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OD;bjrpf qkdwJh ykvdyfpmoifwa,mufudk bdk;cspfqkdwJhvlqkd;[m uGrf;jcHukef;
bkef;NuD;ausmif;em;rSm acsmif;NyD;&kdufvkdufwmuHaumif;vkdU
raow,fqkdwmvnf; armifEkrodbl; / ulvDukvm;urSm;aeovm; ?
'Dvlqkd;awGu rSm;aeovm;qkdwmudkvnf; armifEkrodbl;/
ulvDukvm;wa,mufxJukd Arm trsm;u 0kdi;&kdufaewm jrif&wmeJU
olUESvkH;om;aqGUaqGUckef jzpfvmNyD; ArmawGudk twif;0ifxkd;wmygbJ/
udkpHxGef;&JU om;qkdwm tJ'dvlqkd;awG odaeMuvkdU olvGwfoGm;wmyJ/ 'dvkdom
r[kwf&if tJ'Dae&mrSm oltawmfemr,f/
aemufNyD;awmhvnf; / 0g;c,fr wbufur;f &Gmopf&GmrSm atmifoif;qkdwm
&Sdw,f/ atmifoif;u armifEkxuf ESpfESpfavmufMuD; w,f?
t&yfvnf;tawmf&Snfw,f tm;vnf;odyfaumif;w,f/
vufvnf;odyfjrefw,f/ oleJUpum;ajym&if wbufom;[m tifrwef
owdxm;ajym&w,f/ pdwfrxif&if bmr[kwfwmav;eJu xcswmyJ/
olcsckduf&ifvnf; roufombl;/ vuf0g;a&? vufoD;a&m? 'l;a&m? zaemifha&m?
tukefokH;w,fqkdawmh csNyD;&if wbufom;ukd ESmESyf,l&wmcsnf;bJ/
pdwftxdtckduf tifrwef jrefwJh armifEk[m waeUaomtcg ? tJ'datmifoif;eUJ
urf;em;vrf; ausmufrD;aoG;&kHtem;rSm oGm;NyD; &ifqkdifrdMuw,f/
armifEkeJUygvmwJh oli,fcsif;udk atmifoif;u olUpmtkyfawG
jyefay;bkdUawmif;w,f/ tJ'doli,fcsif;uvnf; atmifoif;udk odyfaMumufNyd;
jyefay;yghr,fvkdU wkefwkef&D&DeJU jyefajymw,f/ 'gayrJh atmifoif;[m
a'goxGufNyD; rif;,loGm;wmMumNyD? 'DuaeU vmay;csifay;/ ray;&if rif;udk
wD;&vdrfhr,f vkdUpdwfvkdufrmefyg Mudr;farmif;w,f/ 'dvkd Mudrf;armif;wmudk
armifEk rMudKufbl;/ tJ'gaMumifh bmpmtkyfrSef;vnf; rodbl;/ ,lxm;wm
b,favmufMumaeNyDqkdwmvnf; rodbl; / a[haumif-pmtkyfudk jyefray;eJUvkdU
armifEku olUoli,fcsif;udk vSrf;ajymvkdufw,f/ tifrwef vufjrefwJh
atmifoif;[m tacstwif pum; ajymaebkdU armifEkudk cGifhray;bl;/ olUAveJU
armifEk &JU b,fbufar;&kd;udk wtm;xkd;vkdufwmarmifEkvnf; tJ'Dae&mu
'DcJvkH;ykHay: ykHvsufom;usoGm;w,f/ armifEk[mvufoD;'PfaMumifh
rl;rl;aemufaemuf jzpfae&m u qGJrdqGJ&mudk qGJvkdufwm 'DcJvkH;wvkH;udk
qGJrdw,f/ tJ'gaMumifh twif;ukef;xNyD; 'DcJvkH;eJU atmifoif;&JU em;xifukd
wcsufbJxkekdifw,f/ olUxuf t&yfeJU Avaumif;wJh atmifoif;[m
tay:upD;NyD; vufod;rkd;? 'l;rkd;? ajcaxmufrkd;awG &Gmcsaevkdufwm
armifEk&JUnDarmifOom tJ'Dae&mudk ESpfrdepfavmufaemufusNyD;
a&mufvmr,fqkd&if armifEk&JUtouf[m xGufoGm;ekdifp&m

taMumif;&Sdw,f/olUnDarmifO[m &ef jzpfae&mudk a&mufvmNyd; 'DcJvkH;wvkH;eJU
wtm;vTJaygufvkdufwmatmifoif;vnf; tJ'dae&mrSm ykHvsufom;usoGm;w,f
xifw,f/ atmifoif;&JU vuf uvGwfwJhtcsdefrSm armifEk[m owdr&awmhbl;/
tawmfESmESyf,l&w,f/
aemufwckajym7Od;r,f/ 1921 ckESpfxJrSm 0Iduf (Whyte) aumfr&SifvkdUac:wJh
pkHprf;a&;tzGJUwckudk bdvyftpkd;&wkdUu zGJUay;vkdufw,f/ tJ'dtzGJUudk *sDDpDbDat
toif;csKyfu oydwfarSmufw,f/ tJ'gaMumifh 'DtzGJU[m 0g;c,frudk
a&mufvm&if oHykH;wD;NyD; qE?jyMubkdU 0g;c,fr *sdpdbDat toif;cGJ&JU
acgif;aqmifwcsKdU upDpOfMuw,f/ tJ'dvkd oHykH;wD;rJhvlawGxJrSm ae&Sife,f
ausmif;u armifEkwkdUvlpkvnf;yg,wf/ 0Idufaumfr&Sif[m 1921 ckESpf
'DZifbmvxJrSm ykodrf udktoGm; 0g;c,frrSm cP em;w,f/ olwkdU&JU
oabFm[m 0g;c,frNrDKUxdyf 0ifvmwJhtcsdefupNyD; wNrKdUvkH;qlnHoGm;atmif
oHykH;awG wD;MuwmyJ/ armifEkwkdUvlpk[m oabFmqdyfem;uyfNyD;
wm0ef,l&w,f/ txuftrdefUt& olwkdU[m oHykH;awGudkom
r&yfrem;wD;ae&r,f? wjcm;bmrS rvkyf&bl;/ 'gayrJh armifEk[m
oHykH;wD;ae&if; ESvkH;om;awG aqGUaqGU ckefvmw,fxifw,f/ bmrS rajymyJ
olwkdUvlpkxJu xGufNyD; tem;rSm&SdwJh qkdifwqkdifu bdvyf&nfykvif;udk
twif;qGJNyD; 0Idufaumfr&SifpD;vmwJh oabFmukd wtm;aygufvkdufw,f/
ykvif;[m oabFmukd xdNyD; tpdyfpdyfaMurGoGm;w,f/ armifEkvnf; cPawmh
tzrf;cHvkduf&ao;w,f/

(*)
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tJ'dtcsdefu armifEkrSm ynmqufoifbkdU &nf&G,fcsufr&sdbl;/
ynm&JUwefbkd;udkvnf; olrodbl; 'gayrJh olUrdbawGu txl;ojzifh
olUtazu ausmif;qufxm;csifw,f/ jzpfEkdif&ifolUom;ukd 0wfvkHjzpfap
cskifw,f?tJ'gaMumifh &efukefo&ufawmausmif;wkdufxJrSm
zGifhxm;wJhtrsKd;omausmif;rSm ynmqufoifbkdU olUtaz udkpHxGef;u
pDpOfw,f/
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barmif vkdUac:wJh oli,fcsif;wa,mfu&JU tdrfrSm bk&m;ukd;ql uyfw,f/

tJ'dtdrfrSm oli,fcsif;awG pkNyD; pum;ajymaeMu7if; at;armif pufuif;[m
armifekukd vufwkdUNyd; tjyifac:oGm; w,f? armifEkwkdUtwef;xJrSm
at;armifESpfa,muf&Sdw,f/ tJ'gaMumifh 'Dat;armifESpfOD;ukd cGJjcm;wJhtaeeJU
olUudk pufuif; at;armifvkdU ac:wmjzpfw,f/ tdrftjyifbuf a&mufwJhtcg
at;armif pufuif;u armifEk rif;7efukefrSm ausmif;oGm;aeawmhr,f? tJ'dawmh
rif;udk igtaumif;qkH;eJU {nfhcHr,fvkdUajymw,f/ b,fvkd{nfhcHrSmvJ vkdU
armifEkuar;wJhtcg tdrfrJu aumifrtopfav;wa,mufa&mufvmw,f vdkU
igMum;&w,f/ rif;udk tJ'dac:oGm;r,fvkdU at;armifpufuif;u jyefajymw,f/
at;armifpufuif;[m armifEkukd a7S;OD;pGm olUtdrfac:oGm;w,f/ armifEk[m
at;armifpufuif;&JU nTefMum;csuftwkdif; acgif;7if;bufu
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pufuif;[m olUwmzufwm tay:tuFsD topfw xnfudk bk&m;MuD;vr;fem;u
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tJ'dnu armifEk awGUcJh&wJh tawGUtMuKH[m olvlvm;ajrmufwJh t&G,frSm
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wkdufwGef;csuft& vSaMuGqkdwJh aumifrav;eJU vifr,m;vkyfwrf;
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jzpfaewmudk awGU&NyD; armifEk&JUpdwfxJrSm 0r;fomwma&m?
tHhtm;oifhwma&m/MudKufwma&m aAsmif;qefoGm;wmyJ/
tcef;(3)
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armifEk[m 1922 arv tpavmufrSm o&ufawmausmif;wkdufxJu
ae&Sife,fausmif; udk a&mufvmw,f? &yfa0;u a&mufvmMuwJh
ausmif;om;awG aebkdU pm;bkdUtwGuf ausmif;tkyfcskKyfa&;tzGJUu
vSnf;wef;xJrSm wkdufwvkH;iSm;ay;xm;w,f? aemuf ajcmufv MumwJhtcg
ausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJU [m tJ'dwkdufudk qufriSm;Ekdifawmhbl;/ tJ'gaMumifh
armifEkwkdUvlpk[m o&ufawm ausmif;wkdufxJu bkef;MuD;ausmif;rSm
vSnf;wef;wkef;uvkd ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm;awGtwGuf pnf;urf;
odyfrMuD;awmhbl;/
nwnawmh &efukefta&SUykdif;rSm rD;tMuD;tus,favmifw,f? armifEkeJU
olUoli,fcsif;[m o&ufawmausmif;&JU tjyifbufukd xGufNyd; tay:udk

xkd;wuffaewJh rD;a&mifawGukd vSrf;MunfhaeMuw,f? armifEkudk
'Dvl&JUemrnfar;vkdUr&bl;/ rD;avmifwmudk vSr;fMunfhvkdU tawmfuav;
MumvmwJhtcg armifEku tJ'Doli,fcsif;udk vSr;fNyD;/ jhynfhwefqmrawG
b,frSm&SdovJ/ cifAsm;odovm; vkdUar;w,f/ odw,fvkdU tJ'dvlu ajzw,f/
tJ'dudk usaemfoGm;csifw,f? cifAsm;vkdufykdUrvm; vkdU armifEku xyfar;wJhtcg
csmwdwf rif;oGm;csifvkdufykdU r,f? 'gayrJh igykdUw,fqkdwm rif;b,folUudkrS
rajym&bl;vkdU 'Doli,fcsif;u uwdawmif;w,f? armifEkuvnf; rajymygbl;
vkdU uwday;NyD; olwkdUESpfa,muf xGufoGm;Muw,f? vrf;rSm armifEk
t&ufaomufcsifw,fqkdwJhtwGuf olUoli,fcsif;[m armifEkudk
w&kwfaysmfyGJpm;qkdif wqkdifac:oGm;w,f? armifEk[m t&ufukd
rcsdefqwwfbl;/ t&r;faomufcsifw,f? olUoli,fcsif;u xdef;xm;wJhtwGuf
eJeJaomufNyD; jhynfhwefqmwef;udk xGufoGm;Muw,f?
t&ufaomufwm b,favmuftjypfMuD;w,fqdkwm armifEkrawG;rdbl;/
jynfhwefqmwef;udk oGm;wmuvnf; b,favmufqkdw,f qdkwmarmifEk
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&efukefjrdKUMuD;xJu w&kyfaysmfyGJpm;&kHw&kHrSm t&ufudkvnf; aomufzl;Nyd/
jynfhwefqmwef;rSm jynhfwefqmr wa,mufeJUvnf; aysmfyg;bl;NyD/ ol[m
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tawmf[kwfvSNyDvkdUxifNyD; ausmif;ydwfvkdUtjyef olUjrdKU u oli,fcsif;awGudk
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t&ufqkdifeJU jynfhwefqmrtdrfudk ra&SmifrvTJ omwJht vkyfwck tjzpfeJU
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armifEkrSm a&m8gwck &vmw,f? olUoli,fcsif;udk ar;MunfhwJhtcg 'g[m *Ekd
a&m*gvkdUajzw,f/ aygifxdyfrSmvnf; tMudwfwvkH;xGufw,fvdkU armifEku
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'doli,fcsif;&JU tultnDeJU r*kdvrf;? bif*srifaq;qkdifu aq;wykvif; 0,f
w,f? aq;emrnfudkawmh armifEk aumif;aumif;Mud; rrSwfrdbl;/ bJvqrf;
athmzfukd aybvkdUac:w,fxifw,fvkd Uajymjybl;w,f/ aygifu tMudwfay:rSm
awmh tJ'doli,fcsif;u a&cJwifay;w,f?
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'Db0a7mufaewmawmif oHa0* r&Ekdifao;bl;/ 'Daq;pm;NyD; a&cJtkHae&wmudk
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txdrf;trSwfwcktjzpfeJU awmif armifEk[m MudwfNyD; *kPf,laevkdufao;w,f/

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tJ'DESpf rwfv pmar;yGJtjyD; ausmif;ydwf&uftwGif; armifEk[m 0g;c,frudk
jyefoGm;w,f/ {NyD v 13&uf oMuFeftMudK&ufukd a7mufwJhtcg armifEkeJU
oli,fcsif; av;ig;a,muf[m &,fp&m t0wftpm;rsKd;pkHawGudk 0wfNyD; NrKdUxJrSm
a&yufcHxGufbkdU qkH;jzwfMuw,f? tJ'D qkH;jzwfcsuft& NrdKUxJudk rxGufcif
urf;em;vrf;u w&kwfacgufqGJqkdifudk oGm;Nyd; armifEkwkdUvlpk[m
t&ufawGudkaomufMuw,f? taomufvGefoGm;wJhtwGuf 'DaumifawG[m
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eJUrsufapmif;xkd;jrpfwbufurf;rSm &Sdw,f? tawmfom,mwJhae&mav;ygyJ/
pyg;usnf&JU a&SUrSmESpfxyftdrfuav;wtdrf&Sdw,f? tJ'DtdrfrSm armifEkeJU
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pm;p&mawG tjynfhtpkH 0,fay;xm;w,f? tJ'Daemuf pyg;usnfudkapmihfaewJh
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armifEku Od;av; rdef;rr&Sdbl;vm;? &Smay;prf;ygvkdU
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rdef;rwa,mufudk ac:vmw,f? udkb0dkif;uvnf;wlawmfarmif

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'Daumifuav;awGu apmufiwfuav;awG tJ'gaMumifh awmfovif;vxJrSm
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oli,fcsif;awGudk tJ'Dtwkdif; rwkdufbl;/ zefcGufxJrSm
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armifEk[m olYyg;pyfrSm ikHxm;wJh a&eJUtrSwfwrJhaxG; csvkdufw,f/
udkpHxGef;[m tem;rSm&SdaewJhtwGuf olU&ifbwfudk bkwfueJjrnfatmifxkNyD;
'Daumif[modyfrkdufwJhtaumifbJ vkdU armifEkudk a[mufvkdufw,f/ armifEk[m
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armifEkaxG;csvkdufwJh a&awG pifoGm;atmif olU[mol aq;ypfaew,f/
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waeUrSm armifEk[m bmudp?eJUrSef;rodbl;/ &efukefu 0g;c,frudk
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r{ausmf eJU vufxyf&w,fvkdU tdyfrufrufw,f/ armifek[m r{ausmfudk
jrif&kHomjrifbl;w,f/ wcgrs pum;rajymzl;bl;/ ykd;vnf; rydk;zl;bl;/ olukdom
r[kwfbl;/ tJ'dtcsdeftxd armifEk[m b,frdef;uav;udkrS cspfvnf; rcspfbl;/
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tjzpftysufukdjrifNyD; ol&ifxJrsm {ueJ/{ueJ jzpfoGm;wJh twGuf ol[m

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eJUtwl vifarmifpdefcsKdomwJhpum;7,feJU qkdwJhodcsif;udk r{ausmfwkdUtdrfa&SUrSm
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vSr;fay;w,f/ r{ausmfqDujyefpm&NyDqkdJjyD;armifEk[m odyf0rf;omoGm;w,f/
pmuk duAsmu,mzwfMunfhwJhtcg r{ausmfu olUqduk d a&;wJhpm;r[kwfbl;/
olUarmif0rf;uGJqD a&;wJhpm jzpfaewmudk awGU&wJhtwGuf armifEk&JU&ifxJ
rSm'dwfueJ jzpfoGm;w,f/ pmudk zwfMunfhwJhtcg armifEkolqDuk dpmcPcP
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trsm;MuD;awmif;yefwJhtaMumif; r{ausmfudk ajymjyvkdufyguGm? aemufxyf
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armifEkuajymvkdufw,f/
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rNyD;bl;/ oluvnf; cspfOd;rS jyD;w,fqkdwJh oabmw&m;udk armifEk[m
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armif0rf;uGJ xGufoGm;wJhtcg armifEk[m tdyf,may:rSmvSJNyD; r{ausmf&JU
tdrfa&SUrS ajcat; 0r;fa,mif? acG;a[mifjyefajy; tjzpfeJU tMudrfaygif;rsm;pGm
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ESvkH;[m OD;aESmufxuf MuD;aewJh armifEk&JU a&m*g[m tJ'gavmuf x&kHeJU
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oli,fcsif;awGuvnf; armifek[m q,fwef;rSm ratmifEkdifbl;vkdU
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q&mawGu q&mMuD;udk 0kdif;jyD;wkdufwGef;wJhtwGuf

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q,fwef;pmar;yGJMuD;twGuf atmifpm&if;xGufvmwJhtcg tprf;pmar;yGJrSm
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ausmif;om;ususefae&pfw,f/
tcef; (4)
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,lvkduf&if ol[m ausmif;om;awG&JU wHawG;cGufxJrSm yufvufarsmoGm;rSmaygh
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azmufzwfNyd;wJhtcg udkEkjyKH;aew,f/ bmjzpfvkdUvJqkdawmh pm[m
ukdekxifwJhtwkdif; tvkyfay;wJhpmr[kwfbJ ukdekudk ausmif;u
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'kdUESpfudk vkdcsifygvsuf Mum;uzsufw,f qkdwJh aw;uAsm uav;vkd
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olrajym&if olUtaMumif;b,folrS rodEkdibl;vkdU ukdEku ,lqxm;w,f/
trSefjzpfwmuawmh 'Dvkdr[kwfbl;/ ukdEkqDukd pmra&mufcifuwJu
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'de*g;eD pmtkyfwkdufudk zGifh&w,f/ 'Dpmtkyfwkdufuav;[m EkdiiHa&;udk a&m
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Peace Keeper
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They are invisible.
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omoemjyKavmuxJudk ajcpkHypf0ifr,fvkdUocifEkqkH;jzwfcsufcsxm;vkdufw,f/
(C)
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vlUavmurSm omoemjyKcsifwJh qef'awG[m waeUwjcm; &ifhoefvmwJhtcg
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omoemh'g,umqkdwm aiG?ausmif; / ouFef;/ aq;qGr;ftp&SdonfwkdUudk
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tJ'dvdkjrif&Mum;&wJhtwGuf ocifEk[m arxkefrSD0JrItxd a&mufatmif

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jzpfaer,f/ tJ'dawmh cPavmufapmifhMunhfygOD;av vkdU olUudk,folvSnfhpm;NyD;
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(i)
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arw?m/ Oayu?mwkdUbJjzpfw,f/
y&dwf&GwfwJhtcg 1/ ewfjA[?mawGudk w&m;vSLwJhtwGuf 'geyg&rdjzpfaeNyD/
2/ y&dwf&Gwfaewkef; udk,fuvnf; r[kwfwmrvkyf EIwfuvnf; r[kwfwm
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rSefrSef&GwfEkdifwJhtwGuf y&dwfudk rSefrSef&Gwfolrsm t"DXmef yg&rdjzpfaeNyd/ 9/
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q/ tm;vkH;aomow?0gawG olwkdU&JU uHtwkdif;jzpfMu&rSmbJvkdU
y&dwf&GwfolawG[m &Gwfqkd Mu&w,f/
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yg&rD &w,f/

(p)
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aemufxyf&Sdygao;w,f/ tJ'dtaMumif; uawmh 'dvkd/ ocifek[m wufuodkvd
ausmif;om;b0upNyD; woufvkH; ol&ifqkdifcJh&wJh jyoemawG renf;ygbl;/
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y&dwf&Gwfwmudk odyfNudKufaew,f/

(q)
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trIwfwkdUudk ocifEkr&Smawmhbl; y&dwfawGudk wcgwcg pMuFavQmuf&if;
wcgwcgxkdif&if; &GwfaewmeJUyJ olU nnf;aiGUrIawGajyaysmufukefw,f/
tyrf;ajzNyD;om;jzpfoGm;w,f/
(Z)
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0ifEkdif&if tdEd´,xJrSm qlbwfcsef'&mbkdUpfvkd tdEd´,trsKd;om;awG oef;eJUcsDNyD;
ay:MuOD;r,fqkdwm b,folrS rjiif;Ekdifygbl;/
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tdEd´,rSmvkd wkdufyGJ0ifjyvkduf&if 'dkUvGwfvyfa&;twGufvJ NAdwdoQawG
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wEkdifiHvkH;udkukdifvIyfEkdifwUJh AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;&SDw,f/ tJ'gaMumifh
'kdUvGwfvyfa&;twGuf qkH;jzwfcsufwckcsNyD; wkdufyGJ0ifcsifw,f/ ighrSm qE´
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vufu uGefjrLepfawG&JU vufxJ a&mufoGm;Ekdifw,f/ 'g[m igwrifuvm
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igaumif;aumif;odw,f/ tJ'Dawmh vGwfvyf&;wdkufyGJ0ifbkdU 'dkUvufaES;ae&if
EkdifiHa&; acgif;aqmifrI[m uGefjrLepfawG&JU vufxJ a&mufoGm;ekdifw,fqkdwm
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2/ tu,fírausnmvQif zqyv udk,fpm;vS,fawGtaeeJU tpdk;&tzGJUrS
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NAdwdoQtpkd;&udkvnf; taMumif;Mum;r,f/ tJ'Daemuf tEkenf;eJU

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rajym&ao;cif ol ajymvkdUraumif;bl;/ olu tqkdufk daxmufcHvkduf&if
b,folrS uefUuGufrSm r[kwfawmhbl;/olu uefUuGufvkduf&ifvnf; b,folrS
axmufcHawmhrSm r[kwfbl;/ tzGJU0if vlBuD;awG pkHpkHvifvif ajymwmudk
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ocifEkqkdwJhvluvnf; b,fvkd vlpm;vJrqkdEkdifbl;/ olUudk vlqef;vkdU
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usrqif;oGm;bl;/ olUtqkdudk vufcHatmif enf;trsKd;rsKd;eUJ pdwfvefrmefyg
ZGwftwif;ajymaewmyJ/ n 11em&Davmuf&SdwJhtcgusawmh
tvkyftrIaqmiftzGJU0if vlBuD;awGvJ tawmf yifyrf;vmMuukefNyd/ tJ'gaMumifh
Mum;jzwfwJhtaeeJU tzGJU0ifvlBuD;wOD;u tpkd;&tzGJUu EIwfxGuf&ef qkdwJh
tydkif;eJU tmPmzDqef&efqkdwJhtydkif;udk jzKwfypfNyD; wESpftwGif;
vGwfvyfa&;ay;ygr,fqkdwJh NAdwdoQ tpk;d&tzGJUUu 1947 ckESpf? Zefe0g&dv
31&ufaeUrwkdifrD aMujim&ef qkdwJh tydkif;udk bJ qkH;jzwfcsufcs&ef
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rqkH;jzwfwmuydkaumif;OD;r,f qkdNyd; ocifEku oa&mfawmfawmf
ajymvkdufao;w,f/ oef;acgifausmfavmuf a&mufvmwJhtwGuf aemufnrS
qufNyD; pOf;pm;bkdU AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;u tvkyftrIaqmif tpnf;ta0;udk

