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A Hybrid ABC-DE Algorithm and Its Application for Time-Modulated Arrays Pattern Synthesis

Jing Yang, Wen-Tao Li, Xiao-Wei Shi, Li Xin and Jian-Feng Yu

AbstractIn this paper, a novel hybrid algorithm based on artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) and differential evolution algorithm (DE) called ABC-DE is proposed to inherit their advantages and overcome their drawbacks. In ABC-DE algorithm, employed bees employ the mutation and crossover strategies of DE to enforce their exploration ability while onlooker bees keep their original updating strategy to retain the exploitation ability. Classical test functions have been provided to testify the ABC-DE algorithm. Furthermore, ABC-DE is applied to different types of time-modulated arrays (TMAs) pattern synthesis problems, including the syntheses of low equal-ripple sidelobe level (SLL) pattern, deep null level pattern, multiple-beams patterns and satellite footprint pattern. Experiment results reveal that ABC-DE has a promising performance in the convergence rate and the exploration ability when compared with other improved evolutionary algorithms, which indicates that the proposed algorithm can be an effective approach for TMAs synthesis problems.

Index TermsArray synthesis, artificial bee colony algorithm, differential evolution algorithm, time-modulated arrays

I. INTRODUCTION

T IME-modulated array was first proposed by Shanks in 1959 [1] and later developed by Kummer in 1963 [2]. In

TMAs, each antenna element is connected with a high-speed RF switch which works periodically. By controlling each switch-on time interval in a period, an additional degree of designing freedom, time, is introduced into the antenna arrays. Compared with the control of the excitation current amplitude, the control of the conversion time is more accurate, convenient and rapid. With the rapid development of high-performance RF switch, the key device for TMAs, this technology has made tremendous progress in recent years. For TMAs, the dynamic range ratio (DRR) of the current amplitudes can be greatly reduced because part of the DRR in amplitude domain can be transferred into time domain. Low/ ultra-low SLL with very low DRR of current amplitudes can be easily realized in this way [3], [4]. An array thinning procedure for nonuniform amplitude TMAs was introduced in [5]. Different from the conventional antenna arrays, TMAs radiate energy in other harmonic frequencies.

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China under (Grants 61101069 and 61201135) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. K5051302022). Jing Yang, Wen Tao Li, Xiao Wei Shi, Li Xin and Jian Feng Yu are with the National key Laboratory of Antennas and Microwave Technology, Department of Electronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, China (e-mail:

Generally, the sideband level (SBL) has been regarded as useless and desired to be suppressed in order to reduce energy loss and interference. L. Poli et al minimized the sideband radiation power losses through the particle swarm optimization (PSO) [6], [7]. However, they also pointed out that the sideband pattern could be combined with the center frequency pattern to obtain multiple-beams patterns simultaneously by using the same array structure in [8]. Moreover, the sideband patterns can be also used for other different applications. For example, in [9], [10], they have been successfully introduced into the direction estimation and excellent results have been achieved. In [11], a closed form expression for the symmetric pulses around the time-axis was provided to calculate the total power associated with sideband radiation, which was further extended to asymmetric cases and the influence of the pulse positions on the total radiated power of the harmonics was discussed in [12]. The relationship between the sideband radiations and the shift of the time pulses was analyzed in [13]. In [14], an excitation matching strategy for the synthesis of multi-beam sub-arrayed antennas was proposed, and P. Rocca et al proposed a multi-stage approach based on this strategy for the sub-arrayed TMAs to obtain the overall radiation pattern [15]. As mentioned above, the influence of the sideband pattern for TMAs has to be considered when compared with the traditional arrays. This will lead to an increase in the number of the optimization targets. On the other hand, in some practical situations, parameters associated with the switch, such as the starting time, pulse duration, the amplitude and phase also have to be optimized to meet the optimization requirements, which will result in a sharp increase in the optimization variables. Furthermore, the objective function in the pattern synthesis is highly nonlinear and nondifferentiable with diverse constraint conditions. All these features generate unique challenges in the synthesis of time-modulated arrays. To deal with these challenges, efficient approaches have been highly focused and pursued by the researchers. One special branch is the evolutionary algorithms, such as genetic algorithm (GA), PSO, DE [16] and ABC [17], which have been successfully applied to different electromagnetic problems including antenna design and array synthesis [18-20]. DE was first proposed by Storn and Price in 1995. As a simple and efficient algorithm, DE possesses good global search capability. However, in the near global optimal, the convergence rate would decline. Some improvements have

