered a dramatic growth in difference content, values, story lines, portrayal characters, exposure of sex and violence etc. As a result it has created both positive and negative impact in every sphere of our life. Howe ever the impact of internet is another way of changing our every day life. Especially teen agers and youth age people are most related with internet. By using social network as like as face book, twitter, they can know about different culture. So it has drawn both positive and negative impact over their thinking or way of life. In contemporary Bangladesh, we can see an exclusive pattern of behavior and attitude among youth age people about incorporation of satellite TV, news paper, and internet technology into urban and rural area. Thus it has become a problem to be studied. And I 5

feel that it is time to conduct such study. Moreover as I mentioned before that the youth age group are the most vulnerable group and should need to draw attention among them to regard the effect of mass media.

1.2 The rationale and significance of the study: The mass media are of considerable and still growing importance in modern society. This view of the media is widely shared and the reason seem to lie the fact that the media are a power resource-a potential means of influence, control and innovation in society: the primary means of transmission and source of information essential to the working of most social institution. Besides the location (or arena) where many affairs of public life are played out both nationally and internationally. It is a major source of definitions and images of social reality: thus also the place where the changing culture and the values of societies and groups are constructed stored and most visibly expressed. Other fact is the primary key to fame and celebrity status as well as to effective performance in the public arena. It is the source of an ordered and public meaning system which provides a benchmark for what is normal, empirically and evaluatively: deviation is singled and comparisons made in terms of this public versions in normality. In addition, the media are the single largest focus of leisure time activity and means of entertainment. They also help organize and interrelate the rest of leisure. As a result, they are a major and expanding industry .Providing employment and a wide range of potential economic benefits. If these claims are accepted, it is not difficult to understand the great interest which the mass media attracted since their early days. Not why they have been subject to so much public scrutiny and regulation as well as theorizing. The conduct of democratic for undemocratic politics, nationally and internationally, depends more and more on mass media, and there are few significant social issues which are addressed without some considerations of the role of the mass media, whether for good or ill. As will appear the most fundamental question of society-these concerning the distribution and exercise of power, the management of problems and processes of integration and change-all turn on 6

communication especially the messages came by the public means of communication, whether in the form of information, opinion, stories or entertainment. Mass media isnt the process of developments in culture at the sense of art and symbolic forms, but also in the manners, fashions, styles of life and norms. They dont become a dominant source of definitions and images of social reality for individuals, but also collectivity for group and societies. They express values and normative judgment in extricable mixed with news and entertainment. Mass media can change political & religious views, kinship relation economical system of the society by connecting with people directly. So it is proved that the development of media can change the society as a whole. Especially this system is very important in social life. It is high time to independence of society, control, unity, power structure and social change. Mass media contributes in the socialization process. Bangladesh as a developed in country, mass media contributes in the socialization process among children, teen-agers, youth age and adult. Though mass media has positive functions, but it has it has some negative functions too. For that reason Denis Mcquail said: Mass media creates misunderstanding, erroneous beliefs & complexity and constricted real participation of people, which may increase crimes, violence, lack of morality and creates apathy within society. (Mass communication theory, third edition, SAGE publications, London, p-209) Society is changing process of the individual. It is created by changing language, behavior, interest, choice, education, attitudes, food habit, fashion, religion and beliefs. So it has played an ambiguous role in our culture. For this reason, it is very essential to know about the role of mass media in changing our culture. So it is very rationale to study this topic and no chance to disagree. 1.3 Objectives of the research: Every research has needed some definite Objectives or some aim. The objectives of the current topics are given below:

To asses the both positive and negative impact of mass media on cultural change.

To search, which kind of tendency are functioned over youth age people. To asses the influence of print media and electronic media. To asses the influence of globalization on mass media and cultural change. To identify its over all impact on society.

1.4 Definition of necessary verse and word in research: Mass media- Mass media (newspaper, television, internet and radio especially) are of considerable and still growing importance in modern societies. This view of the media is widely shared. And the reasons seem to lie in the fact that the media are a power resource- a potential means of influence. Control and innovation in society; the primary means of transmission and source of information essential to the working of most social institutions. It is also the arena where many affairs of public life are played out both nationally and internationally. Mass communication- the process of delivering information, ideas and attitude to a size able and diversified audience through use of media developed for that purpose. (Warren K. Agee and others) According to Baran, Micintyre, and Meyer: the process of mass communication is indeed a macro process of the highest magnitude. Mass communication is a powerful process and needs to be studied from many perspectives. One of the famous American sociologists Charls Wright defines mass media: Mass communication may be defined as the process in which the message is simultaneously delivered to a relatively large, scattered, and heterogeneous and anonymous audience with the help of the medium developed for the people.

According to Joseph R. Dominick: Mass communication refers to the process by which a complex organization with the help of one or more machines produces and transiting the public message that are directed at large, heterogeneous and scattered audience. [The dynamics of mass communication, 1987, p-09]. Culture- culture is the totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior. It includes the ideas, values, customs, and artifacts of groups of people. Totally culture is the total life style of human being According to Robert King Merton: Culture as that organized set of normative values governing behavior which is common to members of a designated society or group. According to Spencer and Kroeber- Culture is super organic Spencer believed that the animal world is changed like- Inorganic Organic super organic. Anthony Giddens says that culture refers to the ways of life of the members of a society or a group within a society. It includes how they dress, their food habit, their marriage, and customs and family life, their patterns of work, religious ceremonies and leisure pursuits. It also covers the good what they create and which become meaningful for them-bows and arrows, ploughs, factories and machines, computers, books and dwellings. [Sociology,1993, p-31].

Cultural change- the process of introducing a new ideas or objects to a culture is known as innovation or changing of culture. Innovation interests sociologists because of the consequences that introducing something new can have in any society.

Teenager- adolescence is the transitional stage of development between child hood and adult hood. Teen age is representing the period of time during a person is biologically adult but yet not emotionally at full maturity. At the Unites States adolescence is generally considered to begin around age 12-13 years, and end at 17-18 years. A teenager or teen is a person whose age is a number ending in teen in the English language: that

to say, someone from the age of 13 years to the age of 19 years. At this time most of the teenagers are secondary school and college student.

Kadomtoli area: Kadomtoli is mainly situated with City Corporation. It has 9 wards. There are 06 colleges and 14 schools in Kadomtoli area. Limitation of the research: The functions of the research are limited into Kadomtoli area and collected data from 50 respondents. The field of research is bounded in small area only for short timing.

1.5 Methodology: 1.5.1 Area of the research:The research will be functioned over full area of Kadomtoli area that means among the students of 10 educational institutes of 05 regional wards.

1.5.2 Sample selection:50 respondents are selected by using random sampling for survey. Another 5 respondents are selected by using purposive sampling for case study. Random sampling; - Random is generally used when the population is not widely spread over vast geographical area and more or less homogeneous with respect to the characteristics under study. Random sampling is a process of selecting a sample or subset of all sample units, giving each sample unit in the frame an equal chance of being included in the sample. In random sampling, individuals are selected from the population in such a manner as to allow every individual of the population the same chance of being selected. When sample of size n is truly random, all sample of that size have the same chance of being selected. Random sampling is made by several methods. I use the


method of lottery in random sampling. In this method the names of the individuals or units are written on slips of paper and they are put into a box. Then, the slips of paper are mixed thoroughly and some slips are picked up from the box. These papers are taken up for sampling. In my research I use class roll of an educational institute on slips. Only 5 respondents are selected from each institute by lottery method of random sampling for functioning survey. Purposive sampling:- In this method, certain units are selected purposively for judgment by the researchers. In this selection, the researcher tries to make the selection as representative. The investigator selects the relevant and representative samples as far as possible. The investigator also ensures that the frequency and the distribution of the sample are similar. However, if this method is seriously followed a small sample may even become highly representative. Another 5 respondent are selected by the purposive sampling method in my research for case study.

1.5.3 Techniques of Data collection:Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are used. In quantitative techniques Survey method is used. And in qualitative techniques Case Study method is used. Face to face interview schedule is used for Survey method and unstructured questionnaire or check list is used for Case study method. Here mixed questionnaire is situated. 1.5.3.a. Survey method:Survey method is most widely used in social sciences research. It is probably the best method available to the social scientists interested in collecting original data for purpose of describing a population too large to observe directly. Surveys are widely used to collect information and observations over time. Such longitudinal analysis enables the researchers to identify not only the variables which are related to each other but also how those relationships change over time. In social sciences, it refers to the technique of collecting of data through interview, questionnaire, and secondary sources in the light of a specific research objective. A 11

typical definition of social survey is given by Mark Abrams. He defines social survey as a process by which quantitative facts are collected about the social aspects of a community position and activities. [1951:29]. It is to be noted that surveys could be very well used for descriptive, explanatory and exploratory researches. As a matter of fact, any social survey research is first and foremost a study if people. In some case the study is descriptive, aiming at an accurate quantitative description the population under study. The general purpose of survey is simply to generate and provide some one with information. Survey can be used for two quite different purposes. The first is to describe the current practices and events, such as polls. The purpose of polling survey is mainly to distribute responses or answers to an item. They can be used to determine the extent to which certain practices are common or certain trends becoming apparent. They can be used to compare practices among two different observing units. They are therefore valuable for establishing a body of data on which to base comparison. A second use of the survey is for analysis. Analytical survey goes beyond simply describing the current state of practice. It enables us to establish relationships between variables. 1.6.3.b. Case Study Method:The term case study usually refers to a fairly intensive examination of a single unit, such as a person, a small group of people or indeed a single organization. Case studies involve measuring and studying what is there and how it got there. In this sense it is historical. It can enable us to explore, unrevealed and understand problems, issues and relationships. The case study approach offers a means of organizing social data with the view to preserving the wholeness of the social object being studied. The social object may be a person, a family, a social group of process or a culture. Whereas in other research methods, the individual unit disappears from the analysis and become simply a set traits individually tabulated, the case study approach attempts to keep together as a unit, those characteristics and traits describing the object. From the study of cases, social scientist tries to abstract those properties that are common to, or typical of, many cases from those


which are peculiar only to the exceptional cases. He is interested in being able to generalize and to construct types based on his depth study of empirical cases. This abstracted unit, or model, is amenable to reconstruction and reformulation as new information is obtained. The case approach provides the researcher a wide range and depth of experience. Absorption and probing into the cases gives new insight into the pattern, structure, and peculiarities found in the data. Case studies are particularly useful as background information for planning major investigations in the social sciences. Because they are intensive, they bring to light the important variables, process and interactions that deserve more extensive attention. They pioneer new ground and often are the source of fruitful hypotheses for further study.

Making of interview schedule and check list:At first a sketch interview schedule and check list are made. Then it will be sorted by the expert.

1.6 Techniques of Data analysis: The answers and opinions of respondents are analyzed by several statistical methods.


Chapter:-02 Review of related literature: The history of mass media is not yet new enough in our country, but it had developed basically before one epoch. Satellite and cable culture influenced us tremendously. It creates several impacts on our children and youth age people. How ever we must need to study about this topic. But we dont have enough articles over media impact. Some articles published in several news papers and we get there the statistics of America about media impact. So we have not option to avoid those western studies. For research purpose I take the help of some American books & studies. F.philip Rice in his book Adolescent (1984) on ninth chapter- Emotional Disturbance and maladjustments said that media is responsible teenagers and youth agers different task like too much tension, depression, several types of phobia, obsession, escape from the home, attempt to suicide, juvenile delinquency etc. this study is drawn on American society where the researcher said that the most of the parents are busy on their work and meanwhile they couldnt give enough time to their children. As a result children are attracted on media. They watch TV in average 5 to 6 hours a day and a child watches thousand of murder, rape and violence in a year. These type of violence make them less sensitive in reality and they suffer in high tension, obsession and different phobia. They dont mix in freely and frankly with others. Slowly fall in introvert personality and try to suicide. Herbert A. Bloch and Frank T. Flynn in their book Delinquency on the mass media of communication and delinquency chapter- both writers took the example of Blumer and Hauser the movies, delinquency and crime and said that, on the basis of 368 juvenile delinquent confession, 28% are involved in stealing practice- encouraged from different movies. 21% respondents try to trap police from several movies. And 45% respondents think that cinema taught them how to earn money in easy way. Both writers took interview among 252 girls criminal. 25% respondents agree that they are influenced sexual movies and then interested to create physical relation with man.


