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In a gas-fired boiler, water is boiled at 150C by hot gases flowing

through 50-m-long, 5-cm-outer-diameter mechanically polished

stainless steel pipes submerged in water. If the outer surface

temperature of the pipes is 165C, determine (a) the rate of heat

transfer from the hot gases to water, (b) the rate of evaporation, (c)

the ratio of the critical heat flux to the present heat flux, and (d) the

surface temperature of the pipe at which critical heat flux occurs.

Answers: (a) 10,865 kW, (b) 5.139 kg/s, (c) 1.34, (d) 166.5C

Chapter 10, Solution 25

Water is boiled at a temperature of T

sat

= 150C by hot gases flowing through a mechanically polished

stainless steel pipe submerged in water whose outer surface temperature is maintained at T

s

= 165C. The

rate of heat transfer to the water, the rate of evaporation, the ratio of critical heat flux to current heat

flux, and the pipe surface temperature at critical heat flux conditions are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Heat losses from the boiler are negligible. 3 The

boiling regime is nucleate boiling since

T T T

s

sat

C 165 150 15

which is in the nucleate boiling

range of 5 to 30C for water.

Properties The properties of water at the saturation temperature of 150C

are (Tables 10-1 and A-9)

l

v

l

9166

255

00488

116

.

.

.

.

kg / m

kg / m

N/ m

Pr

3

3

h

fg

l

pl

2114 10

0183 10

4311

3

3

J / kg

kg m/ s

C J / kg C

.

Also,

C

sf

0.0130 and n = 1.0 for the boiling of water on a mechanically

polished stainless steel surface (Table 10-3). Note that we expressed the

properties in units specified under Eq. 10-2 in connection with their

definitions in order to avoid unit manipulations.

Analysis (a) Assuming nucleate boiling, the heat flux can be determined from Rohsenow relation to be

1

MEGR 324 HW #7

2

3

3

1/2

3 3

3

sat ,

2 / 1

nucleate

W/m 000 , 383 , 1

16 . 1 ) 10 2114 ( 0130 . 0

) 150 165 ( 4311

0488 . 0

) 55 . 2 9.8(916.6

) 10 )(2114 10 183 . 0 (

Pr

) (

) (

,

_

1

]

1

,

_

1

]

1

n

l fg sf

s l p

v l

fg l

h C

T T C

g

h q

The heat transfer surface area is

2

m 854 . 7 m) m)(50 05 . 0 ( DL A

s

Then the rate of heat transfer during nucleate boiling becomes

2 2

boiling nucleate

(7.854 m )(1, 383, 000 W/m )

s

Q A q

&

& 10, 865, 000 W

(b) The rate of evaporation of water is determined from

,

m

Q

h

fg

evaporation

boiling

kJ / s

2114 kJ / kg

10 865

5.139 kg/s

(c) For a horizontal cylindrical heating element, the coefficient C

cr

is determined from Table 10-4 to be

cylinder) large thus and 1.2 > * (since 12 . 0

0.12 > 7 . 10

0488 . 0

) 55 . 2 6 . 916 ( 8 . 9

) 025 . 0 (

) (

*

2 / 1 2 / 1

L C

g

L L

cr

v l

,

_

,

_

Then the maximum or critical heat flux is determined from

[ ( )]

. ( )[ . . ( . ) ( . . )]

max

/

/

q C h g

cr fg v l v

2 1 4

3 2 1 4

012 2114 10 00488 98 255 9166 255

1,852,000 W/ m

2

Therefore,

, ,

, ,

max

q

q

current

1852 000

1383 000

1.34

(d) The surface temperature of the pipe at the burnout point is determined from Rohsenow relation at the

critical heat flux value to be

3

1/ 2

, , sat

nucleate,cr

3

1/2

, 3 3

3

,

( )

( )

Pr

4311( 150)

9.8(916.6 2.55)

1,852, 000 (0.183 10 )(2114 10 )

0.0488 0.0130(2114 10 )1.16

p l s cr

l v

l fg n

sf fg l

s cr

s cr

C T T

g

q h

C h

T

T

_

1

1

]

,

_ 1

1

]

,

166.5 C

o

&

Chapter 10, Problem 51

Saturated steam at 100C condenses on a 2-m 3 2-m plate that is tilted 40 from the vertical. The plate is

maintained at 80C by cooling it from the other side. Determine (a) the average heat transfer coefficient

over the entire plate and (b) the rate at which the condensate drips off the plate at the bottom.