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been made on DE and great progresses have been achieved in the electromagnetics problems [20]. ABC was introduced by Dervis Karaboga in 2005, which is simple in concept and requires very few initialization parameters to adjust. ABC is good at exploitation and is effective in separable functions, but it would get trapped in the local optima when handling complex multimodal problems [21]. Since DE is good at global search and the search strategy is similar to ABC, the introduction of DE into ABC seems to be a good approach to overcome the drawbacks of ABC and DE. Therefore, based on ABC and DE, a hybrid algorithm named ABC-DE is proposed in this paper. In order to enhance the global search ability and improve the convergence rate, the search mechanism of DE is introduced into employed bees and the global best solution is utilized in the mutation operator. Meanwhile, to avoid the shortcoming that the employed bees would slow down the convergence rate near the optimal solution when employing the search mechanism of DE, the update strategy for onlooker bees is kept unchanged in ABC-DE. Classical mathematical test functions are employed to testify its performance. Furthermore, TMAs with different arrays structures are optimized by ABC-DE to realize low equal-ripple SLL pattern, deep null level pattern, multiple- beams patterns and satellite footprint pattern. This paper is organized as follows: Section II presents the basic ABC and the detailed architecture of the proposed hybrid algorithm. Time-modulated array is described in section III. Simulation results of the four synthesis examples are shown in section IV and the conclusions are drawn in Section V.

II. THE HYBRID ABC-DE ALGORITHM

A. Artificial Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm

Artificial bee colony optimization algorithm is a new bionic algorithm, which is inspired by honeybee swarms. In ABC, a food source position represents a possible solution of the optimization problem and the amount of each food source represents its fitness. There is only one bee in each food source. According to their different duties, the colony is classified into three groups: employed bees, onlooker bees and scouts. The number of the employed bees and the onlooker bees are both equal to half of the population size. Employed bee modifies her old source based on the position in her memory and shares the information about the new source with onlooker bee. Based on the information, onlooker bees fly to the food sources they satisfied and explore their neighbor- hood. If a food source is not improved for several times, it means the associated food source has been exhausted by the onlooker bee and then the bee at this food source would become a scout. The position of the abandoned food source would be replaced by a random food position. At the initialization stage, a random distributed population of SN solutions is generated. Each solution xij is a D- dimensional vector where i 1,2, ,SN and j 1,2, ,D . D represents the number of the parameters to be optimized. According to the fitness values, employed bees modify the old solutions and generate the new ones. A new solution vi can

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2

be obtained by modifying the old one xi as follows:

vij xij ij(xij xkj)

(1)

where ik, and j are random indexes, but k must be different fromi . ij is a random number between[1,1] .

A greedy selection mechanism is

used as the selection

criterion. After all the employed bees complete the search process, they will share the information about the nectars amount with onlooker bees. Each onlooker bee evaluates the nectar information provided by the employed bees and chooses a food source with a probability related to its nectar amount. The fitness function is defined as:

fit

i

1

1 f

i

1

abs f

(

i

)

f

i

0

f

i

0

(2)

where fi is the objective function value of the solution i . fiti is the fitness of the ith food source. The probability pi that the food source i is chosen by an onlooker bee can be calculated by:

p

i

fit

i

SN

n 1

fit

n

(3)

Since the employed bee has already known the fitness value of the selected source, onlooker bee only needs to find a new food source around the selected area by (1). If the new source onlooker bee found is better than the old one provided by the employed bee, their roles will be reversed. If the food source cannot be improved for a predetermined times, i.e. limit, it will be abandoned and the corresponding onlooker bee will become a scout. The scout will randomly search a new source by:

j

xi

j

x

min

rand

[0,1](

j

x

max

x

min j )

(4)

Then the scout at the new source becomes an employed bee. Note that the parameter limit in ABC will affect its searching ability. A large limit will strengthen the exploitation capability but weaken the exploration capability.

B. Hybrid ABC-DE Algorithm

From (1), it can be found that the search strategy of ABC for both employed bees and onlooker bees only update one element in a vector at each time. Although this update strategy has a good exploitation, it will result in ABC easily falling into local optima when solving complex multimodal problems. From the update strategy of ABC, it can be discovered that, different from other representative population-based algorithms (e.g., DE and PSO), ABC does not take the advantage of the best solution. Therefore, the convergence rate of the algorithm would decline. Actually, the best solution information is so important in improving the convergence performance that recently some attempts have already been made to improve the convergence

speed by introducing the best solutions into ABC [22], [23]. However, the drawback of these strategies that easily falling into local optimal solution has not yet been solved because they still only update one element in a vector at each time.

