You are on page 1of 33

Classroom Applications of Constructivism

Learning theory of constructivism incorporates a learning process wherein the student gains their own conclusions through the creative aid of the teacher as a facilitator. The best way to plan teacher worksheets, lesson plans, and study skills for the students, is to create a curriculum which allows each student to solve problems while the teacher monitors and flexibly guides the students to the correct answer, while encouraging critical thinking. Instead of having the students relying on someone else's information and accepting it as truth, the students should be exposed to data, primary sources, and the ability to interact with other students so that they can learn from the incorporation of their experiences. The classroom experience should be an invitation for a myriad of different backgrounds and the learning experience which allows the different backgrounds to come together and observe and analyze information and ideas. Hands-on activities are the best for the classroom applications of constructivism, critical thinking and learning. Having observations take place with a daily journal helps the students to better understand how their own experiences contribute to the formation of their theories and observational notes, and then comparing them to another students' reiterates that different backgrounds and cultures create different outlooks, while neither is wrong, both should be respected. Some strategies for classroom applications of constructivism for the teacher include having students working together and aiding to answer one another's questions. Another strategy includes designating one student as the "expert" on a subject and having them teach the class. Finally, allowing students to work in groups or pairs and research controversial topics which they must then present to the class. Overall, the setting should include classroom applications of constructivism within a few key concepts. The first is discovering and maintaining an individual's intellectual identity. This forces students to support their own theories, in essence taking responsibility for their words and respecting those of others. The next component is having the teacher ask open-ended questions and leaving time to allow the students to think and analyze a response, based on their experiences and personal inquiry. Open-ended questions and critical thinking encourage students to seek more than just a simple response or basic facts and incorporate the justification and defense of their organized thoughts.

The next step is allowing constant conversation between the students and teacher. This engagement creates a discourse of comfort wherein all ideas can be considered and understood and the students then feel safe about challenging other hypotheses, defending their own, and supporting real-world situations with abstract supporting data. These exercises and classroom applications of constructivism will allow children to, at an early age or a late age, develop the skills and confidence to analyze the world around them, create solutions or support for developing issues, and then justify their words and actions, while encouraging those around them to do the same and respecting the differences in opinions for the contributions that they can make to the whole of the situation. Classroom applications of constructivism support the philosophy of learning which build a students' and teachers' understanding.

How we teach and how students learn A mismatch? by Lillian C. McDermott University of Washington During the past fifteen years, a steadily increasing number of physicists have been contributing to the growth of a new field for scholarly inquiry: the learning and teaching of physics. We have by now a rich source of documented information in the many published reports of this research. At this point, it seems reasonable to ask whether we have learned anything from this collective experience that would be useful in current efforts to bring about innovative reform in the introductory course. Results from research indicate that at all levels of instruction the difference between what is taught and what is learned is often greater than most instructors realize. This discrepancy suggests the following question: Is there a corresponding mismatch between how we teach and how students learn? I. TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO INSTRUCTION Instruction in introductory physics has traditionally been based on the instructor s view of the subject and the instructors perception of the student. Most teachers of physics are eager to transmit both their knowledge and enthusiasm. They hope that their students will acquire not only specific information and skills but also come to appreciate the beauty and power that the physicist finds in physics. Having obtained a particular insight after hours, days, months, or years of intellectual effort, they want to share this knowledge. To save students from going through the same struggles, instructors often teach from the top down, from the general to the particular. Generalizations are often fully formulated when they are introduced.

Students are not actively engaged in the process of abstraction and generalization. Very little inductive thinking is involved; the reasoning is almost entirely deductive. By presenting general principles and showing how to apply them in a few special cases, instructors hope to teach students how to do the same in new situations. In recalling how they were inspired by their own experience with introductory physics, many instructors tend to think of students as younger versions of themselves. In actual fact, such a description fits only a very small minority. Typically, in the U. S., no more than one in every 30 university students taking introductory physics will major in the subject. The trouble with the traditional approach is that it ignores the possibility that the perception of students may be very different from that of the instructor. Perhaps most students are not ready or able to learn physics in the way that the subject is usually taught. II. SOME GENERALIZATIONS ABOUT LEARNING AND TEACHING The generalizations that appear below are based on results from research on the learning and teaching of physics. The evidence presented in support of the generalizations is taken from the cited articles on research by the Physics Education Group at the University of Washington. However, the same arguments could be based on findings by other investigators. Similar conclusions have also been reached by experienced instructors who have probed student understanding in less formal ways in the classroom. A. Facility in solving standard quantitative problems is not an adequate criterion for functional understanding. Questions that require qualitative reasoning and verbal explanation are essential. The criterion most often used in physics instruction as a measure of mastery of the subject is performance on standard quantitative problems. As course grades attest, many students who complete a typical introductory course can solve such problems satisfactorily. However, they are often dependent on memorized formulas and do not develop a functional understanding of physics, i.e., the ability to do the reasoning needed to apply appropriate concepts and physical principles in situations not previously encountered. We illustrate this first generalization with examples from dynamics and electricity. 1. Example from dynamics: impulse-momentum and work-energy theorems In an investigation conducted several years ago, we examined whether students could apply the impulse-momentum and work-energy theorems to a simple motion that they could observe.1, The motion was generated by applying a constant force to

two objects of different mass over the same distance. Students were asked to compare the final momenta and kinetic energies of the objects. No calculations were needed to predict that the heavier object would have a greater momentum and that both would have the same kinetic energy. It was only necessary to understand the relationship between impulse and momentum and the relationship between work and kinetic energy. For a response to be considered correct, both the right comparison and the proper reasoning were required. Data were gathered in individual demonstration interviews. The 28 students who participated came from two classes: an honors section of calculus-based physics and a regular section of algebra-based physics. Responses ranged from random formula searches to conscious attempts to apply the theorems. Only a few honors students were able to give satisfactory answers initially. With step-by-step guidance, most of these students eventually succeeded. Even with help, however, virtually no one in the algebra-based course was able to apply the concepts of impulse and work to make a correct comparison. There was a similar lack of success when written versions of the tasks were presented in a regular section of calculus-based physics. Among the many errors was the failure of most students to recognize the cause-and-effect relationships inherent in the theorems. Some seemed to treat the symbol "=" as if it represented only a mathematical relationship in which the variables may take on any values, provided the equality is maintained. 2. Example from electricity: electric circuits We have been investigating student understanding of electric circuits over a period of several years. One task that has proved particularly effective for eliciting common difficulties is based on three simple circuits consisting of identical bulbs and ideal batteries. One circuit has a single bulb; another has two bulbs in series; the third has two bulbs in parallel. Students are asked to rank the five bulbs according to relative brightness and to explain their reasoning. This comparison requires no calculations. A simple qualitative model, in which bulb brightness is related to current or potential difference, is sufficient. We have administered this task to more than 500 university students. Almost every possible bulb order has appeared. Whether before or after instruction, only about 15% of the students in a typical calculus-based course give the correct ranking. We have obtained the same results from high school physics teachers and from university faculty who teach other sciences and mathematics. Many people who are unable to rank the bulbs properly can use Ohms law and Kirchhoffs rules to solve more complicated problems. Evidently, success on standard problems is not a reliable indicator of functional understanding. B. A coherent conceptual framework is not typically an outcome of traditional instruction. Students need to participate in the process of constructing qualitative