Chapter 10, Solution 51

2

MEGR 324 HW #7

Saturated steam at a saturation temperature of T

sat

= 100C condenses on a plate which is tilted 40 from

the vertical and maintained at 80C by circulating cooling water through the other side. The rate of heat

transfer to the plate and the rate of condensation of the steam are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The plate is isothermal. 3 The condensate flow is

wavy-laminar over the entire plate (this assumption will be verified). 4 The density of vapor is much

smaller than the density of liquid,

v l

<<

.

Properties The properties of water at the saturation temperature of 100C are h

fg

= 225710

3

J/kg and

v

=

0.60 kg/m

3

. The properties of liquid water at the film temperature of

T T T

f s

+ ( ) /

sat

2

(100 + 80)/2 =

90C are (Table A-9),

l

l

l l l

pl

l

k

9653

0 315 10

0 326 10

4206

0 675

3

3

6

.

.

/ .

.

kg / m

kg / m s

m / s

C J / kg C

W/ m C

2

Analysis The modified latent heat of vaporization is

h h C T T

fg fg pl s

*

. ( ) +

068

2257 10 80) 10

3 3

sat

J / kg +0.68 4206 J / kg C(100 C = 2,314 J / kg

Assuming wavy-laminar flow, the Reynolds number is determined from the vertical plate relation by

replacing g by

g cos

where = 60 to be

1197

) s / m 10 326 . 0 (

40 cos ) m/s 8 . 9 (

) J/kg 10 2314 )( s kg/m 10 315 . 0 (

C ) 80 100 ( C) W/m 675 . 0 ( m) 2 ( 70 . 3

81 . 4

cos ) ( 70 . 3

81 . 4 Re Re

82 . 0

3 / 1

2 2 6

2

3 3

820 . 0

3 / 1

2 *

sat

wavy tilted,

1

1

]

1

,

_

+

1

1

]

1

,

_

+

l fg l

s l

g

h

T T Lk

which is between 30 and 1800, and thus our assumption of wavy laminar flow is verified. Then the

condensation heat transfer coefficient is determined from

C W/m 5438

2

,

_

,

_

3 / 1

2 2 6

2

22 . 1

3 / 1

2 22 . 1

wavy tilted,

) /s m 10 326 . 0 (

40 cos ) m/s 8 . 9 (

2 . 5 ) 1197 ( 08 . 1

C) W/m 675 . 0 ( 1197

cos

2 . 5 Re 08 . 1

Re

l

l

g k

h h

A w L (2 4

2

m)(2 m) m

.

Then the rate of heat transfer during this condensation process becomes

W 435,000 C ) 80 100 )( m 4 )( C W/m 5438 ( ) (

2 2

sat

s

T T hA Q

,

*

m

Q

h

fg

condensation

3

J / s

2314 10 J / kg

435 000

0.188 kg / s

Discussion We could also determine the heat transfer coefficient from

h h

inclined vert

(cos )

/

1 4

.

3

MEGR 324 HW #7

Chapter 10, Problem 54

The condenser of a steam power plant operates at a pressure

of 4.25 kPa. The condenser consists of 100 horizontal tubes

arranged in a 10 10 square array. The tubes are 8 m long and

have an outer diameter of 3 cm. If the tube surfaces are at

20C, determine (a) the rate of heat transfer from the steam to

the cooling water and (b) the rate of condensation of steam in

the condenser. Answers: (a) 3678 kW, (b) 1.496 kg/s

Chapter 10, Solution 54

Saturated steam at a pressure of 4.25 kPa and thus at a saturation temperature of T

sat

= 30C (Table A-9)

condenses on the outer surfaces of 100 horizontal tubes arranged in a 1010 square array maintained at

20C by circulating cooling water. The rate of heat transfer to the cooling water and the rate of

condensation of steam on the tubes are to be determined.

4

MEGR 324 HW #7

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The

tubes are isothermal.

Properties The properties of water at the saturation

temperature of 30C are h

fg

= 243110

3

J/kg and

v

= 0.030

kg/m

3

. The properties of liquid water at the film temperature

of

T T T

f s

+ ( ) /

sat

2

(30 + 20)/2 = 25C are (Table A-9),

l

l

l l l

pl

l

k

997 0

0891 10

0894 10

4180

0 607

3

3

6

.

.

/ .

