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MINISTRY USE ONLY

MINISTRY USE ONLY

Place Personal Education Number (PEN) here.

Place Personal Education Number (PEN) here.

MINISTRY USE ONLY

Chemistry 12
2002 Ministry of Education

JANUARY 2002
Course Code = CH

Student Instructions
1. Place the stickers with your Personal Education Number (PEN) in the allotted spaces above. Under no circumstance is your name or identification, other than your Personal Education Number, to appear on this booklet. 2. Ensure that in addition to this examination booklet, you have a Data Booklet and an Examination Response Form. Follow the directions on the front of the Response Form. 3. Disqualification from the examination will result if you bring books, paper, notes or unauthorized electronic devices into the examination room. 4. When instructed to open this booklet, check the numbering of the pages to ensure that they are numbered in sequence from page one to the last page, which is identified by END OF EXAMINATION . 5. At the end of the examination, place your Response Form inside the front cover of this booklet and return the booklet and your Response Form to the supervisor.

Question 1: 1. (3)

Question 7: 7. (4)

Question 2: 2. (2)

Question 8: 8. (5)

Question 3: 3. (2)

Question 9: 9. (4)

Question 4: 4. (4)

Question 10: 10. (1)

Question 5: 5. (3)

Question 11: 11. (4)

Question 6: 6. (3)

Question 12: 12. (5)

CHEMISTRY 12
JANUARY 2002
COURSE CODE = CH

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
1. Aside from an approved calculator, electronic devices, including dictionaries and pagers, are not permitted in the examination room.

2. All multiple-choice answers must be entered on the Response Form using an HB pencil. Multiple-choice answers entered in this examination booklet will not be marked.

3. For each of the written-response questions, write your answer in the space provided in this booklet.

4. Ensure that you use language and content appropriate to the purpose and audience of this examination. Failure to comply may result in your paper being awarded a zero.

5. This examination is designed to be completed in two hours. Students may, however, take up to 30 minutes of additional time to finish.

CHEMISTRY 12 PROVINCIAL E XAMINATION


Suggested Time 70 50 120 minutes

Value 1. This examination consists of two parts: PART A: 48 multiple-choice questions PART B: 12 written-response questions Total: 60 40 100 marks

2. The following tables can be found in the separate Data Booklet: Periodic Table of the Elements Atomic Masses of the Elements Names, Formulae, and Charges of Some Common Ions Solubility of Common Compounds in Water Solubility Product Constants at 25C Relative Strengths of Brnsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Acid-Base Indicators Standard Reduction Potentials of Half-cells

No other reference materials or tables are allowed. 3. A calculator is essential for the Chemistry 12 Provincial Examination. The calculator must be a hand-held device designed primarily for mathematical computations involving logarithmic and trigonometric functions and may also include graphing functions. Computers, calculators with a QWERTY keyboard, and electronic writing pads will not be allowed. Students must not bring any external devices to support calculators such as manuals, printed or electronic cards, printers, memory expansion chips or cards, or external keyboards. Students may have more than one calculator available during the examination. Calculators may not be shared and must not have the ability to either transmit or receive electronic signals. In addition to an approved calculator, students will be allowed to use rulers, compasses, and protractors during the examination.

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE Value: 60 marks Suggested Time: 70 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: For each question, select the best answer and record your choice on the Response Form provided. Using an HB pencil, completely fill in the circle that has the letter corresponding to your answer. Selected multiple-choice questions are worth 2 marks.

1. Which of the following has the greatest reaction rate? A. C( s ) + O2( g ) CO2( g ) B. 2 H 2 O2( l ) 2 H 2 O( l ) + O2( g ) C. 2 Al( s ) + 3CuCl 2( aq ) 2 AlCl 3( aq ) + 3Cu( s ) D. NaCl( aq ) + AgNO3( aq ) AgCl( s ) + NaNO3( aq )

(1 mark)

2. Which factor explains why potassium generally reacts faster than sodium? A. B. C. D. surface area temperature concentration nature of reactants

(1 mark)

3. What happens to the PE and KE of the reactant particles as the activated complex is formed? PE A. B. C. D. increases increases decreases decreases KE decreases increases decreases increases

(1 mark)

OVER -1-

4. Consider the following PE diagram:

(2 marks)

200 150

PE
(kJ) 100 50

Progress of the reaction What are the values of H and activation energy ( E a ) for the forward reaction? H (kJ) A. B. C. D. 50 50 +50 +50 Ea (kJ) 100 200 100 200

5. Consider the following reaction mechanism:


Step 1

(1 mark) Cl 2 2Cl

Step 2

CHCl 3 + Cl HCl + CCl 3 CCl 3 + Cl CCl 4

Step 3

Which of the following is a reactant in the overall reaction? A. Cl B. C. HCl CCl 3

D. CHCl 3 -2-

6. Consider the following PE diagram for a catalyzed and uncatalyzed reaction:

(2 marks)

300 250

PE
(kJ)

200 150 100 50

Progress of the reaction Which of the following describes the reverse reaction? Reverse Reaction A. B. C. D. catalyzed uncatalyzed catalyzed uncatalyzed Activation Energy (kJ) 50 50 50 50 H (kJ) 100 100 +100 +100

