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# MEGR 324 HW #7

## Chapter 10, Problem 25

In a gas-fired boiler, water is boiled at 150C by hot gases flowing
through 50-m-long, 5-cm-outer-diameter mechanically polished
stainless steel pipes submerged in water. If the outer surface
temperature of the pipes is 165C, determine (a) the rate of heat
transfer from the hot gases to water, (b) the rate of evaporation, (c)
the ratio of the critical heat flux to the present heat flux, and (d) the
surface temperature of the pipe at which critical heat flux occurs.
Answers: (a) 10,865 kW, (b) 5.139 kg/s, (c) 1.34, (d) 166.5C
Chapter 10, Solution 25
Water is boiled at a temperature of T
sat
= 150C by hot gases flowing through a mechanically polished
stainless steel pipe submerged in water whose outer surface temperature is maintained at T
s
= 165C. The
rate of heat transfer to the water, the rate of evaporation, the ratio of critical heat flux to current heat
flux, and the pipe surface temperature at critical heat flux conditions are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Heat losses from the boiler are negligible. 3 The
boiling regime is nucleate boiling since
T T T
s

sat
C 165 150 15
which is in the nucleate boiling
range of 5 to 30C for water.
Properties The properties of water at the saturation temperature of 150C
are (Tables 10-1 and A-9)

l
v
l

9166
255
00488
116
.
.
.
.
kg / m
kg / m
N/ m
Pr
3
3
h
fg
l
pl

2114 10
0183 10
4311
3
3
J / kg
kg m/ s
C J / kg C
.
Also,
C
sf

0.0130 and n = 1.0 for the boiling of water on a mechanically
polished stainless steel surface (Table 10-3). Note that we expressed the
properties in units specified under Eq. 10-2 in connection with their
definitions in order to avoid unit manipulations.
Analysis (a) Assuming nucleate boiling, the heat flux can be determined from Rohsenow relation to be
1
MEGR 324 HW #7
2
3
3
1/2
3 3
3
sat ,
2 / 1
nucleate
W/m 000 , 383 , 1
16 . 1 ) 10 2114 ( 0130 . 0
) 150 165 ( 4311
0488 . 0
) 55 . 2 9.8(916.6
) 10 )(2114 10 183 . 0 (
Pr
) (
) (

,
_

1
]
1

,
_

1
]
1

n
l fg sf
s l p
v l
fg l
h C
T T C
g
h q

The heat transfer surface area is
2
m 854 . 7 m) m)(50 05 . 0 ( DL A
s
Then the rate of heat transfer during nucleate boiling becomes
2 2
boiling nucleate
(7.854 m )(1, 383, 000 W/m )
s
Q A q
&
& 10, 865, 000 W
(b) The rate of evaporation of water is determined from

,
m
Q
h
fg
evaporation
boiling
kJ / s
2114 kJ / kg

10 865
5.139 kg/s
(c) For a horizontal cylindrical heating element, the coefficient C
cr
is determined from Table 10-4 to be
cylinder) large thus and 1.2 > * (since 12 . 0
0.12 > 7 . 10
0488 . 0
) 55 . 2 6 . 916 ( 8 . 9
) 025 . 0 (
) (
*
2 / 1 2 / 1
L C
g
L L
cr
v l

,
_

,
_

Then the maximum or critical heat flux is determined from
[ ( )]
. ( )[ . . ( . ) ( . . )]
max
/
/
q C h g
cr fg v l v

2 1 4
3 2 1 4
012 2114 10 00488 98 255 9166 255
1,852,000 W/ m
2
Therefore,

, ,
, ,
max
q
q
current

1852 000
1383 000
1.34

(d) The surface temperature of the pipe at the burnout point is determined from Rohsenow relation at the
critical heat flux value to be
3
1/ 2
, , sat
nucleate,cr
3
1/2
, 3 3
3
,
( )
( )
Pr
4311( 150)
9.8(916.6 2.55)
1,852, 000 (0.183 10 )(2114 10 )
0.0488 0.0130(2114 10 )1.16
p l s cr
l v
l fg n
sf fg l
s cr
s cr
C T T
g
q h
C h
T
T