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An effective way to solve this problem is to increase the number of the updated variables in ABC and utilize the information of the best solution. Actually, DE provides abundant variables and the search mechanism of DE is very similar to ABC. Motivated by this, the mutation and crossover operations of DE are introduced into ABC to improve its performance. In ABC-DE, the whole colony is composed of employed bees and onlooker bees. For the employed bees, the candidate food positions are generated by the mutation and crossover operators of DE, which operates on all the elements of a vector, instead of only one element. Since the number of the employed bees is only half of the whole colony size, the diversity of the population is greatly reduced. To enhance the diversity, the mutation variables are enlarged by a mutation equation expressed as follows:

Vi,G1 Xbest,G F (Xr1,G 2Xr2,G Xr3,G )

(5)

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where i 1,2, ,SN and r1,r2 ,r3 {1,2, , SN} are randomly generated and satisfy i r1 r2 r3 . Xbest,G is the best solution in the parent generation. F [0,2]is the differential factor. To further increase the diversity of the population, the crossover operator is applied on the variation of the individual ViG, 1 and the corresponding parent individual XiG, to get a trial

vector Ui,G1 (Ui1,G1,Ui2,G1,

U

ij G

,

1

 V

 



ij G

,

  • X ij G

,

1

if (

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,UiD,G1 ) .

rand

(

j

)

CR

or

otherwise

j

rnbr i

( ))

(6)

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where j 1,2, ,D .CR[0,1] is the crossover rate.rand( j) is the evaluation of a uniform random number in[0,1].rnbr()i is a random chosen index in[1,2, , D] . The crossover strategy can guarantee that UiG, 1 gets at least one parameter from ViG, 1 . These two strategies provide more diverse variables for ABC to improve the ability of escaping from local optimal solution. For the onlooker bees in ABC-DE, they evaluate the nectar information provided by the employed bees and select a good food sources by (3). Noted that only one variable in a vector is updated for the onlooker bees. This strategy performs well in exploitation of the food sources in the neighborhood and also overcomes the shortcoming of the slow convergence rate near the optimal solution. Nevertheless, in the standard ABC, the new vector is generated from two different individuals and only one individual is selected in roulette way. This will greatly waste other individuals of better qualities and the diversity of the population is greatly reduced. To deal with this problem, in ABC-DE, each new vector is generated by three different individuals all selected in roulette way. The new solution Vi modified from the old one Xaim can be generated as:

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Vi, j Xaim, j ij (Xr1, j Xr2, j)

(7)

where Xaim is the employed bee to be followed and Xr1, Xr2 are the differential individuals. aim,r1,r2 {1,2, , SN} are chosen in roulette way and must satisfy aim r1 r2 . j {1,2, , D}is the random index. ij is a random number between[1,1] . For clarity, Fig. 1 presents the flowchart of the ABC-DE algorithm.

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C. Numerical experiments

and results

Eight classic benchmark functions [24] are presented here to

Set the parameters Initialize the population Employed bees phase Generate the mutant vector ViG, 1 Vi,G1
Set the parameters
Initialize the population
Employed bees phase
Generate the mutant vector ViG, 1
Vi,G1  Xbest,G  F (Xr1,G  2Xr2,G  Xr3,G )
Crossover ViG, 1 with XiG, 1 to get a trial vector UiG, 1

V
if (
rand j
(
)
CR
or
j
rnbr i
( ))
U
 
ij G 
,
1
ij G 
,
1
 X
otherwise
ij G
,
Apply greedy selection between Ui and Xi
Onlooker bees phase
Calculate the fitness fiti
and the selection probability pi
Choose a satisfied individual to follow
and generate the new vector Vi
Vi, j  Xaim, j ij (Xr1, j  Xr2, j)
Apply greedy selection between Vi and Xi
Termination criteria
No
Yes

End

Fig. 1 Flowchart of the ABC-DE algorithm.

test the capability of ABC-DE compared with the particle migration based PSO (MPSO) [25], opposition-based DE (ODE) [26] and modified ABC (MABC) [22]. All these algorithms are coded by Matlab 2012a and run on an i5 3.3 GHz CPU with 4 GB memory capacity. The code of ABC- DE can be provided if needed. All those algorithms are applied to minimize 5 benchmark functions with dimensions Dim 30,200 and 3 functions with dimensions Dim 2 or 4 . The population size is set to Pop 150,450 . The maximum generation number G is 5000 for each function. The experiment results are obtained by independently running 30 times. In MPSO, the inertia weight w decreases from 0.9 to 0.4. The cognitive component c1 starts from 2.5 to 0.5 and the social component c2 increases from 0.5 to 2.5 respectively. The number of sub-swarms is 5. The migratory rate of the sub- swarm is 0.4. The migratory interval is set to 5. In ODE, the differential factor is set to F 0.5 and the crossover rate

is CR 0.9

. The jumping rate constant is Jr 0.3 . For

MABC, the selective probability is F 0.7 . All these control parameters are the same as [22], [25] and [26]. In ABC-DE, F =0.5 andCR =0.9. The numerical results are shown in Table I. Fig. 2 reveals the convergence behavior of the four algorithms for the test functions. From the simulation results, it can be concluded that:

1) ABC-DE has the best optimized values among all these

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Table I Results for all algorithms on benchmark problems

4

 

MPSO

ODE

MABC

ABC-DE

Function

Pop

Dim

Mean

Std.

