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TOP-DOWN, TEACHER DELIVERED, "DIRECT" INSTRUCTION Audio Tutorial Method Definition The Audio-Tutorial approach is situated firmly within

the direct instruction paradigm, as course materials are pre-structured, segmented, and presented to single learners in the order and manner deemed most appropriate by the instructor or an instructional designer. Contrast this model with problem-based learning in which students must decide on and select materials to study, order them independently of instructor aid, and interpret the content within their group. Audio-tutorial methods are behavioral in nature and are representative of traditional instructional design models which seek mastery of specified content by all learners. Design and Development Tips Audio-tutorial units obviously make use of sound elements which can be recorded and edited with software programs. Once digitized, sound files can be combined with non-audio content such as diagrams and photos, video, or text. As a final step, decide how to combine your audio and non-audio elements (e.g., web pages, PowerPoint shows, multimedia presentations, streaming media files for Internet delivery).

Personalized System of Instruction

Definition The Personalized System of Instruction fits into several paradigms, but is most closely aligned with direct instruction. It fits with direct instruction by requiring student to work on course modules independently. It fits slightly with social constructivism by also requiring students to meet weekly in peer teams with a proctor to answer questions and take a quiz on the content studied. Students do not engage in considerable team work as most social constructivist models advocate, rather, they only correct one another's responses to proctor-led questions. Design and Development Tips Since PSI units are self-paced and typically designed for students in large lecture classes, technologies that can be accessed by many students in any location are preferable. For instance, web pages or CD-Rom modules in computer labs allow for multimedia modules to be easily accessed. To compile multimedia elements, it may also be necessary to work with audio editing software, video editing software, and image editing software

Goal Based Scenarios


Teachers identify a specific set of skills to teach via a goal-based scenario, then "embed" that skill learning in a task, activity, or goal that the student will find interesting or motivational. Students are exposed to pre-specified content that the instructor chooses, and for that reason, the paradigm for goal-based scenarios is skewed slightly toward mastery learning. The model is not as rigid as mastery learning models, however. Rather, teachers may design a diverse set of goals to help learners with different interests acquire the same skills. In some cases, learners may even be permitted to set their own goals for acquiring the teacher's desired skill set. Goal-based scenarios can be similar to constructionist/project-based environments if learners are given a design goal to create some product (e.g., physical model, virtual magazine). Design and Development Tips Goal-based scenarios often take the form of multimedia learning environments in which students undertake authentic roles. Schank designed the "Broadcast News" multimedia environment, in which students managed a virtual newscast, developed story lines by accessing and organizing a large resource database, and eventually delivered the news as professionals. Students learned historical facts by organizing and re-presenting provided data. To design such goal-based environments, Internet web sites can link to a diversity of resources. Alternatively, authoring programs will allow an instructor to create a multimedia environment for interacting with resources or perhaps mock-interviewing virtual persons.

BLEND, FROM "DIRECT" TO "SOCIAL" Case-Based Teaching Definition Case-based teaching is a flexible model. If an instructor uses leading questions to direct students toward a moral or process he or she deems "correct," the model is not far removed from direct instruction. If the instructor, however, allows students to formulate their own opinions of a case by promoting group-coordinated research activities, debate, or simulated decision making, the model is more closely aligned with social constructivism. The key difference is the extent to which an instructor directly leads the student versus promoting activities through which students can lead themselves and develop valuable reasoning skill in the process. Design and Development Tips for creating cases... Cases can either be "presented" to the student with one common ending, or "explored" by the student with different outcomes resulting from student choices while engaged with the interactive case. "Presented" cases can take many forms from simple print-based stories, to web pages with graphics and imagery, to full-blown multimedia with audio and video. "Explored" cases are more difficult to develop and require knowledge of interactive branching techniques. Such cases can be created by multimedia authoring programs (e.g., Macromedia Director), or through emerging web technologies (e.g., Macromedia Flash and Coursebuilder).

