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College Entrance Exam Review Chemistry Handout
The study of: the composition (make-up) of matter the changes that matter undergoes What is matter? Anything that: has mass and occupies space (volume). Mass vs Weight Mass: a measure of the amount of matter that an object contains. Weight: The force with which the earth pulls on an object. (SI unit Newton, N) The 5 Branches of Chemistry Inorganic Organic Analytical Physical Biochemistry Inorganic Chemistry- The study of chemicals that do not contain carbon. Organic Chemistry- The study of chemicals that contain carbon. Analytical Chemistry- Composition of matter. Physical Chemistry- The study of : The mechanism The rate The energy transfer that happens when matter undergoes change. Biochemistry- Study of processes that take place in organisms. Science and Technology Science Pure Does not necessarily have an application. Technology Applied Has practical applications in society. Engineering. Microscopic- Macroscopic Micro –(small) Microscopic- objects can be seen with a microscope. Macro-(from afar) Macroscopic- objects are seen without a microscope. Part II – A Brief History and the Scientific Method Aristotle (Greece, 4th Century BC) Philosopher who believed that: There are 4 elements: earth, water, air, fire. Democritus (Greece, 4th Century BC) First atomic theory Atom (indivisible). Alchemists (~300BC-1650 AD) China, India, Arabia, Europe, Egypt Galileo Galilei (Italy 1564 AD)- Father of the scientific method Antoine Lavoisier (France 1743-1794) Regarded as the Father of Chemistry. Designed equipment. Used observations and measurements. Discovered nitrogen. Discovered the Law of Conservation of Mass: In a chemical reaction mass is conserved. Explained burning as reaction with oxygen. Old theory: release of “phlogiston”. John Dalton (England 1766-1844) Atomic theory Amedeo Avogadro (Italy, 1776-1856) Avogadro’s Number 6.02x1023 One mole of any substance contains 6.02x1023 particles. Dmitri Mendeléev (Russia, 1834-1907) First Periodic Table of elements. The Scientific Method Steps followed during scientific investigations. Scientific Method Observation- recognition of a problem. Hypothesis- a proposed explanation of an observation an educated guess must be testable. Experiment- a procedure used to test a hypothesis (measurement, data collection, manipulated and responding variables) Theory A well tested explanation for a broad set of observations. May use models. May allow predictions. Theories may change to explain new observations. Law A statement that summarizes results of observations, but does not explain them. Changes or is abandoned when contradicted by new experiments. Note: The order of the steps can vary and additional steps may be added. “No number of experiments can prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong.” -Albert Einstein Classifying Matter: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Pure Substances A sample of matter that has definite chemical and physical properties. Elements pure substance that cannot be separated into simpler substance by physical or chemical means. Compounds Pure substance composed of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds. Made of elements in a specific ratio that is always the same Has a chemical formula Can only be separated by chemical means, not physically Mixtures A combination of two or more pure substances that are not chemically combined. substances held together by physical forces, not chemical No chemical change takes place Each item retains its properties in the mixture They can be separated physically