Another 33% respondents express their opinion that they are influenced by movie to escape from house. As a result they are involved various types of crime. The daily Bangladesh observer on 15th September, 2006 published an article named watch what children watch where Television is called an Idiot box , which make and mar childrens latent talent day by day. The daily jonokontha on 23rd may, 2006 published another article named Satellite channel nea Tanatani writer entrance history Abul kalam Manjur Murshed discussed about the of our satellite channel. He showed how Dish antenna took

commercial form from single network. In this article he criticized and discussed about some nude exposure of foreign channels. He also said that these foreign channels are the destroyer of our youth age people. He expected that government must take proper step to ban those types of channel. The daily Ittefaque on 8th January, 2006- Rezanur Rahman published a report, where he told satellite culture change our village youth life style. Village teenagers and youth escape from school and college to watch movies and television on local hotels. He said also that this situation is created only for the lankness of library at village school and college. The Daily Star on 03rd July, 2005 published an article where The honorable forest & environment minister- Mr. Shahjahan Siraj said that government will ban soon on use of cell phone by children. In Doinik Songbad on 27th October, 2007 published a report- Prsongo: cyber

pornography o meyader Aslilota, writer MD. Khurshed Alam Khan showed that the teenagers tough picture and watch blue film by internet browsing. As a result it is tuned in cheap way of the entertainment media on the upper class teenagers. The students of school and college are now in danger situation by watching this type of picture and film. The cinema exposures women in sexually, which is almost pornography. He finally told that those things made them delinquents.


A .Marx: Technology and Ideology:Marx's philosophy is called historical materialism because it assumes that history is determined by the material circumstances that people face the necessity of earning bread. Marx believed that the technological practices by a group determine its culture. That is, people do what they have to do in order to survive. Then they think up ideals to justify what they do. These ideals are really ideologies.

B. Innis and McLuhan: Communication and Culture:Harold Innis and Marshall McLuhan stressed the technology of communication rather than the technology of production.

Innis(1972), an economic historian, showed that the culture of a socl'~rty is greatly influenced by the nature of the media through which the culture is communicated. In particular, he emphasized, on the differences between societies that depend on oral communication and those use writing. The human voice has certain physical characteristics that put limits on preliterate (i.e. oral) societies. First, because of the voice's short range, members of a group must be close together to communicate with each other. Second, because sound is not permanent and oral society is 'time-bound'. A verbal event happens in a moment and memory distorts reality. People whose culture is oral cannot keep records. In speaking of past events they are free to invent. As a result, such societies do not separate history from fiction. Their stories are imaginative and illogical.

Written communications are permanent and are not distorted by memory. A literate group (one that uses writing) can spread out over a large area and still maintain its identity and its political coordination. Bureaucratic empires become possible. Reasons replace traditional sacred authority. Members of a literate society can check documents against other historical records. Their standards of judgment become objective and consistent.


Innis, however, found that even small technological improvements in the media of communication often had great historical impact. For instance, the cost, durability and portability of writing materials are important technological factors. McLuhan, in his famous work Understanding Media (1964) explores the cultural effects of different communications media events further. McLuhan sees the media as an extension of a human body just as a telescope and a movie camera both extended the power of the human eye. We can see the world and communicate with others in new ways by technological inventions, but by doing so we change ourselves too. In a preliterate society, people used to use their senses, but a lot of their attention was directed toward hearing. In a literate society people came to the real world and into the world of books. A non literate person experiences his or her culture a large number of impressions that bombard the senses all at once in no logical order. These impressions are associated with mythical ideas, fantastic images and magical symbols. A literate person, on the other hand, experiences culture through words read one at a time. These words must be strung together in a logical order and they are poor substitute for real objects. for better or worse, literate culture, is about to become a thing of the past. According to McLuhan, modern electronic media are changing the wor.4. We are entering into a 'post- literate' era, Television counteracts some of the effects of literacy, it forces people to use their ear's as well as their eyes. It pours out a simultaneous, nonsequential, illogical flood of impressions that demand the active participation of the viewer. A television viewer is not detached but becomes involved with the people who appear on the screen, real people who live all over the world, People around the globe are linked together by the electronic system- telephones, televisions, tape recorders and so forth. The logical thought and careful reasoning of literate humanity declined in the culture of post literate humanity and is replaced by a renewed tendency to use myths and symbolic imagery.


C. Modernization as a paradigm:In his publication, Lerner (Denial Lerner, 1958 as cited by Islam and Yasmin, 1999, p60) did not employ a formal definition of modernization. But his articulation of the notion of modernity in a later work is implicit in h1tPearlier analysis. According to Lerner, modernity meant: Self-sustaining economic growth. Public participation in the polity and democratic Decision making. Secularity-rational ism. High mobility. Empathic or striving personality.

These characteristics abstracted from the Western society were viewed, as the hallmark of modernity and modernization was a process through which traditional societies achieved these characteristics. Obviously this process entailed three stages traditional, transitional and modern. Four variables were crucial in the process of modernization. These are: Urbanization Literacy Mass Media exposure Participation.

Urbanization led to increase literacy. Rising literacy fuelled greater media exposure and it extended people's participation in economic and political sphere. Underlying these four variables were mobility and participation. The traditional society was static and the traditional man had constricted self. He had no ability to see beyond the horizon of his village. In the Western society, geographical mobility led to social psychological mobility, which created participatory institutions.


In Lerner's theory, empathy was a crucial concept, which represented psychic mobility. Empathy was the ability of a person to imagine himself into new roles and to perform the demands of these new roles. Mass media were instrumental in creating empathic capacity of the individual. Lerner also noted the dysfunctional aspects of mass media. Media through its portrayals of the affluence of the developed society led to the 'revolution of rising expectations'. In the transitional phase, it could lead to the "revolution of rising frustrations'. Lerner was confident that equilibrium of 'want/get ratio' could be established in the course of modernization process. D. Paradigm of Media Imperialism/Media Dependency/ Cultural Imperialism:Most of the media imperialism literature appeared in the 1970s (e.g., Schiller 1969; Dorfman and Mattelart 1975; Tunstall 1977; Boyd-Barrett 1979; Mattelart 1979; Nordensrtreng and Schiller 1979) and the early 1980s (e.g., Lee 1980; Fejes 1981; Sinclair 1982; Hamelink 1983). After a brief hiatus, scholarly interest in the debate reemerged in the 1990s when cultural and media globalizati-on seemed to accelerate (e.g., Salwen 1991, Schiller 1991; Tomlison 1992; Petras 1993; Biltereyst 1995). Herbert Schiller first conceptualized the thesis of media imperialism in his seminal book "Mass Communication and American Empire "(1969). Schiller, the architect of the paradigm, pointed out that the US had emerged as an imperial power since the World War-II through emergence of a symbiotic relationship between industrial and military elite who was bent on establishing their domination over the world. The communications media were crucial instruments of this domination: "In short, the emerging imperial network of American economic and utilizes the communications media for its expansion to locales where it hopes to become active"(Hebert Schiller, 1969, p-47 cited in Islam and Yasmin, 1999, p-63). Schiller (1969) argued that the US media operation is invariably intertwined with the US international economic and political structure. Cultural Imperialism according to Schiller's conceptualization is best exemplified by such macro structural indicators as ownership of media organizations, media technological development and its application 19

and other media economics. The US mass media tend to project images of goods and wealth, and promotes an American vision of life. The international expansion of such US media leads to its cultural domination over foreign countries. Studies along the lines of macro-structural conceptualization (e.g., Matteart 1979; Nordensrteng and Schiller 1979; McPhail 1987) are sharply critical of the Western media as powerful forces in transforming people's social behavior and their worldviews (Wang,1997, p16). In a more liberal capitalist reading of the international media structure, William Read (1976, p-181 cited in Wang 1997, p-16) argued that the macro-structural analysis fails to provide empirical evidence of causal attributions between the American media and their transformative impact on foreign cultures and societies. He contended that both American media producers and foreign media consumers enjoy ' different benefits in the international media market place. Summarizing the two competing views (represented by Schiller and Read), Chinchuan Lee commented, "It is fair to say that while radical writers Nordensrteng and Varis 1973; Schiller 1976) have a tendency to deny the desirable consequences of media/ cultural diffusion, liberal writers(Pool 1974, 1977) have a reverse tendency to ignore the undesirable consequences of entrenched American media/cultural foreign domination"(Chin-chuan Lee, 1980, p-54 cited in Wang, 1977, p-17). Apparently the structural approach to the analysis of international media flow is premised on the power of media structure and message. It implies that media ownership and structure determine media content. It also assumes that media content is contained within the message and that media audience absorbs information as intended. As Schiller argued, "The content of the program ming is all that really matters, for what is broadcast may determine, in large measure, the cultural outlook and the social direction a f the new nations for gene rat ions"( Schiller, 1969,p-110 cited in Wang,1977 p-17). Therefore, by examining media ownership and analyzing media content, one is presumably able to draw conclusions about the invincible power of Western media and culture in the "Third World" (Wang, 1997,p-17).


Schiller showed that a few media and advertisement organizations of the US had become paramount and penetrated the globe. Third world countries were dependent upon the US for news, broadcasting, television programs and motion pictures. This media dependency would lead to homogenized mechanized and centralized culture in Third world countries. The local cultures became threatened as it faced destruction under the weight of foreign media. Media imperialism thwarted development of authentic nation-al culture. it had negative consequences on economic and psychic development (Islam and Yasmin, 1999,p-63). In 1992 Schiller noticed two new trends trans nationalization of media organizations and American control over databases and information processing. American cultural hegemony had become more powerful (Islam and Yasmin, 1999, p-63). The United States established its greatest domination over media between 1943 and 1953 when it also emerged as the military super power of the world. (Islam and Yasmin, 1999, p-64). In the process of mapping out the historical pattern of the rise of American Media as hegemonic cultural forms, Jeremy Tunstall (Tunstall, 1977, p-274) noted a number of weaknesses in the theory of media imperialism advanced by Schiller and Wells: Firstly, this theory did not take into account strong presence of regional media centers in various parts of the world. Mexico and Argentina in Latin America, Egypt in the Arab World, India in Asia, Africa, Britain, France and Italy in Europe were examples of such regional media centers. Paradoxically these centers were also heavy exporters of American media. Secondly, the Western media were only available to small elite in developing countries. Many aspects of 'Traditional' or authentic culture were 'dysfunctional' for these countries. Thirdly, media was likely to favor greater equality in rich countries and inequality in poorer ones. E. Components of media Imperialism:Oliver Boy-Barret has recently made an attempt at synthesis of the theory of media imperialism. According to Boy-Barret, the term refers to outstanding features of 21

international media activities. (Oliver Boy-Barret, 1977 cited in Islam and Yasmin, 1999, p -64). Firstly, there is unidirectional flow of media products from a few countries of the West to all other countries. Boy-Barret (1977,p-116 cited in Islam and Yasmin, 1999, p-65) employs 'Media formation model' to delineate the four components of media imperialism: The Shape of Communication Vehicles:

it involves both communication technology and media forms. Media technology developed and media forms took shape in Britain, France, and Germany and in United States, in particular. The developing countries become dependent upon these standardized technology and often media forms.

A Set of Industrial Arrangements:

It means a particular form of industrial structure and financial arrangement. Hollywood, for example, pioneered an innovative organizational structure for the film industry which became model for other countries to follow. American capital became also important in film industry in a number of other countries. Values of Practice:

It basically refers to professional values and roles, which media personnel in developing countries usually acquire through exposure to the Western media products or formal training. Media Content and Market Penetration:

This is the most striking aspect of media imperialism, which involves the flow of news and other media programs from a few Western countries to the rest of the world. Sociologist Mercuse(1964) said that, Mass media is a weapon of "Totalitarianism" which creates phony or false demand in individual interests, entertainment and so forth, that influence individuals behavior and habits seriously.