.

kg / m

kg / m s

m / s

C J / kg C

W/ m C

2

Analysis (a) The modified latent heat of vaporization is

h h C T T

fg fg pl s

*

. ( ) +

0 68

2431 10 20) 10

3 3

sat

J / kg + 0.68 4180 J / kg C(30 C = 2,459 J / kg

The heat transfer coefficient for condensation on a single horizontal tube is

C . W/m 8674

m) C(0.03 ) 20 30 ( s) kg/m 10 891 . 0 (

) C W/m 607 . 0 )( J/kg 10 2459 )( kg/m 03 . 0 997 )( kg/m 997 )( m/s 8 . 9 (

729 . 0

) (

) (

729 . 0

2

4 / 1

3

3 3 3 3 2

4 / 1

sat

3 *

horizontal

1

]

1

1

1

]

1

D T T

k h g

h h

s l

l fg v l l

Then the average heat transfer coefficient for a 10-pipe high vertical tier becomes

h

N

h

horiz, N tubes horiz, 1 tube

2 2

W/ m C) W/ m C

1 1

10

8674 4878

1 4 1 4 / /

(

The surface area for all 100 tubes is

2

total

m 75.40 = m) m)(8 03 . 0 ( 100 DL N A

s

Then the rate of heat transfer during this condensation process becomes

kW 3678 W 3,678,000 C ) 20 30 )( m 40 . 75 )( C . W/m 4878 ( ) (

2 2

sat s s

T T hA Q

kg/s 1.496

J/kg 10 2459

J/s 000 , 678 , 3

3 *

on condensati

fg

h

Q

m

5

MEGR 324 HW #7

Chapter 11, Problem 25

A 3-mm-thick glass window transmits 90 percent of the radiation between 5 0.3 and 3.0 m and is

essentially opaque for radiation at other wavelengths. Determine the rate of radiation transmitted

through a 2-m 2-m glass window from blackbody sources at (a) 5800 K and (b) 1000 K.

Answers: (a) 218,400 kW, (b) 55.8 kW

Chapter 11, Solution 25

A glass window transmits 90% of the radiation in a specified wavelength range and is opaque for

radiation at other wavelengths. The rate of radiation transmitted through this window is to be determined

for two cases.

Assumptions The sources behave as a black body.

Analysis The surface area of the glass window is

2

m 4

s

A

(a) For a blackbody source at 5800 K, the total blackbody radiation emission is

kW 10 567 . 2 ) m 4 ( K) 5800 ( K) . kW/m 10 67 . 5 ( ) (

5 2 4 4 2 8 4

s b

A T T E

The fraction of radiation in the range of 0.3 to 3.0 m is

97875 . 0 f mK 17,400 = K) m)(5800 0 . 3 (

03345 . 0 f mK 1740 = K) m)(5800 30 . 0 (

2

1

2

1

T

T

9453 . 0 03345 . 0 97875 . 0

1 2

f f f

Noting that 90% of the total radiation is transmitted through the window,

kW 10 2.184

5

) kW 10 567 . 2 )( 9453 . 0 )( 90 . 0 (

) ( 90 . 0

5

transmit

T fE E

b

(b) For a blackbody source at 1000 K, the total blackbody emissive power is

kW 8 . 226 ) m 4 ( K) 1000 )( K . W/m 10 67 . 5 ( ) (

2 4 4 2 8 4

s b

A T T E

The fraction of radiation in the visible range of 0.3 to 3.0 m is

273232 . 0 mK 3000 = K) m)(1000 0 . 3 (

0000 . 0 mK 300 = K) m)(1000 30 . 0 (

2

1

2

1

f T

f T

0 273232 . 0

1 2

f f f

and

kW 55.8 ) kW 8 . 226 )( 273232 . 0 )( 90 . 0 ( ) ( 90 . 0

transmit

T fE E

b

6

MEGR 324 HW #7

Chapter 11, Problem 33

Repeat Problem 1132 for a 4-m-diameter sphere.

Chapter 11, Problem 32

A small circular surface of area A

1

= 2 cm

2

located at the center of a 2-m-diameter sphere emits radiation

as a blackbody at T

1

= 1000 K. Determine the rate at which radiation energy is streaming through a D

2

=

1-cm-diameter hole located (a) on top of the sphere directly above A

1

and (b) on the side of sphere such

that the line that connects the centers of A

1

and A

2

makes 45 with surface A

1

.