7. Consider the following: 2SO2( g ) + O2( g ) 2SO3( g ) Initially, SO3 is added to an empty flask. How do the rate of the forward reaction and [SO3 ] change as the system proceeds to equilibrium? Forward Rate A. B. C. D. decreases decreases increases increases

(1 mark)

[SO3 ]
increases decreases increases decreases

OVER -3-

8. Consider the following reaction: N 2( g ) + 3H 2( g ) 2 NH 3( g ) + energy

(2 marks)

What positions do minimum enthalpy and maximum entropy tend toward? Minimum Enthalpy Maximum Entropy A. B. C. D. reactants reactants products products products reactants products reactants

Use the following equilibrium equation to answer questions 9 and 10. CO2( g ) + H 2( g ) H 2O( g ) + CO( g ) 9. Which two stresses will each cause the equilibrium to shift to the left? A. increase [H 2 ] , increase [CO] (1 mark)

B. decrease [H 2 ] , increase [H 2 O]

C. increase [CO2 ] , decrease [CO]

D. decrease [CO2 ] , decrease [H 2 O] 10. Which of the following graphs represents the forward rate of reaction when H 2 O( g ) is added to the above equilibrium at time = t1 ? A. rate (1 mark) B. rate

t1

time D.

t1

time

C. rate

rate

t1

time -4-

t1

time

11. Consider the following: 2 NH 3( g ) N 2( g ) + 3H 2( g ) Initially, some NH 3 is placed into a 1.0 L container. At equilibrium there is 0.030 mol N 2 present. What is the [H 2 ] at this equilibrium? A. B. C. D. 0.010 mol 0.030 mol 0.060 mol 0.090 mol L L L L

(1 mark)

12. Which reaction has the following equilibrium expression?


4 6 NO2 ] [H 2 O] [ K eq = [NH3 ]4 [O2 ]7

(1 mark)

A. B. C. D.

4 NH 3( g )

+ 7 O2( g )

4 NO2( g ) + 6H 2 O( g ) 4 NO2( aq ) + 6H 2 O( l )

4 NH 3( aq ) + 7 O2( g )

4 NO2( aq ) + 6H 2 O( l ) 4 NH 3( g ) + 7 O2( g ) 4 NO2( g ) + 6 H 2 O( g ) 4 NH 3( g ) + 7 O2( g )

13. What will cause the K eq for an exothermic reaction to increase? A. increasing [ reactants]

(1 mark)

B. decreasing [ products] C. increasing the temperature D. decreasing the temperature

OVER -5-

14. Consider the following equilibrium: PCl 5( g ) PCl 3( g ) + Cl 2( g ) K eq = 9.0 10 2

(1 mark)

In a 1.0 L container an equilibrium mixture contains 6.0 10 3 mol PCl 5 and 1.0 10 2 mol PCl 3 . How many moles of Cl 2 are also present at equilibrium? A. 5.4 10 6 mol B. C. 6.7 10 4 mol 5.4 10 2 mol

D. 1.5 10 1 mol

15. The equation that describes the solubility equilibrium of Ca 3 ( PO 4 )2 is


6+ 3 A. Ca 3 ( PO 4 )2( s ) Ca 3 ( aq ) + 2 PO 4 ( aq ) 3 2+ B. Ca 3 ( PO 4 )2( s ) 3Ca ( aq ) + 2 PO 4 ( aq )

(1 mark)

C.

2 3+ Ca 3 ( PO 4 )2( s ) 2Ca ( aq ) + 3PO 4 ( aq )

D. Ca 3 ( PO 4 )2( s )

(Ca 2 + )3(aq) + (PO43 )2(aq)

16. In a saturated solution of Ag 2 C 2 O 4 , the Ag + = 2.2 10 4 M . What is the solubility of Ag 2 C 2 O 4 in this solution? A. C. D. 4.3 10 11 M 2.2 10 4 M 4.4 10 4 M

(1 mark)

B. 1.1 10 4 M

-6-

17. When equal volumes of 0.2 M solutions are mixed, which of the following combinations forms a precipitate? A. CaS and Sr(OH)2 B. C. D.

(1 mark)

(NH 4 )2 SO4

H 2SO 4 and MgCl 2 and K 2 CO3 H 2SO3 and NaCH 3COO

18. A solution contains 0.2 M Zn 2 + and 0.2 M Sr 2 + . An equal volume of a second solution was added, forming a precipitate with Sr 2 + but not with Zn 2 + . What is present in the second solution? A B. C. D. 0.2 M Cl 0.2 M OH 0.2 M SO 42 0.2 M PO 43

(1 mark)

19. The K sp expression for a saturated solution of Ba 3 ( AsO 4 )2 is A. B. C. D. K sp = Ba 2 + AsO 43 K sp K sp K sp


2+ 3 2+ 4

(1 mark)

[ ][ ] = [Ba ] [AsO ] = [3Ba ] [2 AsO ] = [3Ba ] [2 AsO ]


3 2 3 4 2+ 3 4

3 2

20. The solubility of NiCO3 is 4.4 10 2 g L . Determine the K sp value of NiCO3 . A. 1.4 10 7 B. 3.7 10 4 C. 1.9 10 3 D. 2.1 10 1

(2 marks)

OVER -7-

21. Calculate the solubility of PbSO 4 . A. 3.2 10 16 M B. 1.8 10 8 M C. 3.6 10 8 M D. 1.3 10 4 M

(1 mark)

22. When a solution containing Ag + is mixed with a solution containing BrO3 , the trial ion product is determined to be 2.5 10 7 . What would be observed? A. A precipitate would form since trial ion product < K sp . B. A precipitate would form since trial ion product > K sp . C. A precipitate would not form since trial ion product < K sp . D. A precipitate would not form since trial ion product > K sp .