Decomposition Reactions. an equal amount of matter exists both before and after the experiment. Combustion Reactions Rapid reactions that produce a flame. Subscripts and Coefficients Give Different Information Subscripts tell the number of atoms of each element in a molecule Subscripts and Coefficients Give Different Information Subscripts tell the number of atoms of each element in a molecule Coefficients tell the number of molecules Reaction Types 1.Also called combination reactions. Formula Equation Uses formulas and symbols to describe a reaction but doesn’t indicate how many.decompose = fall apart one compound (reactant) falls apart into two or more elements or compounds. Upon this principle.Atoms aren’t created or destroyed. Products appear on the right side of the equation. Diatomic elements There are 8 elements that never want to be alone. the amount one actually produces and measures Percent Yield A comparison of the amount actually obtained to the amount it was possible to make Chemical reactions-The way atoms are joined is changed .the substances you start with Products. Br2 .Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations Law of Conservation of Mass “We may lay it down as an incontestable axiom that.1 amu) + Cl: 2(35. F2 . All chemical reactions: have two parts: Reactants . (H2 . 1789 Chemical Equations. the H2) Theoretical Yield The theoretical yield is the amount of product that can be made.They form diatomic molecules. g/mol) The molar mass of an element is the mass number for the element that we find on the periodic table.dissolved in water. Decomposition Reactions One substance breaks down into two or more substances 3. Synthesis Reactions. 2 elements.02 x 1023 1 mole of 12C has a mass of 12 g Molar Mass By definition. CaCl2.e. an aqueous solution. it’s the reactant you’ll run out of first (in this case. Combination Reactions Two or more substances react to form one product 2. the formula weight of calcium chloride. N2 . Eg AB →A + B . O2 .used after a product indicates a gas (same as (g)) O2 ¯ used after a product indicates a solid (same as (s)) CaCo3 ¯ What is a catalyst? A substance that speeds up a reaction without being changed by the reaction. I2 .eg A + B→AB 2. would be Ca: 1(40. and At2 ) Types of Reactions 1. or compounds combine to make one compound. Cl2 . This is different from the actual yield. Symbols used in equations: (s) after the formula –solid Cu(s) (g) after the formula –gas H2 (g) (l) after the formula -liquid H2O(l) (aq) after the formula . The formula weight (in amu’s) will be the same number as the molar mass (in g/mol) **Moles provide a bridge from the molecular scale to the real-world scale Mole Relationships One mole of atoms. The states of the reactants and products are written in parentheses to the right of each compound. ions. Usually requires energy. nothing is created. C2H6.1 amu These are generally reported for ionic compounds Molecular Weight (MW) Sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule.5 amu) 111. In other words it’s the amount of product possible as calculated through the stoichiometry problem. For the molecule ethane. these are the mass of 1 mol of a substance (i. or molecules contains Avogadro’s number of those particles One mole of molecules or formula units contains Avogadro’s number times the number of atoms or ions of each element in the compound Elemental Analyses Compounds containing other elements are analyzed using methods analogous to those used for C.Concise representations of chemical reactions Anatomy of a Chemical Equation Reactants appear on the left side of the equation. H and O Stoichiometric Calculations The coefficients in the balanced equation give the ratio of moles of reactants and products Limiting Reactants The limiting reactant is the reactant present in the smallest stoichiometric In other words. the whole art of performing chemical experiments depends. So. CaCl2 (aq) .the substances you end up with The reactants turn into the products. Coefficients are inserted to balance the equation. in all the operations of art and nature. the molecular weight would be Percent Composition One can find the percentage of the mass of a compound that comes from each of the elements in the compound by using this equation: Moles Avogadro’s Number: 6.All chemical equations are sentences that describe reactions..” --Antoine Lavoisier. Most often involve hydrocarbons reacting with oxygen in the air Formula Weight (FW) Sum of the atomic weights for the atoms in a chemical formula. Enzymes are biological or protein catalysts.