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ocifEkeJUawGUw,f/ ocifEkqkdwJh twdkif;vkyf&rSmbJ/ rvkyf&if
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tMurf;zufvkduf&ifawmh vGwfvyfa7;wkdufyGJvnf; ysufoGm;rSmbJ/
vGwfvyfa&;eJUvnf; a0;oGm;rSmbJ vkdU ocifEkudkajymw,f/ nzufrSm
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'Djyóemudk OD;pm;ay;Nyd;aqmif&Guf&r,f/ 'DvkdOD;pm;ay;NyD; raqmif&Guf&if
vGwfvyfa&;udk usaemfwkdUrsufajcjywfoGm;vdrfhr,f/ 'dvGwfvyfa&;ukd
OD;pm;ay;Nyd; aqmif&Gufr,fqkdjyef&ifvnf; wESpftwGif; vGwfvyfa&;ay;ygvdkU
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rausnm&if usaemfwkdUu bmvkyfr,fqkdwmyg yg7r,f/ tJ'gryg7If
usaemfwkdU&JU qkH;jzwfcsufudk NAdwdoQ tpdk;&wkdUu zkdfifwGJcsifvnf;
wGJxm;vdrfhr,f/ pufuL pkwfxnhfwJh jcif;xJ
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rausnm&if usaemwkdUbmvkyfr,fqkdwm xnfh&r,f/ rxnhfvkdUvnf;
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wem&Davmufajymw,f/ uefUuGufrJhol wa,mufrS r&Sdbl;/ tJ'Dvkd ajym
NyD;wJhaemuf tmPm zDqefw,fqkdwm rvkyf&if rjzpfvkdU omvkyf&rSm
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usaemfwkdUvlawGvnf; usaemfwkdUpum;udk em;raxmifMubJ tMur;fzufvm&if
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tqkdudk wnDwnGwfwnf; qkH;jzwfcsufcsvkdufNyd;jynfwGif;rSmvnf;
ausnmw,f/ NAdwdoQtpkd;&udkvnf taMumif;Mum;w,f/]
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AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;u ac:vkdufw,f/ Od;ausmfNidrf; jyefvmwJhtcg bdvyfudk
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bdvyfudkvmygvkdUom zdwfwmyJvkdU OD;ausmfNidrf; uajzw,f/ 'dvkdomref
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aqG;aEG;r,f/ vGwfvyfa&; &NyD;wJhtcg tdEd´,[m NAdwdoQ o[m,tzGJUxJrSm
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usnmcJh&w,f/ tJ'dvkd ausnmcsufrskKd;om rygbJ omref
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vkdU OD;ausmfNidr;fu &Sif;jyw,f/ 'Dvkdqkdawmh udpö[m awmfawmfNyD;aeNyd/
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EkdifiHa&;orm;awGtjzpfeJUa&m u&ifacgif;aqmif awGudk c&D;OD;MudKjyKMuw,f?
{nfhcHauR;arG;Muw,f? tMudrftawmfrsm;rsm; aqG;aEG;Muw,f? tJ'Daemuf
u&if-Armjy?emudk qufvufajz&Sif;wJhtaeeJU ocifEkacgif;aqmifwJh
tzGJU0ifwpk[m jrpf0uRef;ay:&dS u&if-Arma'oawGudkoGm;NyD; u&ifArmcspfMunfa&;w&m;awGudk a[mMuw,f? ppfMuD;rNyD;cif
wvavmuftvdkrSmawmif u&if-Arm cspfMunfa&; w&m;awGa[m&atmif
ocifEkeJU [oFmw OD;jrwkdU[m jrpf0uRef;ay:u u&if-Arm a'oawGudk

a&mufcJhMuao;w,f?
u&ifeJArm jyefcsMu&if OoQpfoD;ESpfvHk;udk udkifNyD;xkovkd ESpfzufpvHk;
emMutHk;awmhrSmbJ? &dSpkrJhpk tkd;tdrfav;awGvnf; avmifpmeJUjymyHk
jzpfukefMutHk;awmhrSmbJ? uGJ&SusKd;yJh aoausysufpD;MuwJht xJ bmrStjypfr&dSwJh
rdef;reJU uav;awGvnf; wyHkwacgif;MuD; ygukefMutHk;awmhrSmbJqdkwJh
pOf;pm;rIawG[m oloGm;av&mudk vdkufNyD;
xrif;vHk;wapajcmufovkdjzpfaewJhtwGuf 0efMuD;csKyf jzpfvmNyD;wJhaemuf
'Du&if-Arm jy?emudk ocifEkypfrxm;bl;? wwfEkdifoavmuf ajz&Sif;w,f?
apmbOD;MuD;? ref;*sdrf;xGef;atmif? q&momudk tp&dSwJh u&ifacgif;aqmifawGeJU
ocifEk[m tMudrfMudrf awGUqHkaqG;aEG; w,f? tJ'D u&ifacgif;aqmifawGudk
zdwfac:NyD; jrpf0uRef;ay:&dS u&if-Arma'oawGudk c&D;xGufMuw,f?
a&mufwJhae&mwkdif;rSm u&if-Arm temqdk;MuD;udk aysmufygapqkdwJh apwemeJU
cspfMunfa&;w&m;awG a[m Muw,f? cspfMunfa&;udk tm;ay;rJh
aygif;oif;qufqHa&;awGudk MudK;pm;NyD;vkyf<uw,f?
tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u u&if-Arm temqkd;MuD;[m? ief;ref; tawmfvkdufaeMyD
jzpfwJhtwGuf ocifEkwkdU? apmbOD;MuD;wkdU[m rMumaomwaeUwGif
pwifjzpfay:vmawmhrJh u&if-Arm t"du&kPf;awG udk rydwfyif
rwm;qD;EkdifcJhMuygbl;? 'gayrJh 'DMudK;yrf;rIawGaMumifh aemifaomtcg u&ifArm t"du&kPf;awG ay:vmayrJh ocifEktpdk;&[m u&ifvlxk wpdwfa'o&JU
axmufcHrIudk aumif;aumif; &&dScJhw,f? zqyveJU autif,ltzGJU(2)zGUJ[m
tzGJUtm;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif;? rltm;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif; wkdufaeMuayrJh
wcsKdUacgif;aqmiftcsif;csif; wOD;eJUwOD; em;vnf;rIawG? ,HkMunfrIawG?
cspfcifrIawGudk txl;auseyfavmufatmif &cJhMuw,f? tvsOf;oifhvkdU
'Dae&mrSm om"uwckudk xkwfaz:jycsifw,f?
tcsdefuawmh 1948ckESpf ZGefvukefavmufbJ? r*Fvm'Hku wyf&if;(3)[m
wjcrf;yJhNyD; olykefxoGm;NyD;? o&ufu wyf&if;(1) wwyfvHk;uvnf;
&efukefukdodrf;zkdU qif;vmaeNyD;? tpdk;&uvnf; tifrwefMuD;
tm;udk;&mrJhjzpfaew,f? tJ'Dvkd tcsdefrsKd;&JU aeUwaeUrSm apmbOD;MuD;wkdU
vlwpk[m 0efMuD;csKyf ocifEkeJU awGUyg&apvkdU ta&;wMuD; cGifhawmif;w,f?
0efMuD;csKyfeJUawGUwJhtcg vuf&dS tajctae&JU tef'&m,frsm;yHkudk aqG;aEG;MuNyD;
ref;*sdrf;xGef;atmifu 0efMuD;csKyfbmrS rpdk;&drfeJU? uGefjrLepfawG
&efukefNrdKUxJ0ifvm&if 0efMuD;csKyfudk vHkjcHKwJhae&mwckrSm 0Sufxm;NyD;
tumtuG,f ay;r,fvkdUajymw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm ocifEk&JUtzGJUwGif;u
vlwcsKdUawmif uGefjrLepfudk vufurf;vmMuNyD;? &JtzGJUeJU wcsKdUt&m&dSawG[m

uGefjrLepfawG &efukefxJ 0ifvm&if cHrypfMueJU? vufeufcsvkdufMuvdkU
trdefUay;xm;NyD;NyD qkdwmawmif ocifEkodae&NyD? tJ'Dvdktm;udk;&mrJh
jzpfaewJhtcsdefrsKd;rSm ocifEk[m ref;*sdrf;xGef;atmif&JU pum;udk
Mum;vkduf&wJhtcg 0rf;omvHk;qdkUoGm;w,f?
0efMuD;csKyfocifEk[m u&if-Armjy?emudk ajz&Sif;zkdUtwGuf w&m;yGJrsm;?
aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;eJUom &yfrxm;yJ u&ifjynfe,fzJGUpnf;ay;zkdUtwGuf
zGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfykH tajccHOya'&JU yk'fr (199)eJU/ yk'fr (200)t&
aumfolave,fedrdwf owfrSwfa&; aumfr&SiftzGJUwckudk {NyDv (6)&ufaeUrSm
zGJUpnf;ay;vkdufw,f?
atmufwkdbmv(20)&ufaeUusawmh w&m;vTwfawmfcsKyf&JU w&m;0efMuD;csKyf
a'gufwmbOD; acgif;aqmifNyD; vlrsKd;pkudk,fpm;vS,frsm; rQrQww yg0ifwJh
jynfe,fpHkprf;a&; aumfr&SiftzGJUwckudk 0efMuD;csKyf ocifEk zGJUay;jyefw,f?
'DtzGJU&J yxrtpnf;ta0;rSm rGef-u&if-&ckdif-vlrsKd;pkwkdU&JU w&m;aom
qef'rsm;udk jynfh0apEdkifwJh enf;aumif;vrf;aumif;rsm;udk
aESmifhaES;MuefUMumjcif;r&dSyJ 'Daumfr&SiftzGJUu &SmazGay;MuygvkdU
0efMuD;csKyfocifEk udk,fwkdif aumfr&Siftpnf;ta0;udk wufa&mufNyD;
wkdufwGef;cJhw,f? tJ'Dvkd wkdufwGef;wJh tcgwkef;u rGef? u&if? &ckdifawGudk
jynfaxmifpktwGif; jynfe,f ay;zkdU 0efMuD;csKyf&JU pdwfxJrSm qHk;jzwfxm;NyD;ygNyD?
aumfolave,fedrdwf owfrSwfa&;aumfr&SifeJU jynfe,fpHkprf;a&; tzGJUawGudk
zGJUpnf;ay;vdkufayrJh trSeftwkdif;ajym&&if ocifEk&JUpdwfxJrSmawmh
tJ'DtzGJUawG[m u&if? Armjy?emudk ajz&Sif;Ekdifvdrfhr,f vkdU odyfr,HkMunfvSbl;?
'Dvkdr,HkMunfp&mtaMumif;awG olUrSm&dSaew,f? 'DtaMumif;awGudk 'Dae&mrSm
eJeJavmufazmfjycsifw,f?
(1) 1947 ckESpf AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;wkdU rusqHk;cifuwnf;u autif,l
u&iftrsKd;om; tzGJU[m u&ifrsKd;om;umuG,fa&;tzGJU qdkwJhtrnfeJU
u&ifvufeufudkifwyfawGudk avQmufzGJUw,f? tJ'DtzGJU&JU twkdaumufuawmh
autif'Dtkd jzpfw,f?
jynfolU&JabmfeJU uGefjrLepfawGuvnf; udk,fykdifwyfawG zGJUxm;Muw,fqdkawmh
autif,luvnf; autif'DtkdudkzGJUrSmbJ? ocifEktpdk;&[m tifrwef
tm;eJaewJhtwGuf 'DwyfawGudk zsufvJrypfEdkif/ olwkdU&JU vufeufawGudkvnf;
rodrf;Ekdif jzpfaew,f? tJ'Dtajctae[m rMumcifaom aeUrSm u&if-Arm
t"du&kPf;awG jzpfay:vmzkdUtwGuf tMuD;qHk;taMumif;MuD;jzpfw,f?
(2) autif,l u&iftrsKd;om;tzGJU[m (u) u&ifjynfe,fudk vkdcsifw,f? (c)
tJ'Du&ifjynfe,frSm jynfaxmifpkxJu cGJxGufvdku cGJxGufEkdifcGifh&dS&r,fvdkU

autif,luawmif;qkdw,f? (*) u&ifjynfe,fxJrSm yJcl;wdkif;/ weoFm&Dwkdif;/
{&m0wDwkdif;xJu ArmEkdifiH&JU w0ufavmuf eD;eD;avmuf&dSwJh e,fajrawGudk
xnfhay;&r,fvkdU awmif;qkdw,f?
autif,l&JUvkdvm;csuf (3)ckxJu (u)udk ocifEktpdk;&tzGJUu
vkdufavsmEdkifw,f? (c)udk vHk;0rvdkufavsmEdkifbl;? (*)udkawmh
aumfolave,fedrdwftzGJUaumfr&SiftzGJUu axmufcHrJha'oudkom
u&ifjynfe,fxJ xnfhay;zkdU tpdk;&tzGJUu qHk;jzwfw,f?
tckvkd autif,leJU ocifEktpkd;&wkdU&JU oabmuGJvGJcsuf[m rMumaomaeUrSm
u&if-Arm t"du&kPf;awGjzpfay:vmzkdUtwGuf wwd,taMumif;jzpfw,f?
tckajymcJhwJh taMumif;MuD; (3)aMumif;u 0kdif;NyD; wGef;ay;MuwJhtwGuf
1948ckESpf ZlvkdifveJU Mo*kwfvxJrSm jynfaxmifpkppf&Jwyfu
u&ifawGtawmfrsm;rsm; vufeufawG,lNyD; autif'Dtdk tzGJUxJ0ifoGm;Muw,f?
zmyGefeJUu,m;rSm&dSMuwJh autif'DtkdawG[m tpkd;&wyfawGudk
twif;0ifwdkufMuw,f? oxHkeJU armfvjrdKifqdkwJh c&kdif&Hk;pkduf&m jrdKUMuD;
(2)jrdKUudk autif'DtdkawG[m cPavmuf odrf;xm;EkdifcJhMuw,f?
uGefjrLepf?jynfolU&Jabmftp&dSwJh olykefawGaMumifh tvkdvdkurS
tawmfqdk;ae&wJh jynfwGif; tajctae[m tJ'DtcsdefupNyD; tpkd;&tzGJU
touf&IrSm;avmufatmif ykdNyD; qkd;0g;vmjyefw,f?
'Dvkdqkd&if 'DolykefawGudk &ifqkdifzkdUtwGuf vufeufudkifwyfawG
jrefjrefaxmifygvm;? tpdk;&bmvkyfaeovJvkdU ar;p&m&dSw,f?
tpdk;&vufeufudkifwyfawGu (60)&mckdifEIef;avmuf[m vufeufawG,l
olykefawGeJU aygif;NyD; tpdk;&udk ykefuefaewJh tcsdefrsKd;rSm tpdk;&[m
wyftopfzGJUzkdUudwfpudk tawmfav;av;eufeuf pOf;pm;&r,f?
vG,fvG,fvkyfvkdufvkdU rjzpfbl;?
vufeufudkifawGudkzGJUzkdU tpdk;&qHk;jzwfjyef&ifvnf; vufeufb,fu&rvJ
EkdifiHwckvHk;[m ysufoavmuf jzpfaeNyD;? tJ'Dvkd EdkifiH&JU tpkd;&udk
aoewfawGay;&if olwkdU&JUaoewfawG[m wGif;eufMuD; xJ
a&avmif;csovkdaerSmbJvkdU aoewfay;&rJhEkdifiHawG[m awG;aeMurSm
"rwmygbJ? tJ'gaMumifh aoewf&bkdU qdkwmrvG,fbl;?
tJ'Dvkd tajctaersKd;rSm ocifEkvJ bmrSrwufEkdifbl;? apmbOD;MuD;tp&dSwJh
u&ifacgif;aqmifawGukd rMumcPzdwfNyD; vuf&Hk;tm;udk; vkyfvmwmawG
rjzpfygapeJU? i,fom;awGudk wyfEdkifoavmuf xdrf;ay;ygvkdUom
awmif;yefae&wmbJ?
1948ckESpf Ekd0ifbmvukefavmufqDudk a&mufwJhtcg tajctae[m

ykdqdk;vmw,f? tJ'gaMumifh 'DZifbmv(4)&ufaeUusawmh 0efMuD;csKyf ocifEk[m
e,faygif;pHku&wJhowif;t& jynfaxmifpkwpkvHk;[m &ifrat;bG,f&m
tifrwefqdk;wJhtajctaeudk a&mufaeygNyDvkdU ausnmcJh&w,f?
tJ'Daemuf Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf aemufqHk;ajcvSrf;taeESifh
apmbOD;MuD;wkdUvlpkudk zdwfNyD; tMurf;rzufMuzkdU autif'Dtkd
acgif;aqmifawGudk oludk,fwkdif arwm&yfcHcsifw,fvkdUocifEkuajymw,f?
'Dvkd'DvkdbJ 0efMuD;csKyfocifEk[m tif;pdefrSm&dSwJh autif'DtkdXmecsKyfudk oGm;NyD;
autif'Dtkd acgif;aqmifawGeJUawGUr,f qkdwmudk rdwfaqGawGodwJhtcg
oGm;zkdUrawmfbl;vkdU tm;vHk;u0dkif;NyD; uefUuGufw,f? tJ'DxJrSm
0efMuD;csKyfuawmf a':jr&Du tjyif;xefqHk; uefUuGufw,f? 'gayrJh b,fol
uefuGufvkdUrS r&bl;? csdef;wJhaeUusawmh 0efMuD;csKyfudkac:&atmif
apmbOD;MuD;eJU taz:wa,muf a&mufvmw,f? 0efMuD;csKyf[m
apmbOD;MuD;udk,fwkdif armif;vmwJh armfawmfum;eJU tif;pdefudk vkdufoGm;w,f?
oleJUtwl AdkvfMuD;pkd;jrifhqdkwJh olUukd,f&HawmfwOD;ukdom ac:oGm;w,f?
oloGm;wJhae&mwkdif;udk vkdufaeMu tifrwefopfpm&dSwJh csif;ppfom;av;awGudk
ac:roGm;bl;? oleJUtwlvdkufvmwJh AdkfvfMuD;pdk;jrifhudkvnf; bmvufeufrS
,lrvm&bl;vkdU wif;wif;MuyfMuyf trdefUay;xm;w,f?
apmbOD;MuD;&JU a,mufcrMuD; OD;ZHtdrfrSm 0efMuD;csKyfocifEkudk
tkef;EkdUMumZHacgufqGJeJU {nfhcHw,f? pm;aomufNyD;wJhtcg autif'Dtkd
acgif;aqmifawGudkom ocifEkawGU&w,f? autif'Dtdk acgif;aqmifawG[m
0efMuD;csKyf ocifEkudk av;av;pm;pm;qufqHyg&JU? 'gayrJhtMurf;rzufMuygeJU?
u&if-Armjy?emudk u&if-Armacgif;aqmifawG[m rdom;pkawGvkd
twlwlxdkifNyD; tEkenf;eJU ajz&Sif;Mu&atmifvkdU ocifEku arwm&yfcHwJhtcg
olwkdUrsufESmxm;awG[m aysmhaysmhajymif;ajymif; r&dSbl;qkdwmudk ocifEk
tuJcwfrdvdkufw,f?
bmoHrsm;Mum;&rvJqkdNyD; 0efMuD;csKyftdfrfrSm wxdwfxdwf wvefUvefU?
vnfwqefUqefUeJU apmifharQmfaeMuwJh rdwfaqGawGeJU 0efMuD;csKyfuawmf
a':jr&DwkdU[m 0efMuD;csKyf jyefa&mufvmawmhrS oufjyif;csEkdifMuawmhw,f?
aemufwaeUusawmh ykodfrfrSm u&ifeJUArmawG apmifaeMuNyD/
t"du&kPf;jzpfp&mtaMumif;&dSw,f qdkwJhowif;udk &wmeJU ocifEk[m
a&wyfu u&ifppfAdkvfapm*sufqdkol OD;pD;wJh ppfoabFmav;eJU ykodrfudk
uwkdufu&kdufvkdufoGm;&w,f/ ykodrfrsm ocifEk[mArm-u&if
acgif;aqmifawGeJUawGUNyD; ESpfbufpvkH;udk tMurf;rzufbkdU arwm&yfNyD;
&efukefudkjyefvmw,f/

'gayr,fh ocifEk&JU arwm&yfcHcsufaMumifh jzpfay:vmwJhaysmhaysmif;rI[m
MumMum rcHygbl;/ 1949 Zefe0g&DvukefavmufqDusawmh autJef'Dtkd
awG[mukef;bufua&wyfAkdvfapm*sufOD;pD;wJh ppfoabmFu
a&bufuESpfzufnSyfNyD; ykodrfudkpD;zkdY MudK;pm;MuwmygbJ? tJ'Dtcsdefu
rtlyifeJU ykodrfrSm u&if-Arm tajctae[m tifrwef qkd;0g;aewJhtwGuf
tpdk;&[m wyf&if;(4)udk tJ'DESpfae&m w0ufpDcGJxm;&w,f?
AdkvftMuyfwyfom;awG[m tawmfowfwdajymifajrmufMuygw,f?
a&bufeJUukef;bufESpfzufnSyfNyD; wkdufckdufwmawmif tnHhrcHbl;?
&dSorQtiftm;eJU jyefcswm autif'Dtkdvnf; aemufqkwfay;&w,f? apm*suf&JU
ppfoabFmvnf; wae&mukdxGufajy;wm avwyfu wkdufav,mOfysHwpif;eJU
oGm;wdk;rdw,f? tJ'DrSm wkdufav,mOfysHu puftajrmufeJUypfwJhtwGuf
ppfoabFmvnf;tawmfysufpD;w,f? a&wyfom;awGvnf;
tawmfaoausysufpD; 'Pf&m&Muw,f? Adkvfapm*sufeJU oHk;av;a,mufom
oabFmay:u ckefcsxGufajy;EdkifvkdU toufab;u oDoDav;vGwfoGm;Muw,f?
0efMuD;csKyfOD;Ekvnf; wkdufyGJtNyD;rSm wzufeJUwzuf tvGeftuRH
rjzpf&atmifqkdNyD; ykodrfudk csufcsif; vkdufoGm;w,f? u&ifArmacgif;aqmifawGeJU awGUNyD; cspfMunfa&;w&m;awGa[mw,f? wkdufyGJaMumifh
tdk;rJhtdrfrJhjzpf&wJh u&if-Arm'kufconfawGudk aiGeJUypfpnf;axmufyHhw,f?
ArmawG zsufypfvkdUysufpD;oGm;wJh u&ifacgif;aqmifMuD; a'gufwmpHpDzkd;&J
oif;csKdif;udk jyefwnfaqmufzdkU aiGtvHktavmuf olUom;wa,muf&JU
vufxJtyfcJhw,f? u&ifawG zsufvdkUysufpD;oGm;wJh jrwfpGmbk&m;
&kyfyGm;awmfwqludkvnf; jyefvnfwnfaqmufzkdU aiGtvHktavmuf oufqkdif&m
&yfuGufacgif;aqmifawG &JU vufxJtyfvkdufw,f? ocifEk
ykodrfujyefcgeD;usawmh rdwfaqGwa,muf
okwfoD;okwfjymeJUoabFmay:wufvmw,f?
0efMuD;csKyf 'DoabFmrSm u&ifppfom;awGygovm;
uRefawmfrodbl;
taetxkdiftoGm;tvmowd&dSygAsm
bmjzpfvkdUvJ
t&ifwywfwkef;u 'Dudk cifAsm;pD;vmwJh ppfoabFmuav;rSm apm*suf[m
a&wyfAdkvfbJ/ waeUu 'Daumif olykefxawmhrS [dktacgufwkef;u
0efMuD;csKyfudk olbmjzpfvkdU rzrf;wmvJqkdwm uRefawmfpOf;pm;rdw,f?
0efMuD;csKyf ocifEkvnf; bmrS jyefrajymygbl;/ NyHK;aew,f?
1949ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv tv,favmufudk a&mufvmwJhtcg

tifrwefpdwfrcsrf;omp&maumif;wJh owif;w&yfukd
tpdk;&tzGJU0ifawGMum;&w,f? 'Dowif;[mwjcm;r[kwf/ tif;pdefXmecsKyfu
autif'Dtkd awG[m tif;pdef? MudKUukef;? orkdif;rSm wm0efusaewJh tpdk;&
trIxrf; t&mxrf; wcsKdUqDu vufeufawG
vkdufodrf;aew,fqdkwJhowif;bJjzpfygw,f? 'DvkdvufeufawG odrf;wJhae&m[m
&efukefNrdKUeJU (7)rdkif twGif;rSm&dSw,f? tJ'gaMumifh
vufydkufMunfhraeEdkifawmhwJhtwGuf tpdk;&tzGJU[m tJ'Dt&yfawGudk
vufeufudkif trIxrf;? t&mxrf;wcsKdUvTwfNyD; autif'DtkdawG vufeuf
rodrf;atmif twm;ckdif;vkdufw,f tckvdkwm;&if;u 1949ckESpfZefe0g&D
(31)&ufaeUusawmh tpdk;& vufeufudkiftzGJU awGeJU autif'DtkdawG
y#dyujzpfvmMuNyD; tif;pdefu autif'DtkdawG[m tif;pdefNrdKUudk
odrf;vdkufMuw,f? tif;pdefaxmifMuD;xJu ESpfaxmifavmuf&dSwJh
tusOf;om;awGudkvnf; vTwfypfvkdufMuw,f? tpdk;&aiGwkdufxJu
&dSorQaiGawGudkvnf; xkwf,loGm;Muw,f?
tif;pdef[m &efukefNrdKU&JU tayguf0rSm &dSaewJhtwGuf tpkd;&tzGJUeJU
&efukefNrdKUom;awG[m b,favmuf ajcrudkifrD vufrudkifrd rsufvHk;jyL;
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tcef; (26)
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owfwkwGif;rsKd;pHk&dSw,f? ywfwjrm;wGif;awG&dSw,f? a&eHwGif;awG&dSw,f?
jynfaxmifpkom;awG vlcsrf;om;awGjzpfatmif tbufbufu
ulnDaxmufyHhEkdifwJh {&m0wDjrpfMuD;uvnf; jynfaxmifpkudk
ta&SUeJUtaemufESpfjcrf;cGJNyD;? ajrmufbufu awmifbufudk pD;qif;aew,f?
rdk;av0ovnf; txl;aumif;w,f? vlOD;a&usawmh tifrwef eJw,f?
tJ'gaMumifh uRefawmfjynfaxmifpkxJrSm jynfwGif;ppfrjzpf&bJ
pdwfcsrf;csrf;omomeJU tvkyfvkyfcGifh&r,fqdk&if jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkfifiH[m
rdom;pkwkdif;udk tdrfwaqmif? armfawmfum;wpif;? vpOf0ifaiG (800)u
(1000)&atmifvkyfay;EkdifwJhtxd csrf;omwJhEkdifiH jzpfw,fqkdwJhtcsufudk
rdefUcGef;xJrSm OD;EkxnfhajymoGm;w,f?
cyfaemufaemuf owif;pmq&mwcsKdU[m olwkdU&JUowif;awGxJrSm 'DrdefUcGef;udk
az:jywJhtcg rdom;pkwkdif;udk tdrfwtdrf? armfawmfum;wpif;? vpOf0ifaiG
(800)u (1000)txd ay;r,fvkdU OD;Ekuwday;NyD tp&dSwJh
&Dp&macgif;pOfMuD;awGudk wyfay;vkdufMuw,f?
aemifig;ESpfavmufMumwJhtcg 'DtcsufudkwyfNyD; ajym&r,fqdk&if OD;Ek[m
'Dtwkdif;ajymr,frxifbl;? tJ'Dig;ESpftwGif; OD;Ek[m
jynfolydkifvkyfief;awGtay:rSm tMuD;tus,fpdwfysufaewJhtwGuf 'Dtcsufudk
xyfajym&r,fqkd&if 'Dvkdajymvdrfhr,fxifw,f? EkdifiHuawmh tifrwefcsrf;omwJh