(2 marks)

23. Which of the following represents the complete neutralization of H 3PO 4 by NaOH? A. B. C. D. H 3PO 4 + NaOH NaH 2 PO 4 + H 2 O H 3PO 4 + 3NaOH Na 3PO 4 + 3H 2 O H 3PO 4 + 2 NaOH Na 2 HPO 4 + 2 H 2 O H 3PO 4 + NaOH NaH + HPO 4 + H 2 O

(1 mark)

24. The conjugate base of HBO3 2 is A. B. C. D. BO3 2 BO33 HBO3 H 2 BO3

(1 mark)

-8-

25. When comparing equal volumes of 0.10 M HNO3 with 0.10 M HNO2 , what would be observed? A. B. C. D. The pH values would be the same. The electrical conductivities would be different. The effects on blue litmus paper would be different. The volumes of 0.10 M NaOH needed for neutralization would be different.

(1 mark)

26. Consider the equilibrium:


HF( aq ) + HPO 42( aq ) F ( aq ) + H 2 PO 4 ( aq )

(2 marks)

For the above equilibrium, identify the weaker acid and determine whether reactants or products are favoured. Weaker Acid A. B. C. D. HF HF H 2 PO 4 H 2 PO 4 Side Favoured products reactants products reactants

27. The ionization of water can be represented by A. 2 H 2 O( l ) 2 H 2( g ) + O2( g ) B. C. H 2 O( l ) 2 H +( aq ) + O2(aq ) H 2 O( l ) H 3O( aq ) + OH( aq )

(1 mark)

D. 2 H 2 O( l ) H 3O +( aq ) + OH ( aq )

28. Calculate the pOH of a 0.050 M HBr solution. A. B. C. D. 0.30 1.30 12.70 13.70

(1 mark)

OVER -9-

29. Calculate the value of K b for HPO 42 . A. C. 4.5 10 2 2.2 10 27

(1 mark)

B. 1.6 10 7 D. 6.2 10 22

30. Which of the following is the net ionic equation describing the hydrolysis of KCN ( aq ) ? A. B. C.
+ K +( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) KOH( aq ) + H ( aq ) + KCN ( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) K ( aq ) + CN ( aq ) CN +H O + OH HCN

(1 mark)

( aq )

(l)

( aq )

( aq )

+ D. CN ( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) 2 H ( aq ) + CNO ( aq )

31. Which of the following 1.0 M salt solutions will be acidic? A. B. C. D. NaNO3 NaHCO3 NaHSO 4 Na 2 HPO 4

(2 marks)

32. The pH at which an indicator changes colour is known as its A. B. C. D. standard point. transition point. equivalence point. stoichiometric point.

(1 mark)

- 10 -

33. An indicator is blue at a pH of 12.0 and colourless at a pH of 1.0 . Identify the indicator and determine its K a value. Indicator A. B. C. D. thymolphthalein thymolphthalein bromthymol blue bromthymol blue Ka 1 10 10 3 10 7 2 10 7 3 10 7

(2 marks)

34. A 10.0 mL sample of H 2SO3 is completely neutralized by titration with 18.6 mL of 0.10 M NaOH . Calculate the concentration of the acid. A. B. C. D. 0.093 M 0.19 M 0.37 M 0.74 M

(2 marks)

35. A common source of NO2 is A. B. C. D. a fuel cell. a lead smelter. an aluminum smelter. an automobile engine.

(1 mark)

36. The pH at the stoichiometric point for the complete neutralization of a strong acid by a weak base will be A. B. C. D. equal to 7.0 equal to 7.2 less than 7.0 greater than 7.2

(1 mark)

OVER - 11 -

37. A buffer solution can be prepared by dissolving equal moles of A. B. C. D. a weak base and a strong base. a weak acid and its conjugate base. a strong base and its conjugate acid. a strong acid and its conjugate base.

(1 mark)

38. A reducing agent A. B. C. D. loses electrons and is reduced. gains electrons and is reduced. loses electrons and is oxidized. gains electrons and is oxidized.

(2 marks)

39. Which of the following could be produced by the reduction of NO2 ? A. B. C. D. NO N 2O4 N 2O5 HNO3

(1 mark)

40. Consider the following redox equation: 3NO + SO 42 + Fe3+ + 2 H 2 O FeS + 3NO3 + 4 H + Which of the following is being oxidized? A. B. C. NO Fe3+ H2O

(1 mark)

D. SO 42

- 12 -

41. What is the oxidation number of Cr in Cr2 O 72 ? A. B. C. D. +6 +7 +12 +14

(1 mark)

42. Which of the following represents a spontaneous redox reaction? A. 2 Br + Hg 2 + Br2 + Hg B. C. D. Cu + Sn 4 + Cu 2 + + Sn 2 + HCl + NaOH NaCl + H 2 O AuCl 4 + 3Ag Au + 4Cl + 3Ag +

(1 mark)

43. Which of the following is the balanced half-reaction for N 2 O NH 3OH + A. B. C. D. N 2 O + 4 H + + 3e NH 3OH + N 2 O + 3H + + H 2 O NH 3OH + + 2 e N 2 O + 6H + + H 2 O 2 NH 3OH + + 4e N 2 O + 6H + + H 2 O + 4e 2 NH 3OH + (acidic)

(1 mark)

OVER - 13 -

Use the following diagram to answer questions 44 to 46.