ions b.3. Any volume having the same concentration is also 1.0 M in Clc. Sulfuric Acid H2SO4(l) -------> H+(aq) + HSO4-(aq) 4. Weak electrolyte = partially ionized. We must know the amounts of the reactants and products 3.0 M NaCl is 1. Only 1 molecule in 100 reacts E. Standard Solution = concentration is accurately known a. 1. Only partially ionized when dissolved in water 2.0 M in NO3b. Strong electrolyte = completely ionized. Strong Electrolytes 1. How do we describe the amounts in a solution? B. 1. Hydrochloric Acid HCl(g) -------> H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) ii. Solutions 1. Water A. Weak Electrolytes 1. We can vary the composition by adding more or less of the components 3. Bent shape and unequal sharing of electrons makes water polar 2. Reactants must be two ionic compounds or acids.0 M NaCl = 1 mole of NaCl dissolved in 1 L of solution a. eg. Life (as we know it) depends on water 2. C12H22O11(s) -------> C12H22O11(aq) III. Electrolytes A. Eg AB + CD→AD + CB 5. 1. Completely ionized when dissolved in water 2. Acetic acid is a weak acid HC2H3O2(aq) -------> H+(aq) + -C2H3O2(aq) c. Eg. Dilution = adding water to stock solution to make a less concentrated one 3.An acid and a base react to form a salt and water. strongly conductive solution b. Many salts (ionic compounds) are strong electrolytes 3. A solution is a homogeneous mixture the same throughout 2. Solution Concentration A. Single Replacement. Nonelectrolytes 1. CaCl2(s) -------> Ca2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) 7. Human civilization requires water for many purposes 3. A substance allowing current to flow through it is electrically conductive 2. Ammonia is a weak base c. One element replaces another. Reactants must be an element and a compound. Always in aqueous solution.Usually in aqueous solution. Acid/Base Reaction. Acid (H+) + Base (OH-) → Salt + H2O Solutions and Chemical Reactions I. Nonpolar substances generally don’t dissolve in water: grease.5 M Co(NO3)2 = 0. 1M Fe(ClO4)3 = 1M Fe3+ and 3M ClO410.0 M NaCl actually contains no NaCl b. M = moles solute/liters of solution 3. Accurate masses come from an analytical balance b. Weak Bases are weak electrolytes a. Strong Acids are strong electrolytes a.5M in Co2+ and 1. somewhat conductive solution c. The nature of water 1. Combustion.0 M in Cld. The Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions 1. When two solutions are mixed and a solid forms 2.0 M NaCl b. . Sugar is a nonelectrolyte 3. Molarity 1. The ionic substance breaks up into independent cations and anions 5. Different solutes dissolved in water help it to be conductive a. 1. Solvent = usually a liquid.0 M in Ca2+ and 2. This aids water in dissolving ionic compounds (cations and anions) 3. Solute = the lesser abundant component(s) of a solution B. Strong Acids completely ionize in solution i.0 M in Na+ and 1. Dilution 1.Two things replace each other. Water hydrates the ions by interacting with its oppositely charged ends 4. Importance 1. 500 ml (0.500 L) of 1. the most abundant component of a solution 4. K2CrO4(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq) = 2K+(aq) + CrO42-(aq) + Ba2+(aq) +2NO3-(aq) a. Many important chemical reactions occur in Aqueous Solutions. NH3(aq) + H2O(l) -----> NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq) d. oils.0 M CaCl2 is 1. Base = substance that produces OH.5 mol NaCl 6. Precipitation Reactions A. Accurate volumes are obtained using a Volumetric Flask D. A + BC →AC + B 4. Solutions and Electrical Conductance 1.when dissolved in water Strong bases completely ionize in solution NaOH(s) -------> Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) KOH(s) -------> K+(aq) + OH-(aq) D. skin II. Unit for the concentration of a solute in a solution 2.0 M NaCl would contain 0. A yellow precipitate forms when these solutions are mixed b. Strong Bases are strong electrolytes a. M1V1 = M2V2 is a useful equation to calculate dilutions IV. nonconductive solution C. Nonelectrolyte = not ionized. Nitric Acid HNO3(g) -------> H+(aq) + NO3-(aq) iii. Nonionic compounds can also dissolve in water if they are polar 6. Weak base produces only a few OH. Products will be a different element and a different compound. Precipitate = solid that forms from a precipitation reaction 3. 0. Weak acid only produces a few H+ ions b. Example: Give the concentration of each ion a.Also referred to as single displacement. Molarity descriptions of a solution reflect composition before dissolution a. Co(NO3)2 (s) -------> Co2+(aq) + 2NO3-(aq) c. Chemicals are often purchased or prepared as concentrated stock solutions 2. We must know what the reactants and products are 2.A reaction in which a compound (often carbon) reacts with oxygen 6. where other compounds are dissolved in water B. K2CrO4 and Ba(NO3)2 are both soluble (all dissolve in water) b. Pure water does not conduct electricity 3. Weak Acids are weak electrolytes a. Only 1 molecule in a 100 dissociates 3. Double Replacement . Definitions 1. Does not ionize when dissolve in water 2. Acid = substance that produces H+ when dissolved in water b.