Mean

Std.

Mean

Std.

Mean

Std.

 

150

30

1.01E-10

3.15E-10

6.19E-47

5.72E-47

1.39E-80

1.27E-80

1.53E-104

2.45E-104

Sphere

200

1.60E+01

8.06E+00

4.32E-06

1.06E-05

2.23E-05

3.74E-06

5.85E-10

5.34E-10

 

450

  • 30 1.74E-10

5.72E-10

2.25E-36

1.52E-36

9.63E-82

8.54E-82

1.20E-84

1.75E-84

150

  • 30 7.05E+01

4.23E+01

1.97E+01

1.55E+00

1.25E+00

2.41E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

Rosenbrock

200

1.61E+03

3.60E+02

4.08E+02

1.28E+02

5.04E+02

6.84E+01

4.49E+02

7.54E+01

 

450

  • 30 6.76E+01

5.55E+01

4.23E-19

1.28E-18

7.02E-01

2.05E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

150

  • 30 1.55E+01

4.43E+00

3.42E+01

1.82E+01

4.55E-14

2.31E-14

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

Rastrigrin

200

2.19E+02

2.72E+01

6.01E+02

5.33E+02

1.50E-03

4.11E-04

1.59E-11

2.47E-11

 

450

  • 30 1.63E+01

5.54E+00

5.59E+01

1.46E+01

1.89E-14

2.73E-14

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

150

  • 30 3.65E-02

3.23E-02

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

Griewank

200

1.11E+00

6.27E-02

6.86E-02

9.78E-02

1.48E-05

3.53E-06

1.07E-02

2.22E-02

 

450

  • 30 4.86E-02

5.16E-02

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

150

  • 30 7.28E-04

8.31E-04

3.03E-23

3.61E-23

1.34E-42

8.88E-43

5.12E-53

4.33E-53

Schwefel2.22

200

2.45E+01

4.31E+00

8.86E-04

1.60E-03

2.80E-03

1.82E-04

3.79E-05

9.40E-05

 

450

30

2.50E-03

6.90E-03

2.91E-19

4.22E-19

6.44E-45

2.37E-45

3.55E-47

3.53E-47

Schaffer

150

2

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

9.25E-18

2.95E-17

8.18E-07

8.75E-07

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

450

2

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

1.85e-18

1.01e-17

1.66E-07

2.33E-07

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

Booth

150

2

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

450

2

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

Colville

150

4

8.30E-08

1.38E-07

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

1.09E-01

1.48E-01

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

450

4

5.59E-08

8.21E-08

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

4.52E-02

5.68E-02

0.00E+00

0.00E+00

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  • 1. Sphere (Pop=150, Dim=30)

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2.

Rastrigrin (Pop=150, Dim=200)

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4.

Booth (Pop=450, Dim=2)

  • 3. Griewank (Pop=150, Dim=30) Fig. 2 Convergence behavior of the different algorithms for the test functions.

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algorithms in the most cases. Either for high and low dimen- sional problems or small and large population problems, ABC- DE can achieve better results with higher stability. 2) The ABC-DE shows the strongest local search ability and the fastest convergence rate among all those four algorithms. It reveals that the ABC-DE indeed inherits the advantages of DE and ABC and overcomes their shortcomings. 3) The complexity of ABC-DE is approximately the same as ABC. Relative to the original update strategy of employed bees, an additional crossover strategy is introduced. However, this strategy is very simple and only requires the vector addition. Although the new vector of onlooker bee is generated from three different individuals selected in roulette way, this process basically has the same complexity as the original update strategy of onlooker bees. Therefore, these two additional operations do not significantly increase the complexity of the algorithm.

III.

PATTERN SYNTHESIS WITH TIME MODULATION TECHNIQUE

Consider a general time-modulated array of N ideal antennas in the space. The far field array factor is given by [27],

E

 

(

,

,

t

)

e

j

  • 2

f 0

t

N

A e

n

j (

k rn   ) n
k
rn 
)
n

n 1

(8)

where rn is the position vector of the nth element with a normalized current amplitude An and a phase n . k is the

propagation vector. f0 is the carrier frequency. Each element of the TMAs is controlled by a high speed RF switch which works periodically. The modulation period is

Tp

f

n

. The duration of the nth switch is

n n n

f

r

, where

r

n ,

[0,

TP

]

are the switch-on and switch-off time instants

respectively.

