The Uses of Food and Nutrition Security Indicators in Global and Local Policy Spaces

Contestationsonpoverty measures Measure of poverty is highly contested: various problems concerning the calorie-based specification of food needs: absence of nutritional elements (Deaton, 2005 and others); variety across individual bodily energy expenditure (Ravallion, 1992; Saith, 2005); ethical issues of eating behaviour (Saith, 2005); changes in dietary/nutritional composition over time (Meenakshi and Vishwanathan, 2003); consideration of class and labour exploitation in calorific deprivation (Dixit, 2013). Political preference and manipulation in determining poverty line (Deaton, 2005; Sen; others).
It is by now a common practice to use an array of indicators for the evaluation of social and economic development as part of a widely used managerial framework, namely New Public Management (NPM, see LeWit’s bibliography… also check Unander, 2005; Hezri and Hasan, 2005; POINT, 2011; Morse,2011). The most salient example of this might be the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) that allow for certain comparability and accountability at the international (e.g. the latest MDG report), national and subnational levels. Among the multiple issues indicators have been created for, I will focus on Food and Nutrition Security (FNS). These indicators can be thought of (following Foucault/Braidotti) macro- technologies of control of corporeal subjectivities (or the subject as defined through its body) “that govern the production discourses socially recognized as scientifically valid” (Braidotti, 1994, ?). What do/should these indicators do and how? They are meant to make decision making easier, highlight trends, and facilitate accountability of policymakers [the typical expectations of an indicator regardless of their quality+. However, to disentangle the “political economy” *check for better term+ of their production can be “enlightening” *think Mignolo and other decoloniality superstars+/give insight [but still in the light/dark duo], this is, to understand their current management and policy uses they are involved in. I discern two complementary categories of FNS information that speak of the body in relation to food [nothing fancy, it just follows the typical micro – macro differentiation in data collection analysis with complicated names] that correspond into what I call the micropolitics of the body and the macropolitics of food. This choice of words was taken because I believe them to make space for of the uses for policy. The first one can be traced to household and individual level information, the second one XXXX information. To illustrate, some household level indicators may be food income and consumption/expenditure, while individual level information can signal caloric consumption or nutrient intake. On the other hand, examples can be food/caloric production, food imports, food prices, etc. Both their loci are produced in relation to two concepts, hunger and nutrition. These correspond to images of the body conceptualized especially by economics [Ruccio, Amariglio, Mirowski] that

abbreviated PNSAN (Plan Nacional de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional) has been recently published (dated December 17. I try to conceptualize a policy space that is somehow bounded by what can be called contention politics. I have a hunch they could either explain or strengthen a reconceptualization from caloric to nutrient-dense consumption. Such pathways can be thought of those that framework the trickling down from agriculture to nutrition [forgot reference] or the linkages between food-nutrient demands and supplies. FNS as an issue of policy and research has been promoted internationally mainly by the United Nations through the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). This goes all the way to the local level despite governmental decentralization as can be seen with Bogota’s FNS policy. Table 1. and occupied through consensus politics [recover source for this distinction]. The 1996 World Food Summit was key to set a renewed agenda for the issuing of policy guidelines capitalizing the morally desirable goal of eradicating world hunger. shortly after publication of its National Food Security and Nutrition Plan 2012 – 2019. As it is the case with other nations. and e) safety [recover FAO source]. c) consumption. Ossification occurs when movements of territorialization allow for fix structures of sense in policy. The current policy status (as in contrast to a research/academic one) is ossified into a five dimensional analysis consisting of a) availability. or through the emergence of new concepts that contest the truth claims of the previous ones. expanding the right to adequate food contained in the Declaration of Human Rights. I believe that innovations such as the mapping of human metabolism (synthetized in the human metabolic network project [reference]) or research in human microbiome [reference] will impact the (biological) use dimension of FNS indicators. Gender and age vulnerabilities have been highlighted. Colombia’s FNS policy. Colombia is a leading country in the Latin America region according to FAO (reference). d) (biological) use. noticeably through the intervention of the United Nation’s Children Fund (UNICEF). 2013). b) access.validate the production of FNS indicators and relate directly to the history of the definitions of poverty. i. Liquidification can be thought of when underlying concepts that allow for structure begin to be expanded beyond known limits. This creates pathways that policymakers can follow through policymaking and try to accomplish through policy implementation. 2012). Comparison between definitions of ‘food security’ according to implementation level .e. Colombia’s PSAN definition (and therefore also in PNSAN) is similar to that of FAO’s (1996) World Food Summit. They have recently launched the Colombian FNS Observatory (March.