for using cases in the classroom... It may be helpful to utilize a communication tool in your classroom for students to discuss and debate cases. Whole-class and small group discussion boards like those found in online course tools can facilitate asychronous discussion of cases between class sessions. If teaching from a distance, cases can be debriefed synchronously with distance learning tools. Guided Design Definition Guided design reflects several paradigms. It reflects direct instruction by requiring students to read or work on pre-specified content segments or problems. It reflects social constructivism by requiring students to later apply and transfer the content they have learned to real world problems. Design and Development Tips The guided design model makes use of self-paced, independent teaching materials to cover prerequisite core knowledge for later application to authentic problems. These selfinstructional materials can take the form of handouts, web pages, computer multimedia programs, or other formats. The guided design model prescribes grouping students to work on authentic problems in the classroom after self-instruction. Web course tools might facilitate the use of this model in distance courses outside the traditional classroom by allowing instructors to form online teams for discussing issues and sharing documents. The model also suggests students create a document or product representing their solution to the authentic problem posed. Students might make use of web page editors to create such products. Time to train students on such products could be considered a deterrent, however "SOCIAL" MODELS, STUDENT-TEACHER NEGOTIATED Anchored Instruction Definition Anchored instruction lies within the social constructivist paradigm since small groups work together to understand and solve realistic problems. Anchored instruction is most closely related to the goal-based scenario model. While anchored instruction may also resemble problem-based learning (PBL), it is less open-ended. Most anchored modules are designed for young learners, and thus embed all of the necessary data to solve the problem within the modules themselves. Substantial independent research and data collection are not required in anchored modules, but are required in PBL. Design and Development Tips Glaser and Prestidge (1995) suggest technologies useful for delivering anchored modules will include affordances for students to segment and chunk data from the presented "stories" or problems. Videodiscs, for example, include various time codes or markers for

different video segments. Students can easily write down a time code corresponding to a clue in the story line, then refer back to that information when needed. Since all data required to solve a problem should be embedded within the story line, the ability to refer back to certain data segments is a useful design consideration. Regular videotape would be inefficient for rapid playback and review, while most multimedia formats can be readily replayed by users (e.g., quicktime movies). Anchored modules can take the form of full-blown multimedia with branching or simple web pages with photos and text. In general, the presentation should be as realistic as possible. Text can be readily displayed on a web page, but the use of audio, video, or graphics should be considered as well to promote realism. Interactive branching could also promote understanding, with a particular "story" changing in response to the students' inputs (i.e., different events are triggered by students choosing option A versus option B versus option C). Cognitive Apprenticeship Definition Cognitive apprenticeships are situated within the social constructivist paradigm. They suggest students work in teams on projects or problems with close scaffolding of the instructor. Cognitive apprenticeships are representative of Vygotskian "zones of proximal development" in which student tasks are slightly more difficult than students can manage independently, requiring the aid of their peers and instructor to succeed. Cognitive apprenticeships reflect situated cognition theory, as do anchored instruction modules described on a previous page Design and Development Tips Programs that allow realistic situations to be represented are suitable for designing situated materials. For instance, authoring programs allow realistic cases or simulations to be represented as multimedia. Understanding video, audio, and image editing software will facilitate the creation of multimedia. In situated cognition, problem solving activities should not be "neat" and pre-defined, but rather, complex with students required to discover relevant procedures. Thus, a situated multimedia program will not reflect a drill-and-practice environment, but more closely approximate a resource set from which relevant information is sorted and derived by students. Herrington and Oliver (1997) suggest the use of expert performances and models in situated multimedia (e.g., including a video clip of an MBA graduate modelling strategic decisions in the workplace). Multimedia should not flow in a linear fashion, but provide students with multiple perspectives on presented issues that they must judge. Further, multimedia should require students to collaborate and act upon presented information, by developing hypotheses and solution plans in teams. Coaching and scaffolding is a key part of situated materials. Although hints and prompts can be embedded in programs, teachers will need to closely monitor student use and understanding of programmed help, providing additional support when needed.

Perhaps the most critical component of situated learning is communication among peers. This component may be best elicited by designing technology-free discussions, debates, interviews, and other face-to-face activities. If desired, web-based tools such as discussion boards and chat rooms may promote additional communication and problem discussion. Cooperative Learning Definition Cooperative learning is situated within the social constructivist paradigm. Students work on projects or problems in teams with both personal and team accountability for conceptual understanding. Elements of cooperative learning are found in many of the teaching models described in this web site, including anchored instruction, cognitive apprenticeships, problem-based learning, and often case-based learning. Design and Development Tips Multimedia programs can provide the incentive to "kick-off" a cooperative learning task. In structured settings such as K-12 classrooms, multimedia programs often present a scenario to an entire class (see Tom Snyder interactive group software). Each student in a cooperative team is assigned a role and a different reading, then back together, teams share and compile their data to collectively develop a solution to the situation posed. Multimedia scenarios can be developed with authoring software. To include audio and video in a scenario, additional audio and video editing programs may prove beneficial to know. Gillan and Dubois (see reference) recommend the use of authoring programs for cooperative learning, engaging students in team research then constructionist design tasks (see constructionism model). Each student may research a small portion of a larger issue, then construct a resource with teammates to teach others about their topic. Design or project tasks may be facilitated with several software programs including authoring programs or web site editors. Web course tools such as Blackboard and WebCT may facilitate cooperation, as they allow students to communicate asynchronously with e-mail and bulletin board tools, or synchronously with chat rooms. Further, they provide digital drop boxes where project files may be exchanged during development or constructionist activities

