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Jing Yang, WenTao Li, XiaoWei Shi, Li Xin and JianFeng Yu
Abstract—In this paper, a novel hybrid algorithm based on artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) and differential evolution algorithm (DE) called ABCDE is proposed to inherit their advantages and overcome their drawbacks. In ABCDE algorithm, employed bees employ the mutation and crossover strategies of DE to enforce their exploration ability while onlooker bees keep their original updating strategy to retain the exploitation ability. Classical test functions have been provided to testify the ABCDE algorithm. Furthermore, ABCDE is applied to different types of timemodulated arrays (TMAs) pattern synthesis problems, including the syntheses of low equalripple sidelobe level (SLL) pattern, deep null level pattern, multiplebeams patterns and satellite footprint pattern. Experiment results reveal that ABCDE has a promising performance in the convergence rate and the exploration ability when compared with other improved evolutionary algorithms, which indicates that the proposed algorithm can be an effective approach for TMAs synthesis problems.
Index Terms—Array synthesis, artificial bee colony algorithm, differential evolution algorithm, timemodulated arrays
I. INTRODUCTION
T IMEmodulated array was first proposed by Shanks in 1959 [1] and later developed by Kummer in 1963 [2]. In
TMAs, each antenna element is connected with a highspeed RF switch which works periodically. By controlling each switchon time interval in a period, an additional degree of designing freedom, time, is introduced into the antenna arrays. Compared with the control of the excitation current amplitude, the control of the conversion time is more accurate, convenient and rapid. With the rapid development of highperformance RF switch, the key device for TMAs, this technology has made tremendous progress in recent years. For TMAs, the dynamic range ratio (DRR) of the current amplitudes can be greatly reduced because part of the DRR in amplitude domain can be transferred into time domain. Low/ ultralow SLL with very low DRR of current amplitudes can be easily realized in this way [3], [4]. An array thinning procedure for nonuniform amplitude TMAs was introduced in [5]. Different from the conventional antenna arrays, TMAs radiate energy in other harmonic frequencies.
This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China under (Grants 61101069 and 61201135) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. K5051302022). Jing Yang, Wen Tao Li, Xiao Wei Shi, Li Xin and Jian Feng Yu are with the National key Laboratory of Antennas and Microwave Technology, Department of Electronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, China (email:
Generally, the sideband level (SBL) has been regarded as useless and desired to be suppressed in order to reduce energy loss and interference. L. Poli et al minimized the sideband radiation power losses through the particle swarm optimization (PSO) [6], [7]. However, they also pointed out that the sideband pattern could be combined with the center frequency pattern to obtain multiplebeams patterns simultaneously by using the same array structure in [8]. Moreover, the sideband patterns can be also used for other different applications. For example, in [9], [10], they have been successfully introduced into the direction estimation and excellent results have been achieved. In [11], a closed form expression for the symmetric pulses around the timeaxis was provided to calculate the total power associated with sideband radiation, which was further extended to asymmetric cases and the influence of the pulse positions on the total radiated power of the harmonics was discussed in [12]. The relationship between the sideband radiations and the shift of the time pulses was analyzed in [13]. In [14], an excitation matching strategy for the synthesis of multibeam subarrayed antennas was proposed, and P. Rocca et al proposed a multistage approach based on this strategy for the subarrayed TMAs to obtain the overall radiation pattern [15]. As mentioned above, the influence of the sideband pattern for TMAs has to be considered when compared with the traditional arrays. This will lead to an increase in the number of the optimization