These spectator ions can be cancelled out of each side (algebra) c. but it is actually a zigzag. Characteristics of Gases 1.7 psi II. Gases have very low densities. Ba2+(aq) + CrO42-(aq) -------> BaCrO4(s) Gases A. Plasma STATES OF MATTER Based upon particle arrangement Based upon energy of particles Based upon distance between particles LIQUID Particles of liquids are tightly packed.The total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases. b. KE directly related to Kelvin temperature. A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by magnetic fields. Real Gases Particles in a REAL gas… have their own volume attract each other Gas behavior is most ideal… at low pressures at high temperaturesin nonpolar atoms/molecules C. 4. Hydrocarbons Introduction . Boyle’s Law c. (A)The carbon atom forms bonds in a tetrahedral structure with a bond angle of 109. All strong electrolytes are represented as their ions 2K+(aq) + CrO42-(aq) + Ba2+(aq) +2NO3-(aq) ----> BaCrO4(s) + 2K+(aq) + 2NO3(aq) 1. If there are four atoms or groups around a carbon atom. (C) The unbranched chain of carbon atoms is usually simplified in a way that looks like a straight chain. Describing Reactions in Solution 1. have an avg. have elastic collisions. 3. Complete Ionic Equation represents the form of the ions in solution a. The Gas Laws A. Net Ionic Equation shows only the ions participating in the reaction a. (B) Carbon-to-carbon bond angles are 109.5O. like gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume. K2CrO4(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq) -----> BaCrO4(s) + 2KNO3(aq) 2. Temperature Always use absolute temperature (Kelvin) when working with gases. Plasmas.Equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of moles at constant temp & pressure true for any gas Dalton’s Law. Combined Gas Law Avogadro’s Principle. so a chain of carbon atoms makes a zigzag pattern. 7. it has a tetrahedral geometry. Charles’ Law The volume and absolute temperature (K) of a gas are directly related at constant mass & pressure C. no volume = lots of empty space 8. no volume = lots of empty space 6. no attraction. GAS Particles of gases are very far apart and move freely. Organic compounds have specific geometry around the carbon to carbon bond. Solubility Rules C. Rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely related to the square root of its molar mass. Gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume. random motion. Effusion-Passing of gas molecules through a tiny opening in a container Graham’s Law-Speed of diffusion/effusion. random. Gases expand to fill any container. 9. 5. Kinetic Molecular Theory Particles in an ideal gas… have no volume. The K+ and NO3. Gases can be compressed. Liquids have an indefinite shape and a definite volume. but are far enough apart to slide over one another. Gases undergo diffusion & effusion. random motion D. Organic Chemistry An organic compound is one that has carbon as the principal element An inorganic element is any compound that is not an organic compound. as shown in (B). Carbon is unique It has 6 electrons in its outer shell arranges 1s22s2sp2 It has room for 4 bonds to 4 other atoms. E. 2. are in constant. straight-line motion.K2CrO4(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq) -----> BaCrO4(s) + 2KNO3(aq) 4.5O. Molecular Equation shows what compounds the ions came from a. don’t attract or repel each other. Gay-Lussac’s Law The pressure and absolute temperature (K) of a gas are directly related at constant mass & volume D.measures atmospheric pressure Manometer-measures contained gas pressure KEY UNITS AT SEA LEVEL 101. Pressure Barometer. Liquid. B. Gases are fluids (like liquids). Gas. Diffusion-Spreading of gas molecules throughout a container until evenly distributed. STATES OF MATTER The Four States of Matter Solid.325 kPa (kilopascal)=1 atm =760 mm Hg=760 torr =14. Does not give clear picture of what happens in solution b. AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq) ------> AgCl(s) + KNO3(aq) B.ions occur on both sides of the complete ionic eqn. PLASMA A plasma is an ionized gas. The pressure and volume of a gas are inversely related at constant mass & temp B.