Frederick Williams in his "The New Communications" discussed various functions of mass media, media technology and organization etc. Dennis Mcquail in his "Towards a Sociology of Mass Communications" discussed thoroughly about mass media, mass communication, mass society, mass culture and mass behavior. Joseph R. Dominick in his "The Dynamics of Mass Communications" discussed especially the role of mass media, functions on individuals and society and the role of media in the developmental countries. Malvin L. Defluer in his "Understanding Mass Media" discussed briefly mass media, research methods, and elements and identifies media technology. Jay Black & Jennings Brayant discussed in their "Introductionto Mass Communication" about mass media, activity of aipdia, media elements, audience, influence and print media. Rajeshwar Dyal and Vinoo Hora in their "Media South Asia "discussed media and its effects in the South Asian countries. John Kelly and Eddye Eubanks in their "Today's Teen" discussed about Teenagers several changes like-physical, mental changes, socialization process, different habits of teen people etc. in the context of America,

There are many books, journals and articles which have been discussed about media and cultural change separately. It is very difficult to sort out the media Effect and cultural change and the relationship between media and culture. For that reason my especial concern goes to that topic mass media and cultuural change. Here I highlight teen people because it is the stage from where change start and they are influenced most by the mass media.


2.1 Definition of Mass Media: The mass media themselves press, television, radio, etc, and the process of mass communication has been increasingly subjective to systematic study, the more they have become an important institution in society. As time has passed, definition (media) have also changed, especially by becoming more complex and acquiring more "options so that it eventually becomes difficult to speak of a single, universally current and consistent definition. Mass communication- the process of delivering information, ideas, and attitudes to a sizeable and diversified audience through use of media developed for that purpose. (Warren K. Agee and others) According to Baran, Micintyre, Meyer: "The process of map" communication is indeed a macro process of the highest magnitude. Mass communication is a powerful process and needs to be studied from many perspectives." One of the famous American Sociologist, Charles wright defines mass media: "Mass communication may be defined as the process in which the message is simultaneously delivered to a relatively large, scattered, heterogeneous and anonymous audience with the help of e medium developed for the people." According to Joseph R. Dominick: "Mass communication refers to the process by which a complex organization with the help of one or more machines produces and transiting public messages that are directed at large, heterogeneous and scattered audiences." ["The Dynamics of Mass communication"]


Operational Definition: Now we can define mass communication. Here, the operational definition of mass communication is given by the following propositions:

The media are a growing and changing industry providing employment, producing goods and services, and feeding related industries; they also comprise an institution in themselves, developing their own rules and norms which link the institution to society and to other social institutions. The media institution is, in turn, regulated by society.

The mass media are a power resource-a means of control, management and innovation in society, which can be a substitute for force or other resources.

They provide a location (or arena) where, increasingly, the affairs of public life are played out, both nationally and Internationally.

They are often the location of developments in culture, both in the sense of art and symbolic forms, but also in manners, fashions, styles of life and norms.

They have become a dominant source of definitions and images of social reality for individuals, but also collectively for groups and societies; they express values and normative judgments inextricably mixed with news and entertainment.


2.2 Definition of Culture: The way of life is culture. Culture is not inherent, it is achieved and artificial. It's powerful & integrated force, which play a vital role in social control. Culture can bring solidarity in the society. Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, moral, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. According to Robert King Merton, "Culture as that organized set of normative values governing behavior which is common to members of a designated society or group. According to Spencer & Kroeber- "Culture is supper organic." Spencer believed that, the animal world is changed like that Inorganic ------- Organic ------ Super organic, Anthropologist Malinowski define culture "The handiwork through which, he achieves his ends."

Operational Definition: "Culture refers to the ways of life of the members of a society or a group within a society. It includes how they dress, their food habit, their marriage customs and family life, their patterns of work, religious ceremonies and leisure pursuits, It also covers the goods they create an which become meaningful for them-bows and arrows, ploughs, factories and machines, computers, books and dwellings." [Anthony Giddens 1993, p-31]

2.3 Definition of Teenagers: Adolescence is the transitional stage of development between childhood and full adulthood, representing the period of time during which a person is biologically adult but emotionally not at full maturity. The ages which are considered to be part of adolescence vary by culture. in the United States, adolescence is generally considered to begin around


age 12-13, and end at 17-18. By contrast, the World Health Organization (WHO) defines adolescence as the period of life between 10 and 20 years of age.

"Adolescence" is a cultural and social phenomenon and therefore its endpoints are not easily tied to physical milestones. The word derives from the Latin verb adolescere meaning "to grow u p. The time i s identified with dramatic changes in the body, along with developments in a person's psychology and academic career. In the onset of adolescence, children usually complete elementary school and enter secondary education, such as middle school or high school.

During this period of life, most children go through the physical stages of puberty, which often begins between the ages of nine and thirteen. Most cultures regard people as becoming adults at various ages of the teenage years. For example, Jewish tradition considers males to be adult members of the community at age 13 and females at age 12, and this transition is celebrated in the Bat Mitzvah for girls, and the Bar Mitzvah for boys. Usually, there is a formal age of majority when adolescents formally become adults. For example, Japan's celebration of this is called seijin shiki ("coming of).

Puberty: Puberty, occurring during adolescence, is the stage in the human lifespan when a child begins to develop adult secondary sex characteristics as their hormone balance shifts towards an adult state. Briefly, this is caused by the pituitary gland that secretes hormones into the blood stream which trigger growth in the gonads: the girl's ovaries and the boy's testicles. In female adolescents, the first menstrual period is called menarche. In most Western countries, the average age of menarche fell in the last century, primarily because of improved nutrition and increased caloric intake. Girls tend to go through puberty a year earlier than boys.


Preteens: The word preteen describes a child a bit younger than a teenager: perhaps between the ages of about 8 and 12. The neologism tween has the same meaning. This word comes from the age being between that of a child and a teenager. The term also appears in the works of J.R.R. Tolklen with a different meaning: the ages between 20 and 32; the mythical hobbit has a longer life cycle and is considered mature at 33. Preteens are increasingly a specifically targeted market segment by business, because they tend to maintain the preferences they develop at this age. Even mobile phones are targeted toward this group. Also, teens tend invariantly to be financially dependent (and less autonomy is expected of them, in the United States, than of teenagers) they have access to parental income that is often more abundant than that of most teenagers. Teen-ager: A teenager or teen is a person whose age is a number ending in "-teen" in the English language: that is to say, someone from the age of thirteen to the age of nineteen, The word is of recent origin, only having appeared in the mid 20th century. In Western culture, a distinct youth culture has developed. This culture is often considered inferior to the mainstream culture, or in rebellion against it, and is thus often referred to as a subculture or counterculture. By the early 21st century this counterculture has been divided in several branches, often by teenagers themselves. These sub-cultures include teen-"goths", -"punks", -"rockers", 'gangstars", and so forth. A new general term to describe normal modern teen behavior has spawned in Finland and already widely spread into Sweden and Estonia, the term pissismi. Pissismi means in short everything both "parents and many of teen sub cultures (notably the teen-goths) look down on. This is basically creating of a self-image that is based on mainstream behavior and style offered by popular youth series and MTV, while simultaneously thinking one is cool and unique. In Japan, the term joshikousei (meaning female high school students) has become widely used for females strictly in the ages from 16 to 18. They are often noted for their obsession with clothes, pop culture and mobile phones. They are often the target of


sexual fantasy and ridicule of their obsessions. Prostitution by them, called enjoy kosai in Japan, has become a permanent social issue in the late 1990s. a. Discrimination against teenagers/ adolescents Some adolescents and adults believe that people between the ages of 10 and 18 (or 21 or 25) are subjected to unjust discrimination. This form of discrimination is increasingly referred to as autism. It is also called ageism, though that is simply prejudice on the grounds of age, not youth particularly. The underlying notion is that adolescents should be treated with equal respect as individuals by adults, institutions, and the law on the basis of their humanity, rather than being seen as "second-class citizens," intellectually inferior, or as the property of adults. This discrimination takes many forms, including lack of citizenship rights such as voting and the right to hold political office, as well as cultural, economic,and systemic disenfrachisernent.

There is also ongoing discrimination against adolescents in the areas of incarceration, education, and military recruitment, particularly youth of color and low-income youth. These young people face systemic and cultural barriers that often precede their right to due process in the law and equal educational opportunities. Research has illustrated wide discrepancies in the Pa-tes of African American and Latino youth incarceration in comparison to white youth with similar crimes; similar aberrations affect low-income youth, Statistical evidence also proves wide discrepancies between youth of color and white youth in the high school graduation rates and in higher education, as well as in military recruitment rates. Research has proven that social stratification between age groups causes stereo type and generalization; for instance, the media- perpetuated myth that all adolescents are equally immature, violent and rebellious. This has led to growing number of youth, academics, researchers, and other adults rallying against autism and ageism; some have organized education programs, protest statements, and organizations.


b. Psychology of teenagers/ adolescents: Maturity i n body leads to a n interest in sexual activities, sometimes leading to teenage pregnancy. Since they may not be emotionally mature enough or financially able to support children, the latter is usually considered problematic. At this age there is also a greater probability of drug abuse and alcohol abuse, or mental problems such as schizophrenia, eating disorders and depression. The emotional instability among some adolescents also sometimes causes youth crime. Search for a unique identity (social science) is one of the problems that adolescents often face. At this age, role models such as sports players, rock stars and movie and television performers are very popular, and adolescents often express a desire to be like their chosen role model. For this reason, people who are considered role models are often heavily criticized for their behavior, because in our time they are, we might say almost without exception, not socially conscious enough for the standard to which most children are held by most parents today. Of course, this doesn't mean that proper upbringing and an inspired life are contradictions; but there rages an argument about how soon one must make room for the other.

c. Social significance In commerce, this generation is seen as an important target. Cellular phones, contemporary popular music, movies, television programs, video games and clothes are heavily marketed and often popular amongst adolescents. In the past (and still in some cultures) there were ceremonies that celebrate adulthood, typically occurring during adolescence. Genpuku (translated as coming of age) in Japan is an instance. Teenagers have also been an important factor in many movements for positive social change around the world. The popular history of adolescents participating in these 30

movements may perhaps start with Joan of Arc, and extend to present times with popular youth activism, student activism, and other efforts to make youth voice heard. d. Legal issues In many countries, those over a certain age (perhaps 18, though this varies) are legally considered responsible adults. Those who are under the age of legal responsibility may be considered too young to be held accountable for criminal action. This is called the defense of infancy. The issue of youth activism is of growing significance around the world. Youth-led organizations around the world have fought for social justice, the youth vote seeking to gain teenagers the right to vote, secure more youth rights, and demand better schools through student activism. Youth are also becoming more involved in community leadership, governance, and service. Volunteerism among youth is at a record high, while student voice in schools and youth voice in communities is being engaged in community organizations, government boards, and in youth-serving nonprofit staffs and leadership. The sale of selected items such as cigarettes, alcohol, videos, and video games with sexual or violent content, is often prohibited based on age. Such age restrictions vary widely. In practice, it is common that young people engage in underage smoking or drinking, and in some cultures this is tolerated to a certain degree. In the United States, teenagers are usually allowed to drive at 16, but cannot legally purchase or consume alcohol until 21. In Europe it is more common for the driving age to be 'higher (18, usually) while the drinking age is lower. The traditional age of full majority in the U.S. is 21 and, until recently (see: Twenty-sixth amendment) people were not legally allowed to vote until this age. At present, citizens may vote at 18 and usually can run in local and state elections at that age (and sometimes do; in rare cases, high school students have run for school board positions). States. One must be 25, however to serve in the house of representative and 30 to serve in the Senate, or 35 to serve as the President of the United


Given the alleged emotional immaturity of adolescents, many countries consider those under a certain age to be too young to engage in sexual intercourse and other sexual activities with adults, even if they are physiologically capable. See age of consent. This issue has been most famously dramatized in the book Lolita (and subsequent movies). Pedophilia is defined as interest in children before puberty, yet informally in the United States and other countries where there is a prevalence of a culture of fear, it May also include internet, in adolescents, with their maturing bodies. In some other countries or cultures, relationships between adults and adolescents are socially accepted or viewed with tolerance. See pedophilia. In many countries, sex with adolescents below a certain age has become a social issue and is considered a serious sex crime. The age of consent vary according to the country or state/region. Countries without such laws may be targets for child sex tourism, if their laws do not separate prostitution from normal relationships. Pornography involving those under a certain age, typically IS (see child pornography), is also considered unacceptable and strictly prohibited in most countries. In the past (and still in poor countries), female adolescents were sometimes forced to engage in prostitution and slavery, even at a young age.

e. Adolescence: A Time of Growth and Change: Adolescence in American and Western European cultures is a time of enormous emotional as well as physical changes. Although each child is an individual and grows and develops in his or her own unique way, there are some predictable stages. When parents know what to expect, they can provide better help and support as their child moves through this often emotionally tumultuous time.