models that can help them understand relationships and differences among concepts. Perhaps the most serious difficulty that we have identified is failure to integrate related concepts into a coherent framework. Rote use of formulas is common. To solve standard problems, mathematical manipulation may suffice. To be able to apply a concept in a variety of contexts, however, students must not only be able to define that concept but also relate it to others. They also need to differentiate that concept from related concepts. The question on ranking the bulbs was first administered several years ago on a course examination in a standard calculus-based course. Lacking a conceptual model on which to base predictions, most students relied on intuition or formulas. About 40% used algebra to find the equivalent resistances of the series and parallel circuits, substituted the values into the formula for the power dissipated in a resistor, and associated the results with the brightness of individual bulbs in the series and parallel networks. Such errors revealed a failure to differentiate between two related concepts: the resistance of an element and the equivalent resistance of a network containing that element. A general instructional strategy that we have found useful for helping students relate electrical concepts and distinguish one from another is to engage them actively in the intellectual process of constructing a qualitative model for an electric circuit. Development of the model is based on observations of the behavior of batteries and bulbs, preferably through experiments that the students themselves perform. Experience has shown that emphasis on concept development and model-building does not detract from performance on quantitative problems. Many students need explicit instruction on problem-solving procedures to develop the requisite skills. However, once equations are introduced, students often avoid thinking of the physics involved. Postponing use of algebraic formalism until after a qualitative understanding has been developed has proved to be an effective approach. Although less time is spent on numerical problem-solving, examination results indicate that students who have learned in this way often do better than others on quantitative problems and much better on qualitative questions. C. Certain conceptual difficulties are not overcome by traditional instruction. Persistent conceptual difficulties must be explicitly addressed by multiple challenges in different contexts. Some student difficulties disappear during the normal course of instruction. Others seem to be highly resistant to change. If sufficiently serious, they may preclude meaningful learning, even though performance on quantitative problems may be unaffected. An example of a common difficulty that research has shown to be

especially persistent is the apparently intuitive belief that current is "used up" in a circuit. Deep-seated difficulties cannot be overcome through assertion by the instructor. Active learning is essential for a significant conceptual change to occur. An instructional strategy that we have found effective for obtaining the necessary intellectual commitment from students is to generate a conceptual conflict and to require them to resolve it. A useful first step is to elicit a suspected difficulty by contriving a situation in which students are likely to make a related error. Once the difficulty has been exposed and recognized, the instructor must insist that students confront and resolve the issue. Unlike physicists, students may be willing to tolerate inconsistency. A single encounter is rarely sufficient to overcome a serious difficulty. Students do not make the same mistakes under all circumstances; the context may be critical. Unless challenged with a variety of situations capable of evoking a given difficulty, students may simply memorize the answer for a particular case. To be able to integrate counter-intuitive ideas into a coherent framework, they need time to apply the same concepts and reasoning in different contexts, to reflect upon these experiences and to generalize from them. D. Growth in reasoning ability does not usually result from traditional instruction. Scientific reasoning skills must be expressly cultivated. An important factor in the difficulties that students have with certain concepts is an inability to do the qualitative reasoning that may be necessary for applying the concept. It is often impossible to separate difficulties with concepts from difficulties with reasoning. An error may be a symptom of an underlying conceptual or reasoning difficulty, or a combination of both. A failure to think holistically in dealing with compound systems is one kind of reasoning difficulty that may be hard to disentangle from conceptual confusion. For example, in predicting bulb brightness, students often considered only the order of a bulb in an array. Many claimed that the first bulb in a series network was the brightest. This error is consistent with the misconception that current is "used up" and also with improper use of local sequential reasoning. For interacting systems, such as elements in an electric circuit, it is impossible to predict the behavior of one without taking into account the effect of the others. However, instead of considering the circuit as a whole, many students focused on only one bulb at a time. The conservation of current was an abstraction for which they might be able to write an equation but which they could not apply to a qualitative problem. Predicting the effect of a change in a circuit requires a more sophisticated level of holistic reasoning. In one task, students were shown a circuit diagram in which a

network containing two branches in parallel was connected in series with other bulbs. The students were asked to predict what would happen to the brightness of a bulb in one branch of the parallel network when the other branch was removed. A common response was that the brightness would not change. Often the explanation given was that the bulb was part of a parallel combination. In treating the parallel branches as independent, the students were not recognizing the difference between parallel branches connected across a battery and parallel branches connected elsewhere. Instead of using qualitative reasoning to check that their predictions were consistent with what they knew about current and potential difference, the students relied on a rule that they had incorrectly memorized. Traditional instruction does not challenge but tends to reinforce a perception of physics as a collection of facts and formulas. Students often do not recognize the critical role of reasoning in physics, nor do they understand what constitutes an explanation. They need practice in solving qualitative problems and in explaining their reasoning. However, they are unlikely to persevere at developing facility in scientific reasoning unless the course structure, including the examinations, emphasizes the importance of this ability. E. Connections among concepts, formal representations, and the real world are often lacking after traditional instruction. Students need repeated practice in interpreting physics formalism and relating it to the real world. Students are often unable to relate the concepts and formal representations of physics to one another and to the real world. An inability to interpret equations, diagrams and graphs underlies many conceptual and reasoning difficulties. 1. Difficulty with algebraic representations: example from dynamics Performance on the impulse-momentum and work-energy comparison tasks illustrated the difficulty students frequently have in relating algebraic formalism to physical concepts and to the real world. The demonstration creates a simple physical situation in which the relevant theorems can be applied. Nevertheless, few students have been able to connect the mathematical statement of the theorems to the motion of the pucks. 2. Difficulty with diagrammatic representations: example from optics In another investigation, students who had studied geometrical optics participated in interviews in which they were shown a demonstration that consisted of an object, a thin converging lens and an inverted real image on a screen. One of the tasks was to predict the effect of covering half of the lens. Most students claimed that half of the image would disappear. The ray diagrams that they drew sometimes reinforced this mistaken intuition. Two of the special rays were often shown as blocked. In interpreting their diagrams, the students indicated that these rays were