If 0

T

p

n

n r

(

)

, such switch can be represented by a unit

step functionUn ()t depicted as follows:

U

n

1,

( )  

t

0,

0

 T

n

t

n

p

r

f

otherwise

(9)

The far field array factor of the TMAs can be rewritten as:

E

 

(

,

,

t

)

e

j

2

f

0

t

N

A U

n

n

n 1

( )

t e

j (

k rn   ) n
k
rn 
)
n

(10)

Since Un ()t

is a continuous periodic function, its Fourier

series exists and can be decomposed into:

 

 

A U

n

n

( )

t

a

n

m 

  • m jm

e

  • 2

f

p

t

(11)

m

where

an

is the complex amplitude, which is given by:

a

m

n

1

T

T

0

p

A U

n

n

( )

t

e

j

2

mf

p

t

dt

 

p

A

sin(

m



n

f

p

)

   

r

(12)

n

n

jm

f

p

 

2

n

)

At the center

T

p



m

n

f

p

frequency ( m 0 ),

e

  • 0 can be simplified as

an

a A

0

n
n

T

n

. On the other

n

p

hand, if (

TP n

)

r

n

TP , analogously, the

Fourier coefficient of the switch can be obtained in the same way, which is given by:

a

m

n

A

n

m

{sin[

m

f

p

(

T

P

r

n

)]

e

jm

f

p

(

T

P

n r

)

sin[

m

f

p

r

(

n

n

T

P

)]

e

jm

f

p

(

n r

n

T

P

)

}

(13)

Substituting (11) and (12) into (10), the radiation pattern at each harmonic frequency f0 mf p (m 0,1, ,) can be obtained as follow:

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E

 

(

,

,

t

)

N    j 2  f t   m jm  2 
N
j
2
f
t
 
m
jm
2
f
t
e
0
a
e
p
n
n
1
m

N
 
m
j (
k
r
)
j
2
(
f
a
e
n
n
e
0
n
m

n
 1
j ( k r   ) e n n  mf ) t p 
j (
k
r
)
e
n
n
mf
)
t
p

(14)

Since time-modulated array radiates energy at each harmonic frequency, the impact of SBL on the characteristics of array radiation should be taken into account. Considering that

  • m follows the characteristic of the sin(x) / x function, the

an

maximum SBL at the first or the second sideband frequency should be considered. A key point of the optimization problem is the cost function.

The cost function for the TMAs optimization problem can be expressed as:

f

 

1

4

BW

o

BW

d

2

max |

SLL

i

(

U SBL

max

SBL

d

)

f 0

f

p

5

SLL

d

|

3

(

RPL

o

RPL

d

(

U NULL

max

NULL

d

)

)

(15)

where Bwo is the main beam width between the first

nulls

obtained by the optimization and Bwd is the desired main beam width. SLLd is the desired maximum sidelobe level. SLLi is the ith sidelobe levels obtained by the optimization. The second component of the cost function attempts to make each sidelobe level close to SLLd . RPLo and RPLd are, respectively, the ripple levels of the main lobe obtained by the optimization and the desired pattern. SBLmax is the maximum sideband level at the first or the second sideband frequency obtained by the optimization. SBLd is the desired maximum sideband level. U(x) is the unit step function similar to (9). NULLmax and NULLd are the max null depth of the required area obtained by the optimization and the desired nulls depth, respectively. The last two components of the cost function attempt to make the

sideband level and nulls depth as low as possible. 1 ~ 5 are the corresponding weighting factors of each term.

IV.

SIMULATION RESULTS

A. Equal-ripple SLL and Nulling pattern synthesis

The advantage of the uniform circular antenna arrays is that,

when the beam scanning on the plane of the array, beam width,

sidelobe level, gain and impedance characteristics of the arrays

do not change significantly because of its symmetrical structure. Due to these advantages, circular array is widely used in

direction finding, wireless communications, scanning, sonar,

radar, and other areas [27].

Consider a uniform circular array as shown in Fig. 3. The

scanning range is from 180to 180on the x-y plane

(90) . The excitation phases and the normalized pulse

durations are respectively 0 n 360and 0.1n 1 . All the elements are excited by the uniform amplitudes and the

switches conduct simultaneously (i.e.

r

n

0

). Choose

the

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population size Pop 40 and the maximum number of genera- tion G 500 . The results of all the experiments are inde- pendently run 50 times. Parameters of all the algorithms are selected the same as those in the test function experiments.

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Fig. 3. Geometry of an N elements uniform circular array.

1) Equal-ripple SLL pattern synthesis

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(b)

Fig 4. (a) Equal-ripple SLL pattern for the circular array, (b) Convergence curves of different algorithms.

Table II Excitation phases and normalized pulse durations

NO.