No Longer a Child Changes in the parent-child relationship are normal and necessary during the teen years, the child's "declaration of independence" and its realization result in a Putting away from parents. This can be accompanied by a rather predictable and usually short-lived 32

depression as the child experiences sadness from the loss of the old tie to parents and a new separateness becomes established. As both the child and the parents struggle with this transition, the teenager often becomes difficult for the parent to control. She/he rejects family routines and parental authority and often withdraws from the family to incubate a new adolescent identity. It's not uncommon for the formerly affectionate child to object to touch, to walk at a distance from parents when at the mall, or to spend long hours alone in his or her room while the rest of the family enjoys time together. The Emergence of Peers The emptiness created by separating from parents is often masked by a n allegiance to peers and to adolescent culture. The walls of the adolescent's room are covered with posters of this year's teen cultural icons. -Toys and games are replaced with CDs, TVs, telephones, computers, and cell phones. Girls hang out together, and so do the guys -- in school, at "parties," at "hot" spots, on the phone, and now online. An evolving identity is expressed through clothing, slang, gestures, and new cultural heroes. The adolescent peer group experience is stressful. The ease of childhood relationships is replaced by anxiety about how to "fit in." There is constant tension around "being left out" or "not being good enough." Predictable and recurring problems include: handling new situations and temptations; meeting the need for constant communication with peers; learning how to deal with new feelings in this new set of relationships; competition around status and possessions; and the need for money to fund this new lifestyle. In addition, there is the continuing pressure of schoolwork, conflicts with family, and the somewhat abstract challenge of preparing for an uncertain future.

Dating as a "Solution" "Dating" can seem to be a "solution" to the loneliness arid anxiety at the core of the adolescent experience. Having a steady relationship can be a refuge from family tensions and prop up the shaky new "teen" identity. It can be a buffer against difficult interactions with peers and provide an opportunity to explore new feelings arid sexual urges.


But this "solution" of dating has its own set of problems. Relationships are never entirely easy, at an-y age. Emotional neediness, coupled with a shaky sense of identity arid anxieties about new feelings, can be overwhelming.

Emotional Neediness "Neediness" can make the teen feel "dependent" and fearful about "breaking Lip" with a new dating partner, Dependency arid fear can make people (regardless of age) demanding. The hidden messages beneath the demands are: "Protect me from my neediness by never leaving me" or "Protect me from my self-doubts by always being reassuring" or "Protect me from my urges by always satisfying them," When demands are frustrated, then people can become Controlling and threatening. The underlying messages become, "If you don't meet my needs, I wont meet yours" or "Prove that you love me." When a person has not yet developed social skills or good role models for how to deal with these feelings, they can lead to abusive tactics, including emotional blackmail, insults, physical intimidation, and threats of abandonment. Another common defense against feeling dependent and scared is to pretend that it isn't so and to insist that: the other person is the "weak" one. To prove it, a person can insist on being the "strong one" who takes care of others who are "weak arid problem-ridden." Alternatively, she/he can be emphatically "independent," never sticking with a relationship, or never getting involved at all. These ploys are usually a cover for an inner neediness that is not being acknowledged. A Shaky Sense of Identity Most adolescents struggle with a shaky sense of their new identity. They have not had the time and experience to sort out their own identity from the teenager stereotype they have been impersonating. Cultural stereotypes of the "ideal" male and the "perfect female" can be especially compelling and damaging. This can make for "dating problems," as teens struggle with questions like: "How can I withstand the pressures of 'relationship' if I am unsure about myself?" or "How can I handle the danger of losing myself' in the


relationship?" Teens need to discover who they really are and to again confidence in asserting them selves to be able to sustain a relationship with another person. Some teenagers do lose themselves. They center entirely on the other person, perhaps relieved to hand over to the other person the tough task of finding and asserting themselves. They find relief from their own confusion by taking on themes like: "I will be what you want" or I will be all yours." Other teenagers defend against losing themselves by becoming rigid and obnoxious, unbending in their self- assertion. Anxiety about Feelings and Urges Another problem for teens is how to handle their moods, sexual urges, and feelings. Strategies of abstinence or indulgence can be problematic. Some adolescents try to cope by using alcohol, drugs or food to reduce or numb their feelings. Others happen on equally destructive methods for distraction, like rigid control of eating, bodybuilding, cutting, or retreating into lethargy. More constructive strategies can be an intense involvement with a sport, over focus on school and grades, or a single-minded pursuit of a goal. Often, teenagers go through an intense and painful relationship phase, ultimately pulling back from such relationships, at least for a while. This is not simply a negative reaction to being hurt. It can be a chance to re-center and to face their future, In the aftermath of a break-up, the teen can regroup and integrate new information about him or herself. Lessons available at that time include: "I can survive the breakup of a relationship"; "I can assert myself"; "I can stand on my own two feet"; "I don't have to put up with abuse"; "I can deal with my feelings and urges without getting so scared'; and "I don't have to be afraid of what others say about me." Some teens put dating aside and become more focused on work oi preparing for a career. They seek out "friendships" rather 'than intense relationships. They enjoy becoming more comfortable socially and being more assertive in a more effective and less demanding way. They build confidence in themselves, especially around making decisions and taking care of themselves. They begin to define their own "values," As elements of the next stage are established, new , 'dating" relationships become possible. These 35

relationships have a much better chance of evolving into longer-term partnerships capable of handling the challenges and opportunities of adulthood, The Need for Support As teenagers experience the problems of neediness, shaky identity, and overwhelming feelings, and stumble through their first attempts at dating an-d relationships, it is very helpful to have the understanding and support of parents, other adults, the old peer group, newer friends, and new partners Parent, can play a key role by continuing to love their children no matter what happens, by being realistic relationship "veterans" who have learned some things along the way, by comforting them when they are hurting, by supporting the positive, by setting limits which may be fought against and yet appreciated, by encouraging their children to continue to pursue new experiences and relationships even though they may be painful, by espousing values which will sooner or later become their children's Values, by not preaching or using their own experience as a "good" or "bad" example, and by reminding their child of the bigger picture, including preparing and supporting them as they attempt to move to the next stage of life - young adulthood. Other adults - aunts and Uncles, parents of friend~, teachers, coaches, employers, etc. can also be very important Supports. -These relationships, being less complex than parent relationships, can give examples of other relationship possibilities, contribute to an adolescent's confidence about being able to function and be appreciated "out in the world," and provide a helping ban(] as the adolescent moves toward young adulthood. The old peer group is there for support when the going gets tough with relationships. Many adolescents and adults reactivate their connection with their teenage cohort, especially when a relationship is problematic or breaking up. Keeping this option open can be important. New friends provide support for moving ahead into the next phase of life - sharing the tensions, burdens, uncertainties and adventure. This can help teens avoid getting "Stuck" in an unsatisfactory relationship rather than continuing to grow. Within the group of new


friends, there may be someone who can become a relationship partner who is likely to be "in sync" in terms of maturation and who can share the road ahead whatever that may be marriage, parenthood, new career opportunities, etc. In Western culture, the period of adolescence is a time to develop one's unique identity, to find ways to manage intense feelings acid desires, and to begin to discover the richness of intimate relationships. In a complex society, mastering these life tasks can be challenging and painful as well as exciting and rewarding. Parents, community, and friends can provide critical support during this difficult time.

2.4 The Role of the Mass Media: May be the best way to appreciate the role of the mass media plays in our society would be to imagine what it would be like, if all of a sudden, the whole system never existed. Obviously the mass media are a pervasive part of our life. just how pervasive might become clear if we charted the various functions the media perform for us. Before we do this, however we need to realize that different media have different primary uses. The role of media within each developing country has to face up with the challenges of it social, cultural and economic transformation. In this process the pressures are built from the emergent crises of identity formation, political cultural and implosion of new aspirations. These processes considerably influence the ruling regimes, pressure groups, interest groups and other social movements. The various institutions of the media find themselves under cross pressures of these social forces. In addition, media as a system too has its own inherent boundary conditions due to the role of ideology, proximity with the ruling regimes and ownership of the capital investment in media and its linkages with the market forces. For these reasons, it is often held that media not only informs or educates or entertains but also constructs social realities. Thus, the role that media can play towards an integrated social, political, economic and cultural development of the society becomes most significant and vital.


Its institutional freedom, its integrity and transparency in role performance, its ability to empathic with just and relevant causes of the people and the country, faced as they are by severe pressures and anxieties of rapid social changes etc. may largely define its positive contributions. Media's autonomy in this process is bound to hurt vested interests, but if its own performance ideology is transparent and empathic to just cause it would create in the long run its own powerful constituency of support and self-empowerment. Media should be in a position to inform or educate the people, often victim's f disinformation and negative ideologies. It should be in a position to help them in the objective understanding and appreciation of the long term significance and implications of the countries accepted paradigms of development. The more a country's media inspire confidence and enjoy legitimacy and credibility in public eye, the more it will prove to be an effective tool for bridge building in political, economic and cultural relationships. This would erode the wall of prejudices and anxieties generated by disinformation. 2.5 Functions of Media: Through the mass media of communication, the challenge of social responsibility is felt by those at work. Frequently their judgment is tested under pressure in matters of taste, social restraint, and fairness, with few absolute rules to guide them, The jobs they perform make possible the general diffusion of knowledge about life in today's world and more than that, influence many aspects of our social, political and economic patterns. By the way they select and present information, they help in sometimes small, sometimes unintentional, ways to shape our society. Our mass media illuminate the social fabric of the nation. They are essential to the continued development to the economic fabric in a modern industrial state. And they continue to fulfill their historic role in protecting and improving the political fabric of a democracy. The media have an adverse/symbiotic relationship with the government; they serve to help people cope with or escape from their environment; they create new values and preserve old ones and they serve an important economic function, by keeping the wheels


of commerce turning. For each of these positive and intended functions, there may be an opposing, or negative function or "Dysfunctions". Surveillance: Surveillance refers to what we popularly call the news and information role of the media. The media have taken place of sentinels and lookouts. Correspondents for wire services, TV networks and newspapers are located across the globe. Many radio stations broadcast nothing but news. It i s apparently a n important function, and the degree o f audience dependence on the media for news supports this observation. The Surveillance function can be divided further into two main types. Warning or beware Surveillance occurs when the media inform us about threats from hurricanes, erupting, volcanoes, depressed economic conditions, increasing inflation, or military attack, These warnings can be about immediate threats(a television station interrupts programming to broadcast a tornado warning), or they can be about long-term or Chronic threats(a newspaper series about air pollution or unemployment).There is I however, much information that is not particularly threatening t o society that people might take to know about. The second type called Instrumental surveillance has to do with the transmission of information that is useful and helpful in everyday life. News about what films are playing at the local theatres, stock market prices, new products, fashion ideas, recipes, teen fads, and so on are example of instrumental surveillance. In fact, the surveillance function can be found in content that is primarily meant to entertain. Interpretation The mass media do not supply just fact and data. They also provide information on the ultimate meaning and significance of those events. One form of interpretation is so obvious that many people overlook it. Not everything that happens in the world on any given day can be included in the newspaper or in a TV or radio newscast. Interpretation, comment and opinion are provided for the reader so that he or she gains an added perspective on the news stories carried on other pages. It is not confined to editorials. Articles devoted to an analysis of the cases behind a particular event or a discussion of implications of a new government policy are also examples of the interpretation function. 39

The interpretation function can also be found in media content that at first glance might appear to be purely entertainment; Free Willy contained a certain viewpoint about ecology and the ethics of keeping wild animals in captivity. Linkage The mass media are able t o join together by interpersonal channels different elements of society that are not directly connected. For example voters, in turn learn about the doings of their selected officials through newspapers, TV and radio. Telethons that attempt to raise money for the treatment of certain diseases are another example of this linkage function. Another type of linkage occurs when geographically separated groups that share a common interest are linked by the media. The best example of linkage however is the various message boards on the Internet or commercial online companies such as American Online and Prodigy. The media can create totally new social groups by linking members of the society who have not previously recognized that others have similar interests. A new group has been formed, with the media acting as linkage. This same phenomenon may account for the growth of the ecology movement in the 1970s and the antinuclear and antiapartheid movements in the mid-1980s, when the media perform in this role; one obvious consequence is that societal groups can be mobilized quickly.