BLEND OF "SOCIAL" AND "RADICAL" Constructionist; Project-Based Models Constructionism lies between the social and radical constructivist paradigms. The model suggests students learn by creating materials. Unlike constructivist models that provide students with cases and context-bound problems, constructionism involves students in the creation of their own cases or problems. Students may work alone or in teams, but their efforts are scaffolded closely by the instructor. Design and Development Tips

The Valley of the Shadow digital library could be used by students working on constructionist design tasks to conduct background research into topics of interest (e.g., women in the war, newspapers during the war, food supply during the war), then write a paper or develop some other product to interpret or teach their selected topic. To adopt constructionism, you will need to provide your students with adequate resources and tools. Depending on the content you wish your students to interpret and re-present, resources could include graphics, photos, text, links to web sites, books, or access to human resources via Internet communication tools. After students interpret and critique the resources, they use development tools to construct or re-present information in a new format (e.g., paper, design, Web page, multimedia program). You can use student projects to develop "collections" of related materials. For instance, if each student group was assigned a particular Native American tribe, then asked to develop a Web site describing the culture of their assigned tribe, the instructor could link together each Web site into a large "digital library" describing Native American cultures. Future students can then use the projects of former students to learn about specific topics.

BOTTOM-UP MODELS, STUDENT-CENTERED, "RADICAL" Problem-Based Learning Definition Problem-based learning (PBL) is situated approximately half-way between the social and radical constructivist paradigms. PBL utilizes student groups, but each group member is also responsible for independent research. Further, instructor scaffolding is considerably less direct in problem-based learning than in other constructivist models such as anchored instruction. Students are allowed to struggle and induct their own mental model of course concepts with only occasional "life-lines" from the instructor when concept processing falls off-track. Problem-based learning is most similar to case-based instruction, but in its purest form, PBL is more open-ended. Design and Development Tips Products are typically not recommended for designing problem-based learning materials. Students conduct independent research using the tools and resources of a particular professional domain. Medical students might utilize medical libraries and information systems, physicists might utilize laboratories, and geographers might utilize geographic information systems. Students do not typically access materials designed by an instructor to "teach" some content item. They might access an instructor's database or collection of slides, visuals, documents, or other media relevant to the problem.

Learning Environments Definition

Learning environments are typically constructivist in nature, engaging learners in "sensemaking" or reasoning about extensive resource sets. Learning environments typically include four components: an enabling context, resources, a set of tools, and scaffolds (Hannafin, Land, & Oliver, 1999). Authentic or realistic contexts are provided to motivate learners, and typically take the form of complex, full-scale problems representative of realworld tasks. To help students understand their complex problems, extensive resources can be provided. A truly open-ended learning environment would involve students in independent research to find and select their own relevant resources (e.g., in the campus library, on the internet). In some learning environments, however, selected resource sets are provided to learners. A full set of tools should be provided to help learners process information, manipulate data, and discuss the data. Scaffolds should also be present to bolster student problem solving as needed. These can take many forms from tools to teachers to student peers. Design and Development Tips Learning environments take many different forms. Researchers have designed and developed extensive computerized learning environments. The WISE tool at Berkeley provides resources, tools, and a problem-solving template to help young students adopt a scientific problem solving process. The Hi-Ce group at the University of Michigan has developed a series of software programs to similarly guide students through realistic scientific inquiries. Beyond these extensive programs, individual researchers can develop their own learning environments for the classroom. To create a learning environment, it is perhaps less important to focus on developing extensive materials, and more important to provide your students with appropriate tools and resources to conduct their own inquiries. Compiling a relevant database of resources for your students may be the most complicated task, facilitated by authoring programs to create CD-roms, or web page editors to create web sites. Remember, however, instructors are not required to provide all resources to students, unless serious time constraints are present. Engaging students in research and finding relevant resources on their own is a valuable learning task in many learning environments.