the different shades of centrality the former have on the latter.e. in the second definition it introduces a distributional component that emphasizes problems of inequality and not as an elaboration of poverty lines (as is the case with those in the national and international level). creates the poles of too short/too fat. at all times. BMI in particular. access. probably in an attempt to distance itself from or redefine the national and international precedents. that allows a healthy and active life” CONPES (2007. quality and safety for all people. At least three probable definitions can be found in the exposition of the PPSAN theoretical framework (i. It is achieved in the stability or certainty in the provisioning or availability. as acknowledged in CONPES (2007. and the multitude of scopes needed for its implementation” CDIAN (2007. 2007. "Food and nutrition security refers to the existence of sufficient and stable supply of food.International “Food security exists when all people. physical and economic access and consumption and its use. be it through extreme poverty lines or the development of anthropometric techniques that differentiated bodies according to objectified standards. as well as opportune and permanent access and consumption of it in quantity. Notwithstanding. The creation of desirable bodies in terms of anthropometric indicator. 60). and of location and distribution of infrastructure and urban services. safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” FAO (1996). 25) in line with international theory and policy that nurtures from famine driven political conflicts to public health management. 25-27) author’s translation. The first one preserves (as does the one of the national policy) the FAO’s analytical components of food security: availability. under circumstances that allow an adequate biological use. . gives place to different types of territorial development. National Local The stage where this policy is stated is that of human development and national security.” iii) “Any collective action that recognizes the indivisibility of the dimensions that sum up the right to food. this is even reflected in the specific goals into which the main one is divided (CDIAN. reifying the truly developed bodies from those lacking. the interdependency between process in the food chain. i) “Food security guarantees the realization of the right to nourishment. chapter 2). and (biological) use. 3) author’s translation. consumption.” ii) “The unequal spatial distribution of burdens and benefits. The control over human bodies has been exercised through the correspondence of caloric intake with specific desires promoted from the West to the Rest. have physical and economic access to sufficient. Bogota fails or eludes giving a precise definition to FNS.

n. technically. There are only two gender referenced indicators.g. and what can it offer them to incentivize them to address such challenges? . financially. n.Bogota’s third definition stretches a local governance approach to underline a more participatory definition. Indicator Infant mortality rate for undernutrition Infant mortality rate Infant mortality rate for acute respiratory infection Infant mortality rate for accute diarrea illness Underweight at birth Global undernutrition in infants Infant stunting Adult obesity Prevalence of anemia during pregnancy Prevalence of anemia in children (5-13 yo) Prevalence of anemia in infants Prevalence of anemia non pregnant women Prevalence of vitamine A deficiency in infants Prevalence of zinc deficiency in infants Health Infant mortality age (years) <6 <6 <6 <6 <6 <6 <6 18-64 13-49 5-13 <6 18-64 <6 <6 Gender n.a.a.a. The PNSAN (national level) defines specific indicators for policy monitoring and implementation.a.a. There is no consideration of inequality. and none to elders.a.a.a. Among the dimension of biological use 14 indicators are given. 71% of these indicators refer specifically to infants (people less than 6 years old). n. all others are not gender sensitive. This is not because some interest group oppose to them (which might be or not be the case) but because certain indicators are desirable at a global level and are set according to minimal standards (usually according to the feasibility at the near to poorest countries). x n. n. x n. It may be criticiezed that many indicators are desirable but unfeasible (e. in what seems an attempt to overwrite the top – bottom structure of the national norm. politically).a. In what ways can this analysis inform the economic and political context of local development? How can it built into a ‘developmental’ strategy? What challenges does it pose to the local stakeholders. n.a. only 3 refer to adulthood although 2 of them to reproductive age.a. These indicators make FNS in old ages invisible.a. Anthropometry Micronutrient deficiency Indicators of consumption (missing table) and use refer specifically to individual bodies. n. n. n. n.

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