targets. On the other hand, in some practical situations, parameters associated with the switch, such as the starting time, pulse duration, the amplitude and phase also have to be optimized to meet the optimization requirements, which will result in a sharp increase in the optimization variables. Furthermore, the objective function in the pattern synthesis is highly nonlinear and nondifferentiable with diverse constraint conditions. All these features generate unique challenges in the synthesis of timemodulated arrays. To deal with these challenges, efficient approaches have been highly focused and pursued by the researchers. One special branch is the evolutionary algorithms, such as genetic algorithm (GA), PSO, DE [16] and ABC [17], which have been successfully applied to different electromagnetic problems including antenna design and array synthesis [1820]. DE was first proposed by Storn and Price in 1995. As a simple and efficient algorithm, DE possesses good global search capability. However, in the near global optimal, the convergence rate would decline. Some improvements have
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been made on DE and great progresses have been achieved in the electromagnetics problems [20]. ABC was introduced by Dervis Karaboga in 2005, which is simple in concept and requires very few initialization parameters to adjust. ABC is good at exploitation and is effective in separable functions, but it would get trapped in the local optima when handling complex multimodal problems [21]. Since DE is good at global search and the search strategy is similar to ABC, the introduction of DE into ABC seems to be a good approach to overcome the drawbacks of ABC and DE. Therefore, based on ABC and DE, a hybrid algorithm named ABCDE is proposed in this paper. In order to enhance the global search ability and improve the convergence rate, the search mechanism of DE is introduced into employed bees and the global best solution is utilized in the mutation operator. Meanwhile, to avoid the shortcoming that the employed bees would slow down the convergence rate near the optimal solution when employing the search mechanism of DE, the update strategy for onlooker bees is kept unchanged in ABCDE. Classical mathematical test functions are employed to testify its performance. Furthermore, TMAs with different arrays structures are optimized by ABCDE to realize low equalripple SLL pattern, deep null level pattern, multiple beams patterns and satellite footprint pattern. This paper is organized as follows: Section II presents the basic ABC and the detailed architecture of the proposed hybrid algorithm. Timemodulated array is described in section III. Simulation results of the four synthesis examples are shown in section IV and the conclusions are drawn in Section V.
II. THE HYBRID ABCDE ALGORITHM
A. Artificial Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm
Artificial bee colony optimization algorithm is a new bionic algorithm, which is inspired by honeybee swarms. In ABC, a food source position represents a possible solution of the optimization problem and the amount of each food source represents its fitness. There is only one bee in each food source. According to their different duties, the colony is classified into three groups: employed bees, onlooker bees and scouts. The number of the employed bees and the onlooker bees are both equal to half of the population size. Employed bee modifies her old source based on the position in her memory and shares the information about the new source with onlooker bee. Based on the information, onlooker bees fly to the food sources they satisfied and explore their neighbor hood. If a food source is not improved for several times, it means the associated food source has been exhausted by the onlooker bee and then the bee at this food source would become a scout. The position of the abandoned food source would be replaced by a random food position. At the initialization stage, a random distributed population of SN solutions is generated. Each solution xij is a D dimensional vector where i 1,2, ,SN and j 1,2, ,D . D represents the number of the parameters to be optimized. According to the fitness values, employed bees modify the old solutions and generate the new ones. A new solution vi can
2 