An aromatic compound is one that is based on the benzene ring. This is usually not useful. If an alcohol contains two OH groups it is a diol (sometimes called a glycol). Here it forms an accumulation of petroleum and saturated the porous rock creating an oil field. Naming is similar to naming alkanes except: The longest continuous chain must contain the double bond. and (B) 2. double (B). or (C) in a closed ring. If a pentane group is substituted with an OH group it is pentanol. Each successive compound differs from the one before it only by a CH2 Carbon-to-carbon bonds can be single (A). (A)The bonds in C6H6 are something between single and double. double. or "cut. Hydrocarbon Derivatives Introduction Hydrocarbon derivatives are formed when one or more hydrogen atoms is replaced by an element or a group of elements other than hydrogen. Hydrocarbon groups that are attached to the longest continuous chain and named using the parent name and changing the –ane suffix to –yl. or triple bonds. (A)A straight-chain alkane is identified by the prefix n. satisfying the octet rule. It is based on (A) n-heptane. but are actually the same length. An alkyne is a hydrocarbon with at least one carbon to carbon triple bond. Petroleum is formed from the slow decomposition of buried marine life. The base name is given a number which identifies the location of the double bond. To show the presence of the double bond. Cycloalkanes and Aromatic Hydrocarbons Cycloalkanes are alkanes (only carbon to carbon single bonds) which form a ring structure. The OH group is polar and short chain alcohols are soluble in both nonpolar alkanes and water.4trimethylpentane. The carbons are numbered so as to keep the number for the double bond as low as possible. Gasoline is a mixture of hydrocarbons (C8H18 for example) that contain no atoms of oxygen. The octane rating scale is a description of how rapidly gasoline burns. so that is when the ethanol is added. Crude oil from the ground is separated into usable groups of hydrocarbons at this Louisiana refinery. In the IUPAC name. (B) Ring compounds of the first four cycloalkanes. It is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons with one or two carbon atoms up to a limit of about 50 carbon atoms. the addition of alcohol to gasoline helps cut down on carbon monoxide emissions. each carbon atom has four dashes. The name of the hydrocarbon that was substituted determines the name of the alcohol. which will act on unripe fruit. so it must separated by distillation. (B) branched. When naming the halogen the –ine ending is replaced by –o Fluorine becomes fluoro. Common examples of organic halides. Crude oil is the petroleum that is pumped directly from the ground. C2H5OH. which gives it different chemical properties than double-bonded hydrocarbons. Since carbon monoxide forms when there is an insufficient supply of oxygen. Naming alkanes Identify the longest continuous chain. isobutane is 2-methylpropane. Alkenes can also add to each other in an addition reaction to form long chains of carbon compounds. Thus. For alcohols with more than two carbon atoms we need the number the chain so as to keep the alcohol group as low as possible.2.) Compounds that have the same molecular formula. I2. cycloalkanes. two. Naming an alkyne is similar to the alkenes. Carbon-to-carbon chains can be (A) straight. except the base name ends in –yne. a ripe tomato placed in a sealed bag with green tomatoes will help ripen them. which represent four bonding pairs of electrons. The bonds are always nonpolar. The base name now ends in –ene.) Alkenes and Alkynes Alkenes are hydrocarbons with at least one double carbon to carbon bond. (B) A branched-chain alkane isomer is identified by the prefix iso. (Some carbon bonds are drawn longer. Gasohol contains ethyl alcohol. Ethylene is the gas that ripens fruit. The liquid that he obtained burned quite well in lamps. If methane is substituted with an OH group it becomes methanol. The alcohol is named using the hydrocarbon name and adding the suffix –ol. (Carbon bonds are actually the same length. Note that in each example. Alcohols An alcohol has a hydrogen replaced by a hydroxyl (-OH) group. (A)The "straight" chain has carbon atoms that are able to rotate freely around their single bonds. Each dash represents a bonding pair of electrons. Cl2. An alcohol with three OH groups is called a triol (sometimes called a glycerol). This clear liquid that was obtained from petroleum distillation was called kerosene. with increased air pollution. As petroleum is formed it is forced through porous rock until it reaches an impervious layer of rock. Common