EdkifiHygbJ? rdom;pkwkdif;udk tdrfwaqmif? armfawmfum;wpif;? vpOf0ifaiG
(1000)&atmif vkyfay;EkdifwJhtxd csrf;om;wJhEkdifiHjzpfw,fqkdwmudk b,folrS
rjiif;Ekdifygbl;? 'gayrJh rdom;pkwkdif; tdrfwaqmif? armfawmfum;wpif;?
vpOf0ifaiG (1000)&bdkUtwGuf jynfwGif;ppf r&dS&kHeJU rvHkavmufao;bl;?
jynfaxmifpkom;awG tvkyfMudK;pm;vkyf&kHeJUvnf; rvHkavmufao;bl;?
(1) jynfaxmifpk&JU pD;yGm;a&;pepfuvnf; rSef&tHk;r,f?
(2) 'DpepfrSefudk taumiftxnfazmfwJh ae&mrSm txl;vdktyfwJh refae*smac:
tvkyfem;vnfwJh tkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;rsm;? wufueD&Sef;ac:
pufrIuRrf;usifolrsm;vnf; vHkvHkavmufavmuf &dS&tHk;r,f?
(3) orw? 0efMuD;csKyf? 0efMuD;awG? twGif;0efawG? XmetMuD;tuJawGupNyD;
awmifolv,form;rsm;? tvkyform;rsm;? aps;olaps;om;rsm; tygt0if
jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;uvnf; udk,fusifhw&m;eJU jynfhpHkolawG
jzpfMu&tHk;r,fqkdwJh tcsuf(3)csufudk OD;EkxyfNyD; jznfhp&m taMumif;&Sdw,f?
OD;Ek[m 'Dtcsuf(3)csufudk bmaMumifh xyfjznfhcsifovJqdkwm 'Dae&mrSm
eJeJavmuf azmfjycsifw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;&NyD;wJhaemuf OD;Ektpdk;&tzGJU[m vkyfief;tawmfrsm;rsm;udk
jynfolydkifvkyfcJhw,f? tckvkd jynfolykdifvkyfwJhtcgawGwkef;u
jynfolydkifvkyfief;awGeJU qufpyfaewJh jy?emawGudk OD;Ek[mav;av;eufeuf
pOf;pm;rdyHkray:bl;? 'Dvdkjynfolydkif vkyfNyD;wJhaemuf jynfolydkifvkyfief;awGeJU
ywfoufNyD; tkyfcsKyfrInHhzsif;yHkawG? trsKd;rsKd;tzHktzHk jcpm;rIawG?
qHk;&IH;epfemrIawGudk 0efMuD;csKyfOD;Ek awGUvm&w,f? OD;EkawGUcJhwJh
tjzpftysufawGxJu EkdifiHawmf aumufyJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;tzGJUeJU ywfoufwJh
tjzpftysufwckudk tusOf;csKyfNyD; azmfjycsifw,f? EkdifiHawmf
aumufyJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;tzJGU[m jynfolydkifvkyfief;awGxJrSm
tMuD;qHk;jzpfw,f?
waeUrSm (p)oHk;vHk;tzGJU (Bureau For Special Investigation)
utrIaqmifMuD;awG 0efMuD;csKyfeJUawGUNyD; owif;ckdifckdifvHkvHk&wmeJU
vGefcJhwJhaeUwkef;u (p)oHk;vHk;tzGJUu qefwifoabFmwpif;udk qif;ppfw,f?
aumufyJoD;ESHtzGJUu qefa[mif;awGqdkNyD; a&mif;vdkufwJh qefawGtm;vHk;[m
qefaumif;awGjzpfaewmudk awGU&w,f? olwkdU&&dSwJh owif;t&
aumufyJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;tzGJU[m qefaumif;awGudk qefa[mif;awGNyD;
vdrfvdrfa&mif;aewm MumNyD;vdkU tJ'D (p)oHk;vHk;trIaqmifvlMuD;awGu
tpD&ifcHw,f? aumufyJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;tzGJUu qefa[mif;ta&twGufeJ&if
olwkdU[molwkdU a&mif;w,f? a&mif;rJhqefa[mif;ta&twGufrsm;&if

olwkdU&JU0efMuD;uwqifh 0efMuD;rsm;tzGJUrSm qefa[mif;a&mif;cGifh awmif;w,f?
tJ'gaMumifh 0efMuD;csKyf[m rMumao;cifu 0efMuD;rsm;tzGJUu
qefa[mif;awGa&mif;cGifh ay;vdkufwmudk csufcsif; owd&w,f?
ta[mif;awGqkdNyD; vdrfa&mif;wJhqefawGudk oabFmay:rSm
zrf;rdwJhtaMumif;ajymNyDawmh (p)oHk;vHk;trIaqmifvlMuD;awGu
aumufyJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&; tzGJUrSm ESpfpOfESpfwdkif;qefa[mif;
b,favmufusefw,fqkdwm pm&if;r&dSbl;? 'Dvdkpm&if;r&dSwm[m
oufqkdif&mt&m&dSawG nHhzsif;vkdUvnf; jzpfEdkfiw,f? 'Dvkdpm&if;r&dSrS
qefaumif;awGudk qefa[mif;awGqdkNyD; vdrfa&mi;f&wmvG,fwJhtwGuf
txuft&m&dSMuD;awGu 'Dvkd pm&if;r&dSwmudk vspfvQL&Ixm;wmaMumifhvnf;
jzpfEdkifw,f? tJ'Dawmh vufusefqefa[mif;pm&if;udk &atmifawmif;ygvkdU tJ'D
(p)oHk;vHk;trIaqmifawGu 0efMuD;csKyfudk tMuHay;w,f? tJ'DtMuHay;csuft&
0efMuD;csKyfu oufqdkif&m0efMuD;csKyfudk vufusefqefa[mif; pm&if;wifjybdkU
trdefUay;w,f? 0efMuD;uvnf; tJ'Dpm&if;wifjybkdU
aumufyJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;tzGJUudk trdefUay;w,f? wESpfMumwJhtxd
tJ'Dpm&if;udk aumufyJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;tzGJUu wifrjyEdkifbl;? Mumvmawmh
0efMuD;csKyfvnf; oD;rcHEkdifawmhbl;? tJ'gaMumifh (p)oHk;vHk;tzGJUu
trIaqmifvlMuD;wcsKdUudk ac:vkdufw,f? 0efMuD;csKyf[m jcpm;rIawGudk
wkdufjzwfbkdUtwGuf 'DtzGJUudk oludk,fwkdifwkduf&kduf tkyfcsKyfNyD; b,f0efMuD;ukdrS
raMumufeJU? 'D0efMuD;awG[m jcaumifawG jzpfEkdfif&if ta&;,l?
0efMuD;csKyfudk,fwkdif jcaumifMuD;jzpfae&ifvnf; bmrSraMumufeJU?
csufcsif;ta&;,lvdkU (p)oHk;vHk;tzGUJudk 0efMuD;csKyfu wdwdususrSmxm;w,f?
jcpm;wmudk ta&;,lwJhtcg jywfjywfom;om; ta&;,lapcsifwJh oabmeJU
(p)oHk;vHk;tzGJU[m ta0;rSmcsnf;bJ jcaumifawGudk vkduf&SmaewJhtwGuf
tem;uyfaewJh jcaumifawGudk rsufpd&Sef;aewwfw,f? olaewJh
0if'grD,m0if;rSm jcaumifawG &dScsif&dSaer,f? tJ'gaMumifh 0if'grD,mudkvnf;
rsufajcrjywf Munfhaeyg? jcaumifawGudkawGU&if vufraES;eJU?
csufcsif;ta&;,lygvkdU 0efMuD;csKyf[m olU(p)oHk;vHk;tzGJUudk rSmxm;w,f?
(p)oHk;vHk;trIaqmifvlMuD;awGeJU awGUwJhtcg wESpfMumwJhwkdifatmif
aumufyJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;tzGJUu vufusef qefa[mif;pm&if;udk
ray;EdkifwJhtaMumif;udk ajymjyw,f? tJ'Daemuf olrapmifhEdkifawmhbl;?
(p)oHk;vHk;tzGJUxJu oifhawmfrJht&m&dSawGudk tzGJUwckzGJUay;NyD; wEdkifiHvHk;rSm
vufusefqefa[mif;b,favmuf&dSw,fqkdwm pm&if;,lyg&apvkdU 0efMuD;csKyfu
wm0efay;&w,f? (p)oHk;vHk;tzGJU&JU MudKyrf;csufaMumifh pm&if;&wJhtcg

'Dqefa[mif;awGudk csefrxm;eJUawmh&wJhaps;eJU tm;vHk;a&mif;ypfvkdufvkdU
0efMuD;csKyfu 0efMuD;csKyfrsm;tpnf;ta0;wckrSm trdefUcsay;vkdufw,f?
0efMuD;csKyf[m olU (p)oHk;vHk;tzGJUeJU aumufyJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;udwfpudk
qufvufaqG;aEG;&if(1) aumufyJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&; tzGJU[m qefaumif;awGudkom
qefa[mif;awGqkdNyD; vdrfxkwfaewm r[kwfbl;? *HkeDtdwf taumif;awGudkvnf;
ta[mif;awGqkdNyD; vdrfxkwfaew,f? rMumcifubJ owif;tckdiftrm&vdkU
oGm;zrf;vkduf&ao;w,fqkdwmudk Mum;&w,f?
(2) tJ'Daemuf aumufyJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;tzGJUu e,fawGrSm pyg;0,fwJh
t&m&dSawG[m pyg;ukd0,fNyD;NyD;jcif; aiGvufiif;racsbl;? vufrSwfawG
xkwfay;w,f? pyg;a&mif;wJh awmifolv,form;awG[m w&mwefvufrSwfudk
udk;q,fhig;usyfeJU 'Dt&m&dSawG arG;xm;wJh wynfhawGqDrSm
jyefa&mif;&w,fqkdwmvnf; Mum;&w,f?
(3) tJ'Daemuf tpdk;&ay;xm;wJhyHkpHtwkdif; qefpufawGu
qefawGudkMudwfay;ovm;? rMudwfay; bl;vm;qkdwmudk ppfaq;zkdUtwGuf
aumufyJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;tzGJUu qefpufawGrSm tapmifhcsxm;wJh
t&m&dSawG[m qefpufydkif&SifawGqDu vmbfpm;NyD; yHkpHudkufwJhqefawGudk
ykHpHudkufw,fvkdUvufrSwfxkd; ay;aeMuw,fqkdwmudkvnf; Mum;&w,f?
(EkdifiHjcm;EkdifiHwcsKdU[m qefawGudk 0,fNyD;rS oabFmwifwJhtcg
qeftawmfrsm;rsm;udk vufrcHEkdifbl;qkdNyD; y,fcsypfw,f? 'Dowif;udk
Mum;&wJhtcg olUt&m&dSawG aiGpm;NyD; rw&m; vkyfaeMuwmudk rodwJh
0efMuD;csKyfOD;Ek[m tawmfpdwfqdk;w,f? (p)oHk;vHk;u tpD&ifcHwmudk
Mum;&awmhrS? EkdifiHjcm;rSm Armhqefemrnfysufaewm 'gaMumifhudk;vkdU
0efMuD;csKyfoabmaygufw,f?)
(4) tJ'Daemuf aumufyJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;tzGJU&JU tawmf&ufpufwJh
t&m&dSwcsKdU[m pyg;udk wu,f r0,fbJ aiGudktvGJoHk;pm; vkyfvkdufNyD;
b,f*dka'gifawGrSm pyg;b,favmuf oGif;NyD;NyDvkdU vdrfxm;wJh tpD&ifcHpmawG
XmecsKyfudkydkUw,f? aemufNyD;awmhrS olykefawG0ifNyD;&IdUoGm;w,fvkdU
vdrfxm;wJhtpD&ifcHpmawG ydkUMujyefw,f?
(5) tJ'Daemuf tifrwef ta&;MuD;wJhtcsufwcsufudk 0efMuD;csKyf[m
aemufxyfod&jyefw,f?aumuf yJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;tzGJU[m ESpfpOfESpfwkdif;
usyfaiG (2)uka#zdk;avmuf *HkeDtdwfawGudk tdEd,u0,f&w,f? *HkeDtdwfaps;[m
twuftus&Sdw,f? pD;yGm;a&;avmurSm "rwmjzpfaewJhtwkdif;
0,folvkdcsifwJhtcg aps;wufNyD; 0,folrvdkcsifwJhtcg aps;uswmbJ?

aumufyJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;tzGJU[m *HkeDtdwfawGudk aps;uswkef; b,fawmhrS
r0,fbl;? qefawGudk EkdifiHjcm;wifydkUcgeD;rS tNrJwrf; *ref;*wef;
0,favh&dSw,f? tJ'DtcgrSm *HkeDtdwfa&mif;ol awmif;orQay;NyD; 0,f&wmbJ?
'Dvdkjzpf&wm[m em;rvnfvkdUr[kwfbl;? *HkeDtdwfa&mif;orm;awGeJU
aumufyJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;tzGJUu txuft&m&dSMuD;awG em;vnfrI,lNyD;
vkyfaewmvdkU (p)oHk;vHk;u tckdiftvHk owif;&w,f? 'gayrJh 'DudwfprSm
tdEd,u *HkeDtdwfa&mif;orm;awGvnf; ygaewJhtwGuf trIay:atmif
(p)oHk;vHk;u rpHkprf;Edkifbl;? *HkeDtdwfudk tckvdk0,faewJhpepfudkom jyifay;ygvdkU
(p)oHk;vHk;u 0efMuD;csKyfudk tpD&ifcHw,f?
0efMuD;csKyf[m 'DtpD&ifcHcsufawGudkvnf; Mum;&w,f?
wjcm;jynfolydkifvkyfief;aweJU ywfoufNyD;awmhvnf; tvm;wl
tpD&ifcHcsufawGudk Mum;&w,f? tJ'gawGudk Mum;&wJhtcg vTwfawmfu
a&GUaumufwifajrmufxm;wJh pm&if;ppftzGJUxJu twkduftcH trwfwcsKdU[m
vTwfawmfusif;ywJh tcgwkdif;vdkvdk jynfolydkifvkyfief;awGrSm tkyfcsKyfa&;
nhHzsif;w,f? jcpm;awGaygw,f? pm&if;tif;ususee r&dSbl;? vGefcJhwJhESpfawGu
pm&if;awGudk ckxufxdrydwfEdkfifao;bl;vkdU ajymcJhwmawGudk
0efMuD;csKyfajy;NyD;owd&w,f? vTwfawmfxJrSm Mum;&wkef;u
twkduftcHtrwfawG[m tpdk;&tzGJUudk wrifoufouf ykwfcwfaewmvkdU
0efMuD;csKyf ,lqcJhw,f? tckrS twkduftcH trwfawGajymwm
eJawmifeJao;w,fqkdwmudk oludk,fwkdif awGUae&w,f?
0efMuD;csKyf[m tprSawmh (p)oHk;vHk;&JUtultnDeJU jynfolykdifvkyfief;awGu
tjypfxif&Sm;wJh t&m&dSawGudk jyif;jyif;xefxef ta&;,lcJhw,f? 'gayrJh
pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;awGudk jynfolykdifvkyfxm;oa&GU tckajymcJhwJh
tkyfcsKyfa&;nHhzsif;rI? jcpm;rI? qHk;&IH;epfemrIawG[m &dSaerSmbJ? 'Dpepfudk
tjrpfuaeNyD; ajymif;vJypfvkdufrS 'D[mawG yaysmufukefrSmbJqdkwmudk OD;Ek
wajz;ajz;oabmaygufvmw,f? bmtaMumif;awGaMumifh 0efMuD;csKyf OD;Ek[m
jynfolykdifpepfay:rSm pdwfawGajymif;oGm;w,fqkdwmudk 'Dae&mrSm eJeJavmuf
azmfjycsifw,f?
(1) pD;yGm;a&; vkyfief;awGudk jynfolydkifvkyfwJhtcg 'Dvkyfief;awG[m
0efMuD;csKyfrsm;tzGJU&JU vufatmufudk a&mufvmw,f? 0efMuD;rsm;tzGJU[m
'Dvkyfief;awGtwGuf tcsKyftjcmtmPmydkif tzGJUjzpfw,f?
'DtcsKyftjcmtmPmykdif tzGJUxJrSm&dSwJh 0efMuD;csKyfeJU 0efMuD;awG[m
EkdifiHa&;orm;awG?
EkdifiHa&;orm;qdkwm tmPm&bkdUtwGuf woufvHk;

avhusifhvmolawGjzpfw,f? pD;yGm;a&;orm;awGvdk tjrwf&bdkUtwGuf
woufvHk; woufvHk;avhusifhvmolawG r[kwfbl;? tJ'gaMumifh
tjrwf&bdkUqdkwJh udwfpawGudk rsm;aom;tm;jzifh olwkdU
aumif;aumif;em;rvnfMubl;? olwkdU em;rvnfwJhtwGuf qefaumif;awGudk
qefa[mif;awGqdkNyD; vdrfxkwfwJhudwfprSm pD;yGm;a&;orm;awGeJU t&m&dSqkd;awG
aygif;NyD; wywf&kdufwmudk olwkdU cHvkdufMu&vmaygh?
'DEkdifiHa&;orm;awG[m pD;yGm;a&;rSm bmrSem;rvnfwJh
(vlt)awGjzpfaewmaMumifh jynfolykdifvkyfief;awGtwGuf aiG (odkUr[kwf)
oabmwlnDcsuf (okdUr[kwf) tmPmawmif;wJh rSwfwrf;awGudk oufqkdif&m
0efMuD;XmeawGu 0efMuD;rsm;tzGJUudk ydkUvkdufwJhtcg 0efMuD;csKyfudk,fwdkifuvnf;
'DrSwfwrf;xJrSmygwJh tcsufawGeJU ywfoufNyD; b,fvkdrS ra0zefEdkifbl;?
0efMuD;awGuvnf; bmajym&rSef; rodMum;bl;? tJ'gaMumifh 0efMuD;csKyfu
oabmwlMuovm;vkdU 0efMuD;awGudkar;? 0efMuD;awGu oabmwlygw,fvkdU
ajzMumNyD;? 'DrSwfwrf;awG wifydkUvkdufwJhXmeawG[m olwkdUvdkcsifwJhaiG?
oabmwlnDcsuf? tmPmawGudk &&oGm;MuwmbJ? tJ'Denf;eJU
jynfolydkifvkyfief;awG&JU tcsKyftjcmtmPmykdif tzGJUqdkwJh 0efMuD;rsm;tzGJU[m
wu,fh tcsKyftjcmtmPmydkiftzGJU r[kwfawmhbJ olwkdUzefqif;xm;wJh
ow0gawGu jyefNyD;toHk;?yaewJh a&mfbmwHqdyfwHk;MuD; jzpfrSef;rod
jzpfaew,f?
tJ'gaMumifh jynfolydkifvkyfief;awGrSm tkyfcsKyfa&; nhHzsif;w,fqkdwm
atmufqifhawGrSm pwmr[kwfbl;? 0efMuD;rsm;tzGJUqkdwJh txufqHk;tqifhrSm
paew,fqdkwm 0efMuD;csKyf oabmaygufvmw,f?
(2) jynfolykdifvkyfief;awGudk wkduf&kduftkyfcsKyfaeMuwJh twGif;0efawGeJU
XmetMuD;tuJawGuvnf; tkyfcsKyfa&;twGuf woufvHk; avhusifhvmolawG
jzpfwmaMumifh pD;yGm;a&;rSm olwkdU[m olwdkU&JUq&mjzpfwJh 0efMuD;awGxuf
ydkrxl;ygbl;?
aemufNyd;awmhvnf; olwkdU[m vpmaiGtjzpfeJU (1600)EIef;&w,f? 'ghxuf
rwkd;awmhbl;? yk*vdu ykdifpD;yGm;a&; avmurSmvkd bdk;eyf(pf)wkdU? txl;qkwdkU?
tdrfwdkU? armfawmfum;wdkU {nfhcHp&dwfwkdU qdkwmawGudkvnf; r&bl;? tJ'gaMumifh
'Dt&m&dSawG[m jynfolydkifvkyfief;awGrSm pdwfr0ifpm;&kHomru vmbfwdkU?
wefpkd;vufaqmifwkdUeJU pD;yGm;a&;orm;awGu qG,fvmwJhtcg vG,fvG,feJU
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EGm;jzpfwmeJUtwlwlygbJ? tJ'gaMumifh 'Drkdua&pDudk zsufqD;olrSeforQ udk rkcs
cHcs&r,f/
jynfolvlxk&JU toJxJudk pGJNyD;0ifoGm;atmif 0efMuD;csKyfOD;Ek[m 'D7csufudk
enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJU a[m ajymNyD; xyfcgwvJvJ &dkufoGif;ay;cJhw,f/ OD;Ek[m
tckvkd a[majym&kHeJU rauseyfao;bl; / 'D7csufukd pm&Gufpmwr;f awG
&kdufNyD;a0w,f/ 'D7csuftay:rSDxm;wJh jyZmwfwyk'fudk olukd,fwkdifa&;NyD;
wEkdifiHvkH;udk a0w,f/ zwfpmtkyftjzpfeJU ausmif;awGrSm toifckdif;w,f/
tJ'DjyZmwfudk &kyf&Sif&kdufNyD; vSnf;aeavSatmif; jrif;aZmif;rusef
jynfaxmifpkom;rSeforQudk tcrJhjyw,f/
'Dtcsuf 7 csufudk ulnDjzefUcsDay;wJhtaeeJU Armhowif;pmwkdufwkdufu