necessary for forming the image, rather than merely convenient for locating its position. 3. Difficulty with graphical representations: example from kinematics Student understanding of the graphical representation of motion has been a longterm research interest of our group., In one task from this ongoing study, students are shown a ball rolling along a track and given a diagram of the motion with a description similar to the following: The ball moves with steady speed on the level segment of the track, speeds up as it moves down an incline, and then continues at a higher constant speed on the last segment. The students are told that position is measured along the track and are asked to represent the motion in graphs of position, velocity and acceleration versus time. The task has been presented to several hundred students who have studied kinematics. Few students in the standard calculus-based course have produced correct graphs. We have also examined student difficulties with the reverse process: visualization of a real motion from its graphical representation. The ability to relate actual motions and their graphical representations does not automatically develop with acquisition of simple graphing skills, such as plotting points, reading coordinates and finding slopes. Students need practice in translating both ways: from motion to graphs and from graphs to motion. F. Teaching by telling is an ineffective mode of instruction for most students. Students must be intellectually active to develop a functional understanding. All the examples of student difficulties discussed above share a common feature: the subject matter involved is not difficult. Many instructors expect university students who have studied the relevant material to be able to answer the types of questions that have been illustrated. Yet, in each instance, we found that a large percentage of students could not do the basic reasoning necessary. On certain types of tasks, the outcome did not vary much from one traditionally taught class to another, nor did it matter when in the course the problems were posed. Enrollment in the associated laboratory course also did not appear to affect the quality of student performance. Moreover, there was no correlation between the success of students and the reputation of the course instructor as a lecturer. The difficulties that students have in physics are not usually due to failure of the instructor to present the material correctly and clearly. No matter how lucid the lecture, nor how accomplished the lecturer, meaningful learning will not take place unless students are intellectually active. Those who learn successfully from lectures, textbooks and problem-solving do so because they constantly question their own comprehension, confront their difficulties and persist in trying to resolve

them. Most students taking introductory physics do not bring this degree of intellectual independence to their study of the subject. Although the traditional lecture and laboratory format has disadvantages, it may be the only mode possible when the number of students is large. Such instruction, however, need not be a passive learning experience. There are several techniques that instructors of large classes can use to promote active participation by students in the learning process. III. IMPROVING THE MATCH BETWEEN TEACHING AND LEARNING The generalizations about learning and teaching presented above have been derived from investigations of student understanding in the context of classical physics. We believe, however, that they have broad applicability and should be taken into account in current efforts to introduce new topics and new technology into the introductory course. Physicists generally assume that students will find contemporary topics inspiring. It has been our experience, however, that few students are motivated by exposure to material that they do not understand. Instead, the outcome may only confirm a belief that physics is too difficult for most people. There is also great enthusiasm about the potential of the computer for enhancing student learning in physics, especially modern physics. Although there is reason for optimism, our experience suggests a need for caution. Success on a computer task does not necessarily indicate development of a skill that can be transferred to other environments. Even a highly interactive program does not insure that students will make the mental commitment necessary for significant concept development to occur. Perhaps the most significant contribution that research in physics education can make to the improvement of instruction is to underscore the importance of focusing greater attention on the student. The successful incorporation of contemporary topics or advanced technology into the introductory course is likely to depend as much on how the material is taught as on what is taught. To insure that the curriculum that is developed will be well-matched to the students for whom it is intended, there is a need for research on the learning and teaching of both classical and modern topics, with and without the computer.8 Meaningful learning, which connotes the ability to interpret and use knowledge in situations different from those in which it was initially acquired, requires that students be intellectually active. Development of a functional understanding cannot take place unless students themselves go through the reasoning involved in the development and application of concepts. Moreover, to be able to transfer a reasoning skill learned in one context to another, students need multiple opportunities to use that same skill in different contexts. The entire process requires time. Inevitably, this constraint places a limit on both the breadth of

material that can be covered and the pace at which instruction can progress. New topics cannot be added without omitting others. Choices must be made. Unless we design instruction to meet the needs and abilities of students, efforts to update the teaching of introductory physics will produce little of either intellectual or motivational value.

A constructivist learning setting differs greatly from one based on the traditional model. In the constructivist classroom the teacher becomes a guide for the learner, providing bridging or scaffolding, helping to extend the learner's zone of proximal development. The student is encouraged to develop metacognitive skills such as reflective thinking and problem solving techniques. The independent learner is intrinsically motivated to generate, discover, build and enlarge her/his own framework of knowledge. Brooks&Brooks (1993) offer an interesting comparision of the visible differences between the traditional and the construtivist classroom:

Traditional classroom

Constructivist Classroom

Student primarily work alone. Curriculum is presented part to whole, with emphasis on basic skills.(bottom - up) Strict adherence to a fixed curriculum is highly valued. Curricular activities rely heavily on textbooks of data and manipulative materials.

Students primarily work in groups. Curriculum is presented whole to part with emphasis on the big concept.(top - down) Pursuit of student questions is highly valued. Curricular activities rely heavily on primary sources.

Students are viewed as "blank slates" onto which Students are viewed as thinkers with emerging information is etched by the teacher. theories about the world. Teachers generally behave in a didactic manner, Teachers generally behave in an interactive disseminating information to students. manner mediating the environment for students. Teachers seek the correct answers to validate student lessons. Teachers seek the student's point of view in order to understand student learning for use in subsequent conceptions. Assessment of student learning is interwoven with teaching and occurs through teacher observation of students at work and through exhibitions and protfolios.

Assessment of student learning is viewed as separate from teaching and occurs almost entirely through testing.

Cognitive constructivism Cognitive or Piagetian constructivists generally regard the purpose of education as educating the individual child in a fashion that supports the child's interests and needs; consequently, the child is the subject of study, and individual cognitive development is the emphasis. Learning is primarily an individualistic enterprise. This is a child-centered approach that seeks to identify, through scientific study, the natural path of cognitive development. This approach assumes that students come to classrooms with ideas, beliefs, and opinions that need to be altered or modified by a teacher who facilitates this alteration by devising tasks and questions that create dilemmas for students.

Knowledge construction occurs as a result of working through these dilemmas. Characteristic instructional practices include "discovery learning" and hands-on activities, such as using manipulatives; student tasks that challenge existing concepts and thinking processes; and questioning techniques that probe students' beliefs and encourage examination and testing of those beliefs. To a large extent, this approach assumes that development is an ingrained, natural, biological process that is pretty much the same for all individuals, regardless of gender, class, race, or the social or cultural context in which learning and living take place. Internal development is the focus of the teaching environment, and the social and historical context, as well as issues of power, authority, and the place of formal knowledge in the learning environment are not emphasized.It is essentially a decontextualized approach to learning and teaching.

More about social Constructivism Social or Vygotskian constructivism emphasizes education for social transformation and reflects a theory of human development that situates the individual within a sociocultural context. Individual development derives from social interactions within which cultural meanings are shared by the group and eventually internalized by the individual. Individuals construct knowledge in transaction with the environment, and in the process both the individual and the environment are changed. The subject of study is the dialectical relationship between the individual and the social and cultural milieu. Schools are the sociocultural settings where teaching and learning take place and where "cultural tools," such as reading, writing, mathematics, and certain modes of discourse are utilized. This approach assumes that theory and practice do not develop in a vacuum; they are shaped by dominant cultural assumptions. Both formal knowledge, the subject of instruction, and the manner of its presentation are influenced by the historical and cultural environment that generated them. To accomplish the goals of social transformation and reconstruction, the context of education must be deconstructed, and the cultural assumptions, power relationships, and historical influences that undergird it must be exposed, critiqued, and, when necessary, altered.