be obtained by modifying the old one xi as follows: 

vij xij ij(xij xkj) 
(1) 
where ik, and j are random indexes, but k must be different fromi . ij is a random number between[1,1] .
A greedy selection mechanism is
used as the selection
criterion. After all the employed bees complete the search process, they will share the information about the nectars amount with onlooker bees. Each onlooker bee evaluates the nectar information provided by the employed bees and chooses a food source with a probability related to its nectar amount. The fitness function is defined as:
i
i
i
i
i
(2)
where fi is the objective function value of the solution i . fiti is the fitness of the ith food source. The probability pi that the food source i is chosen by an onlooker bee can be calculated by:
i
i
SN
n 1
n
(3)
Since the employed bee has already known the fitness value of the selected source, onlooker bee only needs to find a new food source around the selected area by (1). If the new source onlooker bee found is better than the old one provided by the employed bee, their roles will be reversed. If the food source cannot be improved for a predetermined times, i.e. “limit”, it will be abandoned and the corresponding onlooker bee will become a scout. The scout will randomly search a new source by:
(4)
Then the scout at the new source becomes an employed bee. Note that the parameter limit in ABC will affect its searching ability. A large limit will strengthen the exploitation capability but weaken the exploration capability.
B. Hybrid ABCDE Algorithm
From (1), it can be found that the search strategy of ABC for both employed bees and onlooker bees only update one element in a vector at each time. Although this update strategy has a good exploitation, it will result in ABC easily falling into local optima when solving complex multimodal problems. From the update strategy of ABC, it can be discovered that, different from other representative populationbased algorithms (e.g., DE and PSO), ABC does not take the advantage of the best solution. Therefore, the convergence rate of the algorithm would decline. Actually, the best solution information is so important in improving the convergence performance that recently some attempts have already been made to improve the convergence
speed by introducing the best solutions into ABC [22], [23]. However, the drawback of these strategies that easily falling into local optimal solution has not yet been solved because they still only update one element in a vector at each time.
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An effective way to solve this problem is to increase the number of the updated variables in ABC and utilize the information of the best solution. Actually, DE provides abundant variables and the search mechanism of DE is very similar to ABC. Motivated by this, the mutation and crossover operations of DE are introduced into ABC to improve its performance. In ABCDE, the whole colony is composed of employed bees and onlooker bees. For the employed bees, the candidate food positions are generated by the mutation and crossover operators of DE, which operates on all the elements of a vector, instead of only one element. Since the number of the employed bees is only half of the whole colony size, the diversity of the population is greatly reduced. To enhance the diversity, the mutation variables are enlarged by a mutation equation expressed as follows:
(5)
where i 1,2, ,SN and r1,r2 ,r3 {1,2, , SN} are randomly generated and satisfy i r1 r2 r3 . Xbest,G is the best solution in the parent generation. F [0,2]is the differential factor. To further increase the diversity of the population, the crossover operator is applied on the variation of the individual ViG, _{}_{1} and the corresponding parent individual XiG, to get a trial
ij G
,
1
ij G
,
X ij G
,
1
(6)
where j 1,2, ,D .CR[0,1] is the crossover rate.rand( j) is the evaluation of a uniform random number in[0,1].rnbr()i is a random chosen index in[1,2, , D] . The crossover strategy can guarantee that UiG, _{}_{1} gets at least one parameter from ViG, _{}_{1} . These two strategies provide more diverse variables for ABC to improve the ability of escaping from local optimal solution. For the onlooker bees in ABCDE, they evaluate the nectar information provided by the employed bees and select a good food sources by (3). Noted that only one variable in a vector is updated for the onlooker bees. This strategy performs well in exploitation of the food sources in the neighborhood and also overcomes the shortcoming of the slow convergence rate near the optimal solution. Nevertheless, in the standard ABC, the new vector is generated from two different individuals and only one individual is selected in roulette way. This will greatly waste other individuals of better qualities and the diversity of the population is greatly reduced. To deal with this problem, in ABCDE, each new vector is generated by three different individuals all selected in roulette way. The new solution Vi modified from the old one Xaim can be generated as:
_{(}_{7}_{)}
where Xaim is the employed bee to be followed and Xr1, Xr2 are the differential individuals. aim,r1,r2 {1,2, , SN} are chosen in roulette way and must satisfy aim r1 r2 . j {1,2, , D}is the random index. ij is a random number between[1,1] . For clarity, Fig. 1 presents the flowchart of the ABCDE algorithm.
C. Numerical experiments
and results
Eight classic benchmark functions [24] are presented here to
End
Fig. 1 Flowchart of the ABCDE algorithm.
test the capability of ABCDE compared with the particle migration based PSO (MPSO) [25], oppositionbased DE (ODE) [26] and modified ABC (MABC) [22]. All these algorithms are coded by Matlab 2012a and run on an i5 3.3 GHz CPU with 4 GB memory capacity. The code of ABC DE can be provided if needed. All those algorithms are applied to minimize 5 benchmark functions with dimensions Dim 30,200 and 3 functions with dimensions Dim 2 or 4 . The population size is set to Pop 150,450 . The maximum generation number G is 5000 for each function. The experiment results are obtained by independently running 30 times. In MPSO, the inertia weight w decreases from 0.9 to 0.4. The cognitive component c1 starts from 2.5 to 0.5 and the social component c2 increases from 0.5 to 2.5 respectively. The number of subswarms is 5. The migratory rate of the sub swarm is 0.4. The migratory interval is set to 5. In ODE, the differential factor is set to F 0.5 and the crossover rate
. The jumping rate constant is Jr 0.3 . For
MABC, the selective probability is F 0.7 . All these control parameters are the same as [22], [25] and [26]. In ABCDE, F =0.5 andCR =0.9. The numerical results are shown in Table I. Fig. 2 reveals the convergence behavior of the four algorithms for the test functions. From the simulation results, it can be concluded that:
1) ABCDE has the best optimized values among all these
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Table I Results for all algorithms on benchmark problems
4
MPSO 
ODE 
MABC 
ABCDE 

_{F}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} 
_{P}_{o}_{p} 
_{D}_{i}_{m} 
Mean 
Std. 
Mean 
Std. 
Mean 
Std. 
Mean 
Std. 
^{1}^{5}^{0} 
30 
1.01E10 
3.15E10 
6.19E47 
5.72E47 
1.39E80 
1.27E80 
_{1}_{.}_{5}_{3}_{E}_{}_{1}_{0}_{4} 
_{2}_{.}_{4}_{5}_{E}_{}_{1}_{0}_{4} 