OD;Eka&;wJh jyZmwfudk umwGef;tjzpfeJU a&;qGJNyD; owif;pmxJrSmvnf;
xnfhay;w,f/ umwGef;pmtkyftjzpfeJUvnf; jzefUcsDay;w,f?
0efMuD;csKyfOD;Ek[m ausmif;awGrSm jyZmwftjzpfeJU oifay;wJhtjyif 'D 7 csufudk
wjcm;enf;rsKd;pkHeJU oifay;zdkUvnf; pdwfuk;rdygao;w,f/ aemufNyD;awmhvnf;
'D 7 csufudk aqG;aEG;rJh aqG;aEG;yGJawG wEkdifiHvkH;rSm vkyfay;zkdU? 'D 7 csufudk
rSDNyD;a &;xm;wJh uAsmjydKifyGJ awG? yef;csDjyyGJawG? umwGef;jydKifyGJawG wekdifiHvkH;rSm
vkyfay;bkdU pdwful;rdygao;w,f/ 'gayrJh pdwful;awGudk
taumiftxnfazmfay;r,fh tzGJUtpnf;r&SdwmaMumifh OD;Ek[m 0r;feJpGmeJUbJ
tJ'Dtcgwkef;uvufavQmhay;cJh&w,f/
'Dtcsuf 7 csufudk jynfolvlxk&JU toJxJrSm pGJoGm;atmif vkyfay;Ekdif&if
jynfolvlxk[m 'Drkdua&pd tay:rSm jyif;jyif;jyjy ,kHMunfvmvdrfhr,f/ 'Dvkd
,kHMunfvmwJh jynfolvlxk[m 'Drkdua&pDudk zsufvkdzsufqD; vkyfwJhvlawG
ay:vm&if vufykdufMunfhaerSmr[kwfbl; olwkdUwwfEkdifwJhenf;eJU
wckckawmhvkyfrSmbJ/ tEken;feJU vkyfEkdif&if tekenf;eJU vkyfr,f/
tMurf;enf;eJU vkyfEkdif&if tMurf;enf;eJU vkyfr,f / 'Dtwkdif;rSefw,fqkdwmudk
1948 eJU 1949 ckESpfawGwkef;u 0efMuD;csKyfOD;Ekukd,fwkdif
xifxif&Sm;&Sm;awGUcJh&w,f/
tJ'DESpfawGwkef;u olykefa&mifpkHawG&JU 0kdif;ESufwJh 'Pfudk ocifEktpkd;&
rcHEkdifygbll;vkdU jynfwGif;a&m jynfyrSmyg vlyk*kdvf tcsKdU edrdwf zwfcJhMuw,f
r[kwfbl;vm;/ ArmEkdifiH[m a&mifpkHolykefawG&JU vufwGif;udk
oufqif;rSmygbJvkdU 'DvlawG a[mudef;trsKd;rsKd;
xkwfcJhMuzl;ao;w,fr[kwfvm;/ tJ'dvkd edrdwftrsKd;rsKd; zwfwJhMum;xJu
a[mudef;awG xkwfaewJhMum;xJu ocifEktpkd;&axmifwufvmatmif
vkyfay;vkdufwJh taMumif;awGxJrSm jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiH[m
a*smufxJusroGm;bJ vGwfajrmufvmatmif vkyfay;wJh taMumif; awGxJrSm
'Drkdua&pD udk jrwfEkd;MuwJh jynfolvlxk&JU wwfEkdifwJhbufu 0kdif;0ef;ulnDrI
awG[m &mckdifEIH; tawmfrsm;rsm; ygw,f/
'DtjzpftysufawGudk ukd,fwkdifjrifawGU&NyD; 'Drkdua&pD&JU wefckd;eJU
tiftm;tay:rSm OD;Ek &JU ,kHMunfrIawG[m a&S;uxuf
tqaygif;rsm;pGmykdjyif;vmw,f/ 'dvkd jyif;xefvmwmaMumifh 1954
ckESpfavmufu ppfwufuodkvf zGifhyGJrSm OD;Ek 'DvkdausnmcJhzl;w,f/
rmcfpf0g'orm;awG u ubmMuD;rSm aemufqkH;wkdufyGJ[m "e&SifeJU ypfpnf;rJU
vlwef;pm;awG&JU wkdufyGJjzpf&r,f/ tJ'DwkdufyGJrSm ypfpnf;rJh vlwef;pm awGu
Ekdif&r,fvkdU a[mudef;awG xkwfMuw,f/ 'g[m rrSefbl;/ 'DubmMuD;rSm

aemufqkH;wkdufyGJ[m 'Drkdua&pDukd cspfjrwfEkd;wJh jynfolvlxkeJU 'DvkdcspfjrwfEkd;wJh
jynfolvlxkudk a*G;oif;xmwJh EGm; awGvkd jzpfatmif zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fxm;wJh
tmPm&Sif awG wkdufMuwJh wkdufyGJbJ jzpf&r,f/ tJ"daemufqkH;wkdufyGJrSm
'drkdua&pDudk cspfjrwfEkd;wJh jynfolvlxku {uefrvGJ atmifyGJcH&r,fvkdU
0efMuD;csKyfOD;Eku twdtvif; tjyif;txef MuKH;0g;cJhbl;w,f/
'DrQavmuf wefckd;&Sdw,fvdkU ol,kHMunfaewJh 'Drkdua&pD[m
jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHrSm tjrpfwG,fatmif vkyfzkdU OD;Ek[m ESpfMudrfwkdifwkdif
MudK;pm;cJhzl;w,f/ yxrtMudrf[m 1950 jynhfESpfavmufrSm pw,fxifw,f/
0efMuD;csKyf OD;Ek[m tJ'D yxrtMudrf MudK;yrf;csuftaeeJU 'Drkdua&pD
oabmw&m; jzefUcsDa&; toif; udk xlaxmifay;cJhw,f/ 'Dtoif;[m
&HykHaiGtwGuf jynfolvlxkqDu tvSL cHw,f/ 0efMuD;csKyf oabmtwkdif;
okH;EkdifwJh &HykHaiGxJu tenf;tusOf; xkwf,lNyD;awmh vnf; OD;Ek[m 'Dtoif;udk
axmufyHhw,f/ 'gayrJh 'Dtoif;rSm tcsdefjynfhtvkyfvkyfEkdifwJH tvkyform;awG
r&SdwJHtwGuf 0efMuD;csKyfeJU 'Drkdua&pDrSm jyif;jyif;xefxef pdwf0ifpm;olwpk
tm;vyfcGifh&wJhtcgrsdK;rSm bJ 'dtoif;rSm vIyf&Sm;rI&Sdawmfhw,f/ tJ'gaMumifh
0efMuD;csKyfarQmfrSef;xm;wJhtwkdif; 'Drkdua&pD tjrpfwG,fa&;twGuf
wGifwGifus,fus,f tvkyfrvkyfEkdifcJhbl;/ 1958ckESpxJrSm OD;Ek[m
yxrtMudrftmPm todrf;cH&wJhtcg 'Dtoif;vnf; ysufusoGm;cJh&w,f/
'Dvkdtoif;rsKd;OD;Ek[m 'kwd,tMudrf xlaxmif&atmif
b,fvkdMudK;pm;cJh&w,fqkdwm aemuftcef;wcka&mufrSbJ qufajymygawmhr,f/
tcef; (29)
OD;Ek[m 0efMuD;csKyftjzpfeJU EkdifiHawmfrsm;rsm;udk tvnfoGm;cJhzl;w,f?
tJ'DEkdifiHawGxJu wcsKdUEkdifiHawGrSm OD;Ek[m b,folawGeJU awGUcJhw,f?
b,frdefUcGef;awGajymcJhw,f? bmawGaqG;aEG;cJhw,f? bmawGvkyfcJhw,fqkdwmudk
eJeJpDavmuf tusOf;csKyfNyD; 'Dtcef;rSm az:jycsifw,f?
tdEd,jynf
udkEkwufuodkvfausmif;om;b0wkef;u face=WinKalaw yef pfae&l;m &efuefudk
tvnfvmzl;w,f? tJ'Dwkef;u udkEk[m face=WinKalaw y@pfae&l;tem;udk
csOf;uyfcGifhr&bl;? cyfvSrf;vSrf;u jrifvkduf&zl;wmygbJ? face=WinKalaw
y@pfae&l;m awmfawmfynmwwfw,f? awmfawmfacsmw,f?

awmfawmfowfwd&dSw,f? awmfawmf udk,fusifhw&m;aumif;w,f? wkdif;jynfeJU
trsKd;twGuf pGefUpm;w,f? jynfolvlxk&JU NunfnKdrIudk
awmfawmfcHcJh&w,fqkdwJh *kPfowif;awG[m ArmEkdifiHudk face=WinKalaw
y@pfae&l;ra&mufcifuwnf;u MudKNyD;a&mufaew,f?
1947 ckESpftwGif; AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; usqHk;NyD; ocifEk0efMuD;csKyf
jzpfvmw,f? tJ'Daemufrsm;rNumrD ocifEk? OD;AaqG? OD;wifxGwfwkdU
tdEd,udkoGm;Nuw,f? tJ'DtcgrSm ocifEk[m face=WinKalaw y@pfae&l;udk
yxrqHk;tMudrf awGU&w,f? ynmwwfwJh? owfwd&dSwJh?
udk,fusifhw&m;aumif;wJh wkdif;jynfeJUtrsKd;twGufpGefUpm;wJh yk*dKvfawGudk
cspfcifav;pm; NunfnkdwwfwJh 0goem? ocifEkrSm&dSwJhtwkdif;? ocifEk[m
face=WinKalaw y@pfae&l;udk tJ'DyxrtacgufrSm uwnf;u txl;
cspfcifav;pm; NunfndkoGm;w,f?
tckvkd cspfcifav;pm; NunfndkoGm;wJhtwGuf ocifEk[m teJqHk;
wESpfwMudrfavmuf e,l;a'vDudk tvnfoGm;w,f? EkdifiHwum qufqHa&;
tpOftvmt& EkdifiHwEkdifiH&JU orwjzpfap? 0efMuD;csKyfjzpfap?
0efMuD;wOD;OD;jzpfap? wjcm;EdkifiHudkoGm;csif&if tJ'DEdkifiHjcm;tpdk;&JU
cGifhjycsufudkawmif;qkdNyD; cGifhjyKwJhaeUrSm oGm;&w,f? tdEd,udk tvnfoGm;wJh
tcgrSmawmh 0efMuD;csKyf OD;Ek[m tJ'Dvkd rvkyfbl;? ol[me,l;a'vDudk
b,faeUb,fvrf;u vmr,fqkdwm 0efMuD;csKyf ae&l;qDudk
pma&;NyD;oGm;vkdufwmbJ? 0efMuD;csKyfOD;Ek[m e,l;a'vDudka&mufwJhtcg
yxrtMudrfrSmbJ orwtdrfawmfrSm wnf;&w,f? aemuftMudrfawGusawmh
OD;Ekudk face=WinKalaw y@pfae&l;m olUtdrfrSmbJxm;w,f?
r[wfwr*ED Armjynfudk tvnfvmpOfu OD;Ek[m
q,fwef;ausmif;om;bJ&dSao;w,f? tJ'gaNumifh r[wfwr*EDudkvnf;
face=WinKalaw y@pfae&l;vkdbJ udkEk[m tJ'Dtcgwkef;u cyfa0;a0;u
vSrf;jrifvkduf&zl;w,f? 0efMuD;csKyftjzpfeJU tdENd,udk yxrqHk;tacguf
oGm;awmhrSbJ? face=WinKalaw y@pfae&l;udk awGUNyD;wJhaemuf OD;Ek[m
r[wfwr*EDudk e,l;a'vDu olaewJh bm;vm; (Birla House) tdrfrSm
teD;uyfNyD; tav;jycGifh &w,f? OD;EkawGUwJh tcsdef[m reuf(9)em&Davmuf&dSNyD;
tJ'DtcsdefrSm r[wfwr*ED[m bm;vm;tdrf0if;twGif;u uGufvyfwckrSm
yufvufukvm;xkdifay:xkdifNyD; aeylpm vIHaew,f? OD;EkwkdUeJU awGUwJhtcg
bdvyfrSm 0wfvHkynmoifaepOfu Arm0wfvHkausmif;om;
wOD;eJUawGUcJhzl;wJhtaNumif; 'Dausmif;om;[m tvGefowfwd&dSwJhtaNumif;?
NumNyDjzpfwJhtaNumif;? tJ'D Armausmif;om;&JU emrnfudk

arhaeNyDjzpfwJhtaNumif;awGudk r[wfwr*EDuajymjyw,f? tJ'DtcsdefrSm
r[wfwr*ED[m 0g;eJU,ufxm;wJh carmufuav;wvHk;udk aqmif;xm;w,f?
tJ'Dcarmufudk EkdtmumvDqdkwJh&Gmu &Gmom;awGuvufaqmifay;wmvdkU
r[wfwr*EDuajymw,f? EdktmumvDqdkwJh&GmrSm [dEL-rGwfpvif t"du&kPf;
jzpfw,f? vlawGtawmfaow,f? r[wfwr*EDudk,fwkdif tJ'D&GmrSm
oGm;NyD;aeawmhrS t"du&kPf;u NyD;oGm;w,f?
OD;EkuvJ tJ'Dvkd carmufwvHk; vSLyg&apvkdUajymwJhtcg r[wfwr*EDu
oabmwlw,f? tJ'DaNumifh OD;Ek[m Armjynfudk jyefa&mufa&mufjcif;
t&yf&yfu carmufrsKd;pHkukd erlemtjzpfrSm Nunfhw,f? &Srf;jynfu ydkUvkdufwJh
&Srf;carmufukd odyfMudKufwmeJU tJ'Dcarmufudk OD;Eka&G;vkdufw,f?
aemuf(2)&ufavmufNum;wJhtcg tJ'D carmufudk,lNyD; r[wfwr*EDudk
olUudk,fpm;vSLzkdU OD;Ek[m twkdifyifcHt&m&dS OD;tkef;udk vTwfvdkufw,f?
OD;tkef;pD;oGm;wJh av,mOfysH[m e,l;a'vDudk qkdufcgeD;rSm vlrormwOD;&JU
vufcsufeJU usqHk;oGm;&&SmNyDqkdwJh aNuuGJ0rf;eJzG,f 0g,mvufpf
owif;w&yfudk OD;tkef;Num;&w,f?
r[wfwr*ED uG,fvGeftedpa&mufNyD;aemufwaeUrSm? 0efMuD;csKyf OD;Ek[m
AE<Kvyef;NcHxJrSm vlxktpnf;ta0;wck ac:vkdufw,f? tJ'Dtpnf;ta0;rSm
r[wfwr*EDMuD; usqHk;oGm;wJhtwGuf aNuuGJ0rf;eJwJhtqkdudk oludk,fwkdif
wifoGif;w,f? tJ'Daemuf r[wfwr*EDMuD;twGuf trSwfw&tjzpfeJU wckck
xlaxmifxm;bkdU tqkdudkvnf; OD;Ek udk,fwkdif wifoGif;w,f? tJ'D
'kwd,tqkdudk taumiftxnf az:bdkUtwGuf aumfrwDwckzGJUw,f?
tJ'DaumfrwDu &HyHkaiGaumufcHwJhtcg OD;Ek[m oludk,fwdkifvnf; xnfhw,f?
tJ'D aumfrwDeJU oludk,fwkdif wwfEdkifoavmufvdkufNyD;awmhvnf;
&HyHkaiGaumufcHay;w,f? &HyHkaiG (5)odef;ausmfavmuf&wJhtcg 'DaumfrwD[m
&efukefwkdif; (Rangoon Times) owif;pmtaqmuftOD;udk 0,fw,f?
tJ'DtaqmuftOD;udk jynfolUaxmufyHha&;Xmeu *dka'giftjzpfodrf;xm;w,f?
aumfrwDu OD;EkqDrSm tultnDawmif;wJhtcg *dka'giftjzpf
odrf;xm;wJhtrdefUudk y,fzsufNyD; aumfrwD&JUvufxJudk taqmuftOD;
vTJay;vkdufw,f?
tJ'DtaqmuftOD;udk xdef;odrf;apmifha&SmufzkdU wm0efcH vlMuD;rsm;tzGJU (Board
of Trustees) udk zGJUcgeD;wJhtcg tJ'Dwkef;u tdEd,oHtrwf[m OD;EkeJU
vmawGUNyD;? wm0efcHvlMuD;rsm;tzGJUxJrSm OD;Ekudk &moufyefvlMuD;tjzpf
xnfhxm;csifw,f? OD;Eku vufcHygvdkU arwm&yfcHw,f? OD;Ekvnf;
oHtrwfvmNyD; arwm&yfcHwJhtwGuf oabmwlvufcHvkdufw,f?

1962 ckESpf? rwfvxJrSm ppfwyfu tmPmodrf;NyD; 0efMuD;csKyfOD;Ek[m
tcsKyfcH&vdkU q,fhav;ig;&ufbJ &dSOD;r,f? *ED<txdrf;trSwf
wm0efcHvlMuD;rsm;tzGJU&JU twGif;a&;rSL; emrnfeJU pmwapmifudk OD;Ek&w,f?
'Dpmudk zwfNunfhwJhtcg OD;Ek[m &moufyefwm0efcHvlMuD;ae&mu
EIwfxGufay;ygqkdwmudk OD;EkawGU&w,f? tJ'Dvkd a&;wm[m wjcm;aNumifh
r[kwfygbl;? AkdvfcsKyfae0if; tpdk;&udk aNumufwmaNumifh a&;wmygbJ?
r[wfwr*ED[m tifrwefowfwd&dSwJh yk*dkvfxl;MuD;jzpfw,f? 'Dyk*dkvfxl;MuDudk
trSwfw& tjzpfxlaxmifwJh taqmuftOD;&JU wm0efcHvlMuD;rsm; tzGJUxJrSm
'Dukvm;apmufaNumufawG vlMuD;wufjzpfaewm tifrwef
&,fp&maumif;w,fvkdU olU[mol ajymNyD;&,f&if; OD;Ek[m olwkdUvkdcsifwJh
EIwfxGufvTmudk vufrSwfa&;xdk;ay;vkdufw,f?
ArmEdkifiH[mvGwfvyfa&;&wJh tcsdefupNyD;? ESpfvausmfausmfavmufbJ
oufoufomom aevkduf&w,f? tJ'Daemuf vufeufudkif
tmPmvkyGJawGaNumifh tawmf'kufca&mufcJh&w,f? tJ'Dvkd 'kufca&mufaewJh
twGif;0efMuD;csKyf OD;Ek[m 0efMuD;csKyfae&l;qDu tultnDawG
trsm;MuD;awmif;cJh&w,f? 1949 ckESpf tv,favmufwkef;u 0efMuD;csKyf
ae&l;qDu vufeuftultnD awmif;cJh&wJh taNumif;
a&SUtcef;wcef;rSmwkef;u azmfjycJhNyD;NyD? tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u
tJ'DvufeuftultnDudkom r&cJhygvQif tifrwefqdk;aewJh jynfaxmifpk&JU
tajctae[m trsm;MuD; ydkqkd;oGm;r,f? 'Daoewf tultnDawGudk
&wJhtcsdefupNyD; jynfaxmifpk&JU tajctae[m tifrwef
tm;&p&maumif;atmif jyefaumif;vmw,f?
tJ'Daemuf jynfaxmifpk tpkd;&[m vuf,majrudk avsmfaNu;ray;bJ
jynfolydkifvkyfw,f? 'Dv,f,majrawGxJrSm w0ufausmfausmfudk tdENd,
wkdif;&if;om; cspfwD;awG ydkifw,f? tJ'gaNumifh v,f,majrudk
jynfolydkifvkyfNyD;wmeJU wNydKifeuf 0efMuD;csKyf OD;Ek[m 0efMuD;csKyfae&l;qDudk
pmwapmif csufcsif;a&;vkdufw,f? tJ'DpmxJrSm cspfwD;awG[m ArmjhynfrSm
vlnTef;cl;pm;aewmNumNyD? tJ'gaNumifh tckvdkavsmfaNu;ray;bJ
jynfolydkifvkyfvkdufayrJh olwkdUrepfemygbl;? v,f,mawGeJU twkd;MuD;MuD; ,lNyD;
aiGacs;wJhvkyfief;u olwkdUtjrwfawG trsm;MuD;xkwf,loGm;NyD;NyD
qkdwJhtcsufawGudk pHkpHkvifvifaz:jyxm;w,f?
Armtpdk;&qDu avsmfaNu;&atmif awmif;ay;bkdU cspfwD;awG[m
tdENd,tpdk;&udk trsm;MuD;wkdufwGef;cJw,f? tdEd, tpdk;&u b,fvkdrS
ta&;r,lbl;?

1956 ckESpf taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ vkyfcgeD;rSm ukefaps;EIef;awG
odyfwufaew,f? 'DvkdwufaewmaNumifh a&G;aumufyGJrSm zqyv&JU
tiftm;[m trsm;MuD;avsmhoGm;Edkifw,f? ukefawGudk trsm;MuD;oGif;EkdifrS
ukefaps;EIef;usr,fqdkwmudk zqyv acgif;aqmifawGodyg&JU? 'gayrJh oGif;p&m
EkdifiHjcm;aiGr&dSbl;? 'gaNumifh OD;Ek[m 0efMuD;wOD;ESpfOD;udk face=WinKalaw
y@pfae&l;qDvTwfNyD; aiGacs;vkduf&ao;w,f? OD;Eku tultnDawmif;wJhtcg
face=WinKalaw y@pfae&l;m jiif;w,fr&dSygbl;? olwwfEdkiforQ ulnDcJhygw,f?
1952 ckESpftwGif; tdEd,uydkUvdkufwJh owif;w&yf[m Arm
owif;pmawGxJrSm ygvmw,f? tJ'Dowif;t& Armjynfu em*awG[m
tdEd,jynfxJ0ifNyD; tdEd,em* (90)ausmf&JU acgif;udkawGudk
jzwf,loGm;Nuw,f? tJ'Dowif;udk zwfNyD;NyD;csif; 'Dacgif;jzwfwJhudwfp[m
tdEd,-ArmcspfNunfa&;udkrsm; xdckdufvmtHk;rvm; awG;rdwJhtwGuf OD;Ek[m
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tjypf&dSw,f? oufaotaxmuftxm;vHkavmufw,fvdkU wnDwnGwfwnf;
(p)oHk;vHk;aumfrwDvlMuD;awGu tpD&ifcHw,f? 'gayrJh oHtrwfudk,fwkdif

tckvkdta&;wMuD;wkdifxm;wJhtrIrsKd;rSm OD;Ek[m olUt&m&dSawGajymwkdif;
ZGwfw&Gwf t&rf;rvkyfcsifbl;? ol ,Hk,HkNunfNunfcefUxm;wJh t&m&dSawG
wif;wif;usyfusyf ta&;,lxm;wJhtrIudk tdEd,oHtrwfajymwkdif; ZGwfw&Guf
t&rf;jzpfwmudkvnf; OD;Ekrvkyfcsifbl;? tJ'Dawmh OD;Eku aumfrwDtzGJUudk
'DvkdtMuHay;w,f? tdEd,oHtrwfudk ac:vkdufr,f?
olMudKufwJh0wfvHkwa,mufudkvnf; ac:vmayap? (p)oHk;vHk;aumfrwD&JU
em,ueJU aumfrwD&JUudk,fpm;vS,f wOD;ESpfOD;vnf;vmNu? aemufNyD;awmh
tpkd;&a&SUaecsKyfudkvnf; zdwfxm;r,f? 'DoHk;zGJUqHk;wJhtcg 'DtrIeJU ywfoufNyD;
tjyeftvSefajymNu? tckvdkajymNuNyD; (p)oHk;vHk;em,u tdENd,oHtrwfeJU
tpdk;&a&SUaecsKyfMuD;wkdU wnDwnGwfwnf; vufcHEdkifwJh tajzwckudk&Sm
tJ'Dtajztwkdif; trIudkqHk;jzwfay;csifw,fvkdU OD;Ekuajymjyw,f?
aumfrwDvlMuD;awGu oabmwlw,f? tJ'gaNumifh tckajymcJhwJhtwkdif;
yk*dkvftoD;oD;udk oleJUvmawGUbdkU 0efMuD;csKyfOD;Ek csdef;vkdufw,f?
uHtm;avQmfpGm oHk;OD;pvHk;vufcHEkdfifwJh tajzudk &SmawGUoGm;wJhtwGuf 'DtrI[m
OD;Ekpdwfr&Iyf&bJ at;at;aq;aq;NyD;oGm;cJhw,f?
tdEd,jynf pefcsDe,frSm oD&d"rmaomurif;MuD;[m (Asoka)
ausmufapwDwqlwnfNyD; t&Sifom&dykwfw&meJU t&Sifr[marm*f*vefwkdU&JU
"mwfawmfawGudk XmyemcJhw,f? NAdwdoQ tpdk;&vufxufrSm 'D"mwfawmfawG
bdvyf,loGm;NyD; jywkdufwckxJrSm xm;w,f? tdENd, vGwfvyfa&;&wJhtcg
tdEd,jynfudk 'D"mwfawmfawGjyefyifhvmw,f? 'DpmwfawmfawG[m tifrwef
tbdk;wefwJhtwGuf "mwfawmfawGoDwif;oHk;zkdU pefcsDu rlv ausmufapwDeJU
reD;ra0; awmifukef;uav;wckay:rSm taqmuftOD;wckudk tckdiftcefU
aqmufNuw,f? aqmufNyD;wJhtcg 0efMuD;csKyfae&l; udk,fwkdif taqmuftOD;&JU
Xmyem wkdufwnf;rSm XmyemzdkU tdEd,r[m aAm"dtoif;u pDpOfxm;w,f?
tJ'DyGJudk 0efMuD;csKyf OD;Ekvnf; wufapcsifw,fvdkU 0efMuDk;csKyfae&l;u
zdwfwJhtwGuf OD;Ek[m a&S;OD;pGm e,l;a'vDudkoGm;w,f? e,l;a'vDurS
face=WinKalaw y@pfae&l;eJU OD;EkwdkU[m NrKdUwNrKdUudk av,mOfysHeJU
oGm;Nuw,f? tJ'DNrdKUu pefcsDudka&mufatmif rdkif
(40)avmufarmfawmfum;eJUoGm;&w,f? av,mOfysHuGif;u xGufwJhtcg
face=WinKalaw y@pfae&l;udk MudKqdkbkdU tifrwef MuD;rm;wJh vlxkwef;MuD;[m
armfawmfum;vrf;udk 0J,m ESpfzufnSyfxm;wm awGU&w,f?
tJ'Dvlxkwef;MuD;xJrSm ausmif;olausmif;om;awG tzkd;MuD;? tr,fMuD;awG
vlvwfwef;pm;awGu pNyD; vlrsKd;pHkygw,f?