_
1

1

]
,
_ 1

1

]
,
166.5 C
o
&
Chapter 10, Problem 51
Saturated steam at 100C condenses on a 2-m 3 2-m plate that is tilted 40 from the vertical. The plate is
maintained at 80C by cooling it from the other side. Determine (a) the average heat transfer coefficient
over the entire plate and (b) the rate at which the condensate drips off the plate at the bottom.
Chapter 10, Solution 51
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MEGR 324 HW #7
Saturated steam at a saturation temperature of T
sat
= 100C condenses on a plate which is tilted 40 from
the vertical and maintained at 80C by circulating cooling water through the other side. The rate of heat
transfer to the plate and the rate of condensation of the steam are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The plate is isothermal. 3 The condensate flow is
wavy-laminar over the entire plate (this assumption will be verified). 4 The density of vapor is much
smaller than the density of liquid,

v l
<<
.
Properties The properties of water at the saturation temperature of 100C are h
fg
= 225710
3
J/kg and
v
=
0.60 kg/m
3
. The properties of liquid water at the film temperature of
T T T
f s
+ ( ) /
sat
2
(100 + 80)/2 =
90C are (Table A-9),

l
l
l l l
pl
l
k

9653
0 315 10
0 326 10
4206
0 675
3
3
6
.
.
/ .
.
kg / m
kg / m s
m / s
C J / kg C
W/ m C
2
Analysis The modified latent heat of vaporization is
h h C T T
fg fg pl s
*
. ( ) +

068
2257 10 80) 10
3 3
sat
J / kg +0.68 4206 J / kg C(100 C = 2,314 J / kg
Assuming wavy-laminar flow, the Reynolds number is determined from the vertical plate relation by
replacing g by
g cos
where = 60 to be

1197
) s / m 10 326 . 0 (
40 cos ) m/s 8 . 9 (
) J/kg 10 2314 )( s kg/m 10 315 . 0 (
C ) 80 100 ( C) W/m 675 . 0 ( m) 2 ( 70 . 3
81 . 4
cos ) ( 70 . 3
81 . 4 Re Re
82 . 0
3 / 1
2 2 6
2
3 3
820 . 0
3 / 1
2 *
sat
wavy tilted,

1
1
]
1

,
_

+
1
1
]
1

,
_

+

l fg l
s l
g
h
T T Lk

which is between 30 and 1800, and thus our assumption of wavy laminar flow is verified. Then the
condensation heat transfer coefficient is determined from

C W/m 5438
2

,
_

,
_

3 / 1
2 2 6
2
22 . 1
3 / 1
2 22 . 1
wavy tilted,
) /s m 10 326 . 0 (
40 cos ) m/s 8 . 9 (
2 . 5 ) 1197 ( 08 . 1
C) W/m 675 . 0 ( 1197
cos
2 . 5 Re 08 . 1
Re
l
l
g k
h h

## The heat transfer surface area of the plate is:

A w L (2 4
2
m)(2 m) m
.
Then the rate of heat transfer during this condensation process becomes
W 435,000 C ) 80 100 )( m 4 )( C W/m 5438 ( ) (
2 2
sat

s
T T hA Q

## (b) The rate of condensation of steam is determined from

,
*
m
Q
h
fg
condensation
3
J / s
2314 10 J / kg

435 000
0.188 kg / s
Discussion We could also determine the heat transfer coefficient from
h h
inclined vert
(cos )
/

1 4
.
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MEGR 324 HW #7
Chapter 10, Problem 54
The condenser of a steam power plant operates at a pressure
of 4.25 kPa. The condenser consists of 100 horizontal tubes
arranged in a 10 10 square array. The tubes are 8 m long and
have an outer diameter of 3 cm. If the tube surfaces are at
20C, determine (a) the rate of heat transfer from the steam to
the cooling water and (b) the rate of condensation of steam in
the condenser. Answers: (a) 3678 kW, (b) 1.496 kg/s
Chapter 10, Solution 54
Saturated steam at a pressure of 4.25 kPa and thus at a saturation temperature of T
sat
= 30C (Table A-9)
condenses on the outer surfaces of 100 horizontal tubes arranged in a 1010 square array maintained at
20C by circulating cooling water. The rate of heat transfer to the cooling water and the rate of
condensation of steam on the tubes are to be determined.
4
MEGR 324 HW #7
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The
tubes are isothermal.
Properties The properties of water at the saturation
temperature of 30C are h
fg
= 243110
3
J/kg and
v
= 0.030
kg/m
3
. The properties of liquid water at the film temperature
of
T T T
f s
+ ( ) /
sat
2
(30 + 20)/2 = 25C are (Table A-9),

l
l
l l l
pl
l
k

997 0
0891 10
0894 10
4180
0 607
3
3
6
.
.
/ .
.
kg / m
kg / m s
m / s
C J / kg C
W/ m C
2
Analysis (a) The modified latent heat of vaporization is
h h C T T
fg fg pl s
*
. ( ) +