Transmission of Values The transmission of values is a subtle but nonetheless important function of the mass media. It has also been called the socialization function. Socialization refers to the ways in which an individual comes to adopt the behavior and values of a group. The mass media present portrayals of our society and by watching, listening and reading, we learn how people are supposed to act and what values are important. The mass media also teach us about people; they show us how they act and what is expected of them. In other words, the media present us with role models that we may observe and perhaps imitate. Value transmission via the mass media will aid the stability of the society. Common Values and experiences are passed down to all members, thereby creating common bonds between them. Mass media can also transmit values by enforcing social norms. Media 40

coverage can ensure that the values of the majority society are highlighted and upheld by what they choose to emphasize. The mass media, it is probably television that has the greatest potential for the socialization of the young children. Transmission of Culture Cultural transmission is one of the most widespread but least understood functions of mass communication. Culture communication is constantly modified, updated and influenced by new experiences, including using mass media.- Thus cultural transmission takes place on two levels: the contemporary and the historical. These two levels are inseparable and constantly merging and intermingling. Furthermore, the mass media are major tools that assist in the transmission of the Culture on both levels. On the contemporary level, media constantly reinforce the consensus of society's values, while, at the same time they introduce the seeds of change. To understand the process of cultural transmission, indeed of communication itself, it is worthwhile to peer back as far as possible into prehistory. Only homosapiens, of all the creatures on earth have been able to consciously store their experiences and pass them along from one generation to the next. Thus the progress of the species has been more or less constant. This ability has led to the cultural transmission function of the media, and to our traditions of education, which is so much a part of this function. Through out history the human race has been able to draw on the past and add new experience from the present to guide its preparation for the future. Not only have human been able to accumulate experience, but they have shown themselves able to sort and shift through these memories, discard the unneeded and organize the rest for ease of transmission both to their fellows and to posterity. Persuasion: The persuasive function of the media in contemporary society is as significant as information and entertainment functions. Advertising, of course, is the most obvious form, but there are other more subtle manifestations of persuasion that are likely to have lasting effects on the future of mass communication., Public relation activities, special promotional events, and blatant-as well as subtle- efforts at image manipulation and 41

public opinion formation pervade the media environment. Editorials, letters to the editor, and opinion columns are obvious examples of overt persuasion. Political campaigns, which periodically command vast attention in the mass media, are almost pure persuasion. In today's environmental and consumer conscious society business is increasingly under attack and seeks to utilize the mass media in its defense. In fact, a good case can be made that the role of advertising agencies in mass communication industries is to inject entertainment into commercial persuasion, lest the public attention, subjected to unrelenting exposure to so many sales pitches, begins to wane and thus defeat the advertiser's purpose. A highly profitable aspect of filmmaking is concerned with persuasion and information. Commercials are an obvious example. Film, today shows considerable persuasive and informational content. Entertainment Another obvious media function is that of entertainment. The electronic media-radio, television and film have a basic, although by no means exclusive, entertainment thrust. Even though most of a newspaper is devoted to covering the events of the day, comics, puzzles, horoscopes, games, advice, gossip, humor and general entertainment features Television is primarily devoted to entertainment. The media can make entertainment available to a large number of people at relatively little cost. This helps make leisure and recreational time more enjoyable. The largest portion of radio is the same mixture of Entertainment and commercials that television offers. Lacking television's video quality, radio must concentrate on what it do best-appeal to the ear and this generally means music. Although most of film still has a basic entertainment thrust. While the broadcast Media and film have been identified as the basic purveyors of entertainment. Mass media that do not deal in the urgency of spot news-books, most magazines and films and a large portion of radio and television programs-also are vital in the formation of public opinion. They examine important contemporary issues in a reflective manner that is possible because their writers and editors have more time to consider the ramifications of events. Social attitudes and political viewpoints can b e examined with telling impact through fictional narrative as well as by factual reporting. It is also true that, mass med4,a have some tremendous effects. For -example -"Media Violence." 42

2.6 Media Violence: People from different Cultures bring different experiences into their contact with media violence. In other words, identical contents are used differently in different cultures and subcultures so that generalizations about effects are practically impossible to make. Moreover, depictions of violence are imbedded in different programmes structures in different countries, respectively different TV broadcasters. There is no ignoring the fact that the TV landscape in Nepal or Kenya is different to the one in Japan or the U.S.A and that the impacts are bound to vary accordingly. The discussion of the commercialization of the media, i.e. the relationship between art and/or culture and commerce can be traced back hundreds of years. The flood of publications and debate of the possibly socially damaging effects of the dissemination of depictions of violence is of unbroken topically worldwide. Portrayals of violence in the mass media and their possible negative effects have become the subject of worldwide intensive public discussion. A few example, chosen at random, are presented here through the list could go on endless. The 1993 killing in Britain of little James Bulger by two ten-year-old boys, which attracted worldwide attention, was also blamed on the media because the father of one of the boys sentenced had hired a horror video before the k'Hling. in a survey of German psychologists a youth psychiatrist doing forensic work reported a similar case. Two girls aged about 12 who were often left to themselves (so-called "keychildren") and saw a lot of violent videos in their free time decided to "try-out" what they seen. They murdered a small child from the neighborhood; the girls said that they carried out the killing because they "wanted to try out how that is in real life". Similar horrifying effects of horror videos are also reported from Japan. In August 1989 27-year-old printer Tsutomu Miyazaki admitted to murdering three young girls and making videos before disposing of the bodies. According to the "Straits Times" about 6,000 videos were discovered in his home. "One of the videos found in his room was A Flower of Blood and Flesh, a Japanese horror film which graphically depicts a young artist dismembering a young girl and painting a picture with the blood of the corpse." According to Tokyo correspondent Peter 43

Hazelhurst Miyazzki had murdered three nursery school pupils (all under the age of five) in a gruesome ritual 5imilar to scenes from horror -movies. Professor Keigo Okonogi commented that, respondent Thought that his victims were dolls or characters in movies he had seen. It was not the only one of its kind in Japan. Under the heading "Crimes forcing Japanese to examine pornography" the "Asian Wall Street Journal" quoted extensively from a police report about a number of teenage boys admitting to abducting, raping and torturing a high school girl before killing her and encasing her body in concrete. The killers told investigators they got ideas for most of their actions from an adult video. In this context the newspaper quotes a member of a women's action group: "Adult videos serve as textbooks for rape." A seminar on "TV & Violence" was held in Sri Lanka in 1984. The seminar did set itself quite specific aims, such as: "Examine a possible relationship between societal violence and television violence in Sri Lankan, society. An attempt was made to examine the crime rate of the country, particularly the homicides and grave crimes and establish whether there had been an increase in this category of crime since TV was introduced and to what extent, if any, this increase was related to TV viewing." Politics has also been sensitized to the theme worldwide. For example, according to "The Jakarta Post"(8 September 1993), the Indonesian minister of education and culture, Wardiman Djojonegoro, laid the blame for the upsurge of youth delinquency, particularly schoolyards brawls, on violence on television. The minister was quoted as saying: "Every day our children are being subjected to films filled with violence". There was also intensive discussion of media violence in Malaysia. Its information Minister, Datulk Mohammed Rahrnat, was quoted by, "The Straits Times"(22 January 1992) as saying that Radio Television Malaysia, TV3 and the National Censorship Board had decided that sex, violence, horror and other undesirable scenes would not be screened on television, The minister said: "Violence for the sake of violence will be totally wiped out so there will be less action on television," The "Sunday Times" ( 11 t h April,1993)


reported that from May 1993 Radio Television Malaysia would stop screening programmes depicting violent scenes. Television violence is also on the public agenda in Singapore. Police there questioned about 50 who had been involved in violent crimes about their television viewing habits. According to "The Straits Times" (17 March 1993) most were found to enjoy violent films and get a kick out of watching people being beaten up or killed. Law and home affairs minister, S. Jayakumar, summed up the findings as very worrying". The Singapore Broadcasting Corporation, for example, was criticized for the violent series it produced and telecast (e.g. Angel of Vengeance). An Mr.Goh Choon Kang was quoted with his complaint that SBC productions were becoming more and more like the Hong Kong series in respect of violence. "Singapore is not Hong Kong and SBC is not TVB or Asia TV. We have different social environments, values and I think different thresholds of violence. What is acceptable in Hong Kong may not be equally the case in Singapore." In Germany children replayed scenes from a televised Western in which one of the protagonists lets himself be led to the gallows and freed at the last moment by his companion, in this case, too, a child died. A 14year-old girl who had set fire to a scouts' home was sentenced to watch a horror film showing an old women dying in flames. Nonetheless "those contemporary pornographic movies continue to spotlight the sexual desires and prowess of men while consistently and persistently portraying women as sexually willing and available." The problem of the degrading depiction of women is also to be found in other cultures, e.g. in India. Ranjeet, a popular star in Hindi films, who played more than 350 rape scenes in his 19 tear career, argues: "Because people live in a repressive society, they are sex starved. Film makers cash in on this." Although rape scenes are not shown explicitly in the sense of pornographic depiction, they are made clear e.g. by the sound effects in the background or the like. Kissing and showing intercourse is forbidden by censorship, but writes Anita Pratap, (Time July 9, 1990), "the censors regard rape is permissible as long as the camera conceals as much as it reveals," Virnla Farooqui, a campaigner for women's rights, argues: " Rape scenes are used for an ugly kind of titillation."