OD;Ek[m tdED, rSm ae&m tawmfrsm;rsm;udk yefepfMuD;eJUvkdufzl;w,f
tJ'dae&mwkdif;rSm ajcmufuyfuyfjzpfaewmudk wcgrS rawGU&bl; ?
vltkyfMuD;awG apmihfaewmdukcsnf;yJ awGU&w,f? awGU&wJh vltkyfMuD;uvnf;
0wfauswef;austm;emyg;emeJU vmNuwJhvlxkrsKd;r[kwfbl;? olUukd
tifrwefawGUcsifNuwJUvltkyfMuD;jzpfw,f? tJ'gaNumifh olUtem;udk
a&mufvm&if olwdkU tifrwefvdkcsifwJU ypfpnf;udk pdwfvdkufrmefyg
0kdif;NyD;vkNuovkd i,foHygatmif atmfwJholuatmf olUqDudk
twif;wkd;wJUoluwkd;tJ'dvkdwkd;&if; wa,mufeJU wa,muf wkd;rd? wGef;rd?
wkdfurD eif;rdNyD; t&rf;jzpfaeNuwm toifhapmifhaewJh ykvdyfeJU uGefu&uf&JU
wm0efcHyk*dkvfawGu tawmfNumwJhwkdifatmif 'DvlxkMuD;udk xdef;vdkUr&ekdifbl;?
wcgrSmawmh Am&mPoD uav ,mOfysHuGif;rSm xifw,f? vlxkMud;u
toifhcsxm;wJh yk*dkvfawGudk wGef;Nyd; olUqDudk twif;tkHNyD;vmvkdufNuwm oleJU
OD;EkwkdU[m 'DvltkyfMud;xJrSm nSyfNyD; ygoGm;ao;w,f? tJ'dtcg
yefepfae&l;vnf; NidrfraeEkdifawmhbl;? toHudk atmfNyd; vlawGukd
twif;wkd;ypf&w,f? olatmf[pfoH Num;awmhrS vlxkMuD;[m olwdkU[m
olwkdUxdef;NyD; t&Sdef7yfoGm;w,f? 'dvkd&yfoGm;wmeJU wNydKifeuf OD;Ekudk
tjyifbuf csufcsif;ac:oGm;bkdU yef'pfMuD; olvlawGudk atmfajymvkdfufw,f?
tJ'dtrdefUt& uGefu&ufwm0efcHawG[m vlawGudk twif;wGef;NyD; Od;Ekudk
twif; qGJac:oGm;awmhrS OD;ek[m vlxktjyifbudukd a&mufoGm;w,f?
OD;Ekvnf; ola&mufwJhae&muae yef'pfMuD;udk vSr;fNunhfawmh yef'pfMuD;u
olUvufxJu 'kwfwdkuav;eJUtwif;wkd;vkduf vlxk[m aemufa&mufoGm;vkduf
jzpfaewmudk awGU7w,f? tckvkd yefepfMud;eJU vlxk wa,mufwjyefpd
jzpfaewmudk Nunhf&wm[m ArmawG wGwf xkd;wrf; upm;wmudk Nunfh&wmeJU
odyfwlw,f? vlxkudk tifrwef cspfjrwfEkd;ovkd vlxkuvnf; oludkU
cspfwJhtwGuf yefepfMuD; olvkxkeJU tckvdk vkyfae&wmudk tifrwefMuD; auseyf
tifrwefMuD;aysmfaew,f xifw,f?
wcgrSmvnf; yefepf ae&l;[m tdEd,wae&mrSm oHrPd puf&kHMuD;wnaewm
oGm;Munfh&atmifvkdU ac:wmeJU OD;EkvkdufoGm;w,f/ yefepfae&l;eJU OD;EkwkdU
av,mOf ay:u qif;wmeJU wjydKifeufwnf; tJ'dt&yfu ykvdyft&m&Sdu
yefepfae&l;udk tpD&ifcHw,f/ olU tpD&ifcHcsuft& av,mOfuGif; tjyifbufrSm
vlxkESpfpk apmihfaew,f/ wpku yefepfae&l;udk MudKqkdbkdUjzpfw,f?
aemufwpkuawmh yefepfae&l;udk qefUusifbuf qef'jyvkdU uGefjrLepfawGu
wa,mufukd wusyfpD ay;NyD; ac:vmwm jzpfw,f/ uGefjrLepfawG ac:vmwJh
vlxk&JU vufxJrSm tvHjzLuav;awGudkifxm;w,fqkdwmu yefepfMuD;eJU

OD;EkwkdUod&w,f/ yefepfMuD;wdkUpD;vmwJh *spfum;[m MudKqkdwJhvlxkudk
t7ifawGU&w,f/ tJ'Dvlxk[m yefepfMuD; oGm;wJhae&mwumwkdif;u
vlxkawGtwkdif; wcJeuf atmf[pfNyD; yef;ukef;awG eJU ypf&if; yefepfMuD;udk
c&D;OD; MudKqkd jyKMuygw,f/ uGefjrLepfawG ac:vmwJh vlxkbufudk
a7mufvmwJhtcg bmawGrsm; vkyfMuOd;rvJvkdU OD;Ek apmihfMudKMunfhw,f/
uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmif av;ig;OD;u yefepf ae&l;udk qefUusifwJU
aMuG;aMumfoHawg atmf[pfNyD; qkdMuw,f/ vlxku vkdufrqkd,kHomrubl;/
olwkdU ta&SUudk yefepfae&l;a&mufvmwmeJU wòydifeuf vuftkyfcsDNyD;
[E´Lbmomvkd uefawmygw,fvkdUqkdMuw,f? yefepfae&l;[m
OD;EkbufudkvSnfhNyD; 'DvlawG[m uGefjrLepfawGu
wa,mufwusyfay;NyD;ac:vmwJh vlawGvdkUajymvkdufwJHtcg OD;Eku
olodygw,f/ yefepfMuD;vdkU jyefajzvkdufw,f?
vlxkeJU yefepfMuD;[m b,favmuf &if;ESD;w,fw,fqdkwm tuJcwfEdkifatmif
om"uwckudk 'Dae&mrSm az:jyvkduf&tHk;r,f? [E´LwuUodkvfrSm
OD;EkrdefUcGef;ajymNyD;wJhtcg bk&ifcHu yefepfMuD;eJU OD;Ekudk
npmpm;yGJwckeJU{nfhcHw,f? aemufqHk;yef;uefudk {nfhonfawGa&SUrSmcsNyD;wmeJU
wNydKifeuf pm;yGJxdk;orm;awG[m olwkdUtcsif;csif; MudKwifpDpOfxm;wJhtwkdif;
yefepfMuD;&JUaemufrSm wdwfwdwfuav; pDwef;NyD; &yfMuw,f? toifhapmifhaewJh
"mwfyHkq&mu yefepfMuD;eJU olUaemufu wef;pDNyD; &yfaeMuwJh
pm;yGJxkd;orm;awGudk "mwfyHk&kdufvkdufw,f? yefepfMuD;[m pm;yGJxkd;awG&JU
tMuHydkifykHudk csD;usL;wJhtaeeJU NyHK;aew,f? wjcm;0efMuD;csKyf wOD;OD;omqkd&if
pm;yGJxkd;awG[m 'DtpDtpOfrsKd;udk wu,fvkyfzkdUrajymeJU pOf;awmif pOf;pm;&JrSm
r[kwfbl;?
xrf;aqmifae&wJh wm0efuvnf; tifrwefMuD;? wkdif;jynfeJU vlxktwGuf
aomuawGuvnf; tifrwefrsm;jym;? toufuvnf; ri,fvSawmhwJhtwGuf
yefepfMuD;[m tifrwefyifyrf;aew,f? oleJU pum;xkdifajymae&if; ol[m
tvkyfyifyrf;vGef;vdkU qkdzmay:rSm tdyfaysmf aysmfoGm;wmudk OD;Ek
rMumcPawGUcJhzl;w,f? wcgrSm yefepfae&l;&,f OD;Ek&,f
ArmEkdifiHjcm;a&;twGif;0ef bm&ifwef&,f xkdifNyD; pum;ajymaeMuw,f? OD;Eku
ckdif;vkdU w&kwf-Arm e,fjcm;pmtkyfudk bm&ifwefu &Sif;jyae&if;
yefepfae&l;[m tdyfaysmfoGm;w,f? 'Dvdkjrif&wm[m
yxrtMudrfjzpfaewJhtwGuf bm&ifwef[m bmvkyf&rSef;rodjzpfaew,f?
tJ'gaMumifh 'DrSmajymwmawmfNyD/ rif;oGm;csifoGm;awmh
tdEd´,EkdifiHjcm;a&;twGif;0efeJU awGUwJhtcg tJ'D w&kwf-ArmpmcsKyf

taMumif;udk pHkpHkvifvifajymjyvkdufygvdkU OD;Eku bm&ifwefudk
wkd;wkd;av;ajymjyvkduf&wf,? taemufEdkifiHutdEd´,tpdk;&tzGJU&JU
acgif;aqmifawGqkd&if ESpfvwcg/ oHk;vwcg qkdovkd yifv,furf;ajcrSm
tem;,lwmwkdU awmifay:pcef;rSm avn‡if;cHwmwdkU/ &GufoabFmeJU
yifv,fxJrSm tyrf;ajzwmwkdUudk vkyfvkyfay;&w,f?
yefepfMuD;rSm 'grsKd;awGr&dSbl;? olU&JUtyrf;ajzaq;[m olcspfwJhvlxkbJ?
wcJeuftHkMuGaewJhvlxkvkd MuufaysmufiSufaysmuf aysmufuG,fukefMuw,f?
pefcsDudkoGm;bdkUtwGuf e,l;a'vDu xGufvmwkef;u
tifrwefyifyrf;aewJhtwGuf yefepfMuD;[m av,mOfysHay:rSm tomrSdef;NyD;
vkdufvm&w,f? OD;Ekvnf; yefepfMuD; em;csifem;ygapawmhvdkU pOf;pm;NyD;
av,mOfysHay:rSm olUudk bmpum;rSrajymbl;? tJ'Dvkd yifyrf;aewJh
yefepfMuD;[m av,mOfysHuGif;0rSm toifhapmifhaewJh vlxkudk jrif&wJhtcg/
olyifyrf;aewmawGaysmufukefw,f? olUrsufESmudkMunfh&wmtawmf
MunfMunfvifvifjzpfvmw,f? trkd;ûzwfxm;wJh *spfum;ay:rSm
t&m&dSwa,mufu '&kdifbm&JU ab;rSmxdkifw,f? yefepfae&l;eJU OD;EkwkdUu
*spfum;ay:rSm txl;vkyfxm;wJh oHwef;udkudkifNyD; rwfwyfvdkufMuw,f?
*spfum;[m olwkdUtem;udk a&mufwmeJUwNydKifeuf vlxk[molwkdU
toifhaqmifxm;wJh yef;uHk;awG yef;yGifhawGeJU yefepfudk 0dkif;aygufMuwmbJ?
yefepfuvnf; tJ'D yef;uHk;awG/ yef;awGudk rdoavmufvdkufzrf;NyD;
vlxkudkjyefaygufw,f? wae&mrSmawmh ausmif;olrav; aygufvdkufwJh
yef;uHk;[m yefepfMuD;&JU rsufvHk;udkrSefoGm;w,f? yefepfMuD;[m *spfum;udk
csufcsif;t&yfckdif; tJ'Dyef;ukH;eJUaygufwJhausmif;olrav;bufudkvnfh
yef;uHk;rSefoGm;wJh olUrsufpdudkvufwzufeJU tomtkyfxm;NyD; (athcf'yfpwl;[J)
vdkU [dE´LvdkvSrf;aigufvkdufw,f? 'g[m xHk;pHvm;vdkU Armvkd t"dyÜm,f&w,f?
olUvlxkuvnf; olwkdU&JUacgif;aqmiftaMumif;
aumif;aumif;odaew,fqkdawmh olaigufwkdif; aMumufroGm;bl;? 'gxkH;pHbJvkdU
olUudk jyefatmfajymNyD; awmufxyfyef;ukH;awG yef;awGeJU 0kdif;aygufMu&if;
w0g;0g;eJU aysmfaeMuw,f? yefepfvnf; aemufxyfbmrS rajymawmhbl;?
olUrsufvHk;udk vufwzufeJU umNyD; armfawmfum;udk
quftarmif;ckdif;vdkufw,f?
"gwfawmfawGudk ,m,DpHausmif;awmfu awmifylpmay:rSm&dSwJh
"gwfawmfwdkufudk ajymif;a&TUwJhtcg tcrf;tem;eJU a&TUw,f? tcrf;tem;
tpDtpOfxJrSm yefepfae&l;eJU OD;EkwkdU[m "gwfawmfaemufu uyfvkdufoGm;&kHbJ?
bmrS vkyfp&mrvdkbl;? awmifay:u "gwfawmfwkdufudk a&mufwJhtcgrSmom

yefepfMuD;"gwfawmfMuKwfudk yifhvmwJhvl&JU vufxJu,lNyD; XmyemwkdufxJrSm
xm;&r,f? 'gayrJh OD;Ek[m r[maAm"dtoif;&JU vlMuD;awGudk awmif;yefNyD;
"gwfawmfMuKwfudk olUacgif;ay:rSmyifhoGm;w,f? ygvmwJh
vlxkMuD;udkxdef;bdkUtwGuf ykvdyfawGvnf;&dSw,f? wjcm;vlawGvnf;
trsm;MuD;&dSw,f? 'gayrJh ydkNyD; pdwfcs&atmifqkdwJh &nf&G,fcsufeJUbJ xifyg&JU?
yefepfMuD;[m aemufuygvmwJh vlxkbufudkrsufESmrlNyD; awmifylpmay:rSm
aygufxm;wJh ajrMuD;wufvmwmr[kwfbl;? olUyg;pyfu atmfajymvkduf
olUvufxJu 'kwfwkduav;udk axmifjyvkdufeJU olUvlxkudk xdef;NyD;
wufvkdufvmw,f?
OD;Ek[m "gwfawmfudk olUacgif;ay:rSmyifhNyD; awmifylpmay:udkwufvm&if;
olpdwful;awG[m ESpfaygif; ESpfaxmifausmfavmufu taomuacwfudk
ûAef;ueJa&mufoGm;w,f? &Sifbk&iftaomu[m 'DpefcsDrSm ausmufapwDwnfNyD;
t&Sifom&dykwÅ&meJU t&Sifr[marm*vmefwkdU&JU "gwfawmfawGudk
udk,fwkdifXmyem oGm;cJhw,f? tckvnf; 'DpefcsDrSm pHausmif;awmfwck
wnfaqmufNyD; 'D"gwfawmfawGudkbJ yefepfMuD;udk,fwdkif Xmyem&awmhr,f?
tdEd,EkdifiHawmftvHrSm taomuwHqdyfudkbJ yefepfMuD; jyefoHk;w,f?
tdEd´,jynfolvlxkMuD; w&yfvHk;[m taomu0ifpm;wmjzpfrSmbJ? yefepfMuD;[m
taomujzpfwkef;u igvnf;oleJUcspfcifwJh rdwfaqGwOD;OD;awmhjzpfrSmbJ?
b,folrsm; jzpfygvdrhfrvJ? twdwfb0awGudk jyefNyD;jrifEdkifwJh ykaAed0goEkwd
tbdOmOfudkom ig&r,fqkd&if tJ'Dwkef;u ig[mbmvJqkd&if
igjyefMunfhEkdifrSmbJvdkUawG;&if; ywf0ef;usifawGudk owdarhNyD; OD;Ek[m
wa,mufxJ pdwful;,Ofaew,f?
"gwfawmfawGudk XmyemNyD;vkdU jyeftvm yefepfMuD;rSm b,fbmomrS r&dSbl;vkdU
Mum;zl;w,f? tJ'grSef&JUvm;vdkU OD;Eku yefepfMuD;udk ar;w,f? 'gayrJh ol[m
Ak'f"bmombufudkawmh udkif;nTwfaew,f? (I am inclined towards
Buddhism) vdkU yefepfMuD;u ajzMum;wJhtcg yefepfMuD;[m taomu
0ifpm;wmjzpfrSmbJqkdwJh OD;Ek&JU ,HkMunfrIawG[m a&S;uxufydkNyD;
cdkifrmvmMuw,f?
1962 ckESpf Zefe0g&DvtwGif; Am&mPoD [E´LwuúodkvfrSm (r*Fvm) eJU
(arwm) (Mangala and Metta) rdefUcGef;ESpfckudk OD;Ekajym&w,f? yefepfMuD;u
tJ'DrdefUcGef;yGJrSm em,uvkyf&w,f? yefepfMuD;eJU OD;EkwkdU[m Am&mPoDNrdKUxJu
Am&mPoD r[m&mZm&JUtdrfrSm wnf;&w,f? 'kwd,trdefUcGef;udk ajymNyD;wJh
naeydkif;rSm r[m&mZmu yefepfMuD;eJU OD;EkwkdUudk vufbuf&nfyGJeJU {nfhcHw,f?
{nfhonfawGjyefoGm;vkdU olwkdUESpfa,mufwnf;&dSwJhtcg OD;Eku yefepfMuD;udk

'DvkdpNyD; ajymvkdufw,f?
yefepfMuD;cifAsm; uRefawmfhudk ratmfbl;qdk&if cifAsm;udk uRefawm f pum;wcGef;
avmufajym csifw,f?
bmjzpfvkdUatmf&rSmvJ ajymyg?
aeUwkdif; reuftdyf,mxwMudrf ntdyf,m0ifwMudrf Ak"f'Ho&PH *pmrd
"rHo&PH *pmrd/ oHCHo&PH *pmrdvkdU qkdvkdU qkdcsifw,f? qkdEdkifyghrvm;?
qdkEkdifygw,fvkdUqkdNyD; Ak'Ho&PH *pmrd "rHo&PH *pmrd oHCHo&PH *pmrdvkdU
OD;Ekudk yefepfMuD;u acgufqkdjyw,f?
tdEd´,udk aemufwacguf tvnfvm&if tdyf,macgif;&if;rSm xm;NyD;
yefepfMuD;udk udk;uG,fbkdUtwGuf nmPfawmfao;ao; ausmufqif;wk
(odkUr[kwf) aMu;qif;wkwql yifhvmr,fvkdU pdwful;NyD; OD;Ek&efukefudk
jyefvmw,f? aemufwvausmfausmf avmufMumwJhtcg rwfv(2)&ufaeUrSm
0efMuD;csKyf OD;Ek[m tmPmodrf;cH&w,f? axmifwaxmifxJrSm tcsKyfcHae&&if;
waeUusawmh axmift&m&dSwOD; OD;EkqDudkvmNyD; yefepfae&l;
tedpa&mufoGm;NyDvkdU Mum;w,f? om;trdom;tz jzpfjzpf
nDtudkarmifESrjzpfjzpf vifeJUr,m; jzpfjzpf oli,fcsif;rdwfaqGjzpfjzpf
wOD;eJUwOD; cspfcifMuwJholawG[m waeUaomtcg uGJMu&rSm "rwmbJ
&SifuGJaomfvnf;aumif;? aouGJaomfvnf;aumif; uGJ&r,fvkdU pOf;pm;7if;
cspfcifaygif;oif; qufqHjcif;um; auGuGif;aemufqHk;&dSacs\ qkdwJh oHa0*
oHaygufuav;udk tusOf;om; OD;Ek[m tMudrfaygif;rsm;pGm wa,mufwnf;
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w&kwfjynf
(u)
w&kwf uGefjrLepfawG[m 1949ckESpftwGif;rSm w&kwfjynfrMud; wckvkH;udk
odr;f,lEkdifcJhw,f/ tJ'dtcsdefupNyD; w&kwfjynfeJU tar&duef jynfaxmifpkwkdU&JU
y#dyufc [m waeUwjcm; ykdrjdkyif;xefvmwJht wGuf 'DEkdifiHMuD; ESpfEkdifiH[m
ppfjzpfawmhrvm; qkdNyD; wubmvkH; &ifwrreJU apmihfMunfhaeMu&w,f/
OD;Ek[m ubmolubmom; wOD;jzpfwJhtwGuf tckajymovkd
apmifhMunfhaewJholawG&JU xJrSm wOD; tjzpfeJU {uefrkcs ygrSmygbJ/ 'gayrJU
wjcm;ubmolubmom;tawmfrsm;rsm;xuf ykdNyd; &ifwrr jzpfp7m taMumif;
wck OD;EkrSm&Sdaew,f/ 'DtaMumif;udk 'Dae&mrSm enf;enf;avmufajymyg&ap?
OD;Ek[m 'kwd,ubmppfMuD;twGif;u 1940 jynhfESp f'DZifbmvxJrSm
apwemaumif;tzGJU0if ( Goodwill mission ) wOD;tjzpfeJU w&kwfjynf

uGefrif; cRefuif;? csefwl;NrdKU 3ckudk a&mufoGm;cJhbl;w,f/ tJ'Dwkef;u zufqpf
*syefawGu AkH;awGeJUMuJ tajrmufawGeJUypfxm;vkdU w&kwfawG &p&mr&Sdatmif
aoaMuaeMuwmawGudk txl;ojzifh ca;vawG twkH;t&kH;eJU aoaeMuwmudk
"mwfykHawGxJrSm jrifcJh&w,f/ aemufNyD;awmh ppfxJrSm rdbawG
aoqkH;oGm;wJhtwGuf rdbrJhuav;awGudk w&kwftpkd;&u
apmihfa&Smufxm;&w,f/ tJ'dcav;awG&JU ausmif;awG ? EkdUxdef;a*[m awG
udkvnf; OD;Eka&mufcJh&w,f/ tJ'd"mwfykHawGeJU tJ'dcav;awGudkawGUwJhtcgrSm
vlawGawmxJrSmrikdrdatmif OD;EK awmfawmfxdef;cJh&w,f/ ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm
Mumvmayr,fhvnf; w&kwfjynfrSm OD;EkjrifcJh7wmawG aysmufroGm;bl;/
olUESvkH;om;xJrSm cyfeuf euf xGif;xm;ovkd jzpfNyD; w&kwfcav;awGay:rSm
OD;Ek&JU oHa,mZOf[m ckdifrmaew,f/ tJ'D oHa,mZOfaMumifh w&kwfjynfeJU
tar&duef jynfaxmifpk wkdU ppfrsm;jzpf&if tar&duef AkH;qH?
tajrmuffqHawGatmufrSm tjypfrJU w&kwfuav;awG [m odef;eJU oef;eJU
csnfNyD; twkH;t&kH; aoMu&tkH;r,fqkdwJh oem;pdwfawG[m OD;Ekudk xrif;vkH;
waq ajcmufovkd vkdufajcmufaew,f/
'dEkdifiHMuD;ESpfck ppfrjzpfatmif olvkd yrTm;wa,muf[m bmwwfEkdifrSmvJ/
'gayrJH rwwfEkdifbl;qkdNyD; 'Dudwfpudk olvufykduf Munfhraejcifbl;/
OD;aESmufxuf ESvkH;om;u ykdMuD;aewJh OD;Ek[m olU0goemt& wckck
vkyfcsifaew,f/ bmrS rvkyfEkdifbl;qkd&ifawmif tcGifhaumif;&wJhtcg
w&kwfacgif;aqmifawGeJU tar&duef acgif;aqmifawGudk
acgif;aqmifMuD;rsm;cifAsm/ &efolrjzpfMuygeJU rdwfaqG jzpfMuyg?
qkdwmuav;avmuf udkawmh teJqkH;tjzpfeJU olajymcsifaew,f/ tJ'DvkdajymbkdU
tcGifhaumif; &Smaewkef; 1954ckESpf rSm w&kwf 0efMuD;csKyf acsmiftifvkdif
&efukefudk tvnfa&mufvmw,f/ ol&JU zdwfMum;csuft& OD;Ek[m 1954 ckESpf
tukefavmufrSm yDuif;udk tvnfvmbkdU oabmwlvkdufNyD;
oltifrwefajymcsifaewJh w&kwftar&duef cspfMunfa&;taMumif; udk
w&kwfjynfrSm olajym&awmhr,fvkdU awG;&if; OD;Ek 0rf;tomMuD;omaew,f/
(c )
w&kwfjynfc&D;xGufcged; usif;ywJh 0efMuD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;wckrSm
0efMuD;csKyfacsmiftifvkdif; eJU awGUwJhtcg w&kwf -Arm e,ferdwf owfrSwfbkdU
udwfpudk aqG;aEG;cJhygvkdU 0efMuD;awGu 0efMuD;csKyfOD;Ekudk 0kdi;fNyD;rSmMuw,f/
'kwd, 0efMuD;csKyf OD;ausmfNidr;fuqkd&if taemufEkdifiHom;awG a&;xm;wJh pmtkyf
okH;av;tkyf ,lvmNyD; tJ'dpmtkyfawG xJu w&kwf -Arm e,fjcm;eJU qkdifwJh
pmykd'f awG zwfjyw,f/ OD;ausmfNidrf;&JU tqkdt&qkd&if 'Dpmykd'fawGudk udk;um;NyD;

jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHxJu e,fajrwckav;udkrS ray;bJ ArmawG ykdifcJhwJh
e,fajr qkdNyD; w&kwfjynfxJu &Spfaqmif yUm; qkdwJh e,fajrudk &atmif
0efMuD;csKyfOD;Ek[m awmif;vmcJhapcsifw,f/ 0efMuD;csKyfOD;Ek[m 'Drludk
oabmrusbl;/ w&kwf-Arm e,fjcm;owfrSwfa&;udwfprSm Armtpkd;&u
pmtkyfawG pm&Gufpmwrf;awG pmcsKyfawGudk ukd;umvdrfhr,f/
0efMuD;csKyfcsKtifvkdif; Armjynf tvnfvmwkef;u autrfwDeJU
uGefjrLepftpkd;&wkdU xkwfa0cJhwJh w&kwfjynf ajrykHxJrSm jrpfMuD;em;jrdKU&JU
ajrmufbuf u e,fajrawg rSeforQ ygaew,fvkdU OD;Eku ajymwJhtcg w&kwf
- Arm pmcsKyfwckt& 'Dvkdjzpf&wmvkdU 0efMuD;csKyfcsKtifvkdif;u ajymzl;w,f/
'DpmcsKyfrSm Arm&Sifbk&ifawGvufxufu w&kwf tpkd;& eJU
Armtpkd;&wkdUcsKyfcJhwJh pmcsKyfjzpfw,f/ tJ'DpmcsKyfxJrSm tckajymcJhwJh jrpfMuD;em;
jrdKUajrmufbuf u w&kwfykdif e,fajrawGudk w&kwf tmPmykdifawG
oGm;EkdifbkdUtwGuf w&kwf oabmFawG[m {&m0wD jrpfwavQmuf
Aef;armfjrdKUtxd qefwufcGifh&Sdw,fvkdU azmfjyxm;w,f/ 'gayrJh 'gawGudk
pkd;&drfp&m r&Sdygbl;/ w&kwf -Arm e,ferdwf owfrSwfwJhtcg w&m;ojzifh
jzpfatmi fvkyfay;ygr,fvkdU w&kwf0efMuD;csKyfcsKtifvkdif;u ajymoGm;zl;w,f/
tJ'Dawmh Armtpkd;&u pmtkyfawG pm&Gufpmwr;fawGpmcsKyfta[mif;awGudk
ukd;um;vkduf&if w&kwftpkd;&uvnf; olwkdUrSm &SdwJhpmcsKyfawG /
pmt&Gufpmwr;fawG pmcsKyfta[mif;awGudk ukd;um; vmvdrhfr,f/ 'Dvkdqkd&if
w&kwf -Arm e,fjcm; owfrSwfa&;udwfp[m odyfMumoGm;vdrfhr,f/
w&kwfawGtwGuf MumvkdU udwfp r&Sdbl;/ olwkdUapmifhEkdifw,f/ ArmawGu
rapmifhEkdifbl;/ tJ'Dawmh olUoabmt&qkd&if w&kwf Arm e,fjcm;owfrSwfa&;
aqG;aEG;wJhtcg 'DpmtkyfawG pm&Gufpmwrf;awG pmcsKyfa[mif;awGudk
rudk;um;csifbl;/ olUtxifudk ajym&&if w&kwfuGefjrLepfacgif;aqmifawG[m
zqyvacgif;aqmifawGudk ,kHMunfvmwmeJUtrQ w&kwf-Arm
e,fjcm;owfrSwfa&;udwfp[m vG,fulvmr,f/ tJ"dawmh w&kwf -Arm
e,fjcm;owfrSwfa&; udwfp udk odyfravmeJU? 'gayrJh w&kwf tpkd;&udk
ajymoihfoavmuf ajymxm;wmuawmh rvGefygbl;/ ajymEkdifygw,f/
tJ'DvkdajymNyD; wjcm;wbuf w&kwf-Arm cspfMunfa&;udk tpGr;fukef
wnfaqmufay;&r,f/ w&kwf - Arm cspfMunfa&;wkd;wufvmwmeJUtrQ
w&kwf uGefjrLep acgif;aqmifawG[m zqyv acgif;aqmifawGudk
,HkMunfvmr,f/ tJ'dvkd ,kHMunf vmwJhwaeUrSm 'Dw&kwf -Arm
e,fjcm;owfrSwfa&;udwfp[m &mckdifEIef; 80 ausmfNyD;aeNyDvkdU

ol,kHMunfwJhtaMumif; 0efMuD;csKyf OD;Ek u &Sif;jyw,f/ 0efMuD;csKyf&JU
enf;y7d,m,fudk OD;ausmfNidrf;eJUwuG 0efMuD;rsm;tzGJUu vufcHygw,f/
(*)
1954 ckESpf 'DZifbm vtpykdif;avmufrSm 0efMuD;cssKyfOD;Ek[m w&kwfjynfukd
tvnfoGm;w,f/ OD;EkwkdU&UJ av,mOfysH[m yDuif; av,mOfysHuGif;udk
qkdufwmeJU wjyKdifeuf oHtrwf OD;vSarmif[m okd; arT;
acgif;pGyfwvkH;udkudkifNyd; av,mOfysHay:wufvmw,f/ av,mOfysHuGif;xJrSm
odyfat;aew,f/ acgif;aygif; yg;yg;av;eJU qif;vkdUrjzpfbl;qkdNyD;
0efMuD;csKyfOD;Ekudk oHtrwfu okd;arT;acgif;pGyfay;w,f/ tcrf;tem;eJU ususee
MudKaewJhae&mrSm 'Dacgif;pGyfMuD; pGyfNyD; rqif;csifbl;/ at;csifat;yap/
olUacgif;aygif;udk bJ aygif;NyD; qif;r,fvkdU OD;Eku ajzw,f/ OD;Ek[m
av,mOfysHtjyifbudk ajcwvSrf;vSr;frdwmeJU wjydKifeuf
wudk,fvkH;awmifhwufovkd jzpfoGm;w,f/ tJ'gaMumifh av,mOfysHuGif;rSm
ajymbkdU pDpOfxm;wJh rdefUcGef;udkawmif rajymEdkifbl;/ vmMudKaewJh yk*kdvfawGeJU
cyfjrefjref EIwfqufNyD; tyl"mwfvTwfxm;wJh um;xJudk
cyfjrefjref0ifvkduf&w,f/
{nhfa*[m rSmwem&Davmufem;Nyd;wJhtcg OuXMuD; armfpDwkef;eJU awGU&w,f/
OuXMuD; armf tawGUcHrJh tdrfukd0ifrdwmeJU OuXMuD;armf? 'kOuXMuD;
vla&SmufcsDeJU 'kwd, orwwkdU pDwef;Nyd;apmifhaeMuwm awGU&wf/
OD;EkwkdUvlpk[m tm;vkH;eJU vufqGJ EIwfqufMuNyD; {nhfcef;xJudk oGm;Muw,f/
{nhfcef;xJrSm pm;yGJckHt&SnfMuD; &Sdw,f/ tJ'Dpm;yGJckH&JU wbufrSm OuXMuD;armf?
'kOuX vla&SmufcsDeJU 'korwwkdU xkdifNyD; OD;EkwkdUvlpku tJ'dyk*kdvfawGeJU
pm;yGJckHwzufrSm rsufeSmcsif;qkdifxkdif&w,f/ OD;Ek[m olrSwfrdoavmuf
OuXMuD;armfeJU yDuif;rSm 3MudrfawGUbl;w,f/ awGU&wJHtMudrfwdkif;rSm
OuXMuD;armf[m ajymcJhwJhtwkdif; OD;EkwkdUvlpkudk c&D;OD;MudKjyKNyD; {nhfcef;xJrSm
tckvkd aqG;aEG;MuwmbJ/
OuXMuD;armfeJU awGUwJhtcgwkdif; OD;EkrsufpdxJrSm wjcm;[m awGxuf
xl;xl;jcm;jcm; ay:vGifaewm wck&Sdw,f/ tJ'gu wjcm;r[kwfbl;/
wzufom;udk tifrwefMuifemwJh pdwf"mwfawG wzGm;zGm; ay:aeewJh
OuXMuD;armf&JU rsufESmxm;bJjzpfw,f/ pum;pjrD ajymNyD;MuvkdU OD;EkwkdU vlpk
jyef cgeD;wJhtcg OuXMuD;armfu w&kwfjynfudk OD;EkwkdUvmwJhtcg
b,fae&mudkbJ oGm;csifoGm;csif ajymomajymyg? tm;vkH;a&mufatmif
ykdUay;ygr,f/ w&kwftpkd;&[m vkyfief;aygif;w&mausmfudk pNyD;
taumiftxnffazmfaeNyd?tJ'gawG NyD;oGm;&if w&kwfjynf[m Armjynfudk

trsm;MuD;ulnDEkdifvdrfhr,fvkdU MuifMuifememajymygw,f/
OuXMuD; armfqDu tjyef 0efMuD;csKy fcsKtifvkdif; &JU tdrfrSm npmpm;&w,f/
yDuif;rSm tdrfaumif; tdrfMuD;tdrfus,faw Gtrsm;MuD; &Sdw,f/
'gayrJh0efMuD;csKyfcsKtif;vkdif;[m tifrwef csKd;NcHNyD; w&kwf {u&mZf bk&if &JU
eef;awmf0if;MuD;twGif;u tdrfuav;wvkH;rSm aew,f/ w&kwf{u&mZf
vufxufwkef;uqkd &if tJ'dtdrfuav;rSm &Sifbk&if&JU pm;awmfuJ 'grS
r[kwf&if tJ'D pm;awmfuJeJU tqihftwef;wlwJh yk*kdvfrsKd; aeoGm;ykHay:w,f/
taemufEkdifiHowif;pmq&m wOD;u 0if'grD,m0if;twGif;u 0efMuD;csKyfOD;Ek&JU
tdrf[m aumifqm*sife&,f qkdwJh oHrSL;av; aewJhtdrfxuf
trsm;MuD;nHhzsif;w,f vkdU ysuf&,f jyKcH&wmudk OD;Ek[m trsm;MuD;
*kPf,lcJhbl;w,f/ 0efMuD;csKy fcsKtifvkdif;&UJ tdrfudk jrif&awmhrS
olNcdK;NcHw,fqdkwm 0e0efMuD;csKyfcsKtifvkdif; tdyfaeoavmufbJ
&Sdao;w,fqkdwm olod&w,f/ 0efMuD;csKyfcsKtifvkdif;&JU ZeD;[m
tJ'dtcsdefwkef;u taMuma&m*g jzpfaew,f? tJ'gaMumifhOD;Ek wkdUeJUtwl
npmrpm;Ekdifbl;/ olUtcef;xJu csdcsdeJUeJ eJU xGufvmNyD; OD;EkeJU a':jr&Dudk
EIwfquf&kHbJ qufEkdifw,f/
(C )
w&kwfjynfudk OD;Eka&mufwJhtcsdefrSm w&kwfjynfolvlxkMuD; w&yfvkH;[m
tar&dueftpkd;&udk txl;pdwfemaeMuw,f/ tar&duef tpdk;&udk tJ'dvkd
pdwfememeJU txl;tkH<uNyD; tar&duefqefUusifa&;qef' jyyGJawGudk w&kwf awG
cece vkyfaeMuw,f/ w&kwfawGrSm vlodyfrsm;w,f r[kwfvm;/ tJ'Dawmh
yDuif;NrdKU&JU &yfuGufawGtm;vkH;u vlxkawG[m w7yfuGufNyD; w&yfuGuf
olUtcsdefeJU ol xGufxGufNyD; qef'jyaevkdufMuwm[m waeUvkH; rqkH;awmhbl;/
OD;EkwkdUtjyifxGufwkdif; tar&duef qefUusifa&; qef'jyyGJawGudk waeUvkH;
tcsdefra&G;awGUae&w,f/ {nhfa*[mrSm xkdifae&ifvnf; tar&duef
qefUusifa&; a<u;aMumfoHawGudk w&kwfawG toHukef [pfaewm tcsdefra&G;
Mum;ae&w,f/
w&kwfjynfolvlxkuvnf; tckvkd jzpfae&wJhtxJ OD;Ekudk,fwkdifuvnf;
armf?vL? acsmif tp&SdwJHh w&kwfacgif;aqmifawGeJU 7if;&if;ESD;ESD;rjzpfao;bl;/
odcgpbJ&Sdao;w,f/ tJ'dvkdtcsdefrsKd;rSm wjcm;{nhfonfawmfawGomqkd&if
yDuif;NrKdUtvnfacgif w&kwf tpkd;&tzGJUESihf w&kwf acgif;aqmifMuD;I,fawG
a&SUrSm w&kwftar&duef cspfMunfa&;taMumif;ajymr,f rxifbl;/ tJ'dtcsdef
tJ'Dae&mrskKd;rSm 'DvkdrdefUcGef;rsKd;udk {uef pOf;pm;rdrSmbJ? OD;Ek uawmh
tifrwefnhHwJhvl 'Dvkd pOf;pm;EkdifwJhnmPf olUrSm r&Sdbl;/ 'drdefUcGef;udk

olajymr,fvkdU oH"dXmefcsxm;w,f/ tJ'Dawmh jzpfcsif&m jzpfyap?
b,fenf;eJUrqkd olajym&r,f qkdwmukd bJ olpOf;pm;aew,f/ wkdifyifae&if
rajymygeJUvkdU 0dkif;zsufaerSm awG;rdwmeJU 'DrdefUcGef;udk ajymr,fqkdwm
olU0efMuD;tzGJUukdvnf; bmrS rajymbl;/ yDuif;rSm&SdwJh oHtrwfudkvnf;
oltodray;bl;/ w&kwfjynfudk oleJU ygvmwJh udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJUudkvnf;
olrwkdifyifbl;/ tcGifhaumif;&wmeJU 0efMuD;csKyfOD;Ek[m 'Dw&kwf tar&duef
cspfMunfa&; rdefUcGef;awmMuD;udk ajymcsvkdufwmygbJ/ 'DrdefUcGef;rSm pmykd'f 10
ydk'f avmufyg&Sdvdrfhr,f/ yxr 5 ykd'f avmufrSm ArmEkdifiH[m
EkdifiHi,fav;jzpfaewmawmh trSefbJ/ 'gayrJh b,fEkdifiHMud;awG&J U
vufudkifwkwfrS tjzpfrcHbl;? ArmEkdifiH[m rdwfaqG tjzpfeJU
aygif;oif;aeEkdifwJh EdkifiHawGtay:rSm b,fenf;eJUrS opfpm razgufbl;/
ArmEkdifiH[m Nidr;fcsrf;a&;udk wjcm;tcsufawGxuf ykdNyD; tvkd&Sdw,f/
tp&SdwJHtaMumif;awGudk xnhfajymoGm;w,f/ OD;Ek rdefUcGef;ajymwJhtcg
Armvkdajymw,f/ Armvkdwykd'fajymNyd;oGm;&if w&kwf pum;jyefu w&kwfvkd
bmomjyef&w,f/ tJ'dvkd bmomjyefNyD;wmeJU wNydKifeuf xrif;pm;yGJ
wufa&mufvmwJh y&dowf awG[m oabmuswJhtaeeJU vufckyfawG
wajzmif;ajzmif; 0kdif; wD;Muwm qlnHoGm;wmbJ/
usef 5 ykd'f avmufrSmawmh OD;Ek[m w&kwf - tar&duef cspfMunfa&;
taMumif;udk xnhfajymoG;mw,f/ tJ'DvkdajymwJhae&mrSm tar&duef awG[m
'dubmMuD;udk tckxuf ykdNyd; aumif;vmatmif vkyfay;EkdifwJh
vlpGr;faumif;awGjzpfw,f/ ubmMuD;udk emZDeJU zufqpfawG&JU
ab;tef'&m,fuae vGwfajrmufatmif u,fwifay;cJhwJh tmZmenf
awGjzpfw,f/ 'kwd, ubmppfMuD;twGif;u 'Dtar&duef tmZmenf awG[m
toufaygif;rsm;pGm tqkH;cH? aoG;ajr tuscHNyd; pGefUpm;cJh&w,f/ ppfMuD;
NyD;Nyefawmhvnf; EkdifiHawmfawmfrsm;rsm;[m olwkdU &EkdiforQ twif;,ufNyd ;
,laeMuwJhtxJrSm tar&duef awGuawmh 'Dvkd rvkyfbl;/ 'kufc
a&mufaeMu&SmwJh ubmol ubmom; oef;aygif;axmifaygif;rsm;pGmwefwJh
vlokH;ypfpnf;awG eJU pufu&d,mawG tajrmuftjrm; vSL'gef;cJhw,f
tp&Sdojzifh tar&duef awGudk &uf&ufa&ma&m csD;usL; ajymqkdoGm;w,f/
w&kwftaMumif;udk ajymwJhtcg w&kwf awG[m owfwd
ajymifajrmufwJhvlawGjzpfw,f/ wbufom;tay:rSm tifrwef
axmufxm;pmemwwfolawGjzpfw,f w&kwf uGefjrLepfygwDqkd&if w&kwf
jynfolvlxkMuD;w&yfvkH;twguf udk,fusKd;rzufbJ &Gyf&GyfcRHcRH
aqmif&Gufay;cJhwJhtwGuf w&kwf jynfolvlxkMuD;&JU tajctae[m

a&S;wkef;ueJU rwlawmhbl;/ pm;0wfaea&;bufrSm xl;xl;jcm;jcm;MuD; wkd;wuf
vmwJhtaMumif;awGudk xnhfajymoGm;w,f/
tJ'Dvkd ajymNyD;wJhaemuf [kdufj'dK*sif eJU tEkjrLAkH;awGaMumifh 'DubmMud;rSm
wckbJjzpfEkdifw,f/ 'DAkH;eJU tMuJcH&wJh EkdifiHawG[m avmifpmeJU jymykHawG
jzpfukefMurSmbJ/ 'DavmifpmeJU jymykHawGxJu AkH;MuJwJHh t*Fvdyf? tar&duef
awGudk rkef;wJh pdwf"gwfawG ay:xGufvmr,f? avmifpmeJUjymykHudk rSD&rS
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OD;Ek&JU rdefUcGef;udk wykd'fpD w&kwfvkdbmomjyefNyD;wkdif; vufckyfoHvnf;
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cspfMunfa&; rdefUcGe;fudk Od;ekajymw,fqkdwm tJ'd 'kwd, oHtrwf (okdU )
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tD'ifqDu 0g,mvuf arwm &yfcHcsuf wck Od;Ek qDa&mufvmw,f/ tJ'd
arwm &yfcHcsufxJrSm tzrf;cH ae&wJh tar&duef avol&J 6 OD;udk
vTwfay;atmif w&kwf tpkd;&qDrSm OD;Eku toem;cHay;zkdU qmtefaxmfeD tD'if
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avm,mOfarmif;orm;awGudk ,fpm; toem;cHzkdUraumif;bl;/ w&kwf tpkd;&
txifvGJvdrfhr,fvkdU usefvlwpk u 0kdif;zsufw,f/ 'gayrJh OD;Ekudk zsuf
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'DvkdbJ olulrSmbJqkdNyD; OD;Ek[m 0efMuD;csKyfacsmifud koGm;awGUw,f/ OD;Eku
toem;cHwJhtcg pdwfoabmxm; tifrwefMuD;wJh 0efMuD;csKyfacsmiftifvkdifu
vTwfay;yghr,f/ rvTwfcif OD;Ekudk a&S;Od;pGm
taMumif;Mum;ygr,fvkdUuwdjyKvkdufw,f/ OD;Ek wkdU &efukefjyefa&mufNyD;
rMumcifrSmbJ w&kwf oHtrwf[m 0efMuD;csKyf OD;EkeJU awGUcGifhawmif;w,f/
OD;EkwkdU tvkyfrsm;aewJhtwGuf aemuf 3 &ufMumrS awGUEkdifw,f/ awGUwJhtcg
w&kwfoHtrwfu av,mOfarmif;orm;awGudk vTwfzkdU w&kwf tpkd;& u
qkH;jzwfNyD;NyDqkdwmudk taMumif; Mum;w,f OD;Ek vn;f EkdifiHjcm;a&; &kH;uwqifh
tar7duef oH&kH;udk csufcsif;taMumif;Mum;ckdif;vkdufw,f/ aemufwaeUrSm
tar&duef av,mOfarmif;orm;awGudk w&kwftpkd;& u vTwfypfvkdufw,f/
( p)
tJ'd yxrtacgufwkef;u tcGifhaumif;&wmeJU wjyKdifeuf 0efMuD;cskKyfOD;Ek[m
w&kwf - Arm e,fjcm;owfrSwfa&;udk aqG;aEG;&atmif 0efMuD;csKyfacsmifudk
taMumif;Mum;w,f/ 0efMuD;csKyf acsmifu 'djyoemudk olwdkUtpkd;& eJeJuav;rS
ravhvm&ao;yg? avhvmNyD;wmeJU wNydKifeuf aqG;aEG;yghr,f/ w&kwf
ajrykHawGudk MunfhNyD; pkd;&drfraeygeJU/ w&kwftpkd;&[m Armtpkd;&udk
b,fenf;eJUrQ rw&m; rvkyfygbl;vkdUajymwmaMumifh w&kwfeJU Arm
tpkd;oHwreftzGJUawG[m oifhawmfaom tcsdefwcsdefrSm rdwfaqG&if;csmawGvkd
&if;&if;ESD;ESD; awGUqkHNyD; 'Dw&kwf Arm e,fjcm;owfrSwfa&; jyoemudk
jyD;jywfoGm;atmif ajz&Sif;ay;bkdU vkdtyfw,f qkdwJU tydk'fwykd'fudk 1954ckESpf
'DZifbm 12 &ufaeU xkwfjyefwJh 0efMuD;csKyfESpfOD;&JU yl;wGJ ausnmcsuf xJrSm
xnfhoGif;wmavmufeJUbJ auseyfNyD;OD;Ek[m Armjynfudk jyefcJhw,f/
w&kwf-Arm cspfMunfa&;[m ESpfEkdifiH&JU wkd;wufa&;? pnfyifom,ma&;?
Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf tifrwef tbkd;wefwJU
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w&kwfjynf u jyefvmuwnf;u OD;Ek[m w&kwf-Arm cspfMunfa&; Adrmefudk
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tzGJUawGudk zdwf,f/ w&kwfjynfudkvnf; Armjynfu cspfMunfa&; tzGJUawGeJU
,Ofaus;rI tzGJU awGudk apvTwfcJhw,f/ 1955 ckESpftwGif;rSmbJ

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acgif;aqmifwJh Nidr;fcsrf;a&;tzGJUawG? Armjynfudk tvnfvmMuw,f/
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ae0if; acgif;aqmifwJh ppfrpf&Sif tzGJU ? w&m;0efMuD;csKyf OD;odef;armif
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Ak'f"bmom tzGJUjyefvmwJhtcg yDuif;jrdKUawmfu jrwfpGmbk&m;&JU pG,fawmfudk
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apmifha&SmufjyKpkw,f/ Arm{nhfcHa&; tzGJU0ifawGudkvnf; txl;*&kpkdufMubkdU
OD;EkrSmxm;w,f/ Armjynudk txl;vmwJh tzGJU0ifawGudkomru Armjynfudk
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r'rf qGef,ufqif[m ArmEkdifiHudk tvnfvmw,f/ Od;Ekudk vufaqmif
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OD;Ek b,fvkd wnfaqmufaew,f qkdwm w&kwfjynfudk jyefvmMuwJh
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tJ'Dopfyifuav;udk ay;wJhtcg0efMuD;csKyfOD;Ek w&kwf-ArmcspfMunfa&;udk
txl;apmihfa&Smufovkd 'Dopfyifuav;udkvnf; txl;apmifha&Smufyg vkdU
ajymNyD; ay;w,f/ ( w&kwf - ArmtaMumif;udk cPavmufjzwfvkdufNyD;
tpDtpOftwkdif; jzpfatmif ArmeJU wjcm;EkdifiHawG&JU qufqHa&; taMumif;udk
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cP0ifw,f/ tJ'Dtcsdef[m 1948ckESpfu pNyD; AD,uferf[m jyifopfwkdUeJU 8
ESpfwkdifwkdif jzpfcJh&wJh ppfyGJNyD; cgptcsdefjzpfw,f/ tJ'd &SpfESpf ppfyGJtwGif;
1948 ckESp fxJrSm Armjynf[m vGwfvyfa&; &cJhw,f/ 'gayrJh vGwfvyfa&;