0 68
2431 10 20) 10
3 3
sat
J / kg + 0.68 4180 J / kg C(30 C = 2,459 J / kg
The heat transfer coefficient for condensation on a single horizontal tube is
C . W/m 8674
m) C(0.03 ) 20 30 ( s) kg/m 10 891 . 0 (
) C W/m 607 . 0 )( J/kg 10 2459 )( kg/m 03 . 0 997 )( kg/m 997 )( m/s 8 . 9 (
729 . 0
) (
) (
729 . 0
2
4 / 1
3
3 3 3 3 2
4 / 1
sat
3 *
horizontal

1
]
1

1
1
]
1

D T T
k h g
h h
s l
l fg v l l

Then the average heat transfer coefficient for a 10-pipe high vertical tier becomes
h
N
h
horiz, N tubes horiz, 1 tube
2 2
W/ m C) W/ m C
1 1
10
8674 4878
1 4 1 4 / /
(
The surface area for all 100 tubes is
2
total
m 75.40 = m) m)(8 03 . 0 ( 100 DL N A
s
Then the rate of heat transfer during this condensation process becomes
kW 3678 W 3,678,000 C ) 20 30 )( m 40 . 75 )( C . W/m 4878 ( ) (
2 2
sat s s
T T hA Q

## (b) The rate of condensation of steam is determined from

kg/s 1.496

J/kg 10 2459
J/s 000 , 678 , 3
3 *
on condensati
fg
h
Q
m

5
MEGR 324 HW #7
Chapter 11, Problem 25
A 3-mm-thick glass window transmits 90 percent of the radiation between 5 0.3 and 3.0 m and is
essentially opaque for radiation at other wavelengths. Determine the rate of radiation transmitted
through a 2-m 2-m glass window from blackbody sources at (a) 5800 K and (b) 1000 K.
Answers: (a) 218,400 kW, (b) 55.8 kW
Chapter 11, Solution 25
A glass window transmits 90% of the radiation in a specified wavelength range and is opaque for
radiation at other wavelengths. The rate of radiation transmitted through this window is to be determined
for two cases.
Assumptions The sources behave as a black body.
Analysis The surface area of the glass window is
2
m 4
s
A
(a) For a blackbody source at 5800 K, the total blackbody radiation emission is

kW 10 567 . 2 ) m 4 ( K) 5800 ( K) . kW/m 10 67 . 5 ( ) (
5 2 4 4 2 8 4

s b
A T T E
The fraction of radiation in the range of 0.3 to 3.0 m is

97875 . 0 f mK 17,400 = K) m)(5800 0 . 3 (
03345 . 0 f mK 1740 = K) m)(5800 30 . 0 (
2
1
2
1

T
T

9453 . 0 03345 . 0 97875 . 0
1 2

f f f
Noting that 90% of the total radiation is transmitted through the window,

kW 10 2.184
5

) kW 10 567 . 2 )( 9453 . 0 )( 90 . 0 (
) ( 90 . 0
5
transmit
T fE E
b
(b) For a blackbody source at 1000 K, the total blackbody emissive power is
kW 8 . 226 ) m 4 ( K) 1000 )( K . W/m 10 67 . 5 ( ) (
2 4 4 2 8 4

s b
A T T E
The fraction of radiation in the visible range of 0.3 to 3.0 m is
273232 . 0 mK 3000 = K) m)(1000 0 . 3 (
0000 . 0 mK 300 = K) m)(1000 30 . 0 (
2
1
2
1

f T
f T
0 273232 . 0
1 2

f f f
and
kW 55.8 ) kW 8 . 226 )( 273232 . 0 )( 90 . 0 ( ) ( 90 . 0
transmit
T fE E
b
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MEGR 324 HW #7
Chapter 11, Problem 33
Repeat Problem 1132 for a 4-m-diameter sphere.
Chapter 11, Problem 32
A small circular surface of area A
1
= 2 cm
2
located at the center of a 2-m-diameter sphere emits radiation
as a blackbody at T
1
= 1000 K. Determine the rate at which radiation energy is streaming through a D
2
=
1-cm-diameter hole located (a) on top of the sphere directly above A
1
and (b) on the side of sphere such
that the line that connects the centers of A
1
and A
2
makes 45 with surface A
1
.
Chapter 11, Solution 33
Radiation is emitted from a small circular surface located at the center of a sphere. Radiation energy
streaming through a hole located on top of the sphere and the side of sphere are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Surface A
1
emits diffusely as a blackbody. 2 Both A
1
and A
2
can be approximated as
differential surfaces since both are very small compared to the square of the distance between them.
Analysis (a) Approximating both A
1
and A
2
as differential surfaces, the solid
angle subtended by A
2
when viewed from A
1
can be determined from Eq. 11-12
to be
sr 10 .963 1
m) 2 (
m) 005 . 0 (
5
2
2
2
2
2
2 ,
1 2