Sphere 
200 
1.60E+01 
8.06E+00 
4.32E06 
1.06E05 
2.23E05 
3.74E06 
_{5}_{.}_{8}_{5}_{E}_{}_{1}_{0} 
_{5}_{.}_{3}_{4}_{E}_{}_{1}_{0} 

450 

5.72E10 
2.25E36 
1.52E36 
9.63E82 
8.54E82 
_{1}_{.}_{2}_{0}_{E}_{}_{8}_{4} 
_{1}_{.}_{7}_{5}_{E}_{}_{8}_{4} 

^{1}^{5}^{0} 

4.23E+01 
1.97E+01 
1.55E+00 
1.25E+00 
2.41E+00 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 

Rosenbrock 
200 
1.61E+03 
3.60E+02 
4.08E+02 
1.28E+02 
5.04E+02 
6.84E+01 
_{4}_{.}_{4}_{9}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{2} 
_{7}_{.}_{5}_{4}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{1} 

450 

5.55E+01 
4.23E19 
1.28E18 
7.02E01 
2.05E+00 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 

^{1}^{5}^{0} 

4.43E+00 
3.42E+01 
1.82E+01 
4.55E14 
2.31E14 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 

Rastrigrin 
200 
2.19E+02 
2.72E+01 
6.01E+02 
5.33E+02 
1.50E03 
4.11E04 
_{1}_{.}_{5}_{9}_{E}_{}_{1}_{1} 
_{2}_{.}_{4}_{7}_{E}_{}_{1}_{1} 

450 

5.54E+00 
5.59E+01 
1.46E+01 
1.89E14 
2.73E14 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 

^{1}^{5}^{0} 

3.23E02 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 

Griewank 
200 
1.11E+00 
6.27E02 
6.86E02 
9.78E02 
1.48E05 
3.53E06 
_{1}_{.}_{0}_{7}_{E}_{}_{0}_{2} 
_{2}_{.}_{2}_{2}_{E}_{}_{0}_{2} 

450 

5.16E02 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 

^{1}^{5}^{0} 

8.31E04 
3.03E23 
3.61E23 
1.34E42 
8.88E43 
_{5}_{.}_{1}_{2}_{E}_{}_{5}_{3} 
_{4}_{.}_{3}_{3}_{E}_{}_{5}_{3} 

Schwefel2.22 
200 
2.45E+01 
4.31E+00 
8.86E04 
1.60E03 
2.80E03 
1.82E04 
_{3}_{.}_{7}_{9}_{E}_{}_{0}_{5} 
_{9}_{.}_{4}_{0}_{E}_{}_{0}_{5} 

450 
30 
2.50E03 
6.90E03 
2.91E19 
4.22E19 
6.44E45 
2.37E45 
_{3}_{.}_{5}_{5}_{E}_{}_{4}_{7} 
_{3}_{.}_{5}_{3}_{E}_{}_{4}_{7} 

Schaffer 
150 
2 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
9.25E18 
2.95E17 
8.18E07 
8.75E07 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 
450 
2 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
1.85e18 
1.01e17 
1.66E07 
2.33E07 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 

Booth 
150 
2 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 
450 
2 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 

_{C}_{o}_{l}_{v}_{i}_{l}_{l}_{e} 
150 
4 
8.30E08 
1.38E07 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
1.09E01 
1.48E01 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 
450 
4 
5.59E08 
8.21E08 
0.00E+00 
0.00E+00 
4.52E02 
5.68E02 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{E}_{+}_{0}_{0} 
_{1}_{.} _{S}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{(}_{P}_{o}_{p}_{=}_{1}_{5}_{0}_{,} _{D}_{i}_{m}_{=}_{3}_{0}_{)}
2.
Rastrigrin (Pop=150, Dim=200)
^{4}^{.}
^{B}^{o}^{o}^{t}^{h} ^{(}^{P}^{o}^{p}^{=}^{4}^{5}^{0}^{,} ^{D}^{i}^{m}^{=}^{2}^{)}
3. Griewank (Pop=150, Dim=30) Fig. 2 Convergence behavior of the different algorithms for the test functions.
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algorithms in the most cases. Either for high and low dimen sional problems or small and large population problems, ABC DE can achieve better results with higher stability. 2) The ABCDE shows the strongest local search ability and the fastest convergence rate among all those four algorithms. It reveals that the ABCDE indeed inherits the advantages of DE and ABC and overcomes their shortcomings. 3) The complexity of ABCDE is approximately the same as ABC. Relative to the original update strategy of employed bees, an additional crossover strategy is introduced. However, this strategy is very simple and only requires the vector addition. Although the new vector of onlooker bee is generated from three different individuals selected in roulette way, this process basically has the same complexity as the original update strategy of onlooker bees. Therefore, these two additional operations do not significantly increase the complexity of the algorithm.
III.
PATTERN SYNTHESIS WITH TIME MODULATION TECHNIQUE
Consider a general timemodulated array of N ideal antennas in the space. The far field array factor is given by [27],
(8)
where rn is the position vector of the nth element with a normalized current amplitude An and a phase n . k is the
propagation vector. f0 is the carrier frequency. Each element of the TMAs is controlled by a high speed RF switch which works periodically. The modulation period is
. The duration of the nth switch is
, where
are the switchon and switchoff time instants
respectively.
If 0
, such switch can be represented by a unit
step functionUn ()t depicted as follows:
n
n
n
p
r
f
(9)
The far field array factor of the TMAs can be rewritten as:
0
(10)
Since Un ()t
is a continuous periodic function, its Fourier
series exists and can be decomposed into:


A Un 
n 
( )t anm 
e 
f 
p t 
(11) 

m 

where anis the complex amplitude, which is given by: 

a m n 
1 T 
T0 
p 
A U n n ( ) t 

e j 
2 
mf p 
t 
dt 

p A 

sin( m 

n f p 
) 
r 
(12) 

n n 

jm 

f p 

2 

n 
) 

At the center 
T p m n f p frequency ( m 0 ), 
e
an 

a A 0
n
Tn. On the other np 
hand, if ( TP _{n} 
)r _{n} 
TP , analogously, the 
Fourier coefficient of the switch can be obtained in the same way, which is given by:
m
n
n
p
P
r
n
jm
f
p
(
T
P
n r
)
p
r
n
n
P
jm
f
p
(
n r
n
T
P
)
(13)
Substituting (11) and (12) into (10), the radiation pattern at each harmonic frequency f0 m f _{p} (m 0,1, ,) can be obtained as follow:
E
(
,
,
t
)
(14)
Since timemodulated array radiates energy at each harmonic frequency, the impact of SBL on the characteristics of array radiation should be taken into account. Considering that
m follows the characteristic of the sin(x) / x function, the
maximum SBL at the first or the second sideband frequency should be considered. A key point of the optimization problem is the cost function.
The cost function for the TMAs optimization problem can be expressed as:
1
4
o
d
2
i
max
d
f 0
f
p
5
d
3
o
d
max
d
(15)
where Bwo is the main beam width between the first
nulls
obtained by the optimization and Bwd is the desired main beam width. SLLd is the desired maximum sidelobe level. SLLi is the ith sidelobe levels obtained by the optimization. The second component of the cost function attempts to make each sidelobe level close to SLLd . RPLo and RPLd are, respectively, the ripple levels of the main lobe obtained by the optimization and the desired pattern. SBLmax is the maximum sideband level at the first or the second sideband frequency obtained by the optimization. SBLd is the desired maximum sideband level. U(x) is the unit step function similar to (9). NULLmax and NULLd are the max null depth of the required area obtained by the optimization and the desired nulls depth, respectively. The last two components of the cost function attempt to make the
sideband level and nulls depth as low as possible. 1 ~ 5 are the corresponding weighting factors of each term.
IV.
SIMULATION RESULTS
A. Equalripple SLL and Nulling pattern synthesis
The advantage of the uniform circular antenna arrays is that,
when the beam scanning on the plane of the array, beam width,
sidelobe level, gain and impedance characteristics of the arrays
do not change significantly because of its symmetrical structure. Due to these advantages, circular array is widely used in
direction finding, wireless communications, scanning, sonar,
radar, and other areas [27].
Consider a uniform circular array as shown in Fig. 3. The
scanning range is from 180 to 180 on the xy plane
( 90) . The excitation phases and the normalized pulse
durations are respectively 0 n 360 and 0.1 _{n} 1 . All the elements are excited by the uniform amplitudes and the
switches conduct simultaneously (i.e.
). Choose
the
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population size Pop 40 and the maximum number of genera tion G 500 . The results of all the experiments are inde pendently run 50 times. Parameters of all the algorithms are selected the same as those in the test function experiments.
Fig. 3. Geometry of an N elements uniform circular array.
1) Equalripple SLL pattern synthesis
(b)
Fig 4. (a) Equalripple SLL pattern for the circular array, (b) Convergence curves of different algorithms.
Table II Excitation phases and normalized pulse durations
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
The number of the antenna elements is set to N=8 , for a uniform separation of d 4 . It is desired that SLL should be lower than 25 dB at the center frequency and the first band SBL should be deeper than 20 dB. BW should be lower than135 . Fig. 4(a) illustrates the normalized absolute power pattern optimized by the different optimization algorithms at the center frequency f0 and the pattern at the first sideband frequencies f0 f _{p} optimized by ABCDE. Fig. 4(b) presents the conver gence rate of the different optimization algorithms. The excita tion phases and the normalized pulse durations of the elements optimized by ABCDE are shown in Table II. The results of equalripple SLL pattern synthesis are shown in Table III. From Table III, it can be found that the SLL of MPSO, ODE and MABC can hardly achieve 25 dB, and the SBL of these algorithms can also hardly reach 20 dB. Only ABCDE can basically satisfy the design requirements with the fastest convergence rate. The SLL and SBL optimized by ABCDE are respectively 6.01 dB and 2.94 dB lower than that of the same array in [28]. These results could apparently validate the excel lent performance of ABCDE.
217.60