In addition there is also a broad market of pornographic booklets, periodicals, pocket books, etc. Analysis of the contents of pornographic pocket books in the U.S.A found that in about a third of them sexual intercourse 1 s enforced through violence done by the man, with the women enjoying the sexual act after initial resistance. The majority of pornographic films and videos is comparable. Women are shown as lust objects of the man, finding even aggressive sex enjoyable, overall, the media mentioned build up the myth that rape victims had a masochistic character. To document this masochism myth some authors like to quote psychiatric studies according to which sexual submission is allegedly of decisive importance to women's reaching sexual satisfaction. In this context it is pointed out that women were often sexually excited by rape fantasies. American college students admit that they could commit a rape. About 35% of the male students thought it possible that they could commit a rape if it was ensured that no- one would find out about it and that there would be no punishment. The consumption of pornography stimulates men and women sexually, with repeated consumption leading to station, i.e. a lessening of excitement and interest. The habituation behavior: Randeep Singh Kaira 13 says he is often shocked out of afternoon naps when his nine year old brother Mankirath takes flying leaps on to his stomach. Mankirath is merely imitating his heroes in cartoons, Chinese martial arts serials and wrestling matches. Sex year old Sandeep Singh Sichu was three when he fractured an arm trying to break a fall the 'Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtle way." Mohammad Harridan Adnan and Parween Aktar, who examined the television impact on Malaysian teenagers, come to the conclusion: "crime, soap and warfare clearly provide the magnetism to TV. a. Sex and Violence Etymologically the word pornography (writing of whores) stems from Greek: prone whore, graphed in - to write. Pornography covers contents explicitly relating to sexual activities, respectively showing the male or female anatomy with the intentional of achieving sexual stimulation in the recipient. Other authors regard the characterization of the women as a pure lust object of the man as the essential trait of pornography. Pornographic films were to be found on the market already in 1899, shortly after the


cinematography was invented. With view to the depiction of sexuality in contrast to the depiction of violence, there are very great variations between the cultures. After content analysis of 56 "slasher Films", in which the female victim is "killed" at the end, Cowan and OBrien (1990) come to the resume: "In slasher films the message appears to be that sexual women get killed and only the pure women survive. This message that the good woman is asexual and the bad (and therefore dead) woman is sexual may be almost as pernicious as the message conveyed in pornography that violence can be fun for women." The theme of sex and rape is also discussed in the context of possible effects of violent Rock and Pop music, Rap bands such as "Public Enemy" and "N.W.A" in their texts not only rate gangsters positively, but also rape, which could quite easily promote an attitude favoring rape. The authors conclude continuously and erroneously presented as spontaneous, romantic and risk-free. How much sexual content is shown on television? About 66% of prime time shows contain some sexual content. In one study, a solid majority (62%) of scenes in television shows were coded as including some. Sexual behavior and 28% of these scenes placed the primary emphasis on sex. Each new season television programs contain more sexual content than the previous year. Two thirds of the 1999-2000 television season contained some sexual content (up from one half the previous season). The sexual content of sitcom scenes shot up from 56% in 1999 to 84% in 2000. The Kaiser Family Foundation (2001) has reported that 80% of the content presented on soap operas is sexual in nature, and Greenberg and Woods (1999:253) reported an average of 6.6 sex acts in each soap hour.


The television programs that are most popular with adolescents have been found to be the most sexual in nature.

How much sexual information do viewers utilize? Nearly 50% of adolescents report getting information about birth control from the mass media. Four out of ten teens (40%) report that they have gained ideas for how to talk to a boyfriend or girlfriend about sex directly from media portrayals. The mass media was the source of information about sexuality- and relationships that was most frequently menti6*d in a survey of youth ages ten to fifteen.

Who is having sex on TV? Almost 23% of the sexual portrayals that were shown in the 2000 season involve characters from the ages of 18-24, and 9% (almost one in ten) involve characters under the age of 18. The bulk of the sexual action and language occurs between unmarried characters. One study found that unmarried heterosexual characters engage in sexual intercourse four to eight times as much as married characters. In one study of soap operas, there was only one representation of a married couple engaging in sex for every 24 portrayals of unmarried characters performing sexual acts.

How safe is sex on TV? The use of contraceptives and the contraction of sexually transmitted diseases on TV are relatively rare. In one study, STDs were only mentioned an average of once every ten program hours. In this study, even when a reference was made to the risk of sexual behavior, it was very rarely the primary emphasis of the scene.


Nearly 14,000 sexual references bombard the average American adolescent each year, yet only "165 of these will deal with birth control, self-control, abstinence, or the risk of pregnancy or S T D s." (Committee on Public Education, 2001:192).

What are some possible effects of increased exposure to mass media sexuality? Several studies have linked increased exposure to the mass media with dissatisfaction with virginity among teenagers (Brown & Newcomer, 1991; Peterson, et al, 1991; Kunkel, et al, 1999). The students who think television accurately portrays sex were more likely to be dissatisfied with their first experience with intercourse (Brown & Newcomer, 1991:80).

b. Sexuality in the Mass Media, How to View the Media Critically: The mass media has become an extremely pervasive and omnipresent institution, especially in American society. The Committee on Public Education reported last year that young people spend more time in front of the television than they do in school or with their parents, and by the time the average 18 year-old graduates from high school, he or she will have spent 15,000 hours watching television. It is no longer possible, considering the enormous degree of media saturation in our culture, for the media to have zero effect on any aspect of human life, including human sexuality. The changes in media representations of sex and sexuality over the last fifty years are astonishing. The media industries are no longer forced to portray husbands and wives occupying separate beds, and scenes of sexual activity are rarely avoided or quietly inferred. Sex in the mass media, especially on television, is becoming increasingly frequent and explicit, as many advertisers have come to the realization that "sex sells," Viewers can observe depictions of intimacy and affection, marriage and family life, and gender roles, as well as suggestive and erotic behavior, ii.ght in their living rooms.


On the one hand, the pervasive, accessible, and popular nature of television makes it an excellent instructor, offering an opportune way to learn about sex and sexuality without embarrassment. However, the images on TV can be harmfully limited, stereotypical and one-dimensional, depicting sex as an activity that is only acceptable for the young. c. Beauty and Body Image in the Media: "We don't need Afghan-style burquas to disappear as women. We disappear in reverse-by revamping and revealing our bodies to meet externally imposed vision of female beauty." Robin Gerber Images of female bodies are everywhere. Women-and their body parts-sell everything from food to cars. Popular film and television actresses are becoming younger, taller and thinner. Some have even been known to faint on tile set from lack of food. Women's magazines are full of articles urging that if they can just lose those last twenty pounds, they'll have it all-the perfect marriage, loving children, great sex, and a rewarding career.Why are standards of beauty being imposed on women, the majority of whom are naturally larger and more mature than any of the models? The roots, some analysts say, are economic. By presenting an ideal difficult to achieve and maintain, the cosmetic and diet effects are the more marked, the more massive the consumption of prone graphic films is. However, there appear to be great individual variations, the increased availability of pornography corresponded to a drop in the frequency of sexual crimes. Thus sexual criminals had less exposure to pornography in their youth than comparable people who had not become delinquent. The culture of Thinness: Researchers report that women's magazines have ten and one half times more ads and articles promoting weight loss than men's magazines do, and over three-quarters of the covers of women's magazines include at least one message about how to change a woman's bodily appearance-by diet, exercise or cosmetic surgery. Television and movies reinforce the importance of a thin body as a measure of a woman's worth. Canadian researcher Gregory Fouts reports that over three-quarters of the female 50

characters in TV situation comedies are underweight, and only one in twenty are above average in size. Heavier actresses tend to receive negative comments from male characters about their bodies ("How about wearing a sack?"), and 80 per cent of these negative comments are followed by canned audience laughter. There have been efforts in the magazine industry to buck the trend, for several years the Quebec magazine Coup de Pouce has consistently included full-sized women in their fashion pages and Chitelaine has pledged not to touch up photos and not to include models less than 25 years of age. However, advertising rules the marketplace and in advertising thin is "in." Twenty years ago, the average model weighed 8 per cent less than the average woman-but today's models weigh 23 per cent less. Advertisers believe that thin models sell products. When the Australian magazine New Woman recently included a picture of a heavy-set model on its cover, it received a truckload of letters from grateful readers praising (he move. But its advertisers complained and the magazine returned to featuring bone-thin models. Advertising Age International concluded that the incident "made clear the influence wielded by advertisers who remain convinced that only thin models spur the sales of beauty products." Self-Improvement or Self- Destruction? The barrage of messages about thinness, dieting and beauty tells .ordinary" women that they are always in need of adjustment-and that the female body is an object to be perfected. Lean Kilbourne argues that the overwhelming presence of media images of painfully thin women means that real women's bodies have become invisible in the mass media. The real tragedy, Kilbourne concludes, is that many women internalize these stereotypes, and judge themselves by the beauty industry's standards. Women learn to compare themselves to other women, and to compete with them for male attention. This focus on beauty and desirability "effectively destroys any awareness and action that might help to change that climate."


Teens that had been exposed to a highly sexual TV drama rated descriptions of casual sex encounters less negatively than teens that had received no sexual content exposure (Bryant & Rockwell, 1994: 230).

A study of black women aged 14 to 18 revealed that adolescents who see X-rated movies have less favorable attitudes toward condom use than other teens ( Wingood, et al., 2001:1116).

None of these statistics or research findings indicates that watching sexual content on TV makes viewers take irresponsible steps in their own lives. The research does, however, point to the notion that television viewing may help shape viewers' attitudes and expectations about sexual relationships which, in turn, are some of the strongest predictors o' their behavior. This hypothesis [inks sexual attitudes developed from the media with troubling sexual statistics, such as the fact that the United States has a higher rate of teen pregnancy than any other industrialized country in the world. Basically, many people are being exposed to massive and explicit sexual messages every day of their lives, probably beginning before they have the knowledge or sophistication to accurately deal with such complicated content.


Chapter:-03 Data analysis by Surveying: Question 1: Do you watch TV daily? Table 1: Answer 1 2 3 Yes No Sometimes Total Respondents 68% 4% 28% 100%

Here, 68% respondents answer that they watch TV daily. Another 28% respondents dont watch daily. So we can say that, most of the student Watch TV daily.


Question 2: if yes, what type of TV program you enjoy much? Table2:

Respondents Drama 8% 9% 31% News/Talk show Sports 29% 15% 8% Educational Program Others Movie

Here it is seen that, maximum respondent like drama serial and sports. But boys are interested at sports and girls are interested to drama serial.


Question 3: how much time you watch TV program? Table 3: Answer 1 2 3 4 0-1Hours 1-2Hours 2-3Hours 3+Hours Respondents 19% 31% 29% 21%

Here most of the respondents watch TV 1-4 in a day, Though girls watches more then boys. Question 4: Do you read newspaper daily ? Table4: Answer 1 2 3 Yes No Sometimes Respondents 40% 6% 54%

Here, almost all respondents read newspaper, most of them are irregular.

Question 5: What type of news do you read? Table5:




13% National



International Sports Educational Recreation Others



Here the respondents are more interested to read the news of sports, media news international and national news. Though boys like sports news and girls like media news. Question 6: What type of food you like to eat? Table6: Answer 1 2 3 4 5 6 Bengali Indian First food Thai Chinese Others Total Respondents 40% 4% 40% 6% 10% 0% 100%

Here most of the respondents like native food, and the first food is next choice. Question 7: Are those foods influenced by TV channel? Table7:


Answer 1 2 3 Yes No A little Total

Respondents 24% 64% 12% 100%

Maximum respondents think that those foods are not influenced by mass media. Question 8: What type of dress you like to wear? Table8:

Answer 1 2 3 4 Bengali Western Indian Religious Total

Respondents 32% 54% 8% 6% 100%

Here most of the respondent likes both of native and western dress. But boys are more interested to western dress.


Question 9: I that dress influenced by TV channel? Table9: Answer 1 2 3 Yes No A little Total Respondents 42% 38% 20% 100%

Here, only 38% respondents deny the effect of media on dress. But rest of them agree that, there dress are media effected. Question 10: Is your hairstyle influenced by media ? Table10: Answer 1 2 3 Yes No A little Total Respondents 38% 42% 20% 100%

Here 38% respondents deny the effect of media on hair style. But others hair style directly or indirectly influenced by media.


Question 11: If yes, then which are you follow? Table11: Answer 1 2 3 4 5 Movie star Sports person Rock star Religious personality Other media star Respondents 28% 7% 17% 14% 66% 100%

Here the mixed or complex influence of media is seen in the idle hairstyle. Question 12: Do you listen radio everyday? Table12: Answer 1 2 3 Yes No Sometimes Total Respondents 28% 18% 54% 100%

Here only 18% respondents do not hear radio. Others listen radio more or less.


Question 13: If yes, then what type of channel you listen much? Table13: Answer 1 2 3 News Music Others Total Respondents 12% 68% 20% 100%

Here most of the respondents, listen music. Sometimes they listen news and others program. Question 14: Do you browse internet regularly? Table14: Answer 1 2 3 Yes No Sometime Total Respondents 54% 20% 26% 100%

Here most of the respondents use internet regularly, only 20 % of respondent does not use it.