r
A
r
A
n
since A
2
were positioned normal to the direction of viewing.
1
that strikes A
2
emitted by A
1
through the solid angle
2-1
. The intensity of the radiation
emitted by A
1
is
sr W/m 048 , 18
K) 1000 )( K W/m 10 67 . 5 ( ) (
2
4 4 2 8 4
1 1
1

T T E
I
b
This value of intensity is the same in all directions since a blackbody is a diffuse emitter. Intensity
represents the rate of radiation emission per unit area normal to the direction of emission per unit solid
angle. Therefore, the rate of radiation energy emitted by A
1
in the direction of
1
through the solid angle
2-1
is determined by multiplying I
1
by the area of A
1
normal to
1
and the solid angle
2-1
. That is,
W 10 7.087
5
5 2 4 2
1 2 1 1 1 2 1
sr) 10 963 . 1 )( m 0 cos 10 2 )( sr W/m 048 , 18 (
) cos (

A I Q

where
1
= 0. Therefore, the radiation emitted from surface A
1
will strike surface A
2
at a rate of 2.83510
-4
W.
(b) In this orientation,
1
= 45 and
2
= 0. Repeating the calculation we
obtain the rate of radiation as

W 10 5.010
5
5 2 4 2
1 2 1 1 1 2 1
sr) 10 963 . 1 )( m 45 cos 10 2 )( sr W/m 048 , 18 (
) cos (

A I Q

7
MEGR 324 HW #7
Chapter 12, Problem 12
Determine the view factors from the very long grooves shown in Figure P1212 to the surroundings
without using any view factor tables or charts. Neglect end effects.
(a) Semicylindrical groove.
(b) Triangular groove.
(c) Rectangular groove.
Chapter 12, Solution 12
View factors from the very long grooves shown in the figure to the surroundings are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The surfaces are diffuse emitters and reflectors. 2 End effects are neglected.
Analysis (a) We designate the circular dome surface by (1) and the imaginary flat top surface by (2).
Noting that (2) is flat,
0
22
F
1 1 : rule summation
21 22 21
+ F F F
0.64

2
) 1 (
2
A : rule y reciprocit
21
1
2
12 21 2 12 1
D
D
F
A
A
F F A F
(b) We designate the two identical surfaces of length b by (1) and (3), and the imaginary flat top surface
by (2). Noting that (2) is flat,
0
22
F
5 . 0 1 : rule summation
23 21 23 22 21
+ + F F F F F
(symmetry)
1 1 : rule summation
) 3 1 ( 2 ) 3 1 ( 2 22
+
+ +
F F F
2b
a

+
+ +
+ + +
) 1 (
A : rule y reciprocit
) 3 1 (
2
) 3 1 ( 2 ) 3 1 (
2 ) 3 1 ( ) 3 1 ( ) 3 1 ( 2 2
A
A
F F
F A F
surr
(c) We designate the bottom surface by (1), the side surfaces by (2)
and (3), and the imaginary top surface by (4). Surface 4 is flat and
is completely surrounded by other surfaces. Therefore,
F
44
0
and
F
4 1 2 3
1
+ +

( )
.
2b + a
a

+ +
+ + + +
+ + + + + +
) 1 (
A : rule y reciprocit
) 3 2 1 (
4
) 3 2 1 ( 4 ) 3 2 1 (
4 ) 3 2 1 ( ) 3 2 1 ( ) 3 2 1 ( 4 4
A
A
F F
F A F
surr
8
MEGR 324 HW #7 9
MEGR 324 HW #7
Chapter 12, Problem 30
Two very long concentric cylinders of diameters D
1
= 0.2 m and D
2
= 0.5 m are maintained at uniform
temperatures of T
1
= 950 K and T
2
= 500 K and have emissivities
1
= 1 and
2
= 0.7, respectively.
Determine the net rate of radiation heat transfer between the two cylinders per unit length of the
cylinders.
Chapter 12, Solution 30
Two very long concentric cylinders are maintained at uniform
temperatures. The net rate of radiation heat transfer between
the two cylinders is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist 2 The
surfaces are opaque, diffuse, and gray. 3 Convection heat
transfer is not considered.
Properties The emissivities of surfaces are given to be
1
= 1
and
2
= 0.7.
Analysis The net rate of radiation heat transfer between the
two cylinders per unit length of the cylinders is determined
from
kW 22.87