The AtkinsonShiffrin model (also known as the multi-store model is a model of memory that has the advantage of being able to be broken down into sub-models of memory: the multi-memory model and the Modal model) is a psychological model proposed in 1968 by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin[1] as a proposal for the structure of memory. It proposed that human memoryinvolves a sequence of three stages: The multi-store model of memory is an explanation of how memory processes work. You hear, see, and feel many things, but only a small number are remembered. The model was first described by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. Since Atkinson and Shiffrin originally proposed their dual-store model, it has undergone numerous adjustments and improvements. The most recent version of this model is called Search of Associative Memory (SAM) (Raaijmakers & Shiffrin, 1981). [edit]Sensory


The sense organs have a limited ability to store information about the world in a fairly unprocessed way for less than a second. The visual system possesses iconic memory for visual stimuli such as shape, size, colour and location (but not meaning), whereas the hearing system has echoic memory for auditory stimuli. Coltheart et al. (1974) have argued that the momentary freezing of visual input allows us to select which aspects of the input should go on for further memory processing. In this visual modality, information that enters the sensory store will be eliminated from the store within several hundred milliseconds (Baddeley, 1966). The existence of sensory memory has been experimentally demonstrated by Sperling (1960) using a tachistoscope. [edit]Short-term


Information is retained acoustically and visually long enough to use it, e.g. looking up a telephone number and remembering it long enough to dial it. Peterson and Peterson (1959) have demonstrated that STM last approximately between 15 and 30 seconds, unless people rehearse the material, while Miller (1956) has found that STM has a limited capacity of around 7+ or 2 chunks of information.[2] STM also appears to mostly encode memory acoustically (in terms of sound) as Baddeley (1966) has demonstrated, but can also retain visuospatial images. However in many cases STM can be at a semantic level. In addition to using the short-term

store (STS) as the primary memory device when desired for certain tasks, such as remembering a telephone number after looking it up, the STS fulfills various other functions. Instead of the memory system having to pay momentto-moment attention to the environment to account for all environmental changes, the (STS) serves as a buffer and separates the environment from the memory system. It also functions as a working memory in which alterations of information can occur. However, these manipulations are only temporary (Baddeley, 1966). [edit]Long-term


LTM provides the lasting retention of information, from minutes to a lifetime. Long term memory appears to have an almost limitless capacity to retain information, but it could never be measured as it would take too long. LT information seems to be encoded mainly in terms of meaning (semantic memory) as Baddeley has shown, but also retains procedural skills and imagery. Memory may also be transported directly from sensory memory to LTM if it receives instant attention, e.g. witnessing a fire in your house. This is known as a "Flashbulb Memory". Another example of this is the fact that most people living in the United States at the time can recall what they were doing on the day of September 11, 2001, as it was the day of an extreme event. Recent research has shown, however, that "flashbulb memory" is not as reliable as it was once thought to be.[citation needed] Also if information in the LTM is not rehearsed it can be forgotten through trace decay. [edit]Ill


To obtain a qualitatively correct fit of the bowing four model concepts have to work together. Long term memory is needed in the short term memory experiment, conscious or subconscious rehearsal of four items has to take place, this rehearsal buffer has to drop items randomly rather than according to a first-in firstout model, and the rehearsal buffer has to be empty before the experiment starts. Beyond the qualitative fit to the bowed recall curves, other relationships in the data are not borne out by the model. First, the primacy strength, the ratio of the probability of recall of the first item to the smallest

probability of recall of an intermediate item, shows a significant experimental variation with presentation rate but no such variation is predicted by theory. Second, randomly emptying the rehearsal buffer predicts incorrectly that the number of recalled items should be the highest when the first recalled item is the last list item. Third, a simplified AtkinsonShiffrin model is found to predict exact relationships between the recall probabilities of the initial items which do not seem to be borne out by the Murdock data. Fourth, the theory predicts a discontinuity in the differences between free recall graphs with different presentation rates for early list items which is probably not found in the Murdock data. See Tarnow (2009): [edit]Linearity Some argue that the multi-store model is too linear[citation needed], i.e., that it cannot accommodate subdivisions of STM and LTM memory stores[citation

The concept of the "stream of memory" in this model has been suggested to lack internal consistency[citation needed] , as, by definition, the stream of memory often discarded for newer information, often with little or emphasis on the salience on the new information[citation needed] . A supposed example of this was found in the asymptote of control data, revealing primacy and recency effects (with information recalled better when presented early or late in the test stream), overshadowing the asymptote[citation needed] . This suggests a need to explain decay processes in memory[citation needed]. It has been suggested that the idea of 3 separate areas for memory storage may emerge from neuronal processes such as rates of firing[citation needed] , as well as the idea of the "ionised sodium gate" model of action potentials[citation needed]. In the case of sensory memory, the model, which is psychological, does not provide a ready explanation for the observed asynchronous nature of neural activity occurring between anatomical structures[citation needed] an example of this would be the reference to sensory memory being used to perform physical processes such as motor function, which suggests that once an action is performed, it is remembered for 3 seconds and then begins a process of rapid decay[citation needed] .

[edit]Monolithicity The AtkinsonShiffrin model distinguishes different forms of memory, but it does not take into account what information is presented[citation needed], nor does it take into account individual differences in subject's performance including a cognitive ability, or previous experience with learning techniques[citation needed]. Whilst case studies of individuals (such as Clive Wearing) have been reported indicating that memory can be severely damaged independent of at least some other cognitive capacities[citation needed], there is less support from case studies of developmental models for the supposed tri-partite memory structure[citation needed]. Some have argued that autistic savant performance may violate predictions from the model, based on an ability to recall precise information without the need for rehearsal[citation needed], and without evidence for decay[citation needed]. [edit]Later


The advent of the model provided a testable framework for subsequent work, and a strong stimulus for the experiemental study of human memory[citation

. This has led to the model being superseded[citation needed]. Newer models

include the possibility for cases where short-term memory is impaired, but long-term memory is not (which is impossible in the basic model, as information can only become encoded in long-term memory after passing through the unitary short-term store). Much recent work has focussed on the model proposed by Alan Baddeley, which distinguishes stores for phonological (speech-sound), and visuo-spatial information as well as episodic material, and proposes the existence of central executive processes, accessing these stores.[3] Atkinson and Shiffrin also refrain from proposing any mechanisms or processes that might be responsible for encoding memories and transferring them between the three systems. The model is a hypothetical layout of the function of memory systems, but not in any way representative of a physical or biological basis of memory. Newer models have been created that can better account for these other characteristics, and a tremendous body of research on the physical layout of memory systems has emerged[citation needed].


of Associative Memory

The SAM model uses a two-phase memory system: short-term store (STS) and long-term store (LTS). Unlike the revised version of the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, there is no sensory store in the SAM model (Raaijmakers & Shiffrin, 1981). [edit]Short-term


STS takes on the form of a buffer, which has a limited capacity. The model assumes a buffer rehearsal system in which the buffer has a size, r. Items enter the STS and accompany other items that are already present in the buffer, until size r has been reached. Once the buffer is at full capacity, when new items enter, they replace an item, r, which already exists in the buffer. A probability of 1/r determines which already existing item will be replaced from the buffer (Raaijkamers & Shiffrin, 1981). In general, items that have been in the buffer for longer are more likely to be replaced (Phillips et al., 1967). [edit]Long-term