1

2

3

4

5

The number of the antenna elements is set to N=8 , for a uniform separation of d 4 . It is desired that SLL should be lower than -25 dB at the center frequency and the first band SBL should be deeper than -20 dB. BW should be lower than135. Fig. 4(a) illustrates the normalized absolute power pattern optimized by the different optimization algorithms at the center frequency f0 and the pattern at the first sideband frequencies f0 f p optimized by ABC-DE. Fig. 4(b) presents the conver- gence rate of the different optimization algorithms. The excita- tion phases and the normalized pulse durations of the elements optimized by ABC-DE are shown in Table II. The results of equal-ripple SLL pattern synthesis are shown in Table III. From Table III, it can be found that the SLL of MPSO, ODE and MABC can hardly achieve -25 dB, and the SBL of these algorithms can also hardly reach -20 dB. Only ABC-DE can basically satisfy the design requirements with the fastest convergence rate. The SLL and SBL optimized by ABC-DE are respectively 6.01 dB and 2.94 dB lower than that of the same array in [28]. These results could apparently validate the excel- lent performance of ABC-DE.

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mn

mn

217.60

0.17

132.84

0.69

168.97

1.00

246.60

1.00

114.59

0.54

Table III Results of equal-ripple SLL pattern synthesis

Method

SLL(dB)

SBL(dB)

BW(deg)

MPSO

ODE

MABC

ABC-DE

-20.72

-22.82

-21.24

-25.01

-18.40

-19.58

-17.75

-21.64

128

132

130

138

2) Nulling pattern synthesis

In order to eliminate the impact of interference, it is necessary for the pattern to form a null with a certain depth in the desired direction of the interference under the precondition of a certain SLL and BW. To illustrate the broad-band interference suppres- sion capability of the ABC-DE, the pattern with a broad null located from95to120is designed. The number of the antenna elements is set to N 12 , for a uniform separation of d 4 . Both SLL and SBL should be lower than -20 dB. The max null depth of the required area should be deeper than -55 dB and BW should be lower than100. Fig. 5(a) shows the normalized absolute power pattern. Fig. 5(b) presents the convergence rate of the different optimization algorithms. Table IV illustrates the excitation phases and pulse durations obtained by ABC-DE. Table V presents the results of nulling pattern synthesis. From Table V, it can be discovered that SLL obtained by the different algorithms is barely different with each other, while the null in the desired area varies greatly. Only the ABC-DE can meet the requirements with the fastest convergence rate.

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Table IV Excitation phases and normalized pulse durations

NO.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

mn

186.39

79.96

173.20

280.91

9.91

79.11

359.71

  • (a) mn

0.67

0.95

0.96

0.18

0.91

0.97

0.59

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Table V Results of nulling pattern synthesis

Method SLL(dB) SBL(dB) Null level(dB) BW(deg) MPSO -18.12 -18.15 -45.91 100 ODE -20.59 -18.20 -51.82 103
Method
SLL(dB)
SBL(dB)
Null level(dB)
BW(deg)
MPSO
-18.12
-18.15
-45.91
100
ODE
-20.59
-18.20
-51.82
103
MABC
-20.00
-20.55
-47.54
102
ABC-DE
-20.19
-20.70
-55.05
100
(a) (b) Fig 5. (a) Nulling pattern for the circular array, (b) Convergence curves of different
(a)
(b)
Fig 5.
(a) Nulling pattern for the circular array, (b) Convergence curves of
different algorithms.

B. Cylindrical arrays

Conformal antenna arrays can be easily installed on an aircraft carrier without destroying the mechanical structure and does not affect the aerodynamic performance. Therefore, it has attracted considerable attention in many applications. In this paper, a cylindrical array is considered with the geometry of the array shown in Fig. 6, which is composed by 3 layers fan-shaped array with a separation of h 2 . In each layer, there are 8 elements equally lying along the circular arc. The separation of each element is d 2 . The flare angleis 90. The array is symmetrical at x-z plane. The radiation pattern of each element follows a cosine distribution [27]:

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  sin

 

g (

,

)  

 0

cos

 

  • 90

  • 90 (16)

The targets of the optimization at the azimuth plane (=90) are that SLL should be less than -40 dB at the center frequency, SBL should be deeper than -20 dB, and BW should be less

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Fig 6. Geometry of an nm elements cylindrical array.

than 70. The array is excited by the uniform amplitude. The optimized variables and the parameters of all the algorithms are the same as those in the previous experiments. The results of the cylindrical arrays are shown in Fig. 7 and Table VI. From the results, similar conclusions can be carried out as the uniform circular antenna arrays that only ABC-DE can suppress SLL to -40 dB with the fastest convergence speed. These two examples reveal the fact that ABC-DE has universal

applications with super and robust performance.

Table VI Results of equal-ripple SLL pattern synthesis

Method SLL(dB) SBL(dB) BW(deg) MPSO -36.93 -16.14 68 ODE -37.78 -20.73 70 MABC -37.30 -18.82 70
Method
SLL(dB)
SBL(dB)
BW(deg)
MPSO
-36.93
-16.14
68
ODE
-37.78
-20.73
70
MABC
-37.30
-18.82
70
ABC-DE
-40.10
-20.92
70
(a) (b)
(a)
(b)

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(c)

Fig 7. (a) Low SLL pattern for the cylindrical array, (b) Excitation phases and normalized switch-on time intervals for the cylindrical array, (c) Convergence

curves of different algorithms.