Volts

cathode

.0

M KNO

Cu (anode)

1.0 M solution

1.0 M Cu(NO3)2

44. Which material could be used as the cathode to produce an E cell = + 0.46 V ? A. Pb B. Co C. Ag D. MnO2

45. In what directions do the electrons and cations move? Direction of Electrons A. B. C. D. toward the cathode toward the cathode toward the anode toward the anode Direction of Cations toward the anode toward the cathode toward the anode toward the cathode

46. The concentration of Cu 2 + in the copper half-cell will A. B. C. D. increase as Cu loses electrons and is reduced. increase as Cu loses electrons and is oxidized. decrease as Cu gains electrons and is reduced. decrease as Cu gains electrons and is oxidized. - 14 -

(1 mark)

(2 marks)

(2 marks)

47. Which of the following metals could be used to cathodically protect iron? A. B. C. D. tin lead zinc copper

(1 mark)

48. Which of the following is formed at the anode during the electrolysis of 1.0 M KF ? A. K B. F2 C. H 2 D. O2

(1 mark)

This is the end of the multiple-choice section. Answer the remaining questions directly in this examination booklet.

OVER - 15 -

PART B: WRITTEN RESPONSE Value: 40 marks Suggested Time: 50 minutes

INSTRUCTIONS: You will be expected to communicate your knowledge and understanding of chemical principles in a clear and logical manner. Your steps and assumptions leading to a solution must be written in the spaces below the questions. Answers must include units where appropriate and be given to the correct number of significant figures. For questions involving calculations, full marks will NOT be given for providing only an answer.

1. Consider the following reaction: C12 H 22 O11( s ) 11 H 2 O( g ) + 12C( s ) The rate of decomposition of C12 H 22 O11 is 0.75 mol min . What mass of C is produced in 10.0 seconds?

(3 marks)

2. Define the term activation energy.

(2 marks)

- 16 -

3. Consider the following equilibrium: 2 NF2( g ) N 2 F4( g ) Equilibrium shifts to the right when volume is decreased. Describe the changes in reaction rates that cause this shift to the right.

(2 marks)

4. Consider the following: H 2( g ) + I 2( g ) 2 HI( g )

(4 marks)

Initially, 0.200 mol H 2 and 0.200 mol I 2 are added to an empty 2.00 L container. At equilibrium, the [I 2 ] = 0.020 mol L . What is the value of K eq ?

OVER - 17 -

5. When equal volumes of 0.20 M Pb( NO3 )2 and 0.20 M KCl are mixed, a precipitate of PbCl 2 forms. a) Write the formula equation for the above reaction. (1 mark)

b) Write the complete ionic equation for the above reaction.

(1 mark)

c) Write the net ionic equation for the above reaction.

(1 mark)

6. Calculate the maximum CO3 2 that can exist in 0.0010 M Mg( NO3 )2 .

(3 marks)

- 18 -

7. The two reactants in an acid-base reaction are HNO2( aq ) and HCO3 ( aq ) . a) Write the equation for the above reaction. (2 marks)

b) Define the term conjugate acid-base pair.

(1 mark)

c) Write the formulas for a conjugate acid-base pair for the above reaction.

(1 mark)

OVER - 19 -

8. At 10.0C, K w = 2.95 10 15 for pure water. a) Calculate the pH of water at 10.0C . (3 marks)

b) A mixture of the indicators phenolphthalein and bromcresol green is added to the water. What is the resulting colour of the mixture? Explain. Resulting colour: Explanation:

(2 marks)

- 20 -

9. At a particular temperature a 1.0 M H 2S solution has a pH = 3.75 . Calculate the value of K a at this temperature.

(4 marks)

10. What is the main function of a buffer solution?

(1 mark)

OVER - 21 -

11. A titration is performed to determine the concentration of Fe 2 + in 25.00 mL of an FeSO 4 solution. It requires 22.52 mL of 0.015 M KMnO 4 to reach the equivalence point according to the following equation: MnO 4 + 5Fe 2 + + 8H + Mn 2 + + 5Fe3+ + 4 H 2 O Calculate the Fe 2 + .

(4 marks)

- 22 -

12. Consider the following diagram:

CuSO4

K2SO4

NaI

H2O

Students are asked to produce hydrogen and oxygen gas by the electrolysis of water. They are given three substances (CuSO 4 , K 2SO 4 and NaI ) to choose from to prepare an electrolytic solution that will only produce hydrogen and oxygen. a) Which substance should be selected? Explain why. Substance: Explanation: (3 marks)

b) Write the equation for the half-reaction that occurs at the anode in the electrolytic cell.