LTS is responsible for store relationships between different items and between items and their contexts. The amount of time that an item remains in the buffer or STS is proportional to the amount of item-context information stored in LTS. On the other hand, the strength of the item-item associations is proportional to the amount of time that two items simultaneously existed in the buffer. Context information refers to the situational and temporal factors present at the time when an item is in STS, such as emotional feelings or environmental details (Raaijkamers and Shiffrin, 1981). Until Sirotin et al. demonstrated otherwise, this original model assumes that items in a particular list are only weakly semantically related before the experiment and that the only significant associations are those formed during the study portion of an experiment. However, more recent analyses of the model take into account semantic similarity with an LTS that is broken down into two components: one related to episodic memory and the other related to semantic memory (Sirotin et al., 2005). Memories stored in LTS are retrieved in a two-step process involving sampling and recovery or recall. An item is sampled by using context as a retrieval cue, so the probability that an item will be sampled is related to the strength of the

association between that item and the context being presented. Items that have already been immediately recalled from STS are not possible candidates for sampling. Once an item is sampled as having the greatest association between item and context, it is then evaluated for recall (Raaijmakers and Shiffrin, 1981). [edit]Recency


The usefulness of the SAM model and in particular STS is often demonstrated by its application to the recency effect in free recall. When serial-position curves are applied to SAM, a strong recency effect is observed, but this affect is strongly diminished when a distractor, usually arithmetic, is placed in between study and test trials. The recency effect occurs because items at the end of the test list are likely to still be present in STS and therefore retrieved first. However, when new information is processed, this item enters the STS and displaces other information from it. When a distracting task is given after the presentation of all items, information from this task displaces the last items from STS, resulting in a substantial reduction of recency (Raaijmakers and Shiffrin, 1981). [edit]Problems

for the SAM Model

The SAM model faces serious problems in accounting for long-term recency data (R. A. Bjork and Whitten, 1974) and long-range contiguity data (Howard & Kahana, 1999). While both of these effects are observed, the STS cannot account for the effects. Since a distracting tasks after the presentation of word pairs or large interpresentation intervals (IPIs) filled with distractors would be expected to displace the last few studied items from STS, recency effects are still observed. According to the rules of STS, recency and contiguity effects should be eliminated with these distractors as the most recently studied items would no longer be present in STS. Currently, the SAM model competes with single-store free recall models of memory, such as the Temporal Context Model (Howard & Kahana, 2002a).

Teori dan Model Pengajaran & Pembelajaran Konsep Teori Teori ialah prinsip kasar yang menjadi dasar pembentukan sesuatu ilmu pengetahuan Teori juga merupakan satu rumusan daripada pengetahuan sedia ada yang memberi panduan untuk menjalankan penyelidikan dan mendapatkan maklumat baru Pada asasnya, teori-teori pembelajaran masa kini boleh iklasifikasikan kepada empat mazhab yangutama, iaitu, behavioris, kognitif, sosial dan humani Teori Behaviorisme Mazhab behavioris yang diperkenalkan oleh Ivan Pavlov dan dikembangkan oleh Thorndike dan Skinner, berpendapat bahawa pembelajaran adalah berkaitan dengan perubahan tingkah laku. Teori pembelajaran mereka kebanyakannya dihasilkan daripada ujian dan juga pemerhatian yang dilakukan ke atas haiwan seperti anjing, tikus, kucing dan burung di dalam makmal. Mereka menumpukan ujian kepada perhubungan antara rangsangan dan gerakbalas yang menghasilkan perubahan tingkahlaku. Secara umumnya teori behavioris menyatakan bahawa pengajaran dan pembelajaran akan mempengaruhi segala perbuatan atau tingkah laku pelajar sama ada baik atau sebaliknya. Teori ini juga menjelaskan bahawa tingkah laku pelajar boleh diperhatikan, dikawal dan diramal.

Teori Kognitif Mazhab kognitif pula berpendapat bahawa pembelajaran ialah suatu proses dalaman yang berlaku dalam akal

fikiran, dan tidak dapat diperhatikan secara langsung daripada tingkah laku. Ahli-ahli psikologi kognitif seperti Bruner dan Piaget menumpukan kajian kepada pelbagai jenis pembelajaran dalam proses penyelesaian masalah dan celik akal mengikut pelbagai peringkat umur dan kebolehan pelajar. Teori-teori pembelajaran mereka adalah bertumpu kepada cara pembelajaran seperti pemikiran celik akal, kaedah penyelesaian masalah, penemuan dan pengkategorian. Menurut teori ini, manusia memiliki struktur kognitif, dan semasa proses pembelajaran, otak akan menyusun segala maklumat di dalam ingatan.

Teori Sosial Mazhab sosial pula menyarankan teori pembelajaran dengan menggabungkan teori mazhab behavioris bersama dengan mazhab kognitif. Teori ini juga dikenali sebagai Teori Perlakuan Model. Albert Bandura, seorang tokoh mazhab sosial ini menyatakan bahawa proses pembelajaran akan dapat dilaksanakan dengan lebih berkesan dengan menggunakan pendekatan permodelan. Beliau menjelaskan lagi bahawa aspek pemerhatian pelajar terhadap apa yang disampaikan atau dilakukan oleh guru dan juga aspek peniruan oleh pelajar akan dapat memberikan kesan yang optimum kepada kefahaman pelajar. Teori Humanisme Mazhab humanis pula berpendapat pembelajaran manusia

bergantung kepada emosi dan perasaannya. Seorang ahli mazhab ini, Carl Rogers menyatakan bahawa setiap individu itu mempunyai cara belajar yang berbeza dengan individu yang lain. Oleh itu, strategi dan pendekatan dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran hendaklah dirancang dan disusun mengikut kehendak dan perkembangan emosi pelajar itu. Beliau juga menjelaskan bahawa setiap individu mempunyai potensi dan keinginan untuk mencapai kecemerlangan kendiri. Maka, guru hendaklah menjaga kendiri pelajar dan memberi bimbingan supaya potensi mereka dapat diperkembangkan ke tahap optimum. Model Robert Glazer Robert Glaser mengemukakan model pengajarannya dengan membahagikan proses pengajaran kepada empat komponen utama iaitu objektif pengajaran, pengetahuan sedia ada pelajar, kaedah mengajar dan penilaian. Beliau juga menekankan maklum balas pelajar sebagai aspek penting dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Menurut beliau, objektif pengajaran harus ditentukan sesuai dengan pengetahuan sedia ada pelajar. Kemudian, kaedah mengajar harus dipilih berdasarkan objektif pengajaran dan pengetahuan sedia ada pelajar. Seterusnya, penilaian harus dijalankan ke atas segala proses pengajaran dengan tujuan untuk mengesan kelemahan, agar guru dapat mengubahsuai proses pengajarannya, demi meningkatkan keberkesanan pengajaran pada masa hadapan. Kesimpulannya, Model Pengajaran Robert Glaser dibina berlandaskan konsep pengajaran sebagai suatu proses yang menitikberatkan langkah-langkah pengajaran iaitu perancangan, pelaksanaan, penilaian dan maklum balas