Question 15: If yes, then what type of website you browse much? Table15: Answer 1 2 3 4 5 6 Educational Recreation Music/Movies News Sports Social network sites Respondents 7% 10% 28% 0% 5% 50% 100%

Among the internet user, most of the respondents browse social network site. Besides Music/movie sites are also browsed by respondents. Question 16: Are you interested to browse ADULT SITE? Table16: Answer 1 2 3 Yes No Sometime Total Respondents 20% 50% 30% 100%

Here half of the respondents are not interested to browse this type of site. Others , regularly or irregularly interested visit this type site.


Question 17: Are you interested to make a relation with opposite gender via Internet ? Table17: Answer 1 2 3 4 Yes No Not so No comments Total Respondents 18% 48% 22% 12% 100%

Here most of the respondents are not interested to make a relationship with opposite gender. Question 18: Are you related with social network? Table18: Answer 1 2 3 Yes No A little Total Respondents 64% 24% 22% 100%

Here it is observed that, most of the respondents are involved with social network site.


Question 19: How much time you spent for social network ? Table19:

Answer 1 2 3 4 0-1 hour 1-2 hour 2-3 hour 3+ hour

Respondents 40% 47% 9% 4% 100%

Here respondents usually spent 0-2 hour per day in social network site. Question 20: How much friend you have in social network? Table20: Answer 1 2 3 4 0-50 50-100 100-150 150+ Respondents 35% 23% 16% 26% 100%

Here it is noticed that a complex on mixed picture on the friend list in social netwok.


Question 21: Do you believe in relationship with Social network friend? Table21: Answer 1 2 3 Yes No Not so Total Respondents 51% 26% 33% 100%

About most of the respondent keep believe in relationship with friends in social network. Question 22: Which media is important for education? Table22: Answer 1 2 3 4 TV Radio Newspaper Internet Total Respondents 12% 0% 28% 60% 100%

Here most of the respondent thought that internet is most important in education sector. TV and newspaper are also important.


Question 23: As a source of knowledge, how much important mass media is? Table23: Answer 1 2 3 Important Not important Less important Total Respondents 70% 6% 24% 100%

Here most of the respondent thought, mass media is important for the medium of knowledge. Question 24: Is over intimacy with mass communication make distance with family and friends ? Table24: Answer 1 2 3 Yes No A little Total Respondents 18% 50% 32% 100%

About half of the respondent think that, over intimacy with mass communication does not occur distance with family and friends. Some respondents think it occurs distance slightly.


Question 25: Is virtual relation is more important then others? Table25:

Answer 1 2 3 Yes No Not so Total

Respondents 20% 36% 44% 100%

Most respondents opined that the virtual relation is not more important then others, where some respondents think positive about this. Question 26: Are you think, the rapid spread of mass media is responsible for social problems? Table26: Answer 1 2 3 Yes No A little Total Respondents 34% 20% 46% 100%

About half of the respondents believe that, the rapid spread of mass media is responsible for social declining.


Question 27: Are you respective to your religion? Table27: Answer 1 2 3 Yes No Not so Total Respondents 100% 0% 100% 100%

All of the respondents said that all of them are respective to there own religious feelings. Question 28: Are these rituals are influenced by media? Table28: Answer 1 2 3 Yes No A little Total Respondents 2% 88% 10% 100%

About most of the respondents think, there religious activities are not influenced by media.


Question 29: Are you interested in smoking or taking drugs? Table29: Answer 1 2 3 4 Yes No Sometime No comment Total \ Most of the respondents are not involved with smoking or taking drugs. But some boys are involved with this. Question 30: If yes, what is the reason for this? Table30: Answer 1 2 3 4 5 Frustration Curiosity Fashion Friends Others Total Respondents 11% 22% 45% 0% 22% 100% Respondents 24% 64% 12% 0% 100%

Most of the respondents who are smokers and drug addicted take it as a fashion influencing by mass media.


Question 31: Do you think private life is influenced by mass media? Table31: Respondents Answer Percentage

42 8 50

Yes No Total

84% 16% 100%

Most of the respondents said that, there personal life is influenced by mass media. But some respondents deny this.

Table32: If yes, how much? Answer 1 2 3 High Low Medium Total Respondents 48% 12% 40% 100%

About half of the total respondent opined that, there personal life is highly influenced by mass media.


Chapter:-04 Case Studying.

Case : 1 Name: Snigdha Chowdhury Age: 18 year, Sex: Female Educational Institution: Dania University College Class: Twelve. She is the elder daughter of her parents. Her father is a government officer. She has one brother and one sister. She spent her childhood in Bikrampur. She has not boy friends, but she has a boy friend and two very close friends. She is not close to her family members expect her younger sister. She told the reason' is that, her father is very inflexible and mother has no power to, anything over her father. Her family doesn't know she has boy friend. She likes to make friend with I because she think girls are gallous than boys. She likes to eat pizza, ice-cream and soft drinks. Likes to wear what she fills comfort, for example-Shalwar Kamiz, Short Kamiz and Jeans. Her favorite dress is shalwer kamiz. She spent her leisure time with talks to her boy friend in mobile phone at late night, for example-12 A.M. to 3 A.M. Because she cannot use land phone more than-10 to 15 minutes. Her parent's doesn't like to see her talking with unknown person. She sometimes drew pictures. At first she had habit of written life diary but now she, doesn't do it. She watches TV and listen music. She loves to read science fiction books-for example- Jafor Iqbal's books. Sometimes she also reads Sharotchandra's books. She like hear soft beat and romantic bangle and English song. She watches some Hindi movies, influenced by others- like one friend told her will be held a fine Hindi movie, than she tried to see this movie. It is possible for her to go cinema hall to watch any bangle cinema. The 9XM music channel is her favorite channel for music. She has no interest to see drama serials and other programs, but she watches cricket matches whenever she can.


She reads Daily Newspaper; especially she reads sports news and entertainment news (cinema and music). Not regularly but often she reads English magazines. The reason is that, she can know world news from it.

Though, from a religious family, she has the practice of taking prayer. At first, she had wear "Borkha" but now she didn't wear it. But she practices her daily prayer and she must take her fast too. She believes her family is too much conservative.

She knew the recent trend of style from TV programs, for example-Short Kamiz and divider Pant is the new dress up patterns. The relationship between friends and boyfriend is also learned from different programs. She does not divide a boy and a girl as a friend. To both of them her behavior and attitudes are same. She had a laptop with internet connection. She loves to browse social network site and music site. Sometime she browses on Adult site. She spent more then 2hours in social network site. She has 130 friends on facebook. Personally she doesnt believe in virtual relationship. She thought Mass media can play an important role to enrich knowledge. She thought mass media was not so



Case-2 Name: Mohammad Jahangir Alam Age: Sex: 19 Year Male

Name of Educational Institution: Govt. Titumir College.

He is the youngest child of his parents. He has one elder brother and one elder sister. He is not so close to his family members. He spent most of his time with his friends out side of the home, for example 10-11 hour. When he stayed in home maximum time he. took rest (sleep) and watch TV. He has six friends and all of them are boys. Most of them are his school friends. But he shares every thing with his friend Mahmud. He loves to do gossiping with his friends. Their topic of gossiping is their daily activities. He has not religious concern. He takes only "Jummar Namaz" on Friday. Otherwise he doesn't pray his prayers. He watches television daily. His favorite channel is B4U for Hindi and English music. He also watches Ntv news. He doesn't like drama serials, magazines and other programs. He likes to watch Hindi movies and football matches on TV daily. He watches television 2 hours regularly. He likes to watch Hindi Movies which are comedy based. He doesn't like Bangla movies. He loves to hear music, specially band music, like-Nagar baul and LRB. He uses computer for playing games not to other functions. He has a habit of collecting cassettes and DVDs. He doesn't hear radio. He has not practice of reading story books. But he likes to read magazines, especially Bichitra, Annondo Mela etc. He reads daily newspaper but not in details. He reads only sports section and the headlines for 10-15 minutes.


His favorite dress is T-shirt and jeans. He likes to wear what he fells comfortable, but it will also be fashionable. He has not fixed brand in cloth but for trouser he choose a brand "Dassel". His favorite food is Burger, Chicken-sand witch or any fast food item. His likes to drink coke. He uses mobile phone. Daily he talks with his other friends 20-30 minutes (average).He has no interest to make friendship with girls. He has smoking habit but now he give up this habit. He had takes smoking before 3or 4 months of his college life but is very hard to continue it. Quit often he takes smoking He drinks bear maximum two times a year, especially 31st night and Birthday party. Quit often he watches pornographic movies (2X) and magazines. For seen I goes to his other friends home because no one stay his home. Sometimes he goes to the Cyber Cafe, but not possible at home. He has facebook account, and he has more then 80 friends on facebook. Personally he dont believe on virtual relationship, but he is interested to make a relationship with girls. He celebrates his Birthday party, Friendship Day etc. He celebrates it outside of home in any fast food shop. He loves to go with his friends any quit place for visit like Mawaghat.He is pleased with his teenage life.



Case-3 Name: Taniya Rahman Diba. Age: Sex: 18Year Fernalle

Name of Educational Institution: Govt. Tolaram College. Level of Education: Class 12.

She is the second child of her parents. Her father is a businessman. She has one elder brother and one younger sister. She has four close friends all of them are girls. She is very close to her mother and she shares each and every thing with her mother. She loves to eat Chotpoti, Fuska, Sumucha and Chinese food. Her favorite drink is 7 up. She likes to wear Shari and Shallower Kamiz. She can draw picture and can sing (robindro) songs. But now she doesn't practice because she has tremendous study pressure. She is very much fond of hearing song especially band and robindro songs, for example L.R.B and Orthohin. She watches TV daily but not for long time. Her favorite channel is Bangla vision, Channel I, Star Plus, Songeet bangla, and Cartoon Network whenever she can. She watches drama serials and magazines. She especially selected drama for dialogue, actor actress and director. She can not understand every thing what the drama want to say but she can realize what is good and what is bad. Actually she watches TV for her interests and time pass. She knew about fashion from TV programs. She can realize family and friendship relation from different serials and talk show. She wants to see Hindi movie but her mother doesn't give her permission to watch. She saw some bangle movies, not in the cinema hall but on television. She tried to see cricket matches on TV.


She loves to hear music, especially in the free time. She also reads daily newspaper too. She likes to read Alpine, Entertaining news. She spent 1 hour for it. She doesn't read magazines. She loves to study story books. She likes adventures stories, for exampleJafor Iqbal's "Dosshi Kozon". She reads comics books too, for example-Chacha Chowdhury and she also read Humaun Ahmed's Story. She talks to her friends by land phone 10 to 15 minutes. She doesn't like combined school for boys. She thinks that boys are always ready to fall in love attitudes. She discuss with her friends about boys behavior, attitudes, movements and what they do daily. She practices her prayers but not regularly, quit often. She doesn't take fast because her mother doesn't allow her to do. She has no obligation to make friendship with boys if it is required. She never thought about love and she has no perfect idea about it. She doesnt use internet, although she does not believe on virtual relationship. She doesn't celebrate her Birthday formally. Her friends wish her but they didn't go outside for eat or enjoy the day. She wants to do but her mother doesn't support it. She is not very much happy in her life. If she can do what she wants to do then life will be very happy.



Case- 4

Name: Didarul Islam. Age: Sex: 23ear. Male.