C. Multiple-beams patterns synthesis

Multiple beams antennas recently play an important role in electronic countermeasures, radar surveillance and tracking, satellite communications, desired area coverage and so on. The efficient approaches for the multiple patterns synthesis simultaneous and simple array architectures have been widely investigated. TMAs possess simple structure and radiate energy in other harmonic frequencies. These features enable multiple- beams patterns could be obtained by combining harmonic patterns with the center frequency pattern simultaneously using the same array structure. The multiple beams experiment discussed in this paper is to synthesize a difference pattern at the central frequency and a sum pattern at the first sideband with a linear array. The number of the linear array is set to N 16with a uniform separation of

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d 2 . The array is excited by the uniform amplitude. In order to generate a difference beam, the excitations of the array is odd symmetric by addingto the phase values of half array [8]. Both the normalized pulse durations and the switch-on time

instants are

in SLL [0.1,1] .

1

It

is desired

that

0

SLL

at the central

frequency and

at the first sideband are both lower than

-19dB. The

1

SBL

should be higher than -0.5dB. And

BW SBL

0

at

and

2

the second sideband should be lower than -15dB.

BW

  • 1 should be lower than 20. Parameters of ABC-DE are

selected the same as those in the previous synthesis experi- ments. Table VII provides the results of the difference-sum patterns synthesis optimized by ABC-DE. Fig. 8 shows the patterns and the configuration of the switch-on times.

It can be found that all the design requirements can be

satisfied.

0

SLL

and

1

SLL

are respectively 3.10 dB and 2.32 dB

lower than those of the same array in [8]. And

1

SBL

is 0.27 dB

higher. The radiation efficiencies at the central frequency and

the first sideband are 40.47% and 25.36% respectively.

Table VII Results of difference-sum patterns synthesis

SLL 0 (dB)

SLL 1 (dB)

SBL 1 (dB)

SBL 2 (dB)

BW 0 (deg)

BW 1 (deg)

20.00

-19.22

-0.43

-15.27

19.61

20.05

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(a) (b)
(a)
(b)

Fig 8. (a) Difference-sum patterns for the linear array, (b) The configuration of the switch-on time.

D. Satellite footprint pattern synthesis

For an energy-constrained satellite system, the antenna arrays radiating footprint patterns could not only improve the radiation efficiency but also reduce interference to other nearby regions. A parabolic dish antenna with a horn cluster feed or a shaped reflector antenna suffers from fairly high ripple level (RPL)

in the shaped region and provides poor control over the

SLL outside the prescribed footprint area. Planar phased-arrays

have attracted considerable attention for satellite antenna

applications due to their capabilities in controlling these pa- rameters of the pattern [29]. The planar phased-arrays can realize good footprint pattern with low RPL and SLL but they will result in high DRR of amplitude and therefore bring great difficulty in the design of the arrays feed network. On the other hand, the limitation of DRR will cause the actual effect of array synthesis, such as RPL, SLL and the shape of the synthesized pattern. Therefore, it is

really a tough task to achieve low DRR of amplitude and low

RPL simultaneously. In this section, a satellite footprint pattern synthesis experiment with very low DRR of amplitude is taken as an example to testify the proposed algorithm in dealing with such problem. Our strategy of solving this problem is to transfer part of the DRR in amplitude domain of TMAs into time domain to ease the difficulties in the design of feed network for practical application.

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In order to reduce SLL, the two-dimensional Woodward- Lawson based on Taylor distribution method [30] is employed to synthesize the initial array excitation. The element excitation Imn can be given by

I

mn

P

Q

 

p



P q



Q

a

pq

i

m

i

n

e

j

[(

m

1)

d

x

u

p

(

n

1)

d

y

v

q

]

(17)

where, apq is the sample pattern. im and in are referred to the excitations of a linear array with the Taylor distribution. 2P and 2Q equal to the total number of sample points in

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each direction. up pMdx and vq qNdy are the sample positions. M and N are the elements number respectively. Imn can be regarded as the excitations at the center frequency

f0 ,

where

I

mn

A

mn

mn

Generally, the DRR of

and the phase angle arg Imn mn .

  • I obtained by the conventional

mn

method is too huge to meet the practical requirements. So, if

  • I is lower than its variation range, the element would be eliminated from the arrays. In this paper, a perturbation method which can generate the perturbations mn and mn for the ampli-

mn

tude and the phase of Imn is applied to optimize RPL and SLL. After the perturbation, the switch duration mn and the switch-on time instants mn are optimized to meet the desired SBL. Note that the switch duration mn should be limited within its range

r

and the DRR of amplitude simultaneously.