Pembelajaran Masteri
Kepentingan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran
1. Langkah kedua dalam pembelajaran masteri ialah guru harus menggunakan kaedah atau aktiviti p&p yang berkesan dan bahan-bahan p&p yang sesuai untuk memastikan pelajar dapat menguasai sesuatu hasil pembelajaran dalam masa yang pendek. 2. Untuk memastikan kejayaan pembelajaran masteri, guru harus mengambil kira perkara berikut dalam p&p: a. Ciri-giri guru b. Gaya pembelajaran pelajar c. Kaedah atau aktiviti p&p d. Bahan p&p e. Nilai-nilai murni f. Pengurusan bilik darjah dan aktiviti p&p


Perkara lain yang harus juga diajar atau diserap dalam p&p seperti lapan kecerdasan, kemahiran berfikir, kemahiran belajar, unsur-unsur patriotisme, pendidikan alam sekitar, pendidikan pencegahan dadah dan penyakit AIDS, kemahiran keibubapaan dalam kekeluargaan dan pendidikan keselamatan di jalan raya akan dihuraikan dalam laman lain.

Ciri-ciri Guru
1. Dalam p&p ke arah pembelajaran masteri, guru harus: a. Menyayangi semua pelajar b. Yakin mereka semua boleh belajar dengan berjaya dan menguasai sesuatu hasil pembelajaran jika diberi masa yang cukup dan p&p adalah berkualiti c. Mencintai mata pelajaan yang diajar d. Merangsang diri untuk merancang dan menggunakan pelbagai cara bagi memastikan pelajar dapat menguasai sesuatu hasil pembelajaran e. Merangsang dan mendorong pelajar anda untuk belajar sehingga mereka dapat menguasai sesuatu hasil pembelajaran f. Bersikap proaktif dan boleh menyelesaikan masalah Guru boleh menambah senarai dengan ciri-ciri yang lain, tetapi yang penting ialah guru harus mengamalkannya dalam p&p.


Gaya Pembelajaran Pelajar

1. Guru harus tahu bahawa pelajar mempunyai gaya pembelajaran yang berbeza dan sebab itulah tiada satu kaedah mengajar yang terbaik untuk semua pelajar. 2. Jadi, guru harus menggunakan berbagai-bagai kaedah atau aktiviti pengajaran dan pembelajaran supaya pelajar yang berbeza dalam gaya pembelajaran itu dapat belajar dengan berkesan dan menguasai hasil pembelajaran. 3. Pada asasnya, terdapat tiga gaya pembelajaran iaitu: a. Pelajar visual: Pelajar dalam golongan ini suka belajar dengan melihat i. ii. Huruf atau perkataan Benda, gambar atau gambar rajah

iii. a.

Demostrasi, tindakan atau lakonan

Pelajar audio:

Pelajar dalam kumpulan ini suka belajar dengan mendengar atau bercakap seperti i. ii. Mendengar cerita, penerangan, syarahan, huraian olehguru atau pelajar lain Menerangkan, berbual, memberi pendapatnya, bercerita atau menghuraikan


Pelajar kinestetik: Pelajar dalam kumpulan ini suka belajar dengan membuat atau melakukan sesuatu seperti: i. ii. Menulis atau melukis sesuatu Membuat latihan, kerja amali, eksperimen, lakonan, simulasi, atau projek

4. Untuk menentukan semua pelajar dapat belajar dengan berkesan, guru harus menggunakan kaedah-kadah mengajar yang melibatkan visual, lisan, dan kinestetik. 5. Beberapa penyelidik pendidikan telah mencadangkan pelbagai model gaya pembelajaran dan model itu diringkaskan di bawah.

Model Sistem 4MAT

1. Dalam model Sistem 4MAT yang dicipta oleh Dr. Bernice McCarthy, terdapat empat jenis pelajar berikut: a. Pelajar Imaginatif b. Pelajar Analitik c. Pelajar Praktik d. Pelajar Dinamik Ciri-ciri setiap jenis pelajar itu diringkaskan dalam Jadual berikut: Jenis Pelajar Ciri Imaginatif Mencari makna Matlamat dan sebab mempelajari maklumat Menggunakan semua deria dan Berfikir tentang Menguji teori dan Cuba jaya dan penemuan secara Analitik Mencari fakta yang menjelaskan konsep Praktik Mencari kegunaan maklumat Dinamik Mencari sesuatu yang baru




berkongsi idea Berinterasksi dengan orang lain

idea Pendapat pakar dan menganalisis sesuatu maklumat

menaakul Tahu bagaimana sesuatu berfungsi

sendiri Mencipta atau mengaplikasi maklumat itu dan berinteraksi dengan orang lain


dan berkongsi idea

Inovasi dan idea Kekuatan

Membina konsep

Mengaplikasi idea yang praktikal

Tindakan dan menyudahkan sesuatu

Suka menyoal


Apa dia?

Bagaimanakah teori atau maklumat itu dipraktikkan?

Apakah boleh dicipta oleh saya?

Gunakan benda atau pengalaman Cara mengajar maujud. Beri peluang untuk perbincangan dan pengeluaran idea

Terangkan (guru atau pelajar) dan galakkan pelajar membuat analisis maklumat

Beri latihan, kuiz, kerja amali, eksperimen untuk pelajar mencuba dengan sendiri

Beri projek, tugasan, atau masalah dan galakkan pelajar berkongsi hasilnya.

Model Dunn dan Dunn

1. Di dalam model gaya pembelajaran Dunn dan Dunn yang dicipta oleh Dr. Rita Dunn dan Dr. Kenneth Dunn, gaya pembelajaran seseorang pelajar bergantung kepada unsur-unsur yang disukainya di bawah lima stimulus yang ditunjukkan dalam Jadual 1. 2. Seboleh-bolehnya, anda harus memberi peluang kepada pelajar belajar dengan unsurunsur yang disukainya. Jadual 1 Stimulus Unsur Bunyi Alam Sekitar Cahaya Ciri Suka belajar tanpa bising atau dengan bunyi latar belakang seperti muzik Suka belajar di tempat yang cerah atau di tempat yang

kurang cahaya Suka belajar di tempat yang sejuk atau di tempat yang panas Suka belajar di tempat formal yang ada kerusi dan meja Pola atau di tempat tidak formal seperti berbaring atau duduk di lantai Boleh merangsang diri untuk belajar atau perlu dirangsang oleh guru Boleh belajar dalam masa yang panjang atau boleh belajar dalam masa yang pendek Bertanggungjawab untuk belajar atau perlu bimbingan oleh guru Suka belajar mengikut jadual waktu atau suka belajar Struktur sekiranya lebih masa diberi untuk sesuatu mata pelajaran atau perkara Sendiri Pasangan Rakan sebaya Sosiologi Pasukan Guru Suka belajar dalam pasukan Suka belajar dengan guru di sebelahnya Suka belajar dengan sendiri Suka berlajar secara pasangan Suka belajar dengan rakan sebaya