,
_

,
_

W 870 , 22
5
2
7 . 0
7 . 0 1
1
1
] ) K 500 ( K) 950 )[( K W/m 10 67 . 5 ]( m) m)(1 2 . 0 ( [
1 1
) (
4 4 4 2 8
2
1
2
2
1
4
2
4
1 1
12
r
r
T T A
Q

## Chapter 12, Problem 41

Consider a circular grill whose diameter is 0.3 m. The bottom of
the grill is covered with hot coal bricks at 1100 K, while the wire
mesh on top of the grill is covered with steaks initially at 5C. The
distance between the coal bricks and the steaks is 0.20 m.
Treating both the steaks and the coal bricks as blackbodies,
determine the initial rate of radiation heat transfer from the coal
bricks to the steaks. Also, determine the initial rate of radiation
heat transfer to the steaks if the side opening of the grill is
10
MEGR 324 HW #7
covered by aluminum foil, which can be approximated as a
Chapter 12, Solution 41
A circular grill is considered. The bottom of the grill is covered with hot coal bricks, while the wire
mesh on top of the grill is covered with steaks. The initial rate of radiation heat transfer from coal bricks
to the steaks is to be determined for two cases.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist 2 The surfaces are opaque, diffuse, and gray. 3
Convection heat transfer is not considered.
11
MEGR 324 HW #7
Properties The emissivities are = 1 for all surfaces since they are
Analysis We consider the coal bricks to be surface 1, the steaks to be
surface 2 and the side surfaces to be surface 3. First we determine the
view factor between the bricks and the steaks (Table 12-1),
75 . 0
m 0.20
m 15 . 0

L
r
R R
i
j i
7778 . 3
0.75
75 . 0 1
1
1
2
2
2
2

+
+
i
j
R
R
S
2864 . 0
75 . 0
75 . 0
4 7778 . 3 7778 . 3
2
1
4
2
1
2 / 1
2
2
2 / 1
2
2
12

'

1
1
]
1

,
_

'

1
1
]
1

,
_

i
j
ij
R
R
S S F F
(It can also be determined from Fig. 12-7).
Then the initial rate of radiation heat transfer from the coal bricks to the stakes becomes
W 1674

## ] ) K 278 ( ) K 1100 )[( K W/m 10 67 . 5 ]( 4 / m) 3 . 0 ( )[ 2864 . 0 (

) (
4 4 4 2 8 2
4
2
4
1 1 12 12

T T A F Q

When the side opening is closed with aluminum foil, the entire heat lost by the coal bricks must be
gained by the stakes since there will be no heat transfer through a reradiating surface. The grill can be
considered to be three-surface enclosure. Then the rate of heat loss from the room can be determined
from
1
23 13 12
2 1
1
1 1

,
_

+
+

R R R
E E
Q
b b

where
W/ m K K W/ m
W/ m K K W/ m
4 2 2
4 2 2
E T
E T
b
b
1 1
8 4 4
2 2
8 4 4
67 10 1100 83 015
67 10 18 273 407

+

(5. . )( ) ,
(5. . )( )

and
A A
1 2
2
0 3
007069
( . )
.
m
4
m
2
2 -
2
13 1
23 13
2 -
2
12 1
12
m 82 . 19
) 2864 . 0 1 )( m 07069 . 0 (
1 1
m 39 . 49
) 2864 . 0 )( m 07069 . 0 (
1 1