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jzpfcJh&NyD; Armtpkd;&[mvnf; olawmif;pm;tpkd;&b0udk a&mufoGm;cJh&w,f/
'Dvkd a&mufae&ayr,hf wkdif;&if;om;eJU e,fcsJUorm;awG ppfjzpfwJhtcg
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'DvkdulnDwmudkd jyifopftpkd;& aumif;aumif; odw,f/ Armtpkd;&&JU
jynfxJa&;0efMuD; OD;ausmfNidrf;[m tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u bdvyfutjyef jyifopfudk
tvnf0ifwJhtcg jyifopfEkdifiHjcm;a&;0efMuD;udk 0ifNyD; EIwfqufzdkU
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OD;EkwkdUtzGJU0ifawG[m armfawmfum; ay:u qif;NyD; {nfha*[m xJudk
0ifrdwmeJU wjydKifeuf {nhfa*[m &JU wHcg;wck aemufrSm tomykef;aewJh
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odrSmr[kwfbl;/
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qufqHykH? pum;ajymykH qkdykHawGudk OD;Ek aoaocsmcsm tuJjzwfw,f/
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yumoeawGrSm pdwfr0ifpm;ykH? [efrvkyfwwfykHawGudk MunhfNyd; orwMuD;
[kdcsDrif;udk wpdrfhpdrfh MunfnKdaew,f/
Od;Ek[m tifrwef A[kokw eJw,f/ orwMuD;[kdcsDrif;[m vlysKdMud;qkdwmudk
tJ'Dwkef;u rodbl;/ tJ'gaMumifh orwMuD; om;orD;
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OD;Ek[m tawmf tw,f/ tJ'dtcsdeftxd [kdcsDrif;&JU tajz t"dyg,fudk
em;rvnfao;bl;/ tJ'gaMumifh b,fESpfa,muf&SdovJvkdU OD;Eku xyfar;w,f/
tJ'dtcg orwMuD; [kdcsDrif;u AD,uferfwEkdifiHvkH;u wkdif;oljynfom;
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bk&ifcHaewJh tdrfeJUwlw,f/ ppfyGJNyD;cgpqkdawmh tJ'DtdrfrSm b,folrS

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reufavqdyfudk rqif;cif OD;Ek[m aemufaz;oGm;csifw,f/ tJ'gaMumifh
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tJ'd tay:rSm aemufaz;oGm;csvkduf&if 'Dyk&GufqdwfawG aoukefrSmbJ? tJ'Dawmh
OD;Ek oGm;csvkdU rjzpfbl;/ aemufaz;uvnf; tifrwefoGm;csifaeNyD/ tJ'Dawmh
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awmifAD,uferf&JU orw Zifu zdwfwJhtwGuf OD;Ek[m qkdif*kHudk
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usif;yw,f/ OD;Ektjyif 0efMuD;csKyf qyfpx&dktmrpf*sKd*sKd (Sastro Admidjojo)
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aemufaeUeHeuf tm&kHwufwJh tcsdefusawmh olaeUpOfjyKvkyfavh&dSwJhtwkdif;
bk&m;&dSckd;/ y&dwf&Gwf/ qGrf;awmfuyfNyD;wJhtcg pwmvif[m aumif;&mrGef&mudk
a&mufygapvkdUvnf; OD;Ek arwåmydkUw,f? olvkyfcJhorQ 'geukodkvf/
oDvukodkvf/ bm0emukodkvfawGudkvnf; pwmviftwGuf &nfpl;NyD;
wMudrftrQxyfa0w,f?
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yifv,furf;ajcu jrdKUwNrdKUudk OD;EkwkdU a&mufvmw,f? a&mufwJhnrSmyJ
u&l;&Suf[m olUtdrfrSm OD;EkwkdUudk npmauR;w,f? tJ'Dnpmpm;yGJrSm
u&l;&Suf&JUZeD;eJU orD;wkdUudk awGU&w,f? rDudk,Hudkvnf; awGU&w,f?
&efukefudkjyefrJhaeUusawmh armifpudk av,mOfysHuGif;udkvmNyD;
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tm;vHk;udk vufqGJ EIwfqufMuwJhtcg OD;Ek[m um*ifEdkApfudk vufESpfzufeJU
tm;&yg;&zufNyD; &JabmfMuD; um*ifEdkApf/ cifAsm;udk uRefawmfcspfw,fvkdU
OD;Eku ajymvkdufw,f? (Comrade Kaganovich! I love you.)
tJ'D 1955 ckESpf 'DZifbmvxJrSm u&l;&SufeJU blvf*,feifwkdU

ArmjynfudktvnfvmMuw,f? OD;EkwdkU vlpk[m qkdAD,uf,leD,HrSm olwkdUudk
MudKqdk{nfhcHMuovkdyJ u&l;&SufeJU blvf*,feifwkdUudk aomif;aomif;zszs
{nfhcHMudKqdkvkdufMuw,f?
0efMuD;csKyfblvf*,feif[m taetxdkiftajymtqkdrSm tifrwef
cefUjim;w,f? tifrwefvnf; ,Ofaus;odrfarGUw,f? tJ'gaMumifh OD;Ek[m
blvf*,feifudk trsm;MuD;MunfndKw,f? u&l;&Sufuawmh ajymwJhqdkwJhae&mrSm
[efrvkyfwwfbl;? olU0rf;xJrSm&dSwmudk bGif;bGif;MuD; zGifhcswwfw,f?
olajymorQawGudk OD;EkvufcHw,fvdkU rqdkvkdbl;? 'gayrJh bGif;bGif;ajymwmudk
OD;Ek trsm;MuD;oabmusw,f? olwkdUeJU&if;ESD;vmwJhtcg 'D&yf&Sif;acgif;aqmif
ESpfOD;[m pwmvifeJUrwlbl;? Armjynftay:rSm apwemaumif;&dSw,fqkdwJh
,HkMunfrIawG[m OD;Ek&JUpdwfxJrSm wzGm;zGm;ay:vmw,f?
orwu &yf&Sif;acgif;aqmifawGudk wnfcif;auR;arG;wJh npmpm;yGJrSm
u&l;&Suf[m tpmraMuwJh a&m*gaMumifh bmrSrpm;Ekdifbl;? OD;Eku
Armq&m0efwa,muf ac:ay;r,fvkdU ajymwJhtcg u&l;&Sufu olUrSm
q&m0efygvmw,fvkdUajymw,f? 'gayrJh 'Dq&m0efawGudk oltm;rudk;bl;?
usef;rma&;aumif;csifwJh vlawG[m q&m0efay;wJh aq;awGudk
cPcPaomufaezkdU rvkdbl;? (1) acgif;udkat;at;xm;/ (2)
ajcaxmufudkaEG;aEG;xm;/ (3) 0rf;udkqmaeatmifvkyfxm;/ (1. Keep your
head cool. 2. Keep your feet warm. 3. Keep your stomach
hungry.) vkdU u&l;&Sufu OD;Ekudkajymjyw,f?
u&l;&SufeJU blvf*,feifwkdU vmMuwmaMumifh ArmjynftwGuf
aumif;wmawG trsm;MuD; &dSygw,f? rjiif;Edkifygbl;? 'Daumif;wmawGxJrSm
aumif;wmwckudk 'Dae&mrSm xl;xl;jcm;jcm;azmfjyvkdygw,f?
ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;&wJh tcsdefupNyD; (7)ESpfvHk;vHk;
ArmuGefjrLepfawGeJU uGefjrLepfawG&JU wynfhawGu Armjynf&JU vGwfvyfa&;[m
vGwfvyfa&;tppfr[kwfbl;? vGwfvyfa&;twkMuD;vkdU rsufpdrdSwfNyD;
watmfwnf;atmfaeMuwmbJ? olwkdUawG vufeufudkifNyD; olykefx&wm[m
wjcm;aMumifhr[kwfbl;? 'DvGwfvyfa&;twkMuD;udk vGwfvyfa&;tppf
jzpfvmatmif ajymif;zkdUtwGufaMumifhbJ jzpfw,fvdkUawmif 'DuGefjrLepfawGeJU
olwkdU&JU wynfhawG[m a<u;aMumfcJhMuw,f? zqyv tpdk;&u
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b,fvkd&Sif;jyvkdUrSr&bl;? u&l;&SufeJU blvf*,feifwkdU Armjynfudk
tvnfvmawmhrSyJ rsufpdrdSwfatmfaeMuwJh uGefjrLepfawGeJU
olwkdU&JUwynfhawG[m tatmf&yfoGm;Muw,f? tJ'g[m Armjynfudk u&l;&SufeJU

blvf*,feifwkdU vmvkdufwmaMumifh ArmjynftwGuf ay:aygufvmwJh
taumif;wckjzpfw,fqkdwm azmfjyvkdygw,f?
u&l;&SufeJU blvf*,feifwdkUjyefoGm;NyD; av;vavmufMumwJhtcgrSm
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OD;EkwkdUudk npmauR;wkef;u rDudk,ef[m u&l;&SufeJY qufqHwJhtcg
tifrwef&if;&if;ESD;ESD;qufqHwmudk OD;Ekaumif;aumif; owdxm;rdw,f?
olUrdom;pkeJY OD;EkwkdYudkomzdwfwJh &if;&if;ESD;ESD; npmpm;yGJrSm
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aumif;wJhvlwa,mufjzpfw,f? oleJUawGUbl;wJh vlwkdif;[m em&D0ufavmuf
pum;ajymNyD;&if oleJY cifcifrifrifjzpfoGm;rSmbJ? OD;Ek[m rDudk,efeJU
qdkAD,uf,leD,HrSuwnf;u cifcifrifrif &if;&if;ESD;ESD; jzpfvmwJhtwGuf
OD;EktdrfrSm npmpm;NyD;vdkU olwnf;aewJh tdrfawmfudk rDudk,efjyefwJhtcg
OD;Ekudk,fwkdif vkdufykdUw,f? orwtdrfudk a&mufvkdU armfawmfum;ay:u
qif;MuwJhtcg rDudk,efu tdyfcsifNyD;vm; 0efMuD;csKyf?
pum;eJeJavmufajym&atmifvkdU awmif;yefwmeJU OD;Ek[m orw tdrfawmfxJudk
rDudk,efeJUtwl 0ifvkdufoGm;w,f? orw tdrfawmf&JUt0
avScg;MuD;ESpfckMum;rSm ukvm;xkdifawG&dSw,f? tJ'Dukvm;xkdifawGay:rSmxkdifNyD;
rDudk,efeJUOD;EkwkdU pum;ajymMuw,f? pum;jyefuawmh OD;EkwkdU
qkdAD,uf,leD,HrSm&dSwkef;ua&m blvf*,feifwkdU Armjynftvnfvmwkef;ua&m
pum;jyefvkyfcJh &yf&Sif;pum;jyefav;yg?
pum;ajymaeMu&if; OD;Eku pwmvif[m b,fvkdvlpm;vJvkdU
ar;wmeJU rDudk,efu pwmvif[m odyfaMumufp&m aumif;wJhvlbJ?
pwmvif[m aemufxyfoHk;vavmuf touf&Snf aetHk;r,fqdk&if
u&l;&SufeJUol[m pwmvifowfypfwmudk cH&rSmbJvkdUajzw,f?
cifAsm;wkdUESpfa,mufudk pwmvifu bmjzpfvkdUowfrSmvkdU ar;wJhtcg
oluawmh u&l;&Suf&JU rdwfaqG&if;jzpfaevkdUygbJ? 'gayrJh u&l;&Sufuawmh
pwmvifudk *&krpdkufbl;? tJ'Dvkd *&krpdkufwJhtwGuf u&l;&Sufudk pwmvifu
owfrSmbJ? 'kwd, urÇmppfMuD;twGif;rSm ppfrsufESmwcku u&l;&Suf[m
pwmvifqDudk w,fvDzkef;qufvkdufw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefu pwmvif&JU tcef;xJrSm
wjcm;vlawGtjyif rmvifaumvnf;&dSaew,f? rmvifaumhu
w,fvDzkef;ae&mudk oGm;NyD;ajymwJhtcg u&l;&Sufu rif;eJUigrajymcsifbl;?
pwmvifeJU ajymcsifw,fvkdUajymvkdufw,f? rmvifaumhu pwmvifudk

'Dtwdkif;taMumif;Mum;wJhtcg pwmvifu olrajymbl;?
u&l;&Sufajymp&m&dS&ifrmvifaumhudkyJ ajymyapvkdU aigufvTwfvkdufw,f?
rmvifaumhu w,fvDzkef;qD jyefoGm;NyD; pwmvifu &l;&SufeJY rajymbl;?
ajymp&m&dS&if olYudkyJajymvkdU pum;jyefwJhtcg pwmvifudkyJ igajymr,f?
rif;udkrajymbl;qkdNyD; u&l;&Suf[m w,fvDzkef;udk csypfvkdufw,f? pwmvifudk
u&l;&Sufwa,mufyJ 'Dvkdvkyf&Jw,f? b,folrS rvkyf&Jbl;? tJ'grsKd;udk
pwmvifrMudKufbl;vkdU rDudk,efu OD;Ekudkajymjyw,f?
bm&D;,m;vnf; b,fvkdvlpm;rsKd;vJvkdU OD;Ekuar;wJhtcg olvnf;
tifrwefqdk;wJh vlwa,mufbJ? rmvifaumhudka&m olUtwGuf tEÅ&m,fjzpfrJh
vlawGtm;vHk;udkyg tukefzrf;owfNyD; oltmPmodrf;zkdU pDpOfaewkef;
olUudkvufOD;atmif t&ifzrf;owfvkduf&w,fvkdU rDudk,efuajzw,f? olUudk
b,fvdkjzKwfcs&w,fqkdwm rajymjyEkdifbl;vm;vkdUar;wJhtcg rDudk,efu
ajymEkdifygw,fvkdUajzNyD; bm&D;,m;udk b,fvkdjzKwfcs&w,fqkdwm ajymjyw,f?
olajymjycsuf&JU twdkcsKyfuawmh 'Dvkd?
bm&D;,m;udk jzKwfcszkdUtwGuf acgif;aqmifNyD; pDpOfwJhvluawmh
u&l;&SufbJ? u&l;&Suf[m a&S;OD;pGm rm&S,f blvf*,feif/ rm&S,fZl;aumhwkdYeJU
wkdifyifw,f? tu,fí bm&D;,m;&JU ppfykvdyfawGudk pDpOfNyD;wJhtcg
u&l;&Sufudk,fwkdif 0efMuD;csKyf rmvifaumhqDudkoGm;NyD; oludk,fwkdifuawmh
bm&D;,m;udk vlqdk;vkdUxifw,f? rmvifaumhuaum b,fvkdxifovJvkdU
ar;w,f? rmvifaumhu olvJbm&D;,m;udk vlqdk;vkdUxifw,fvkdU
jyefajzwJhtcgusawmhrS u&l;&Sufu 'Dvkdqkd&if rmvifaumhudk
olUtpDtpOfajymjyr,f qkdNyD; avQmufajymw,f?
tJ'DtpDtpOft& aemufaeUusif;yrJh y&DpD'D,ef tpnf;ta0;rSm
bm&D;,m;tay: pGJcsufawG wifNyD;zrf;&r,f? bm&D;,m;&JUvlawGu ckcH&if
olwkdUu ta&;,lzdkU ppfwyfeJU pDpOfNyD;NyDvkdU &Sif;jyw,f? tJ'Daemuf
rmvifaumh[m olwdkUzufudkygrvm;vkdU u&l;&Sufuar;w,f? rmvifaumhu
ygr,fvkdUajzw,f?
aemufaeUtpnf;ta0;pwmeJUwNydKufeuf u&l;&Sufu cifAsm;tay:rSm
pGJcsufwifp&mawG&dSw,fvkdU bm&D;,m;udkajymvkdufw,f? bm&D;,m;u
wifEdkifygw,f? wjcm;ta&;MuD;wJh udpöawG NyD;wJhtcg wifwmayghvdkU jyefajzNyD;
pm;yGJcHkay:wifxm;wJh olUvufqGJom;a&tdwfudk zGifhrvkdUvkyfvkdufw,f?
bm&D;,m;[m om;a&tdwfxJu ypöwkdaoewfudk xkwfvdrfhr,fvkdU u&l;&Sufu
xifw,f? tJ'gaMumifh u&l;&Suf[m tJ'DvufqGJom;a&tdwfudk
olUvufeJYwtm; ykwfypfvkdufwm vufqGJom;a&tdwf[m pm;yGJckHay:u vGifhNyD;

Murf;jyifay: usoGm;w,f? tJ'Daemuf u&l;&Sufu a[haumif/ rwfwyf&yfvkdY
aigufvdkufwJhtcg bm&D;,m;vnf; vefUNyD; rwfwyf&yfvkdufw,f?
olUwukd,fvHk; qwfqwfwkefaewmudk y&DpD'D,ef tpnf;ta0;wufolwkdif;
jrifae&w,f? u&l;&Suf[m bm&D;,m;&JUaemufudkoGm;NyD; olUvufESpfzufeJU
bm&D;,m;&JU vufESpfzufudk wkyfxm;vkdufw,f? tJ'Daemuf tcef;xJu
tcsufay;vkdufwmeJU wNydKufeuf toifhapmifhaewJh ppfom;awG
tpnf;ta0;cef;rxJ 0ifvmNyD; bm&D;,m;udk ac:xkwfoGm;Muw,f?
1956ckESpfusawmh OD;Ek[m 0efMuD;csKyf&mxl;u xGufNyD; zqyv
jyefvnfzGJUpnf;a&;udk udkifaew,f? tJ'DESpfxJrSm rm&S,fZl;aumh
&efukefudkvmw,f? waeYusawmh rm&S,fZl;aumh[m OD;EkeJY awGU&atmif
zqyvXmecsKyfudk tvnfvmw,f? olwkdUESpfa,mufpum;ajymaeMuwkef;
rm&S,fZl;aumhu OD;Ekudkar;cGef;wckar;w,f?
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ppfyGJMuD;NyD;wJhtcg ppfEkdifoleJY ppf&IH;olawG usefawmhrSm r[kwfbl;?
tEkjrLAHk;awGaMumifh wurÇmvHk;avmifpmeJU jymyHkom usefawmhr,f? 'Dvkdb0rsKd;
a&mufrSmawmh ppfjzpfcsifolawG aMumufMuvdrfhr,f xifw,f? rm&S,fZl;aumh
uaum b,fvkdxifovJ}}
]]uRefawmfuawmh OD;Ekvkdrxifbl;}}
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jzpfcJhMuw,f? tJ'Daemuf av;eJUjrm;awGudk oHk;vmMuw,f? tJ'Daemuf
AHk;MuJav,mOfysHeJU AHk;awGudk oHk;vmMuw,f? vufeufawG[m
wacwfxufwacwf ydkNyD;aMumufp&m aumif;vmw,f? 'gayrJh vlawGuawmh
raMumufMubl;? 'DvufeufawGudk oHk;NyD; ppfjzpfMuwmbJ? tPkjrLAHk;awG[m
t&ifvufeufawGeJU pm&if ydkNyD;aMumufp&maumif;vmw,fqkdwmudk b,folrS
rjiif;Ekdifbl;? 'gayrJh ppfjzpfcsifwJh vlawGMuawmh raMumufbl;?
'DvufeufawGudkoHk;NyD; ppfjzpfMutHk;rSmbJ? tJ'gaMumifh ppfjzpfvm&if
toifhjzpfaeatmif uRefawmfwkdUawmh uRefawmfwkdUwyfawGudk tPkjrLvufeuf
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]]ol rMudKufwJhvlawGqkd&if pwmvif[m axmifcscsifcs? rcs&if
qkdufab;&D;,m;udkykdU? 'grSr[kwf&ifvnf; owfypfw,fvkdUMum;bl;w,f?
cifAsm;udkawmh pwmvif[m bmjzpfvkdU 'DvkdrESdyfpufovJ}}
]]uRefawmfh ppfwyfudkaMumufvdkY pwmvif[m 'DvkdrvkyfwmbJ}}
1960-twGif; taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJMuD; NyD;cgp tcsdefavmufrSm
u&l;&Suf[m tdE´d,udktvnfvm&if; Armjynfudk a&mufvmao;w,f?
OD;EkeJYawGUwJhtcg uvuwåm;rSm 0efMuD;csKyfae&l;eJU olawGUp&m&dSao;w,f?
OD;EkvJ uvuwåm;udk vmygvkdU u&l;&SufuzdwfwmeJU aemufqHk;awGU&wmbJ?
1962 ckESpfxJrSm OD;[m tmPmtodrf;cH&NyD; tcsKyfcef;xJrSm
av;ESpfcGJausmfausmf aecJh&w,f/ 1964 ckESpf atmufwkdbmvxJudk
a&mufvmwJhtcg olUvkdyJ tcsKyfcef;xJudk a&mufaewJh 0efMuD;a[mif;
wcsKdUajymjyvkdU u&l;&Suf[m 0efMuD;csKyf&mxl;u jyKwfusoGm;w,fvkdU
OD;Ekod&w,f/
OD;Ek[m u&l;&Sufudpöudk aoaocsmcsmavhvmNyD;wJhtcg u&l;&Suf[m
0efMuD;csKyf&mxl;u tjzKwfcH&wmr[kwfbl;? olU[mol EIwfxGufoGm;wm
jzpf&r,fvkdU wxpfcsqHk;jzwfvkdufw,f? OD;Eku 'DvkdqHk;jzwfwm[m
bmtaMumif;awGaMumifhvJ? 'DtaMumif;awGudk wckpDajymjyyghr,f/
(1) u&l;&SufudkjzKwfzkdUrvG,fbl;? u&l;&Suf[m owådodyf&dSw,f?
olYowådaMumifh ol[matmufqHk;wef;u aeNyD; txGyftxdyfudk
a&mufvmw,fvkdY qdk&if rrSm;Edkifbl;? ol[mb,fvkd owÅd&dScJhw,fqdkwJh
o"uawGxJu xif&Sm;wJh o"uwcsKdUudk 'Dae&mrSm azmfjycsifw,f? 1953
ckESpfxJrSm bm;&D;,m;vkd tifrwef aMumufp&maumif;wJh vlwa,mufudk
u&l;&Suf acgif;aqmifNyD; jzKwfcscJhw,f? 1957 ckESpfxJrSm y&DpD'D,efu
olUudkjzKwfcswJhtcg olaMumufNyD; xGufray;bl;? A[dkaumfrwDudkac:NyD;
olUudkjzKwfcswJh y&DpD'D,ef tzGJU0ifawGudk oljzKwfcsypfvkdufw,f? y&DpD'D,ef&JU
qHk;jzwfcsufudk tckvdkcHwkduf&Jwm qdkAD,uf,leD,H&JU ordkif;wckvHk;rSm
u&l;&SufwOD;wnf;yJ &dSao;w,f? pwmvifvdk tmPm&Sifawmif
rm&S,fZl;aumhudk ta&;r,l&Jbl;? u&l;&Suf[m rm&S,fZl;aumhudk
umuG,fa&;0efMuD; &mxl;ua&m y&DpD'D,ef tzGJUuyg jzKwfypfvkdufw,f?
(2)
u&l;&Sufudk jzKwfcswJhvlawGudk urÇmu0kdif;NyD; pGyfpGJcJhMuwJh
rDudk,ef[m u&l;&Suf&JU t&if;qHk; oli,fcsif;bJ? rmvifaumheJY bm;&D;,m;[m
pwmvif vufoyfarG;xm;wJh wynfhawGjzpfovkd b&ufZnuf/ udkpDcsif/