Ketabahan Emosi


Pelbagai cara

Boleh belajar dengan mana cara tersebut di atas Suka belajar dengan benda atau pengalaman maujud atau dengan perkara abstrak




Suka atau tidak suka makan dan minum semasa belajar Suka belajar sesuatu mata pelajaran pada waktu yang sesuai atau pada bila-bila masa Suka atau tidak suka bergerak semasa belajar Pelajar global suka belajar secara menyeluruh; pelajar analitik suka belajar mengikut urutan dan membuat analisis Pelajar yang lebih memproses maklumat di otak kiri suka belajar bahagian-bahagian, bahasa, dan membuat pengiraan dan analisis; pelajar yang lebih memproses maklumat di otak kanan suka belajar secara keseluruhan, membuat sintesis, melukis, membuat gerakan dan mencipta sesuatu


Gerakan Global atau Analitik Otak Kiri atau Otak Psikologi Kasnan

Impulsif atau Reflektif

Pelajar yang impulsif bertindak secara spontan manakala pelajar yang reflektif berfikir sebelum bertindak

Kaedah P&p Untuk Pembelajaran masteri

1. Tiada satu kaedah atau aktiviti p&p yang terbaik untuk pembelajaran masteri kerana pelajar berbeza dalam kebolehannya dan mereka juga mempunyai gaya pembelajaran yang berlainan. 2. Kaedah atau aktiviti p&p yang dicadangkan untuk pembelajaran masteri ialah kaedah atau aktiviti yang berpusatkan kepada pelajar, menarik dan menyeronokkan. 3. Jadi guru harus merancang dan menggunakan pelbagai kaedah atau aktiviti p&p yang berkesan dengan mengambil kira kebolehan dan gaya pembelajaran pelajar anda. 4. Berikut ialah kaedah atau aktiviti p&p yang berpusatkan kepada guru iaitu guru yang melalukannya:

Syarahan Penerangan Penjelasan Huraian

Demonstrasi Bercerita Pembacaan Memberi nota

5. Kaedah atau aktiviti p&p yang berpusatkan kepada pelajar di mana pelajar yang melakukannya ialah:
Soal jawab Latih tubi Bercerita Membuat latihan Penerangan, penjelasan, huraian Perbincangan Inkuiri Penemuan Bacaan Sumbang saran Demostrasi oleh pelajar

Pembelajarean berbantu komputer PAK (Pembelajaran Akses Kendiri)

6. Guru harus ingat bahawa setiap kaedah atau aktiviti itu mempunyai kelebihan dan kekurangan.
Pembelajaran koperatif
1. Kajian yang telah dijalankan oleh penyelidik pendidikan telah menunjukkan bahawa pembelajaran koperatif adalah berkesan untuk pembelajaran masteri. 2. Dalam pembelajaran koperatif satu tugasan, projek atau masalah diberi dan pelajar belajar di antara satu sama lain secara pasangan, kumpulan atau kelas. 3. Beberapa teknik yang boleh digunakan dalam pembelajaran koperatif termasuk (Spencer Kagan, 1990): a. Giliran Ahli Kumpulan Setiap pelajar dalam sesuatu kumpulan memberi idea atau pendapatnya secara giliran b. Pameran Kumpulan: i. Setiap kumpulan mempamerkan hasilnya ii. Setiap pelajar melihat setiap kumpulan dan berbincang dengan ahli-ahli kumpulan itu. c. Memadan Benda Pelajar-pelajar dalam satu kumpulan memadankan susunan benda d. Kuiz: i. ii.




Guru memberi soalan kepada satu atau semua kumpulan Pelajar-pelajar dalam sesuatu kumpulan berbincang untuk mendapatkan jawapan iii. Seorang pelajar dalam kumpulan itu memberi jawapan kepada soalan guru Kad Hafalan i. Pelajar dalam semua kumpulan diberi kad yang mengandungi fakta atau maklumat penting untuk dihafal ii. Guru menyoal iii. Pelajar yang sudah menghafal fakta atau maklumat itu menjawab dan markah akan diberi Semakan Pasangan: i. Dua pasangan diberi masalah yang sama untuk diselesaikan ii. Dalam stu pasangan, seorang pelajar menyelesaikan masalah itu dengan bantuan pelajar yang lain. Pemikiran Berpasangan dan Berkongsi Pendapat

Pelajar dalam satu pasanganberfikir tentang sesuatu topik yang diberi oleh guru ii. Pendapat pasangan itu kemudiannya dikongsi dalam kelas h. Peta Konsep Berpasukan Pelajar dalam satu kumpulan membuat peta konsep bersama-sama di atas kertas yang besar. i. Jawapan Giliran: i. Satu kumpulan diberi sebilangan soalan ii. Setiap pelajar dalam kumpulan itu menjawab satu soalan Penguasaan Secara Beerpasangan: Pelajar-pelajar menguasai sesuatu isi kandungan secara berpasangan. k. "Jigsaw" (Pakar dalam Kumpulan): i. Setiap kumpulan diberi satu topik yang berlainantentang sesuatu tajuk atau perkara. ii. Kumpulan itu akan membuat penyelidikan dan menjadi pakar dalam topik itu.




Semua maklumat dikongsi dalam kelas.

Bahan Pengajaran Dan Pembelajaran Untuk Pembelajaran Masteri

1. Bahan pengajaran dan pembelajaran adalah penting untuk pembelajaran masteri kerana: a. Pelajaran akan lebih menarik dan menyeronokkan. b. Pelajar dapat memahami dan mengingat apa yang diajar. Beberapa contoh bahan pengajaran dan pembelajaran diberi dalam Jadual berikut: Cadangan Bahan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Kad imbasan huruf, carta huruf, bongkah huruf. Biji, batu atau abakus. Kayu hoki, bola hoki. Carta organ penghadaman atau video penghadaman. Daun hijau, radas (bikar, penunu Bunsen, tripod), bahan kimia (iodin).


Hasil Pembelajaran Pelajar dapat : 1. Mengenal pasti "huruf". 2. Menambah sebarang dua nombor 1-10. 3. Memukul bola hoki dengan cara betul. 4. Menerangkan proses penghadaman.

5. Menguji

kehadirian kanji dalam daun.

3. Bahan pengajaran dan pembelajaran terdiri daripada: a. Bahan bercetak b. Alat pandang dengar 4. Bahan bercetak meliputi: a. Buku teks dan buku rujukan b. Dokumen kurikulum c. Majalah d. Risalah e. Akhbar 5. Alat pandang dengar terdiri daripada: a. "Hardware": seperti TV, radio kaset, perakam video, projektor, komputer, printer. b. "Software": adalah bahan yang digunakan dengan "hardware" seperti pita video, pita kaset, filem slaid, transparensi, disket. Ia juga termasuk bahan visual seperti carta, gambar, pita dan kad imbasan. c. Bahan 3-Dimensi: seperti glob, model, bongkah, spesimen dan bahan permainan. 6. Sesetengah bahan pengajaran dan pembelajaran itu: a. Dibekalkan oleh Kementerian pendidikan. b. Boleh dibeli dalam pasaran. c. Boleh dibuat oleh guru dan pelajar. d. Bolah didapati dengan percuma. 7. Bahan pengajaran dan pembelajaran itu perlu diurus dengan baik dengan: a. Menggredkan bahan itu mengikut tahun dan kebolehan pelajar. b. Menyusun dan menyimpan bahan itu di tempat yang sesuai.