(1 mark)

c) Explain why it would not be acceptable to use a copper anode in this cell.

(1 mark)

END OF EXAMINATION - 23 -

Data Booklet
CHEMISTRY 12
Work done in this booklet will not be marked.

Ministry of Education

Revised January 2000

CONTENTS

Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Table Periodic Table of the Elements Atomic Masses of the Elements Names, Formulae, and Charges of Some Common Ions Solubility of Common Compounds in Water Solubility Product Constants at 25C Relative Strengths of Brnsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Acid-base Indicators Standard Reduction Potentials of Half-cells

REFERENCE
D.R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 80th edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1999.

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS


4 10 5 11 6 12 7 13 8 14 9 15 16 17 18
2

Hydrogen

He
Helium

1.0 14

4.0 5 6 7 8 9 10

Si
Silicon

Li
28.1 10.8 13 14 12.0
Boron Carbon

Be

N
Nitrogen

O
Oxygen

F
Fluorine

Ne
Neon

Lithium

Beryllium

Atomic Number Symbol Name Atomic Mass


14.0 15

6.9

9.0

16.0 16

19.0 17

20.2 18

11

12

Na Al
Aluminum

Mg
27.0 23 27 28 29 24 25 30 26 31

Si
Silicon

P
Phosphorus

S
Sulphur

Cl
Chlorine

Ar
Argon

Sodium

Magnesium

23.0

24.3

28.1 32

31.0 33

32.1 34

35.5 35

39.9 36

19

20

21

22

K
Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc

Ca
50.9 41 42 43 46 45 47 44 48 52.0 54.9 55.8 58.9 58.7 63.5 65.4

Sc

Ti

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga
Gallium

Ge
Germanium

As
Arsenic

Se
Selenium

Br
Bromine

Kr
Krypton

Potassium

Calcium

Scandium

Titanium

39.1

40.1

45.0

47.9

69.7 49

72.6 50

74.9 51

79.0 52

79.9 53

83.8 54

37

38

39

40

Rb Tc
Technetium Silver Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Niobium Molybdenum

Sr
92.9 73 75 77 78 76 74 95.9 (98) 101.1 102.9 106.4 107.9 79

Zr

Nb

Mo

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd
Cadmium

In
Indium

Sn
Tin

Sb
Antimony

Te
Tellurium

I
Iodine

Xe
Xenon

Rubidium

Strontium

Yttrium

Zirconium

85.5

87.6

88.9

91.2

112.4 80

114.8 81

118.7 82

121.8 83

127.6 84

126.9 85

131.3 86

55

56

57

72

Cs Ir
Iridium Platinum Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium

Ba
180.9 192.2 109 105 106 107 108 183.8 186.2 190.2 195.1

La

Hf

Ta

Re

Os

Pt

Au
Gold

Hg
Mercury

Tl
Thallium

Pb
Lead

Bi
Bismuth

Po
Polonium

At
Astatine

Rn
Radon

Cesium

Barium

Lanthanum

Hafnium

132.9

137.3

138.9

178.5

197.0

200.6

204.4

207.2

209.0

(209)

(210)

(222)

87

88

89

104

Fr
Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium

Ra
(262) (263) (262) (265)

Ac

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt
Meitnerium

Francium

Radium

Actinium

Rutherfordium

(223)

(226)

(227)

(261)

(266)

58 59 60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

Ce
Cerium Praseodymium

Pr
140.9 91

Nd
Neodymium

Pm
Promethium

Sm
Samarium

Eu
Europium

Gd
Gadolinium

Tb
Terbium

Dy
Dysprosium

Ho
Holmium

Er
Erbium

Tm
Thulium

Yb
Ytterbium

Lu
Lutetium

Based on mass of C12 at 12.00.


140.1 90

144.2 92

(145) 93

150.4 94

152.0 95

157.3 96

158.9 97

162.5 98

164.9 99

167.3 100

168.9 101

173.0 102

175.0 103

Th
Thorium

Pa
Protactinium

U
Uranium

Np
Neptunium

Pu
Plutonium

Am
Americium

Cm
Curium

Bk
Berkelium

Cf
Californium

Es
Einsteinium

Fm
Fermium

Md
Mendelevium

No
Nobelium

Lr
Lawrencium

Values in parentheses are the masses of the most stable or best known isotopes for elements which do not occur naturally.
232.0 231.0

238.0

(237)

(244)

(243)

(247)

(247)

(251)

(252)

(257)

(258)

(259)

(262)