Name of Educational Institution: Dania Collage. Educational Level: B.B.A (Accounting, 4th year). He is the youngest child of his parents. He has one elder brother and elder sister. His father is a businessman. Each and everybody of his family love him very much and he never felt any deprivation in his life. All members of family try to make his wishes fulfill. But he personally very closed to his elder sister but in outside of family he is very close to his girlfriend. Though he is very close to his girlfriend but he sometimes doesn't want to say her family problems. Only his elder sister knew about his love. He has small friend circle, where one is boy and one is girl. From his childhood he studied in an English medium school and college so that he is very free in nature. He pray only in Friday "Jummar N,amaz" and Eid Jammat. Maximum time he stayed outside of home. So he had a habit of eating fast foods. He likes prawn:boll, French fry, Pizza and Shik-cabab. He also likes Thai soup. He loves to gossip with his friends. He watches television daily 1 to 2 hour. He mainly watched cricket matches, English. movies and music. Some times he watches Hindi movies and music videos. His favorite channel is H.B.0, Star Movies, Zee cinema, Ten Sports, Star-Sports. He normally watches Hindi movies on computer. He doesn't watch BTV OR other bangle channels. He loves music too. He has a collection of many DVDs which are English, Hindi, Bangla too. His favorite BAND is L.R.B, James, Back Street Boys, Cillen Dion, Marie Carry, Bombay Vikings etc. He loves band music ' for its beats, rhythm and meanings of the song. He never listen radio before. 76

He reads daily newspaper, for example "The Daily Star", he reads only sports news and the headlines. He doesn't have a habit of reading story books, because he thought it takes so much time to read a book and he is not to relating in nature. He quit often reads magazines- especially entertaining magazines. In his leisure time he watches TV, hear music or play games on computer. He likes to' chat with others, because, Internet is second friend. He has insomnia, for that reason he use computer at late night or he spent his time with talking to his girlfriend by mobile phone because his girlfriend couldn't talk to him by land phone. He has an account on facebook with 165 friends and he like to chat with them. He believes on virtual relationship and interested to make a relationship with girls. His favorite dress is Jeans and short shirt or T-Shirt. He likes western patterns of fashion. He normally uses branded cloths and shoes, for example-Nikes, Reeboks, Cats-Eye, Westecs and European shoes. He has a habit of use various types of body spray too. He likes to have long hair because he thought that for this long hair he looks very nice and different. He also use fashionable but simple in design chain and lockets. He enjoys and celebrates his Birthdays with some of his friends. He also celebrates valentine days, friendship days, New Year. When he gets chance he goes for long drive. He has a habit of smoking. But he drinks bear quit often especially any occasions. He believes in love and sexual relationship. But he didn't go to the bed. He saw some 2X and 3X movies on computer. He is very pleased in his life.



Case-5 Name: Afroja Akter Trishna. Age: Sex: 21ar. Female,

Name of Educational Institution: Dania University college Educational Level: BBA 2nd year.00 She is the youngest daughter of her parents. She has one elder sister only. She is very close to her sister. She has six friends all are girls. She likes to read any type of novels in her leisure time. Sometimes, listen music and watch television too. She quit often she use computer and hear radio. She pray her prayers quit often. She is not so much religious. She likes to vegetable roll and prawn boll. She is not so choosy in dress and other style. She likes to wear what does she fill comfort. Shallower Kamiz is her favorite dress. She didn't like sharee because it is very much tough to control. She always likes to read story books, articles whenever she got time. There are no fixed subjects which she wants to read. It may be political, social and economic matter. She also enjoyed entertaining news. Her favorite writers are Jafor Iqbal, Humayo Ahmed, Imdadul Haque Milon. She loves to read books and she likes to gift to others. She has a habit of reading newspaper and magazines too. Her father took Indian Magazines like- Shanonda, Desh magazines, The Daily Star and the Prothom Alo of Bangladesh. She reads daily and weekly. She especially reads features and other editor column. She loves to listen music especially "Robindro and old and modern bangle songs, She quit often listen English music too, like Ricky Martin. She has a habit of watch Hindi music video on television. Her favorite channel is Star plus, Z-Music which are Indian channel. She didn't watch Bengali channel normally but she watch BTV on Eid festivals. She also hears radio but rarely. For example, one or two times in two months. She normally heard Serial and songs. She is very choosy about different programs. She spent


almost 2 to 2 and half hours a day for watching television. She use computer not for work but for playing games. She truly believed that one can learn many sides of life and problems of life and solution by reading books and watching television for example- self justification, attitudes to other peoples, family and friends problems. She tried to herself to solve her own problems or sometimes she took the help of her elder sister. She does not use internet. She doesnt believe on virtual relationship. She loves to gossips with her friends. She enjoy different programs like- Pohela Falghun, New -Year (both) Bangla and English, Birth Day and Friendship Day etc. She has no boyfriend but she believe in love and she has no hesitation to make friend with boys but she think that boys are very much cunning and they make friendship with the girls for their self interests but it is also true that all of them are not same. She don't support love without parents permission. She didn't accept premarital sex or any type of physical relationship.




To communicate with the whole world mass media contributes a great and vast role. Not only that, media had an influence on local and national culture also. The most important fact is that, cultural homogeneity and heterogeneity. We watch these two types of cultural change historically. In Bangladesh, the presence of cultural heterogeneity doesn't match with local culture in our country. The interference and expansion of modern technology, mass media influence and change our social and cultural environment in such a way which is unthinkable and un precedent in our history.

Since 1980 we saw the cultural change but from the 1990 it took tremendous form. Especially in urban (areas) culture of our country have a tendency to copy foreign culture that's why "Global Values is practiced. This work is done by the media.

In urban Bangladesh, technological development doesn't least require a special mention. With its animated power source, religious and magical barriers, strong clan and tribal ties, caste discriminations, taboo orientations had contributed to the territorial technological inferiority. Thus nations with outstanding industrial and military technology tended to dominate the country's economy and politics. Accordingly under the globalization of interaction, the mass media technology with special emphasis on Cable and satellite technology tends to entrench into the cultural sphere of the subscribed territory. With this reality of entrenched foreign cultural exposure, the recipient culture is to work to change into the global trends.


Hence, because of the influx of foreign culture, which is projected through the mass media, mostly through cable and satellite TV into our country, a distinct youth culture has been created in terms of their behavior and attitudes.

This paper on "Impact of Mass Media on Cultural Change: A study on Teenagers Gazipur Sadar Area" has been carried out in the Gazipur Sadar town. The sample that has been studied included only her family is conservative for that she never watch TV in front of his father. When her father do not stay in home or stays another room then she open the television go to the drawing room. She watches daily drama serials in cable TV. She doesn't like action movies.

In style she tried to follow the actresses of Hindi movies for dress, hair cut and make-up. Her favorite dress is shallower kamiz and she likes high hills shoes.

Television is the main media for her to entertainment. She has no friend besides her house. That's why she spent her time by watching TV. Some times she went to the nearest VCD shop for rent cassettes. She only rent Hindi movies. Quit often she felt in odd situation. She saw many people took pornographic CDs freely. She has no interest on this but she felt fear when she thought about teenagers whose age ranges from 13 to 19 and female respondents dominate the distribution. Most of respondents have education background of secondary level and belong to the middle class and upper middle class family. The students from Bangla medium school- colleges show higher percentage than student of English medium institutions.

Most of the respondents are used to have Western food than are used to have food that is cooked traditional way. The respondents mostly prefer trends clothes. Watching TV is mostly the way the respondents pass their leisure time by most of the respondents


moderately close with their family and very less number of them is always obedient to their parent. Mostly close one member of their family. Many of them are very close with their school & College friends with whom them discuss mostly about fashion and about show biz work. However, many of them are very close to their peer groups. -

In terms of religiosity, although most of the respondents perform religious activities, but they do it quit often all occasionally.

Although all respondents like music, their preferences for language based music differ significantly from male to females. As like as male chose English and rap or high bit music more than fermale, whereas females likes Hindi and Bangla music more than males. Again among all the respondents, many of them like soft and modern romantic music. However, few of the respondents have the habit of reading books outside of their academic ones who are girls and they mostly prefer thriller & science fiction books.

In case of media consumption, though most of the respondents read newspapers daily but not in details. They like to read item of news about entertainment, where it is almost same case in reading magazines.

Television viewing has been asserted with cent percent positive response rate whereas rate of listening radio is very low although every respondent have radio in their houses. The fact is reaffirmed with high rate of viewing television everyday, while the daily duration of television viewing mostly happens for 1 to 2 hours. The rate for reasons for watching television is higher among the respondents who watch TV simply because of entertainment.


Subscriptions of satellite channels mostly take place through the cable operators. Most of the respondents have the access to the connection of cable line and most of them watch satellite TV mostly, only very few of them watch both satellite and BTV equally. They especially watch BTV only in any occasion like Eid and others. Out of 10, 8 or9 respondents who mostly watch channels that are combination of serials, musical programs, movies, news, cartoons, sports etc. and musical programs are mostly preferred by the respondents. Moreover, they choose particular programs because those a re entertaining.

Another thing is that, watching language based channels varies males to females; fernales respondents is higher than males in watching Hindi channels while males are little higher in numbers than females in watching English channels. However, rate of watching Bangla channels doesn't vary that much by gender. Most of the respondents are attached to their favorite character/ characters of any programs because of their good looks and most of the respondent wish to follow them in their real lives, the boys want to become like their "Macho" heroes and the girls want to follow their "role model in dressing-up, hair-style, in look etc.



The effect of mass media, as a form of communication messages, on the behavior of people is actually a controversial issue. The consequences of incorporation of media technology into our daily life can both positive and negative. However, the actual aim of this paper is devoid of such value judgment, rather it was an attempt to present only the particular teen culture which has been created as a result of global media, especially the satellite technology and the objectives has been met quit successfully. A particular urban teen culture on Gazipur Sadar rown do exists in our contemporary society in which case, the impact of mass media plays a vital and important role. All the teenagers, either from Bangla and English medium educational institutions, are really affected by the mass media or especially by the satellite television. In a globalization process every country try to get closer. By technological advancement, globalization entered to any country through mass media. In Bangladesh globalization process is active and till now there is no technological improvement. Although religion, class, race, class difference are in a strong placed, and those constraints technological advancement a lot. This is one of the important cause for dominant our culture by other foreign culture. They use our mass media for control our own economy, politics and culture. Especially they give emphasis on satellite and cable TV. This is the way how foreign culture entered our own one. That's why we change our culture according to the whole world. This cable and satellite TV damage our culture as a whole and especially our teen culture, which we saw easily in their behavior and changing life patterns. The mass media of our country couldn't take efficient and effective role to establish our culture. There are several causes, like programs and add which are made are technically default. Our media is used commercially and only goal is taking profit and exposure their products add. Another thing is that our media have no freedom to exposure their news in their ways and sometimes media organizations are focus their own interests. It has been


mentioned earlier that one of the main concern of the effect of satellite TV, is permissiveness of the contemporary youth culture. They, today, are very much exposed to smoking, alcohol and although the percentage is low, some respondents asserted to be involved in relationships with opposite sex-either physically or mentally. However, degree of sexual relationship is restricted to only kiss and toughing. It has been found that some teenagers, although it go to party and other programs, These party are held during New Year's Eve, Valentine Day, Birthday, Love Day etc. Usually the teenagers from upper- middle class and those who studied in English medium school and College in the society. Attending such parties when it finds like a status issue and trend of modern world. So, it is crystal clear that our teen people spent their valuable time for media consuming. They enjoy most entertaining programs which are very much negative to them. Because it doesn't match with our cultural practice. This type of media influence changes our language, family pattern, religion, attitude etc. which changes our culture as a whole.


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Respondents Name: .. Age: years Sex: Male/Female, Educational Institute: .. Class: . Life Style: Food habit Dress-up Passing leisure time. Closeness with family friends and peer groups. Consuming cultural product: Listening to music Habit of reading book. Performing Religious activities: Media habit: Print Media Reading News paper Reading Magazines. Electronic Media Listening Radio Watching both Bangladeshi and satellite Television. Influence of TV as a whole: Performance of internet browsing: Using Social network site Surfing on various site


Use of internet on education

Permissiveness: Smoking Taking drugs and alcohol Accessing Pornography Extent of men and women relationship.


Mac quail, Denis, Mass Communication Theory, London: SAGE publication, 1987, Richard T. Schaefer, Sociology, New York: McGraw Hill companies, 2003, Williams, Fredrick, The New Communications, California: Wadsworth publishing Company, Belmont-1997. DR. A.S.M. Amanullah, Sociology of mass communication, Dhaka: Australia Bangladesh research center (ABRC), May 2004, Alan Wells- Mass Media & Society. Niklas Luhmann -The Reality of the Mass Media. Ray Eldon -Impact of mass media: current issues. www. Encyclopedia Britannica. Org.