Mengadakan sistem klasifikasi, sistem katalog, sistem pinjaman dan sistem merekod yang baik.

1. Untuk menyerapkan nilai kebersihan fizikal dan mental sebagai contoh, guru harus memastikan pelajar anda dapat tunjuk atau mengamal hasil pembelajaran khusus berikut:
Berpakaian kemas dan bersih Berambut kemas dan bersih Menjaga kebersihan badan Bercakap dengan sopan santun Tidak bercakap tentang perkara yang jahat Membuang sampah di tong sampah Kerjanya kemas dan teratur Menyimpan barangnya dengan kemas dan tersusun Memulangkan barang pinjaman atau yang terjumpa

Bekerja dengan rakan-rakan Menegur atau menasihati pelajar lain

Pengurusan Bilik darjah Dan Aktiviti Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran

1. Kejayaan pembelajaran masteri juga bergantung kepada kebolehan dan kemahiran guru untuk menguruskan kelas dan aktiviti pengajaran dan pembelajaran dengan bijak. 2. Dalam hal ini, guru harus berkebolehan dan mahir dalam perkara berikut: a. Tahu nama, sifat peribadi, minat, gaya pembelajaran dan kebolehan setiap pelajar. b. Menjadikan bilik darjah menarik dan kondusif untuk pembelajaran masteri. c. Menyedia, mengguna dan menyimpan pelbagai bahan pengajaran dan pembelajaran. d. Menyusun dan menggunakan kaedah atau aktiviti pengajaran dan pembelajaran yang sesuai untuk sesuatu pelajaran supaya ada hubungkait dengan isi kandungan dan pelajar dapat diransang sepanjang waktu pelajaran. e. Menggunakan aktiviti secara kelas, kumpulan, pasangan dan perseorangan dengan bijak dalam sesuatu pelajaran. f. Mengumpul pelajar yang sesuai dalam kumpulan dan pasangan yang dikehendaki. g. Menggunakan kadar mengajar (pacing) yang sesuai mengikut kebolehan pelajar dalam kelas itu. h. Membina, menyimpan dan membuat analisis ujian formatif atau dianostik dan ujian sumatif. i. Menjalankan ujian formatif atau dianostik dan ujian sumatif pada masa yang sesuai. j. Membina dan menyimpan aktiviti pemulihan dan aktiviti pengayaan. k. Menjalankan aktiviti pemulihan dan pengayaan pada masa yang sesuai dan menggunakan kaedah yang berkesan. l. Menggunakan masa dengan bijak untuk aktiviti pengajaran dan pembelajaran dalam sesuatu pelajaran. m. Menyimpan rekod secara sisitematik tentang sifat peribadi dan pencapaian pelajar.

Contoh Langkah Pengajaran Untuk Menguasai Sesuatu Hasil Pembelajaran

1. Beberapa contoh langkah pengajaran untuk menguasai sesuatu hasil pembelajaran dalam beberapa mata pelajaran diberi di bawah. 2. Guru digallakan mengubahsuaikan cadangan langkah pengajaran mengikut keadaan sebenar di sekolah.

Contoh Sains Tahun 4 KBSR


Hasil Pembelajaran:
Pelajar akan dapat mengenal sifat-sifat fizikal yang boleh dilihat pada haiwan.

2. Cadangan Langkah Pengajaran: a. Pengenalan atau Set Induksi: Untuk merangsang atau mengulang kaji.

Tanya atau suruh pelajar: Namakan haiwan yang anda tahu. Apakah haiwan yang dipelihara oleh manusia? Namakan haiwan yang liar. b. Penyampaian: Untuk mengajar bagi mencapai hasil pembelajaran. Dengan bantuan gambar atau spesimen beberapa haiwan seperti arnab, burung, ikan, dan lipas, adakan perbincangan dengan pelajar.

Tanya pelajar: Apakah nama haiwan itu? Apakah sifat-sifat fizikal yang boleh dilihat pada haiwan itu? Apakah kegunaan sesuatu sifat fizikal itu? Latihan: Untuk memperkukuhkan pembelajaran. Pelajar melabel sifat-sifat fizikal pada gambar rajah sesuatu haiwan. Aplikasi atau Ciptaan: Untuk mengaplikasi atau mereka cipta sesuatu.
Pelajar membuat carta aliran atau jadual sifat fizikal haiwan danmenunjukkan hasilnya kepada pelajar lain.


2. 3. 4.


6. 7. 8. 9.

Untuk menjayakan pembelajaran masteri, guru harus menyayangi pelajar, mencintai mata pelajaran yang guru mengajar, merasa yakin tentang kebolehan pelajar, selalu merangsang mereka, mempunyai sikap proaktif dan menyelesaikan masalah. Pelajar berbeza dalam gaya pembelajaran seperti pelajar visual, lisan atau kinestetik dan guru harus menggunakan kaedah yang melibatkan visual, lisan dan kinestetik. Guru harus mengambil kira unsur-unsur gaya pembelajaran yang terdapat dalam pelbagai model gaya pembelajaran seperti Sistem 4MAT dan Model Dunn dan Dunn. Terdapat banyak kaedah atau aktiviti p&p yang berpusatkan kepada guru dan berpusatkan kepada pelajar dan setiap kaedah atau aktiviti itu mempunyai kelebihan dan kekurangan. Tiada satu kaedah atau aktiviti p&p yang berbaik tetapi yang dicadangkan untuk pembelajaran masteri ialah yang menarik serta menyeronokkan dan yang berpusatkan kepada pelajar. Guru harus juga menggunakan kaedah pembelajaran koperatif dengan memberi tugasan, projek atau masalah untuk pelajar belajar secara pasangan, kumpulan atau kelas. Anda harus menggunakan bahan p&p yang sesuai supaya pembelajaran lebih berkesan. Dalam p&p guru harus menyerapkan nilai-nilai murni walaupun penguasaanya mengambil masa yang panjang. Dalam pembelajaran masteri guru digalakkan mencuba pelbagai kaedah mengajar, langkah-langkah pengajaran dan bahan p&p yang akan membantu pelajar menguasai apa yang mereka belajar.


Misconception. Hancock (1940) defined a "misconception" as "...any unfounded belief that does not embody the element of fear, good luck, faith, or supernatural intervention" (p. 208). Barrass (1984) wrote of "mistakes" or errors, "misconceptions" or misleading ideas, and "misunderstandings" or misinterpretations of facts, saying that teachers and brighter students can correct errors. Preconceptions. Ideas expressed that do not have the status of generalized understandings that are characteristic of conceptual knowledge(Ausubel, 1968). Naive conceptions Naive theories Alternative conceptions Alternative frameworks.

Alternative [conceptual] frameworks Minitheories Intuitive theories

LIPH for "Limited or Inappropriate Propositional Hierarchies." (Helm & Novak, 1983)