aygha*:eDqdkwJh vloHk;a,mufuvnf; u&l;&Suf vufoyfarG;xm;wJh
wynfhawGjzpfw,f? 'gayrJh q&maombmaom ra&Smifygbl;/ tmPmqkd&if
vkMurSmyJvkdU wzufuajymcsif&if ajymEdkifw,f? tJ'Dvkdajymr,fqkd&if OD;Ek[m
b&ufZnuf/ udkpDcsif/ aygha*:eDwkdUudk wcgrSrawGUbl;wJhtwGuf
rumuG,fEdkifbl;? rDudk,efudkawmh OD;Ek[m tjyif;txef umuG,fvdrfhr,f?
OD;Ek&JUpdwfxJrSm rDudk,ef[m wjcm;[mawGudk vkyfcsifvkyfr,f
u&l;&SufudkjzKwfcswJh tvkyfudkawmh b,fenf;eJUrS rvkyfbl;vkdU OD;Eku
wxpfcs,HkMunfaew,f? vlawGxJrSm oli,fcsif;t&if;awGtay:
opömazmufwJhvlqdk;awG&dSovkd oli,fcsif; t&if;awGtay:
b,fawmhrSopörazmufwJh vlaumif;awGvnf;&dSw,f? rDudk,ef[m
tJ'Dvlaumif;awGxJrSm wa,muftygt0ifjzpfw,fvkdU OD;Ek[m rrdSwfroHk
,HkMunfaew,f?
(3)
u&l;&Suf[m wkdif;jynfudk tkyfcsKyfwJhzufrSm
awmfcsifrSawmfr,f? ygwDudkpnf;&kH;wJhae&mrSmawmh ESpfa,mufr&dSatmif
awmfw,f? pwmvif[m ygwD&JUyxrtwGif;a&;rSL; vkdUomqkdw,f?
ygwD&JUacgif;aqmifMuD;i,fawGeJU b,fawmhrS awGUavhr&dSbl;? nzufqdk&if
wnvHk;t&ufaomufNyD; aeYzufrSm waeYvHk; tdyfaeoljzpfw,f? u&l;&Sufu
'Dvkdr[kwfbl;? ygwDxJrSm ta&;yg t&ma&mufwJh
acgif;aqmifawGeJUtukefawGUw,f? aqG;aEG;w,f? 'Dacgif;aqmifawGrSm
taMumif;MuD;i,f&dS&if vufydkufMunfhraebl;? txl;ulw,f?
pwmvifudkawGUwJhtcg blvf*ifeifwkdU aAmf&kd&kdavmhwkdU
qkdwJhacgif;aqmifawGawmif zdwfzdwfwkefatmif aMumuf&w,f? u&l;&Sufu
'Dvkdr[kwfbl;? ukvor*¾xJrSm olUzdeyfcRwfNyD;pm;yGJcHkudk acgufwJhtxd
&rf;um;EdkifwJh vlpm;rsKd;jzpfayw,f? &yf&Sif;tvkyform;awGeJY awGUawGU/
v,form;awGeJYawGUawGU/ vrf;ay:uvlwa,mufeJY awGUawGU
tifrwefazmfazmfa&Ga&G qufqHEkdifw,f? oluvnf; t&Tef;awGajymw,f? olUudk
jyefajym&ifvnf; ol&,faew,f? Armjynfvmwkef;u &yf&Sif;oH&kH;u
vlawGtm;vHk; olUudkavqdyfrSm qif;MudKaeMuw,f? tJ'DvlawGxJrSm
atmufqHk;tvkyform;awGtxd ygw,f? tJ'DvlawG[m u&l;&SufeJUawGUwJhtcg
tMumMuD; uGJuGmaeMuwJh aqGrsKd;awGjyefawGUMuovkd wOD;eJUwOD;
0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om &if;&if;ESD;ESD; qufqHaeMuwmudk avqdyfrSm&dSwJh
ArmawGtm;vHk; awGUMu&wmbJ? OD;EkwdkU armfpudkrSm&dSwkef; &yf&Sif;
&kyf&Sifum;wum;udk MunfhcJh&w,f? tJ'Dum;xJrSm pwmvif[m O,sOfwckxJ

aq;wHMuD;udkufNyD; vrf;avQmufvmwmudk awGUwmeJU wNydKifeuf
tvkyform;wa,muf[m vefUNyD;xGufajy;w,f? pwmvif&JUwynfhawGu
'Dvl&JUaemufudkvdkufNyD; pwmvifudk aMumufp&mr&dSygbl;vkdU wrifoufouf
0g'jzefUay;&w,fqkdwm tifrwef xif&Sm;aew,f?
(4)
u&l;&Suf[m tckajymovkd pnf;&kH;a&;eJUqufqHa&;
tifrwefaumif;wJhtwGuf A[dkaumfrwDwzGJUvHk;[m olUtdyfxJrSmxnfhxm;ovdk
jzpfaew,f? A[dkaumfrwDxJrSm wu,fomwkduf&&if rDukd,ef/ b&ufZnuf/
ukdpDcsif/ aygha*:eDwkdU vGifhoGm;r,f? u&l;&SufvGifhoGm;rSm r[kwfbl;?
u&l;&SuftwGuf 'DvlawGudk wkduf&wm[m bm;&D;,m;/ blvf*ifeif/ rdkvkdawmh/
Zl;aumh wkdUudkjzKwfcs&wmavmuf rcufygbl;? (20)Mudrfajrmuf uGefjrLepf
uGef*&ufnDvmcHrSm pwmvifudk &Iwfcs&wmavmuf (Destalinization)
armfqdkvD,efqkdwJh jywdkufxJu pwmvif&JU aq;pdrfxm;wJh tavmif;udk
xkwfNyD; rxifr&Sm; tjcm;ae&mwckrSm oGm;jrKyfypf&wmavmuf rcufygbl;?
(5)
blvf*ifeif/ rdkvdkawmh/ rmvifaumh/ um*ifEdkApfwkdU
y&DpD'D,efu jyKwfoGm;wJhtcg b,fa&mufoGm;MuvJ/ rm&S,fZl;aumhawmf
tifrwef rxifr&Sm;ae&w,f? u&l;&Sufuawmh 'Dvkdr[kwfbl;?
tyef;ajzcsifwJhtcg armpudkeJU rdkifESpfq,favmufa0;wJh pwmvif
tyef;ajzavh&dSwJh &dyfomrSm tyef;ajzw,f? armfpudkudkjyefvmwJhtcg
tdrfaumif;wckrSm ae&w,f? armfawmfum;&w,f? armif;wJhvl&w,f?
olUvHk;NcHKa&;udkapmifhavQmufzdkU oufawmfapmifh&w,f? 'gawGxufydkNyD;
xl;jcm;wJhtcsufwcsuf&dSao;w,f? tar&duef w,fvDAD;&Sif;wck[m
armfpudkrSm u&l;&Sufudk "mwfyHk&kdufcGifh&w,f? qdkAD,uf,leD,HxJrSm
&mxl;tjzKwfcH&wJh acgif;aqmifwa,muf[m 'Dvkdt&kdufcH&zkdUa0;pG?
EkdifiHjcm;om;awGeJU awGU&kHawGU&zkdUawmif cufw,f?
(6)
tmPm&SifEkdifiHawGrSm tmPm&SifawG[m b,fawmhrS
tvkdtavQmuf &mxl;udk pGefUvGwf&kd;xHk;pH r&dS/ aowJhtcg 'grSr[kwf&ifvnf;
qefUusifzuf *dkPf;om;awGu twif;jzKwfypfwJh tcgrSom
&mxl;udkpGefUvTwfMuwJh tpOftvm&dSaewJh twGuf u&l;&Suf[m
usef;rma&;aMumifh &mxl;utvkdtavsmuf EIwfxGufoGm;w,fvkdU
uGefjrLepfygwDu w&m;0if ausnmwmudk wurÇmvHk;rSm ,HkMunfvufcHolawG
tifrwef enf;w,f? rdkuf&l;&Jpdwf"mwf (Adventurism)

rav;eufwJhpDrHudef;rsm; (Hare-brained Schemes)? yk*¾dKvfwOD;xJudkom 0dkif;NyD;
MunfnKdatmifvkyfwJh pHepfudk xlaxmifay;jcif; (Cultiveation of
Personality Cult) qdkwJh &Syf&Sif; owif;pmawGxJrSm ygvmwJh
pum;vHk;awGudkom rdrdwkdU MudKufovdk t"dyÜm,fjyefNyD; u&l;&Suf
txkwfcH&NyDvkdU ,HkMunfolawG wurÇmvHk;rSm waeYwjcm; aygrsm;vmMuw,f?
u&l;&Sufudk wu,fxkwfypf0Hhw,fqkd&if olUudk xkwfypfvkdufw,f
qdkwmudkvnf; ygwDu ausnm0Hh&r,f? u&l;&Suf[m usef;rma&;aMumifh
olUtvkdvdk EIwfxGufoGm;w,fvkdU ausnmaep&mtaMumif; bmrSr&dSbl;?
tJ'gaMumifh OD;EktaeeJYuawmh ygwD&JUausnmcsufudk vufcHw,f?
(7)
u&l;&Suf[m &mxl;u xGufoGm;ayrJh
w&kwfuGefjrLepfygwDay:rSmxm;&dSwJh &yf&Sif;uGefjrLepfygwD&JU oabmxm;/
"e&SifawGeJU Nidrf;csrf;om,mpGm twlwuG yl;wGJaexkdifa&; (Peaceful coexistence with capitalism) qdkwJh u&l;&Suf&JU t"du vrf;pOfawG[m
ajymif;roGm;bl;? b&ufZnufwdkUvlpk[m qufvufNyD; usifhoHk;Muw,f?
u&l;&Suf[m txkwfcH&wmr[kwfbl;? olUtvkdtavQmuf
xGufoGm;wmjzpf&r,fvkdU OD;EkqHk;jzwfwJhtcg 'Dtcsuf[mvnf;
OD;Ektxl;pOf;pm;wJh tcsufjzpfw,f/
(8)
tmPm&SifawG[m aowJhtcg 'DvkdrSr[kwf&ifvnf;
twkduftcHawGu jzKwfcsypfwJh tcgrSom &mxl;udk pGefUvTwfwJhpHepfrSm
tifrwefMuD;us,fwJh tEÅ&m,fawG&dSaew,f? bm&D;,m;udk vG,fvG,feJY
jzKwfypfEkdifwmrsKd; tcgcyfodrf; jzpfcsifrSjzpfr,f? wcgwcgrSm aoG;acsmif;pD;&wJh
tmPmvkyGJawG jzpfay:vmEdkifw,f qkdwmudk u&l;&SufeJY olYvlpk[m
aumif;aumif; oabmaygufw,f? tJ'gaMumifh 'DtEÅ&m,fudk
ausmfvTm;EkdifzkdUtwGuf olwdkU[m pHepfopfwckudk &SmawGUNyD;NyD? tJ'DpHepfopft&
ygwD yxrtwGif;a&;rSL;0efMuD;csKyf? orwtp&dSwJh ta&;yg t&ma&mufwJh
vlawG[m aemifudk &moufyefrjzpf&awmhbl;? olwkdU[m olwkdU&JU&mxl;awGu
u&l;&Sufvkd EIwfxGufay;NyD; atmufuvlawGudk wvSnfhpD
tay:wifay;Muvdrfhr,f? tay:uvlawGu b,fvdkEIwfxGuf&r,f?
atmufuvlawGu b,fvkdwuf&r,fqkdwm awGudk &yf&Sif;uGefjrLepfygwDu
wdwdusus qHk;jzwfxm;NyD;NyD? tJ'D qHk;jzwfcsuftwkdif; aemifudk
&mxl;tajymif;tvJawG qkdAD,uf,leD,HrSm jzpfvdrfhr,fvkdU OD;Ek,lqw,f?
bJvf*&dwfnDvmcH

1961 ckESpftwGif; bJvf*&dwfNrdKUawmfrSm b,ftkyfpkrS rygwJhEkdifiHrsm;
nDvmcHwckudk usif;yw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefu qdkAD,uf,leD,HeJU
tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwkdU&JUpyfMum;rSm wif;rmrI[m tifrwef jyif;xefaew,f?
tJ'gaMumifh wif;rmrIavQmhoGm;atmif txl;MudK;pm;MuzdkU bJvf*&dwfnDvmcHu
tJ'DESpfEdkifiHpvHk;udk arwåm&yfw,f? nDvmcHNyD;wJhtcg 0efMuD;csKyfae&l;eJU orw
eu&l;rm;wkdUu 'DarwÇm&yfcHcsufudk udk,fwkdif,lNyD; armfpudkudk oGm;Muw,f?
orwqdkumEkdeJU tjcm;wa,muf0g&Sifwefudk oGm;Muw,f?
tpDtpOfawG xJrSmygwJhudpöawGudk aqG;aEG;NyD;wJhtcg nDvmcHu
xkwfjyef&rJh xkwfjyefcsuftMurf;udk a&;qGJNyD; wifjyMuzkdUtwGuf
a&;qGJa&;tzGJUwckudk nDvmcHu cefUay;vdkufw,f? tJ'DtzGUJxJrSm 0efMuDcsKyf
OD;Ek&JU udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpfeJU c&pf&Sem;rDEGefygw,f? xkwfjyefcsuf tMurf;udk
a&;qGJNyD;wJhtcg bm&ifwefeJU OD;oefUwdkU[m OD;EkeJUawGUMuw,f? xkwfjyefcsuf
tMurf;xJrSm tpöa&;vfeJUywfoufNyD; a&;xm;wm wzufapmif;eif;jzpfaew,f?
tpöa&;vf-Arm cspfMunfa&;t& 'DxkwfjyefcsuftMurf;udk axmufcHzdkU
roifhbl;xifw,f? xkwfjyefcsuftMurf;udk a&;qGJa&;aumfrDwDrSm c&pf&Sem;rDEGef
wifjywJhpmMurf;[m tawmfuav; rQrQww&dSygw,f? 'gayrJh tm&yftkyfpku
'Dpmwrf;udk y,fypfvkdufw,f? c&pf&Sem;rDEGefvJ olUpmwrf;udkvufcHatmif
tawmf MudK;pm;&Smygw,f? 'gayrJh tm&yftkyfpku vlrsm;aewJhtwGuf
ratmifjrifbl;? tJ'Dawmh xkwfjyefcsuftMurf;udk nDvmcHrSmwifjywJhtcg
tpöa&;vfeJY ywfoufwJh tykd'fudkjzKwfNyD; tJ'gtpm; c&pf&Sem;rDEGef&JU pmwrf;udk
vufcHatmifajym&if aumif;vdrfhr,f xifw,fvkdU OD;Ekudk bm&ifwefeJU
OD;oefUwkdUu tMuHay;w,f?
xkwfjyefcsufudk nDvmcHrSm wifoGif;NyD;wJhaemuf
udk,fpm;vS,ftawmfrsm;rsm;u axmufcHNyD;wJhtcg 0efMuD;csKyf OD;Eku
ArmEkdifiH[m tpöa&;vfEdkifiHeJU rdwfawGjzpfaewJhtwGuf xkwfjyefcsufxJrSm
tpöa&;EkdifiHeJU yofoufNyD;a&;xm;wJhtydk'fudk ArmEkdifiHu axmufcHzkdY
cufygvdrfhr,f? olUtaeeJY ajym&&if tpöa&;vfEdkifiHudk omru oludk,fwkdif
rdwfaqGMuD;wOD;tjzpfeJU vufcHxm;wJh orwemqmeJU rdwfaqGEdkifiHjzpfwJh
tD*spfEkdifiHudk olwkdU&JUuG,f&mrSm tjcm;yk*¾dKvfwOD;OD;ujzpfap/ vlwpkujzpfap
ykwfcwfr,fqkd&if b,fenf;eJUrS iHkUcHrSm r[kwfygbl;? tpGrf;ukefumuG,frSmyJ/
tJ'gaMumifh 'Dxkwfjyefcsufudk ArmEdkifiHuvnf; vufcHEkdifatmif
tpöa&;vfeJUywfoufNyD; a&;xm;wJh pmykd'ftpm; a&;qGJa&; aumfrDwD
tpnf;ta0;rSm c&pf&Sem;rDEGefwifjywJh pmMurf;udk xnfhay;apcsifw,fvdkU

OD;Eku ajymjyw,f? OD;Ekukd oD[dk&f 0efMuD;csKyf rpöufbm'g em,ueJU
eDaygvfudk,fpm;vS,fwkdUu axmufcHw,f?
tJ'Dtcg nDvmcHu c&pf&Sem;rDEGef&JU pmMurf;udk Munfhcsifw,fvkdU
awmif;qdkw,f? c&pf&Sem;rDEGef&JU pmMurf;udkzwfNyD;wJhtcg nDvmcHu
wnDwnGwfwnf; vufcHvkdufMuw,f? tJ'DnDvmcHtNyD;rSm orwemqmeJU
armf&dkudk&Sifbk&if [mpef&SmwkdUu zdwfwJhtwGuf 1961 ckESpfukefcgeD;avmufrSm
OD;Ek[m tD*spfeJU armf&kdudkEkdifiHwkdUudk tvnfoGm;cJhw,f?
orwemqm tedpöa&mufwJhtcsdefrSm OD;Ek[m &mxl;vufrJhjzpfNyD;
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psmyeyGJudk {uefwufa&mufrSmbJ?
tcef;(30)
(u)
OD;Ek[m b,fvkd vifrsKd;vJ? b,fvkd tazrsKd;vJ? OD;Ek&JU rdom;pk[m
b,fvdkrdom;pkvJ? OD;Ek&JU tw¬KyÜwådxJrSm 'DtaMumif;awGudk rajymvkdU
b,fjzpfrvJ? ajym&rSmaygh?
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oHk;cGtrsKd;om;ausmif;rSm q&mvkyfaew,f? tJ'gaMumifh tdrfaxmifus
NyD;NyD;jcif; udkEk[m rjr&Dudk oHk;cGac:vmw,f? oHk;cGa&mufvkdU
wvavmufawmif r&dSao;cif waeUreufrSm udkEk[m olUrdef;r rjr&D
xrif;csufaewJh rD;zdkcef;xJudk ol0ifaeustwkdif;0if/ rjr&Dtem;rSm
olxkdifaeus twkdif;xdkif? olwkdUESpfOD;[m wOD;udkwOD; usDp,faeustwkdif;
&efpvkduf/ aemufajymifvkduf/ &,fvkdufarmvkdufeJU aysmfwNyHK;NyHK;
armfrqHk;Ekdifatmif jzpfaeMuwkef; udkEk[m bmjzpfrSef;rodbl;? a'goaxmif;ueJ
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pdwfajyoGm;NyD;? tJ'gaMumifh rD;zdkxJudkjyef0ifvmwJhtcg rjr&Dudk rD;zdkxJrSm
rawGU&awmhbl;? tJ'DawmhrS trsm;MuD; vefUoGm;NyD; tdrfaemufavScg;uqif;?
rjr&Dwa,muf 'DzufavQmufvmwmrsm; awGUrdovm;vdkU
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ausmif;om;wynfh uav;wa,mufudkac:NyD; pdk;&drfwMuD; jzpfaewJh udkEk[m

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udkEk&JUvufudk cgypfvkdufw,f?
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rjr&DbmrSjyefrajymbl;? igatmfrdwm rSm;oGm;ygw,fuGm?
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tJ'Dtcg rjr&D[m oluawmh udkEkudkcspfwJhtwGuf armifbGm;rdbawGudk ypfNyD;
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olUykcHk;udkwGef;NyD; atmfaiguf&ufavjcif;vkdY awG;rdw,fxifyg&JU?
pum;rajymEkdifbl;? rsuf&nfawGusvmw,f? igrSm;oGm;ygw,fuGm?
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tHhtm;oifhNyD; Munfhaew,f? tawmfuav;MumawmhrS rjr&D pdwfajyoGm;atmif
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rsufESmxm;cyfwif;wif;eJU xdkifaewmbJ? tJ'gaMumifh rjr&Duvnf;uG,f?
tnmom; qDonfzdk;aqmif usaewmbJ? qDonfzkd;aqmifqdkwJh taumif[m
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'g[mtoGm;p&dwfyJ ½Sdao;w,f? tjyefpm;&dwf
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vufwGJNyD; jyef0ifoGm;wJhtcg aps;xJu0,fxm;wJh bJom;[m
wjcrf;r&dSawmhbl;? aMumifpm;ypfvkdU ukefoGm;NyD/
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ay;rvm;vdkY OD;Eku ar;jyefw,f/ 'gawmh r&bl;q&mvdkY a':jr&Du
jyefajzw,f/
(C)
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OD;EkqDudk vmNyD; ucsifw,fqdk&if u&rvm;/ bmvkyf&rvJqdkwJh
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ajcmufvavmufMumawmhrS EdkifiHjcm;om;awGeJY awGYwJhtcg olwdkY&JU
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(i)
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tvdkvdkufwJhtaeeJY pef;pef;udk olaomufaewJh aumfzDwdkuf&if cg;w,fqdkNyD;
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jzpfavonf/ xdkUaMumifhvnf; oufwl&G,fwl bDatrsm;ESifh ,SOfvdkufvQif
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nHUonf[k udk,fh[mudk,f owd&aeaomaMumifh r[kwf? aumvdyf ]av}
(ywf0ef;usif)ESifh rxdawGUcJU &onfh twGufaMumifh ajyajyjypfjypf [efyefrsKd;
(Easy Manners) r&SdyJ ]cyfaxmifhaxmifh} jzpfae&jcif;udk qdkvdkonf/
aumvdyfausmif;ü av;ESpfaebl;aom vlwdkif;onf ajyajyjypfjypf

jzpfvmawmhonf[k qdkvdkjcif;um;r[kwf? okdUaomf rae&rDuxuf
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vnf;aumif;? rdrdwdkUwawGonf omreft&yfom;rsm;xufomonf[laom
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odkU&mwGif omreft&yfolt&yfom;rsm;xufrlum; omvsufyif&Sdonfudk
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ra&maxG;apzdkU owdjyKapvdkonf/ [efBuD;yefBuD; vkyfjcif;onf raumif;?
OD;acgif;axmifjcif;onf aumif;onf[k qdkvdkygonf/

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qkH;jzwfvkdufojzifh 0rf;enf;avmufatmif r&Sdyg/ twdwfuHudkcsNyD;
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awG;NyD;aqG;jcif;[lí tvGefenf;jcif;udkqdkvdkyg onf/ xdkpOfu uRekfyfonf
'kwd,tdrfaxmifESifh om;uav;wa,muf &cJUNyDjzpf&m?

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tvkyfvkyf&NyD; (1956 ckESpfwGif zqyvtpdk;&u uREkfyftm;
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av;ESpfrQ aecGifh&Muaom ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm; (twef;atmifonf jzpfap
ratmifonfjzpfap) uREkfyfwkdUom;tzxuf uHxl;cRefMuygayonf[k
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txifa&mufcJU\/ csmvfpf'pfuif;\ arQmfwvifhvifh (Great
Expectations) 0w¦KBuD;üypfyfonf yef;yJorm;vifr,m;ESifh
BuD;jyif;cJU&í cyfi,fi,fuyif ynmoifay;NyD; (Gentleman) vlukHxH
twef;tpm;jzpfatmif oGefoifay;cJU&m txdkuftavsmuf xajrmufatmif
jrifyg\/ odkUaomfi,f&G,fEke,fpOfuwnf;u oGefoifay;jcif;
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jzpfvmMujcif;jzpfygonf/ uREkfyfyxr tdrfaxmifjyKaomtcsdefü rdbrsm;rSm
pD;yGm;a&; tajctae,dkifvsuf&Sdí ESruav;onf tysKdt&G,fuav;
jzpfaeygvsuf uRekfyfonf 0wfcsifpm;csifvSycsifwwf aom ESruav;tm;
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tdrfaxmifusonf wdkfifatmifjzpfap? rdbrsm;\ pD;yGm;a&;tajctae
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uREkfyfxufomaomtcsuftvufrsm;&Sdjcif;udk uREkfyfjrifEdkifygonf/

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trIxrf;vsuf&Sd&m 0efBuD;u pdkufíqyfonfh ta<u;rSmvnf; ausvkeD;ygNyD/
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vJzdkU tcsdefqdkufa&mufvmonfh vu©Pm&Sd\/ e,fvSnfh&aomtvkyfudk
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ay:vmonfr[kwf? tdrfüraecsifyJ tvum;vnfywfaecsif\/
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tdyfavh&Sd\/ wcgw&HwGif bdvd,ufckHü rkd;vif;jcif;rsm;vnf;ygao;\/
rdbrsm;rlum; 0ufvufodkUa&mufoGm;MujyefavNyD/ wcgw&HwGiftdrfaxmif
usvsuf&SdNyDjzpfaom ESr\tdrfü wnwavtdyf\/ xdk&ufrsm;wGif uRekfyfonf
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&yfwefUpOf;pm;jcif;vnf;r&Sd? vkyfcsif&mvkyfí jzpfcsif&mjzpfaeawmh\/
okdUqdkaomfvnf; qkd;qdk;&Gm;&Gm; tvkyfrsKd;um; ryg/ pmzwfcsifvQif

rkd;vif;atmif zwfaewwfao;\/ xdktcsdefwGif uREkfyfESifh
tvGefcifriftuRrf;0ifonfh udkcifarmifwifhwkdU vifr,m;onf tcGifh,lí
[oFmwNrdKUokdUqif;oGm;&m r,m;aoqkH;í udkcifarmifwifhtvkyfxGufvkduf
av\/ tu,fí¤if;wkdUvifr,m;&SdaecJUygrl uREkfyfonf olwkdUtdrfü
pwnf;csvdrfhrnfxif\/ uRekfyfonf aA'ifar;wwfí ar;MunfhcJUvQif
toufwm\vrf;qkHvrf;cGodkU a&mufaeojzifh owdjyK&rnf[k a[maumif;
a[mvdrfhrnf xifonf/ þumvtydkfif;tjcm;uJUodkU uREkfyftzdkU&mü
t"dyÜg,fr&Sdaom tcsdefonf wcgbl;rQ rBuKHcJU&bl;yg/ pdwfnpfjcif;? aysmfjcif;?
awmifhwjcif;? tvsOf;r&SdyJ Avmoufouf avvGifhaejcif;yifjzpfavonf/

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