0.17
132.84
0.69
168.97
1.00
246.60
1.00
114.59
0.54
Table III Results of equalripple SLL pattern synthesis
Method
SLL(dB)
SBL(dB)
BW(deg)
MPSO
ODE
MABC
ABCDE
20.72
22.82
21.24
25.01
18.40
19.58
17.75
21.64
128
132
130
138
2) Nulling pattern synthesis
In order to eliminate the impact of interference, it is necessary for the pattern to form a null with a certain depth in the desired direction of the interference under the precondition of a certain SLL and BW. To illustrate the broadband interference suppres sion capability of the ABCDE, the pattern with a broad null located from95to120 is designed. The number of the antenna elements is set to N 12 , for a uniform separation of d 4 . Both SLL and SBL should be lower than 20 dB. The max null depth of the required area should be deeper than 55 dB and BW should be lower than100 . Fig. 5(a) shows the normalized absolute power pattern. Fig. 5(b) presents the convergence rate of the different optimization algorithms. Table IV illustrates the excitation phases and pulse durations obtained by ABCDE. Table V presents the results of nulling pattern synthesis. From Table V, it can be discovered that SLL obtained by the different algorithms is barely different with each other, while the null in the desired area varies greatly. Only the ABCDE can meet the requirements with the fastest convergence rate.
Table IV Excitation phases and normalized pulse durations
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
186.39
79.96
173.20
280.91
9.91
79.11
359.71
0.67
0.95
0.96
0.18
0.91
0.97
0.59
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Table V Results of nulling pattern synthesis
B. Cylindrical arrays
Conformal antenna arrays can be easily installed on an aircraft carrier without destroying the mechanical structure and does not affect the aerodynamic performance. Therefore, it has attracted considerable attention in many applications. In this paper, a cylindrical array is considered with the geometry of the array shown in Fig. 6, which is composed by 3 layers fanshaped array with a separation of h 2 . In each layer, there are 8 elements equally lying along the circular arc. The separation of each element is d 2 . The flare angle is 90. The array is symmetrical at xz plane. The radiation pattern of each element follows a cosine distribution [27]:
90 (16)
The targets of the optimization at the azimuth plane (=90) are that SLL should be less than 40 dB at the center frequency, SBL should be deeper than 20 dB, and BW should be less
Fig 6. Geometry of an nm elements cylindrical array.
than 70 . The array is excited by the uniform amplitude. The optimized variables and the parameters of all the algorithms are the same as those in the previous experiments. The results of the cylindrical arrays are shown in Fig. 7 and Table VI. From the results, similar conclusions can be carried out as the uniform circular antenna arrays that only ABCDE can suppress SLL to 40 dB with the fastest convergence speed. These two examples reveal the fact that ABCDE has universal
applications with super and robust performance.
Table VI Results of equalripple SLL pattern synthesis
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(c)
Fig 7. (a) Low SLL pattern for the cylindrical array, (b) Excitation phases and normalized switchon time intervals for the cylindrical array, (c) Convergence
curves of different algorithms.
C. Multiplebeams patterns synthesis
Multiple beams antennas recently play an important role in electronic countermeasures, radar surveillance and tracking, satellite communications, desired area coverage and so on. The efficient approaches for the multiple patterns synthesis simultaneous and simple array architectures have been widely investigated. TMAs possess simple structure and radiate energy in other harmonic frequencies. These features enable multiple beams patterns could be obtained by combining harmonic patterns with the center frequency pattern simultaneously using the same array structure. The multiple beams experiment discussed in this paper is to synthesize a difference pattern at the central frequency and a sum pattern at the first sideband with a linear array. The number of the linear array is set to N 16with a uniform separation of
d 2 . The array is excited by the uniform amplitude. In order to generate a difference beam, the excitations of the array is odd symmetric by adding to the phase values of half array [8]. Both the normalized pulse durations and the switchon time
instants are
It
is desired
that
at the central
frequency and
at the first sideband are both lower than
19dB. The
should be higher than 0.5dB. And
at
and
the second sideband should be lower than 15dB.