A

mn

  • I

mn

mn

/

should be satisfied

A planar array of 3030 uniformly spaced isotropic elements is considered. dx and dy both equal to 0.5. The current excita- tions amplitude Amn are in [0.2,1] and the normalized pulse

durations mn are in[0.1,1] . Then

  • I can range from 0.02 to 1.

mn

r

The normalized switch-on time instants mn are in [0,1] . At

the perturbation stage, the population is Pop1 200 and the maximum generation number is G1 300 . When optimizing

mn

r

and mn , choose the population Pop2 600 and the maxi-

mum generation number G2 500 . All the variables are optimized by ABC-DE. To accelerate the optimization pro- cedure, the patterns of the planar arrays are calculated by two-dimensional fast Fourier transform. The targets of the optimization are that SLL and RPL should be less than -22 dB and 1.0 dB at the center frequency and SBL should be deeper than -16 dB. The desired satellite footprint pattern should cover the red part of Fig. 9.

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Fig 9. The region to be covered.

Fig. 10 shows the optimized patterns at the center frequency

f0 and the first sideband frequency f0 f p . The RPL is 0.92dB under the condition of suppressing the SLL lower than -22.34dB. The SBL can be restrained to -16.51dB. From the pattern at f0 , it can be found that the desired satellite footprint pattern is totally covered. The geometric structure of the planar array is

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(a) (b)
(a)
(b)

Fig 10. (a) The satellite footprint pattern at the center frequency, (b) The first sideband pattern.

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Fig 11. Optimized array geometric structure for the satellite footprint pattern.

shown in Fig. 11, where the black dots represent the radiating ones and the white dots denote the elements eliminated from the arrays. After the optimization of ABC-DE, only 300 radiating elements are left to generate the satellite footprint pattern and they can totally satisfy all the requirements. The excitations of

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the array can be provided if needed. The DRR of amplitude

(Amax

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Amin ) is greatly reduced to 5, which will significantly

relieve the feed network design stress.

V. CONCLUSION

In this paper, by introducing mutation and crossover strategies of DE into ABC, a novel hybrid algorithm named ABC-DE is proposed, which could overcome the drawback of easily falling into the local optimal solution and possess a higher convergence rate at the same time. ABC-DE has been testified by both classical mathematical test functions and different types of TMAs pattern synthesis problems. The simulation results have validated the promising ability of ABC-DE compared with other improved evolutionary optimization algorithms, which reveals that ABC-DE can be an effective method to solve TMAs synthesis problems. Since better characteristics can be achieved, ABC-DE is expected to be applied in a wide class of other electromagnetic fields.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank the editors and the anony- mous reviewers for their constructive suggestions.

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Jing Yang was born in Shaanxi Province, China, in 1987. He received the B.Eng. degree in communica- tion engineering from Northwestern Polytechnical University (NPU), Xi’an, in 2010. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in electromagnetics and microwave technology at the National Laboratory of Science and Technology on Antennas and Micro- waves, Xidian University, Xi’an, China. His research interests include array synthesis, evolution optimization techniques and antennas.

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Wen-Tao Li was born in Shaanxi Province, China. She received the B.S. degree in electromagnetic field and microwave technology from Xidian University,

Xi’an, China, in 2006 and the Ph.D. degree in 2010.

She is currently an associate professor in the School of Electronic Engineering, Xidian University. Her research interests include evolutionary opti- mization techniques, antenna arrays and ultrawide- band antennas.

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11

Xin Li was born in Shaanxi Province, China. He received his B.Eng. degree in electrical engineering and Ph.D degree in electromagnetic fields and microwave technology from National Laboratory of Science and Technology on Antennas and Micro- waves in Xidian University, Xi’an, China, in 2008 and 2013, respectively. His recent research interests are mainly in multi-band antennas, conformal arrays and evolution algorithms.

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Xiao-Wei Shi was born in Guangdong Province, China, in 1963. He received his B.S. degree in radio physics in 1982, M. Eng. degree in electrical engi- neering in 1990, and Ph.D. degree in electromagnetic field and microwave technology in 1995 from Xidian University, Xian, China. During 1996-1997, he was a cooperator of Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute of Korea for his postdoctoral research work. He has been a Professor and Ph.D. student advisor in Xidian University. His research interests include the theory of microwave network, microwave measurement, electromagnetic inverse scattering, the theory of electromagnetic variation, electromagnetic compatibility and smart antenna. In recent years, he mainly researches the smart antenna.

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Jian-Feng Yu was born in Anhui Province, China. He received the B.S. degree from Xidian University, Xi’an, China, in 2010. He is currently working towards the Ph.D. degree in electromagnetics and microwave technology at the National Laboratory of Science and Technology on Antennas and Micro- waves, Xidian University. His recent research interests are reflectarray, array synthesis and antennas.

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