F A
R R
F A
R
Substituting,
W 3757

,
_

1
2 - 2 -
2
12
) m 82 . 19 ( 2
1
m 39 . 49
1
W/m ) 407 015 , 83 (
Q

12
MEGR 324 HW #7
Chapter 13, Problem 24
Repeat Problem 1323 by assuming a 2-mm-thick layer of limestone (k = 1.3 W/m C) forms on the
outer surface of the inner tube.
Chapter 13, Problem 23
A long thin-walled double-pipe heat exchanger with tube and shell diameters of 1.0 cm and 2.5 cm,
respectively, is used to condense refrigerant 134a by water at 20C. The refrigerant flows through the
tube, with a convection heat transfer coefficient of h
i
= 5000 W/m
2
C. Water flows through the shell at a
rate of 0.3 kg/s. Determine the overall heat transfer coefficient of this heat exchanger. Answer: 2020
W/m
2
C
Chapter 13, Solution 24
Refrigerant-134a is cooled by water in a double-pipe heat exchanger. The overall heat transfer
coefficient is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The thermal resistance of the inner tube is negligible since the tube material is highly
conductive and its thickness is negligible. 2 Both the water and refrigerant-134a flows are fully
developed. 3 Properties of the water and refrigerant-134a are constant. 4 The limestone layer can be
treated as a plain layer since its thickness is very small relative to its diameter.
Properties The properties water at 20C are (Table A-9)
01 . 7 Pr
C . W/m 598 . 0
/s m 10 004 . 1 /
kg/m 998
2 6
3

## Analysis The hydraulic diameter for annular space is

D D D
h o i
0 025 001 0 015 . . . m
The average velocity of water in the tube and the Reynolds number are
m/s 729 . 0
4
m) 01 . 0 ( m) 025 . 0 (
) kg/m 998 (
kg/s 3 . 0
4
2 2
3
2 2

,
_

,
_

i o
c
m
D D
m
A
m
V

890 , 10
s / m 10 004 . 1
m) m/s)(0.015 729 . 0 (
Re
2 6

h m
D V
which is greater than 10,000. Therefore flow is turbulent. Assuming fully developed flow,
0 . 85 ) 01 . 7 ( ) 890 , 10 ( 023 . 0 Pr Re 023 . 0
4 . 0 8 . 0 4 . 0 8 . 0

k
hD
Nu
h
and
C . W/m 3390 = (85.0)
m 015 . 0
C W/m. 598 . 0
2

Nu
D
k
h
h
o
Disregarding the curvature effects, the overall heat transfer coefficient is determined to be
C . W/m 493
2

+
,
_

C . W/m 3390
1
C . W/m 3 . 1
m 002 . 0
C . W/m 5000
1
1
1 1
1
2 2
limeston o i
h k
L
h
U
13
MEGR 324 HW #7
Chapter 13, Problem 63
A shell-and-tube heat exchanger with 1-shell pass and 20tube passes is used to heat glycerin (C
p
= 2480
J/kg C) in the shell, with hot water in the tubes. The tubes are thin-walled and have a diameter of 1.5 cm
and length of 2 m per pass. The water enters the tubes at 100C at a rate of 5 kg/s and leaves at 55C. The
glycerin enters the shell at 15C and leaves at 55C. Determine the mass flow rate of the glycerin and the
overall heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger.
Chapter 13, Solution 63
Glycerin is heated by hot water in a 1-shell pass and 13-tube passes heat exchanger. The mass flow rate
of glycerin and the overall heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 The heat exchanger is well-insulated so that heat
loss to the surroundings is negligible and thus heat transfer from the hot fluid is equal to the heat transfer
to the cold fluid. 3 Changes in the kinetic and potential energies of fluid streams are negligible. 4 There
is no fouling. 5 Fluid properties are constant.
Properties The specific heats of water and glycerin are given to be 4.18 and 2.48 kJ/kg.C, respectively.
Analysis The rate of heat transfer in this heat exchanger is

[ ( )] (5 Q mC T T
p in out

water
kg / s)(4.18 kJ / kg. C)(100 C C) = 940.5 kW 55
The mass flow rate of the glycerin is determined from

kg/s 9.5

C] 15 C C)[(55 kJ/kg. (2.48
kJ/s 5 . 940
) (
)] ( [
glycerin
glycerin
in out p
in out p
T T C
Q
m
T T C m Q

The logarithmic mean temperature difference for counter-flow arrangement and the correction factor F
are

T T T
T T T
h in c out
h out c in
1
2
100 55
55 15

, ,
, ,
C C = 45 C
C C = 40 C

T
T T
T T
lm CF ,
ln( / ) ln( / )
.

1 2
1 2
45 40
45 40
425 C

77 . 0
89 . 0
100 55
55 15
53 . 0
100 15
100 55
1 2
2 1
1 1
1 2

F
t t
T T
R
t T
t t
P
The heat transfer surface area is
2
m 0.94 = m) m)(2 015 . 0 ( 10 DL n A
s
Then the overall heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger is determined to be
C . kW/m 30.6
2

C) 5 . 42 )( 77 . 0 )( m 94 . 0 (
kW 5 . 940
2
,
,
CF lm s
CF lm s
T F A
Q
U T F UA Q

14
MEGR 324 HW #7 15