Chapter 11, Solution 33

Radiation is emitted from a small circular surface located at the center of a sphere. Radiation energy

streaming through a hole located on top of the sphere and the side of sphere are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Surface A

1

emits diffusely as a blackbody. 2 Both A

1

and A

2

can be approximated as

differential surfaces since both are very small compared to the square of the distance between them.

Analysis (a) Approximating both A

1

and A

2

as differential surfaces, the solid

angle subtended by A

2

when viewed from A

1

can be determined from Eq. 11-12

to be

sr 10 .963 1

m) 2 (

m) 005 . 0 (

5

2

2

2

2

2

2 ,

1 2

r

A

r

A

n

since A

2

were positioned normal to the direction of viewing.

The radiation emitted by A

1

that strikes A

2

is equivalent to the radiation

emitted by A

1

through the solid angle

2-1

. The intensity of the radiation

emitted by A

1

is

sr W/m 048 , 18

K) 1000 )( K W/m 10 67 . 5 ( ) (

2

4 4 2 8 4

1 1

1

T T E

I

b

This value of intensity is the same in all directions since a blackbody is a diffuse emitter. Intensity

represents the rate of radiation emission per unit area normal to the direction of emission per unit solid

angle. Therefore, the rate of radiation energy emitted by A

1

in the direction of

1

through the solid angle

2-1

is determined by multiplying I

1

by the area of A

1

normal to

1

and the solid angle

2-1

. That is,

W 10 7.087

5

5 2 4 2

1 2 1 1 1 2 1

sr) 10 963 . 1 )( m 0 cos 10 2 )( sr W/m 048 , 18 (

) cos (

A I Q

where

1

= 0. Therefore, the radiation emitted from surface A

1

will strike surface A

2

at a rate of 2.83510

-4

W.

(b) In this orientation,

1

= 45 and

2

= 0. Repeating the calculation we

obtain the rate of radiation as

W 10 5.010

5

5 2 4 2

1 2 1 1 1 2 1

sr) 10 963 . 1 )( m 45 cos 10 2 )( sr W/m 048 , 18 (

) cos (

A I Q

7

MEGR 324 HW #7

Chapter 12, Problem 12

Determine the view factors from the very long grooves shown in Figure P1212 to the surroundings

without using any view factor tables or charts. Neglect end effects.

(a) Semicylindrical groove.

(b) Triangular groove.

(c) Rectangular groove.

Chapter 12, Solution 12

View factors from the very long grooves shown in the figure to the surroundings are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 The surfaces are diffuse emitters and reflectors. 2 End effects are neglected.

Analysis (a) We designate the circular dome surface by (1) and the imaginary flat top surface by (2).

Noting that (2) is flat,

0

22

F

1 1 : rule summation

21 22 21

+ F F F

0.64

2

) 1 (

2

A : rule y reciprocit

21

1

2

12 21 2 12 1

D

D

F

A

A

F F A F

(b) We designate the two identical surfaces of length b by (1) and (3), and the imaginary flat top surface

by (2). Noting that (2) is flat,

0

22

F

5 . 0 1 : rule summation

23 21 23 22 21

+ + F F F F F

(symmetry)

1 1 : rule summation

) 3 1 ( 2 ) 3 1 ( 2 22

+

+ +

F F F

2b

a

+

+ +

+ + +

) 1 (

A : rule y reciprocit

) 3 1 (

2

) 3 1 ( 2 ) 3 1 (

2 ) 3 1 ( ) 3 1 ( ) 3 1 ( 2 2

A

A

F F

F A F

surr

(c) We designate the bottom surface by (1), the side surfaces by (2)

and (3), and the imaginary top surface by (4). Surface 4 is flat and

is completely surrounded by other surfaces. Therefore,

F

44

0

and

F

4 1 2 3

1

+ +

( )

.

2b + a

a

+ +

+ + + +

+ + + + + +

) 1 (

A : rule y reciprocit

) 3 2 1 (

4

) 3 2 1 ( 4 ) 3 2 1 (

4 ) 3 2 1 ( ) 3 2 1 ( ) 3 2 1 ( 4 4

A

A

F F

F A F

surr

8

MEGR 324 HW #7 9

MEGR 324 HW #7

Chapter 12, Problem 30

Two very long concentric cylinders of diameters D

1

= 0.2 m and D

2

= 0.5 m are maintained at uniform

temperatures of T

1

= 950 K and T

2

= 500 K and have emissivities

1

= 1 and

2

= 0.7, respectively.

Determine the net rate of radiation heat transfer between the two cylinders per unit length of the

cylinders.