examples of alcohols with one.for "normal" in the common naming system. The locations or other groups of atoms attached to the longest chain are identified and numbered by counting from the end of the molecule which keeps the numbering system as low as possible. Chlorine becomes chloro. Bromine becomes bromo. Br2. The alkenes are unsaturated with respect to hydrogen. with an assigned number of 100. Recall that a molecular formula (A) describes the numbers of different kinds of atoms in a molecule. but different structures (arrangements of the atoms) are called isomers. (B) The sixsided symbol with a circle represents the benzene ring. with an assigned octane number of 0. An atmospheric inversion. in an attempt to make it taste better. adds oxygen to the fuel. Each petroleum product has a boiling point range. and a ripe fruit emits the gas. This means it does not have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms as it would if it were an alkane (a saturated hydrocarbon). and a structural formula (B) represents a two-dimensional model of how the atoms are bonded to each other. This is called polymerization The atom or group of atoms that are added to the hydrocarbon are called functional groups. Petroleum Petroleum is a mixture of alkanes. sometimes linking up in a closed ring. Petroleum was once used for medicinal purposes. primarily plankton and algae. The addition of alcohol to gasoline. and aromatic hydrocarbons." of distilled vapors that collect in condensing towers. which does contain oxygen. Petroleum products and the ranges of hydrocarbons in each product. Alkanes are hydrocarbons with only single bonds.A hydrocarbon is a compound consisting of only hydrogen and carbon. or triple (C).Alkanes occur in what is called a homologous series. the –ane suffix from the alkane name is changed to –ene. is likely during the dates shown on the pump. Iodine becomes iodo. Organic compounds based on the benzene ring are called aromatic hydrocarbons because of their aromatic character. Halogens (F2.The carbon to carbon can be single.) can all add to a hydrocarbon to form am alkyl halide. Functional groups usually have multiple bonds or lone pairs of electrons that make them very reactive. A benzene ring that is attached to another compound is given the name phenyl. .for "isomer" in the common naming system. therefore. It was first distilled by running through a whiskey still.
that is obtained from breaking down macromolecules. Aldehydes. connective tissue. Long chain organic acids are known as fatty acids. Generally. another form of a polysaccharide. Other macromolecules control the formation of these macromolecules. (C) The simplest example of each. living organisms can release the energy that is locked up in them to use for energy requirements. Also notice that R1. formic acid. but enzymes must fit a molecule very precisely. they are converted into fats in animals and oils in plants. Saturated fats and cholesterol are thought to contribute to hardening of the arteries. 14. Humans also take in carbohydrates and use the break down of the carbohydrate as an energy source. Glucose is the carbohydrate that animals utilize mostly for their energy. These amino acids are polymerized by a dehydration synthesis to form long chains of repeating amino acids called a protein. Cellulose is a polysaccharide that is used in plant cell walls to maintain their structure. The plant structure is held upright by fibers of cellulose. 18. A protein can have from fifty to one thousand of these amino acid units. and R3 are long-chained molecules of 12. Proteins are polypeptides. These plants and their flowers are made up of a mixture of carbohydrates that were manufactured from carbon dioxide and water. or 24 carbons that might be saturated or unsaturated. just to name a few. Organic Compounds of Life Introduction Living organisms have to be able to: Exchange matter and energy with their surroundings. The building up of macromolecules requires energy. these are called essential amino acids. Unsaturated fats are believed to lower cholesterol levels in humans. A disaccharide is one that is made up of two sugar units. Animal fats are wither saturated or unsaturated. Synthetic polymers. and some plants contains formic acid. There are 20 amino acids that go into producing proteins. like other ants. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are a large group of compounds that are generally called sugars. Organic Acids and Esters Organic acids are those acids that are derived from living organisms. Cells are in turn made of macromolecules that form inside the cell. There are 10 amino acids which humans cannot synthesize themselves and must be in the diet. Metabolism is the breaking down or building up of macromolecules. usually from metabolism. A polysaccharide is one that is made up of many sugar units. The triglyceride structure of fats and oils. ants. Diethyl ether for example would have the formula CH3CH2OCH2CH3. Ethers. A macromolecule is a combination of many smaller similar molecules polymerized into a chain structure. Petroleum and coal as sources of raw materials for manufacturing synthetic polymers.and three hydroxyl groups per molecule. and fructose (fruit sugar) is a ketone. Thus. Part of a protein polypeptide made up of the amino acids cysteine (cys). These are also called carboxylic acids as they contain the carboxyl functional group (COOH) One oxygen is double bonded to the carbon and the other is bonded to the carbon and to the hydrogen both with single bonds. Note the glycerol structure on the left and the ester structure on the right. with the energy of sunlight. which are polysaccharides made from the simpler monosaccharides. but most are saturated. Starch and cellulose are both polymers of glucose. and Ketones An ether has a general formula ROR’.(1) Proteins (2) Carbohydrates(3) Nucleic acids. Reproduce. valine (val). The IUPAC name is given above each structural formula. each protein has its own unique sequence. hair. Respond to changes in their environment. Esters are condensation products of carboxylic acids with the removal of water (also called a dehydration synthesis). Thae cell makes up all living organisms that we know of. R2. Food is stored as starches. Fats and Oils Humans take in amino acids and utilize them to synthesize the polymers that are called proteins. The simplest of the carbohydrates are the monosaccharides. and nails. A ketone has a carbonyl group attached to an internal carbon atom. simple sugars (fruit sugar) that the plant synthesizes. starches. . By breaking sugars down into carbon dioxide and water. These red ants. make the simplest of the organic acids. The carboxyl group of one amino acid bonds with the amino group of a second acid to yield a dipeptide and water. An aldehyde has a carbonyl group (carbon double bonded to an oxygen) attached to a terminal carbon atom. Starch is a storage carbohydrate used by plants. with the IUPAC name above and the common name below each formula. and cellulose (all of which are sugars or polymers of sugars) Generally sugars are a storage source of energy. Fats and oils are a long term storage for energy sources. enzymes that break down starch do nothing to cellulose. Structurally. Fats are stored in adipose tissue which has an insulating function. and lysine (lys). Proteins Proteins are macromolecules that are polymers of amino acids. and skin. Functionally proteins are enzymes which catalyze biochemical reactions. Glycogen is a storage carbohydrate used by animals. with three-letter abbreviations. The twenty amino acids that make up proteins. but humans cannot digest cellulose. 16. The arrangement of the amino acids in the polymer determine the structure of the protein which confers to it is function or structural attributes. All of these changes are due to large organic compounds called macromolecules. In living organisms there are three main types of macromolecules which control all activities and determine what an organism will do and become. Formic acid is HCOOH. along with some other irritating materials. and some uses of each polymer. The carbonyl group (A) is present in both aldehydes and ketones. Transform matter and energy into different forms. Both have a molecular formula of C6H12O6 Classification A monosaccharide is one that is made up of just one sugar unit. 20. Glucose (blood sugar) is an aldehyde. The basic unit of life is the cell. a padding (protective) function. the polymer unit. Grow. Building up macromolecules requires energy and an enzyme lowers the amount of energy that is necessary. but sometimes as a defense mechanism. The difference in the bonding arrangement might seem minor. Synthetic Polymers Polymers Polymers are long molecules with repeating structures of simpler molecules. and the common name is given below. as shown in (B). The sting of bees. breaking down macromolecules releases energy that the organism can use as an energy source. When either of these is taken in in quantities above that that is necessary for the body. 22. as well as a storage function. When plants photosynthesize the use the energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars and oxygen. proteins go into making muscle tissue.
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