1 should be lower than 20 . Parameters of ABCDE are
selected the same as those in the previous synthesis experi ments. Table VII provides the results of the differencesum patterns synthesis optimized by ABCDE. Fig. 8 shows the patterns and the configuration of the switchon times.
It can be found that all the design requirements can be
satisfied.
and
are respectively 3.10 dB and 2.32 dB
lower than those of the same array in [8]. And
is 0.27 dB
higher. The radiation efficiencies at the central frequency and
the first sideband are 40.47% and 25.36% respectively.
Table VII Results of differencesum patterns synthesis
SLL ^{0} (dB)
SLL ^{1} (dB)
SBL ^{1} (dB)
SBL ^{2} (dB)
BW ^{0} (deg)
BW ^{1} (deg)
20.00
19.22
0.43
15.27
19.61
20.05
Fig 8. (a) Differencesum patterns for the linear array, (b) The configuration of the switchon time.
D. Satellite footprint pattern synthesis
For an energyconstrained satellite system, the antenna arrays radiating footprint patterns could not only improve the radiation efficiency but also reduce interference to other nearby regions. A parabolic dish antenna with a horn cluster feed or a shaped reflector antenna suffers from fairly high ripple level (RPL)
in the shaped region and provides poor control over the
SLL outside the prescribed footprint area. Planar phasedarrays
have attracted considerable attention for satellite antenna
applications due to their capabilities in controlling these pa rameters of the pattern [29]. The planar phasedarrays can realize good footprint pattern with low RPL and SLL but they will result in high DRR of amplitude and therefore bring great difficulty in the design of the arrays feed network. On the other hand, the limitation of DRR will cause the actual effect of array synthesis, such as RPL, SLL and the shape of the synthesized pattern. Therefore, it is
really a tough task to achieve low DRR of amplitude and low
RPL simultaneously. In this section, a satellite footprint pattern synthesis experiment with very low DRR of amplitude is taken as an example to testify the proposed algorithm in dealing with such problem. Our strategy of solving this problem is to transfer part of the DRR in amplitude domain of TMAs into time domain to ease the difficulties in the design of feed network for practical application.
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In order to reduce SLL, the twodimensional Woodward Lawson based on Taylor distribution method [30] is employed to synthesize the initial array excitation. The element excitation Imn can be given by
mn
P
Q
p
P q
Q
pq
m
n
_{e}
j
[(
m
1)
d
x
u
p
(
n
1)
d
y
v
q
]
(17)
where, apq is the sample pattern. im and in are referred to the excitations of a linear array with the Taylor distribution. 2P and 2Q equal to the total number of sample points in
each direction. up p Mdx and vq q Ndy are the sample positions. M and N are the elements number respectively. Imn can be regarded as the excitations at the center frequency
where
Generally, the DRR of
and the phase angle arg Imn mn .
I obtained by the conventional
method is too huge to meet the practical requirements. So, if
I is lower than its variation range, the element would be eliminated from the arrays. In this paper, a perturbation method which can generate the perturbations mn and mn for the ampli
tude and the phase of Imn is applied to optimize RPL and SLL. After the perturbation, the switch duration _{m}_{n} and the switchon time instants _{m}_{n} are optimized to meet the desired SBL. Note that the switch duration _{m}_{n} should be limited within its range
and the DRR of amplitude simultaneously.
should be satisfied
A planar array of 3030 uniformly spaced isotropic elements is considered. dx and dy both equal to 0.5 . The current excita tions amplitude Amn are in [0.2,1] and the normalized pulse
durations _{m}_{n} are in[0.1,1] . Then
I can range from 0.02 to 1.
The normalized switchon time instants _{m}_{n} are in [0,1] . At
the perturbation stage, the population is Pop1 200 and the maximum generation number is G1 300 . When optimizing
and _{m}_{n} , choose the population Pop2 600 and the maxi
mum generation number G2 500 . All the variables are optimized by ABCDE. To accelerate the optimization pro cedure, the patterns of the planar arrays are calculated by twodimensional fast Fourier transform. The targets of the optimization are that SLL and RPL should be less than 22 dB and 1.0 dB at the center frequency and SBL should be deeper than 16 dB. The desired satellite footprint pattern should cover the red part of Fig. 9.
Fig 9. The region to be covered.
Fig. 10 shows the optimized patterns at the center frequency