Chapter 12, Solution 30

Two very long concentric cylinders are maintained at uniform

temperatures. The net rate of radiation heat transfer between

the two cylinders is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist 2 The

surfaces are opaque, diffuse, and gray. 3 Convection heat

transfer is not considered.

Properties The emissivities of surfaces are given to be

1

= 1

and

2

= 0.7.

Analysis The net rate of radiation heat transfer between the

two cylinders per unit length of the cylinders is determined

from

kW 22.87

,

_

,

_

W 870 , 22

5

2

7 . 0

7 . 0 1

1

1

] ) K 500 ( K) 950 )[( K W/m 10 67 . 5 ]( m) m)(1 2 . 0 ( [

1 1

) (

4 4 4 2 8

2

1

2

2

1

4

2

4

1 1

12

r

r

T T A

Q

Consider a circular grill whose diameter is 0.3 m. The bottom of

the grill is covered with hot coal bricks at 1100 K, while the wire

mesh on top of the grill is covered with steaks initially at 5C. The

distance between the coal bricks and the steaks is 0.20 m.

Treating both the steaks and the coal bricks as blackbodies,

determine the initial rate of radiation heat transfer from the coal

bricks to the steaks. Also, determine the initial rate of radiation

heat transfer to the steaks if the side opening of the grill is

10

MEGR 324 HW #7

covered by aluminum foil, which can be approximated as a

reradiating surface. Answers: 1674 W, 3757 W

Chapter 12, Solution 41

A circular grill is considered. The bottom of the grill is covered with hot coal bricks, while the wire

mesh on top of the grill is covered with steaks. The initial rate of radiation heat transfer from coal bricks

to the steaks is to be determined for two cases.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist 2 The surfaces are opaque, diffuse, and gray. 3

Convection heat transfer is not considered.

11

MEGR 324 HW #7

Properties The emissivities are = 1 for all surfaces since they are

black or reradiating.

Analysis We consider the coal bricks to be surface 1, the steaks to be

surface 2 and the side surfaces to be surface 3. First we determine the

view factor between the bricks and the steaks (Table 12-1),

75 . 0

m 0.20

m 15 . 0

L

r

R R

i

j i

7778 . 3

0.75

75 . 0 1

1

1

2

2

2

2

+

+

i

j

R

R

S

2864 . 0

75 . 0

75 . 0

4 7778 . 3 7778 . 3

2

1

4

2

1

2 / 1

2

2

2 / 1

2

2

12

'

1

1

]

1

,

_

'

1

1

]

1

,

_

i

j

ij

R

R

S S F F

(It can also be determined from Fig. 12-7).

Then the initial rate of radiation heat transfer from the coal bricks to the stakes becomes

W 1674

) (

4 4 4 2 8 2

4

2

4

1 1 12 12

T T A F Q

When the side opening is closed with aluminum foil, the entire heat lost by the coal bricks must be

gained by the stakes since there will be no heat transfer through a reradiating surface. The grill can be

considered to be three-surface enclosure. Then the rate of heat loss from the room can be determined

from

1

23 13 12

2 1

1

1 1

,

_

+

+

R R R

E E

Q

b b

where

W/ m K K W/ m

W/ m K K W/ m

4 2 2

4 2 2

E T

E T

b

b

1 1

8 4 4

2 2

8 4 4

67 10 1100 83 015

67 10 18 273 407

+

(5. . )( ) ,

(5. . )( )

and

A A

1 2

2

0 3

007069

( . )

.

m

4

m

2

2 -

2

13 1

23 13

2 -

2

12 1

12

m 82 . 19

) 2864 . 0 1 )( m 07069 . 0 (

1 1

m 39 . 49

) 2864 . 0 )( m 07069 . 0 (

1 1

F A

R R

F A

R

Substituting,

W 3757

,

_

1

2 - 2 -

2

12

) m 82 . 19 ( 2

1

m 39 . 49

1

W/m ) 407 015 , 83 (

Q

12

MEGR 324 HW #7

Chapter 13, Problem 24

Repeat Problem 1323 by assuming a 2-mm-thick layer of limestone (k = 1.3 W/m C) forms on the

outer surface of the inner tube.