ATOMIC MASSES OF THE ELEMENTS


Based on mass of C12 at 12.00. Values in parentheses are the mass number of the most stable or best known isotopes for elements that do not occur naturally.
Element Actinium Aluminum Americium Antimony Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium Bismuth Boron Bromine Cadmium Calcium Californium Carbon Cerium Cesium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copper Curium Dubnium Dysprosium Einsteinium Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Mendelevium Symbol Ac Al Am Sb Ar As At Ba Bk Be Bi B Br Cd Ca Cf C Ce Cs Cl Cr Co Cu Cm Db Dy Es Er Eu Fm F Fr Gd Ga Ge Au Hf He Ho H In I Ir Fe Kr La Lr Pb Li Lu Mg Mn Md Atomic Number 89 13 95 51 18 33 85 56 97 4 83 5 35 48 20 98 6 58 55 17 24 27 29 96 105 66 99 68 63 100 9 87 64 31 32 79 72 2 67 1 49 53 77 26 36 57 103 82 3 71 12 25 101 Atomic Mass (227) 27.0 (243) 121.8 39.9 74.9 (210) 137.3 (247) 9.0 209.0 10.8 79.9 112.4 40.1 (251) 12.0 140.1 132.9 35.5 52.0 58.9 63.5 (247) (262) 162.5 (252) 167.3 152.0 (257) 19.0 (223) 157.3 69.7 72.6 197.0 178.5 4.0 164.9 1.0 114.8 126.9 192.2 55.8 83.8 138.9 (262) 207.2 6.9 175.0 24.3 54.9 (258) 2 Element Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium Polonium Potassium Praseodymium Promethium Protactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Rubidium Ruthenium Rutherfordium Samarium Scandium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulphur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium Symbol Hg Mo Nd Ne Np Ni Nb N No Os O Pd P Pt Pu Po K Pr Pm Pa Ra Rn Re Rh Rb Ru Rf Sm Sc Se Si Ag Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb Tl Th Tm Sn Ti W U V Xe Yb Y Zn Zr Atomic Number 80 42 60 10 93 28 41 7 102 76 8 46 15 78 94 84 19 59 61 91 88 86 75 45 37 44 104 62 21 34 14 47 11 38 16 73 43 52 65 81 90 69 50 22 74 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 Atomic Mass 200.6 95.9 144.2 20.2 (237) 58.7 92.9 14.0 (259) 190.2 16.0 106.4 31.0 195.1 (244) (209) 39.1 140.9 (145) 231.0 (226) (222) 186.2 102.9 85.5 101.1 (261) 150.4 45.0 79.0 28.1 107.9 23.0 87.6 32.1 180.9 (98) 127.6 158.9 204.4 232.0 168.9 118.7 47.9 183.8 238.0 50.9 131.3 173.0 88.9 65.4 91.2

NAMES, FORMULAE, AND CHARGES OF SOME COMMON IONS


* Aqueous solutions are readily oxidized by air. ** Not stable in aqueous solutions.
Positive Ions (Cations) Al
3+

Aluminum Ammonium Barium Calcium Chromium(II), chromous Chromium(III), chromic Copper(I)*, cuprous Copper(II), cupric Hydrogen Hydronium Iron(II)*, ferrous Iron(III), ferric Lead(II), plumbous Negative Ions (Anions)

Pb

4+

Lead(IV), plumbic Lithium Magnesium Manganese(II), manganous Manganese(IV) Mercury(I)*, mercurous Mercury(II), mercuric Potassium Silver Sodium Tin(II)*, stannous Tin(IV), stannic Zinc

NH4+ Ba
2+

Li+ Mg2+ Mn2+ Mn


4+

Ca2+ Cr2+ Cr3+ Cu


+

Hg 22+ Hg2+ K+ Ag+ Na


+

Cu 2+ H+ H 3O
+

Fe 2+ Fe 3+ Pb 2+

Sn2+ Sn4+ Zn2+

Br CO3 2 ClO3 Cl

Bromide Carbonate Chlorate Chloride Chlorite Chromate Cyanide Dichromate Dihydrogen phosphate Ethanoate, acetate Fluoride Hydrogen carbonate, bicarbonate Hydrogen oxalate, binoxalate Hydrogen sulphate, bisulphate Hydrogen sulphide, bisulphide Hydrogen sulphite, bisulphite 3

OH

Hydroxide Hypochlorite Iodide Monohydrogen phosphate Nitrate Nitrite Oxalate Oxide** Perchlorate Permanganate Phosphate Sulphate Sulphide Sulphite Thiocyanate

ClO I

HPO 42 NO3 NO2 C 2O 42 O


2

ClO2 CrO4 2 CN Cr 2O7 2 H2 PO4 CH3 COO F


ClO4 MnO4 PO 4
3

HCO3 HC2O 4

SO 42 S
2

HSO4 HS HSO3

SO 32 SCN

SOLUBILITY OF COMMON COMPOUNDS IN WATER


The term soluble here means > 0.1 mol/L at 25C.
Negative Ions (Anions) All Positive Ions (Cations) Alkali ions: Li+ , Na + , K + , Rb + , Cs + , Fr + Solubility of Compounds Soluble