f0 and the first sideband frequency f0 f _{p} . The RPL is 0.92dB under the condition of suppressing the SLL lower than 22.34dB. The SBL can be restrained to 16.51dB. From the pattern at f0 , it can be found that the desired satellite footprint pattern is totally covered. The geometric structure of the planar array is
Fig 10. (a) The satellite footprint pattern at the center frequency, (b) The first sideband pattern.
Fig 11. Optimized array geometric structure for the satellite footprint pattern.
shown in Fig. 11, where the black dots represent the radiating ones and the white dots denote the elements eliminated from the arrays. After the optimization of ABCDE, only 300 radiating elements are left to generate the satellite footprint pattern and they can totally satisfy all the requirements. The excitations of
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the array can be provided if needed. The DRR of amplitude
Amin ) is greatly reduced to 5, which will significantly
relieve the feed network design stress.
V. CONCLUSION
In this paper, by introducing mutation and crossover strategies of DE into ABC, a novel hybrid algorithm named ABCDE is proposed, which could overcome the drawback of easily falling into the local optimal solution and possess a higher convergence rate at the same time. ABCDE has been testified by both classical mathematical test functions and different types of TMAs pattern synthesis problems. The simulation results have validated the promising ability of ABCDE compared with other improved evolutionary optimization algorithms, which reveals that ABCDE can be an effective method to solve TMAs synthesis problems. Since better characteristics can be achieved, ABCDE is expected to be applied in a wide class of other electromagnetic fields.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors would like to thank the editors and the anony mous reviewers for their constructive suggestions.
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Jing Yang was born in Shaanxi Province, China, in 1987. He received the B.Eng. degree in communica tion engineering from Northwestern Polytechnical University (NPU), Xi’an, in 2010. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in electromagnetics and microwave technology at the National Laboratory of Science and Technology on Antennas and Micro waves, Xidian University, Xi’an, China. His research interests include array synthesis, evolution optimization techniques and antennas.
Copyright (c) 2013 IEEE. Personal use is permitted. For any other purposes, permission must be obtained from the IEEE by emailing pubspermissions@ieee.org.
This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication.
ID: AP12070964
WenTao Li was born in Shaanxi Province, China. She received the B.S. degree in electromagnetic field and microwave technology from Xidian University,
Xi’an, China, in 2006 and the Ph.D. degree in 2010.
She is currently an associate professor in the School of Electronic Engineering, Xidian University. Her research interests include evolutionary opti mization techniques, antenna arrays and ultrawide band antennas.
11
Xin Li was born in Shaanxi Province, China. He received his B.Eng. degree in electrical engineering and Ph.D degree in electromagnetic fields and microwave technology from National Laboratory of Science and Technology on Antennas and Micro waves in Xidian University, Xi’an, China, in 2008 and 2013, respectively. His recent research interests are mainly in multiband antennas, conformal arrays and evolution algorithms.
XiaoWei Shi was born in Guangdong Province, China, in 1963. He received his B.S. degree in radio physics in 1982, M. Eng. degree in electrical engi neering in 1990, and Ph.D. degree in electromagnetic field and microwave technology in 1995 from Xidian University, Xi’an, China. During 19961997, he was a cooperator of Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute of Korea for his postdoctoral research work. He has been a Professor and Ph.D. student advisor in Xidian University. His research interests include the theory of microwave network, microwave measurement, electromagnetic inverse scattering, the theory of electromagnetic variation, electromagnetic compatibility and smart antenna. In recent years, he mainly researches the smart antenna.
JianFeng Yu was born in Anhui Province, China. He received the B.S. degree from Xidian University, Xi’an, China, in 2010. He is currently working towards the Ph.D. degree in electromagnetics and microwave technology at the National Laboratory of Science and Technology on Antennas and Micro waves, Xidian University. His recent research interests are reflectarray, array synthesis and antennas.
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