Chapter 13, Problem 23

A long thin-walled double-pipe heat exchanger with tube and shell diameters of 1.0 cm and 2.5 cm,

respectively, is used to condense refrigerant 134a by water at 20C. The refrigerant flows through the

tube, with a convection heat transfer coefficient of h

i

= 5000 W/m

2

C. Water flows through the shell at a

rate of 0.3 kg/s. Determine the overall heat transfer coefficient of this heat exchanger. Answer: 2020

W/m

2

C

Chapter 13, Solution 24

Refrigerant-134a is cooled by water in a double-pipe heat exchanger. The overall heat transfer

coefficient is to be determined.

Assumptions 1 The thermal resistance of the inner tube is negligible since the tube material is highly

conductive and its thickness is negligible. 2 Both the water and refrigerant-134a flows are fully

developed. 3 Properties of the water and refrigerant-134a are constant. 4 The limestone layer can be

treated as a plain layer since its thickness is very small relative to its diameter.

Properties The properties water at 20C are (Table A-9)

01 . 7 Pr

C . W/m 598 . 0

/s m 10 004 . 1 /

kg/m 998

2 6

3

D D D

h o i

0 025 001 0 015 . . . m

The average velocity of water in the tube and the Reynolds number are

m/s 729 . 0

4

m) 01 . 0 ( m) 025 . 0 (

) kg/m 998 (

kg/s 3 . 0

4

2 2

3

2 2

,

_

,

_

i o

c

m

D D

m

A

m

V

890 , 10

s / m 10 004 . 1

m) m/s)(0.015 729 . 0 (

Re

2 6

h m

D V

which is greater than 10,000. Therefore flow is turbulent. Assuming fully developed flow,

0 . 85 ) 01 . 7 ( ) 890 , 10 ( 023 . 0 Pr Re 023 . 0

4 . 0 8 . 0 4 . 0 8 . 0

k

hD

Nu

h

and

C . W/m 3390 = (85.0)

m 015 . 0

C W/m. 598 . 0

2

Nu

D

k

h

h

o

Disregarding the curvature effects, the overall heat transfer coefficient is determined to be

C . W/m 493

2

+

,

_

C . W/m 3390

1

C . W/m 3 . 1

m 002 . 0

C . W/m 5000

1

1

1 1

1

2 2

limeston o i

h k

L

h

U

13

MEGR 324 HW #7

Chapter 13, Problem 63

A shell-and-tube heat exchanger with 1-shell pass and 20tube passes is used to heat glycerin (C

p

= 2480

J/kg C) in the shell, with hot water in the tubes. The tubes are thin-walled and have a diameter of 1.5 cm

and length of 2 m per pass. The water enters the tubes at 100C at a rate of 5 kg/s and leaves at 55C. The

glycerin enters the shell at 15C and leaves at 55C. Determine the mass flow rate of the glycerin and the

overall heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger.

Chapter 13, Solution 63

Glycerin is heated by hot water in a 1-shell pass and 13-tube passes heat exchanger. The mass flow rate

of glycerin and the overall heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger are to be determined.

Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat

loss to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer

to the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 There

is no fouling. 5 Fluid properties are constant.

Properties The specific heats of water and glycerin are given to be 4.18 and 2.48 kJ/kg.C, respectively.

Analysis The rate of heat transfer in this heat exchanger is

[ ( )] (5 Q mC T T

p in out

water

kg / s)(4.18 kJ / kg. C)(100 C C) = 940.5 kW 55

The mass flow rate of the glycerin is determined from

kg/s 9.5

C] 15 C C)[(55 kJ/kg. (2.48

kJ/s 5 . 940

) (

)] ( [

glycerin

glycerin

in out p

in out p

T T C

Q

m

T T C m Q

The logarithmic mean temperature difference for counter-flow arrangement and the correction factor F

are

T T T

T T T

h in c out

h out c in

1

2

100 55

55 15

, ,

, ,

C C = 45 C

C C = 40 C

T

T T

T T

lm CF ,

ln( / ) ln( / )

.

1 2

1 2

45 40

45 40

425 C

77 . 0

89 . 0

100 55

55 15

53 . 0

100 15

100 55

1 2

2 1

1 1

1 2

F

t t

T T

R

t T

t t

P

The heat transfer surface area is

2

m 0.94 = m) m)(2 015 . 0 ( 10 DL n A

s

Then the overall heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger is determined to be

C . kW/m 30.6

2

C) 5 . 42 )( 77 . 0 )( m 94 . 0 (

kW 5 . 940

2

,

,

CF lm s

CF lm s

T F A

Q

U T F UA Q

14

MEGR 324 HW #7 15

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