All

Hydrogen ion: H +

Soluble

All

Ammonium ion: NH 4

Soluble

Nitrate, NO3

All

Soluble

or or

Chloride,Cl Bromide, Br Iodide, I

All others

Soluble

Ag , Pb , Cu All others

2+

Low Solubility Soluble

Sulphate, SO4

Ag , Ca , Sr

2+

2+

, Ba , Pb

2+

2+

Low Solubility Soluble

Sulphide, S

Alkali ions, H + , NH 4 + , Be2 + , Mg2 + , Ca2 + , Sr2 + , Ba2 +

All others Alkali ions, H + , NH 4 + , Sr 2 + Soluble

Low Solubility

Hydroxide, OH

All others
3

Low Solubility
+ +

or or

Phosphate, PO4 Carbonate, CO Sulphite, SO

2 3 2 3

Alkali ions, H , NH 4

Soluble

All others

Low Solubility

SOLUBILITY PRODUCT CONSTANTS AT 25C


Name Barium carbonate Barium chromate Barium sulphate Calcium carbonate Calcium oxalate Calcium sulphate Copper(I) iodide Copper(II) iodate Copper(II) sulphide Iron(II) hydroxide Iron(II) sulphide Iron(III) hydroxide Lead(II) bromide Lead(II) chloride Lead(II) iodate Lead(II) iodide Lead(II) sulphate Magnesium carbonate Magnesium hydroxide Silver bromate Silver bromide Silver carbonate Silver chloride Silver chromate Silver iodate Silver iodide Strontium carbonate Strontium fluoride Strontium sulphate Zinc sulphide Formula BaCO3 BaCrO4 BaSO4 CaCO3 CaC2 O4 CaSO4 CuI Cu IO 3 CuS Fe OH FeS Fe OH PbBr2 PbCl2 Pb IO3 PbI2 PbSO4 MgCO3 Mg OH 2 AgBrO3 AgBr Ag2 CO3 AgCl Ag2 CrO4 AgIO3 AgI SrCO3 SrF2 SrSO 4 ZnS K sp 2.6 10 9 1.2 10 1.1 10
10 10

5.0 10 9 2.3 10 9 7.1 105 1.3 10 12 6.9 10


8

( )2

6.0 10 37 4.9 1017 6.0 10 19 2.6 10 39 6.6 10 6 1.2 10


5

( )2 ( )3 ( )2

3.7 1013 8.5 10


9

1.8 108 6.8 10 6 5.6 10 12 5.3 105 5.4 10 13 8.5 10


12

( )

1.8 1010 1.1 10 12 3.2 10 8 8.5 1017 5.6 10 10 4.3 10 9 3.4 10


7

2.0 10 25

RELATIVE STRENGTHS OF BRNSTED-LOWRY ACIDS AND BASES


in aqueous solution at room temperature. Name of Acid Perchloric Hydriodic Hydrobromic Hydrochloric Nitric Sulphuric Hydronium Ion Iodic Oxalic Sulphurous (SO 2 + H 2 O) Hydrogen sulphate ion Phosphoric Hexaaquoiron ion, iron( III ) ion Citric Nitrous
STRENGTH OF ACID

Acid HClO 4 HI HBr

Base H + + ClO 4 H +I
+ + + + +

Ka very large very large very large very large very large very large 1.0 1.7 10 1 5.9 10 2 1.5 10 2 1.2 10 2 7.5 10 3 6.0 10 3 7.1 10 4 4.6 10 4 3.5 10 4 1.8 10 4 1.5 10 4 6.5 10 5 6.4 10 5 1.8 10 5 1.7 10 5 1.4 10 5 4.3 10 7 4.1 10 7 1.0 10 7 9.1 10 8
4 2

STRONG

H + Br

HCl H + Cl

HNO 3 H + NO 3

Hydrofluoric Methanoic, formic Hexaaquochromium ion, chromium( III ) ion Benzoic Hydrogen oxalate ion Ethanoic, acetic Dihydrogen citrate ion Hexaaquoaluminum ion, aluminum ion Carbonic (CO 2 + H 2 O) Monohydrogen citrate ion Hydrogen sulphite ion Hydrogen sulphide Dihydrogen phosphate ion Boric Ammonium ion Hydrocyanic Phenol Hydrogen carbonate ion Hydrogen peroxide Monohydrogen phosphate ion Water Hydroxide ion Ammonia

+ HF H +F + HCOOH H + HCOO 3+ 2+ + Cr(H 2 O)6 H + Cr(H 2 O)5 (OH) + C H COOH H + C H COO 6 5 6 5 2 + HC 2 O 4 H + C2O4 + CH 3COOH H + CH 3COO 2 + H C H O H + HC H O 2 6 5 7 3+ 6 5 7

+ H 3 PO 4 H + H 2 PO 4 3+ 2+ + Fe(H 2 O)6 H + Fe(H 2 O)5 (OH) + H 3C 6 H 5 O 7 H + H 2 C 6 H 5O 7 + HNO H + NO 2 2

+ H2C2O4 H + HC 2 O 4 + H 2 SO 3 H + HSO 3 2 + HSO H + SO 4 4

H 2 SO 4 H + HSO 4 + H 3O + H + H2O + HIO H + IO


3 3

WEAK STRENGTH OF BASE

Al(H 2 O)6

H 2 CO 3 HC 6 H 5O 7 2

+ HSO 3 H + SO 3 + H 2S H + HS + H PO H + HPO 2 4

2+ + H + Al(H 2 O)5 (OH) + H + HCO 3 3 + H +C H O 6 5 7 2

6.2 10 8 7.3 10 10 5.6 10 10 4.9 10 10 1.3 10 10 5.6 10 11 2.4 10 12 2.2 10 13 1.0 10 14 very small very small
STRONG

WEAK

+ C 6 H 5OH H + C 6 H 5O 2 + HCO 3 H + CO 3 + H O H + HO 2

+ H 3 BO 3 H + H 2 BO 3 + NH 4 + H + NH 3 + HCN H + CN

HPO 4

3 + H + PO 4 + H2O H + OH +

2 2

OH H + + O 2 NH 3 H + NH 2 6

ACID-BASE INDICATORS
Indicator Methyl violet Thymol blue Orange IV Methyl orange Bromcresol green Methyl red Chlorophenol red Bromthymol blue Phenol red Neutral red Thymol blue Phenolphthalein Thymolphthalein Alizarin yellow Indigo carmine pH Range in Which Colour Change Occurs 0.0 1.6 1.2 2.8 1.4 2.8 3.2 4.4 3.8 5.4 4.8 6.0 5.2 6.8 6.0 7.6 6.6 8.0 6.8 8.0 8.0 9.6 8.2 10.0 9.4 10.6 10.1 12.0 11.4 13.0 Colour Change as pH Increases yellow to blue red to yellow red to yellow red to yellow yellow to blue red to yellow yellow to red yellow to blue yellow to red red to amber yellow to blue colourless to pink colourless to blue yellow to red blue to yellow

STANDARD REDUCTION POTENTIALS OF HALF-CELLS


Ionic concentrations are at 1M in water at 25 C. Oxidizing Agents Reducing Agents
2F 2SO 4 2 2H 2 O Mn 2 + + 4 H 2 O Au ( s )
1 2

E (Volts )
+ 2.87

Hg 2 + + 2 e Hg ( l ) + 1 O + 2 H 10 7 M + 2 e H2O 2 2( g ) 2 NO 3 + 4 H + + 2 e N 2 O 4 + 2H 2 O Ag + + e Ag

F2( g ) + 2 e S2 O 8 2 + 2 e H 2 O 2 + 2H + + 2e MnO 4 + 8H + + 5e Au 3 + + 3e BrO 3 + 6H + + 5e ClO 4 + 8H + + 8e Cl 2( g ) + 2 e Cr2 O 7 2 + 14 H + + 6e 1 + 2H + + 2e O 2 2( g ) MnO 2( s ) + 4 H + + 2 e IO 3 + 6H + + 5e Br2( l ) + 2 e AuCl 4 + 3e NO + 4 H + + 3e


3

WEAK

STRONG

+ 2.01 +1.78 +1.51 +1.50 +1.48 +1.39 +1.36 +1.23 +1.23 +1.22 +1.20 +1.09

Cl + 4 H 2 O 2Cl

Br2( l ) + 3H 2 O

2Cr 3 + + 7H 2 O H2O Mn 2 + + 2 H 2 O 2 Br
1 I 2 2( s )

+ 3H 2 O

Au ( s ) + 4Cl

+1.00 + 0.96 + 0.85 + 0.82 + 0.80 + 0.80 + 0.80

Overpotential Effect

NO ( g ) + 2 H 2 O

1 2

STRENGTH OF OXIDIZING AGENT

O 2( g ) + 2 H + + 2e H2O2 MnO 4 + 2 H 2 O + 3e MnO 2( s ) + 4OH 2 + 2e I I Cu + + e Cu ( s ) H 2 SO 3 + 4 H + + 4e S( s ) + 3H 2 O Cu 2 + + 2 e Cu


(s)
2( s )

Hg 2 2 + + e Hg ( l ) 2+ Fe 3 + + e Fe

(s)

STRENGTH OF REDUCING AGENT

+ 0.77 + 0.70 + 0.60 + 0.54 + 0.52 + 0.45 + 0.34


+ 0.17 + 0.15 + 0.15 + 0.14 + 0.00 0.13 0.14 0.26 0.28 0.28 0.40 0.41 0.41 0.45 0.69 0.74 0.76 0.79 0.83 1.19 1.66 2.37 2.71 2.87 2.89 2.91 2.93 2.98 3.03 3.04

SO 4 2 + 4 H + + 2 e H 2 SO 3 + H 2 O + Cu 2 + + e Cu 4+ 2+ Sn + 2 e Sn S( s ) + 2 H + + 2 e H 2 S( g ) 2H + + 2e H 2( g ) Pb 2 + + 2 e Pb ( s ) Sn 2 + + 2 e Sn
(s)

Ni 2 + + 2 e Ni ( s ) H 3 PO 4 + 2 H + + 2 e H 3 PO 3 + H 2 O Co 2 + + 2 e Co Se ( s ) + 2 H + + 2 e H 2 Se 2+ Cr 3 + + e Cr
(s) (s)

Overpotential Effect

Te ( s ) + 2 H + + 2 e H 2 Te 2H 2 O + 2e H 2( g ) + 2OH 2+ Mn + 2 e Mn Al 3 + + 3e Al ( s ) Mg 2 + + 2 e Mg
(s) (s)

2 Ag 2 S( s ) + 2 e 2 Ag (s) + S Cr 3 + + 3e Cr (s) Zn 2 + + 2 e Zn

7 2H 2 O + 2e H 2 + 2OH 10 M 2+ Fe + 2 e Fe

(s)

Na + + e Na ( s ) Ca 2 + + 2 e Ca Sr 2 + + 2 e Sr( s ) Ba 2 + + 2 e Ba ( s ) K+ + e K
(s) (s)

STRONG

WEAK

Rb + + e Rb ( s ) Cs + + e Cs( s ) Li + + e Li
(s)