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Safe Alert ABSTRACT

With the rising power of technology, we are able to accomplish things at a much quicker rate. Not only has technology given us more information, but it also has given us the ability to communicate, organize, and manage our time. With the ever increasing cases of robbery, we require systems that are quick to act and send immediate alert to the responsible person. Most of such cases occur when the owner or any care taker of the particular place is away; he is caught unawares and cannot perform the necessary action. We have designed such a system that alerts the user of any such action by an intruder, even an attempt at breaking a safe will be alerted to the user and the user can take the specific action necessary, like calling up the nearest police station or intimating his security guard, whatever seems appropriate. Safe Alert is a system designed to detect intrusion unauthorized entry into a particular area. Safe Alert is used in residential, commercial, industrial, and military properties for protection against burglary as well as personal protection against intruders.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. 2. 3.

Introduction ...............................................................................................6 Block Diagram..10 Hardware Used.11 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. Piezo Electric Sensor11 Arduino Microcontroller...12 Bluetooth Module..13

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Circuit Interface15 Software ...17 5.1. Eclipse..17 Arduino Code.19 Eclipse Interface.20 Eclipse Code...26 References...31

1. Introduction
Having a safe alert system is a preventative measure against burglaries and also a warning and alert system so that when or if a burglary should occur, response is immediate. Essentially a safe alert is there to protect your property, yourself and your family. A good safe alert should be there as an early warning system that someone is on your property uninvited, whether you are home or away. You should expect your alert to reliably go off once someone tries to enter your property illegally. A good alert system should never be able to be unplugged at the wall socket; rather a wireless or radio system is best. For a more effective response to your alert it is best to have your alert system connected to a response team. When your alert is triggered this response team is immediately alerted and they can come to your property to investigate.

The Various Sensors used for the alert system are:


Passive infrared detectors
The passive infrared (PIR) motion detector is one of the most common sensors found in household and small business environments. It offers affordable and reliable functionality. The term passive refers to the fact that the detector does not generate or radiate its own energy; it works entirely by detecting the heat energy given off by other objects.

Ultrasonic detectors
Using frequencies between 15 kHz and 75 kHz, these active detectors transmit ultrasonic sound waves that are inaudible to humans. The Doppler shift principle is the underlying method of operation, in which a change in frequency is detected due to object motion. This is caused when a moving object changes the frequency of sound waves around it.

Microwave detectors
This device emits microwaves from a transmitter and detects any reflected microwaves or reduction in beam intensity using a receiver. The transmitter and receiver are usually combined inside a single housing (monostatic) for indoor applications, and separate housings (bistatic) for outdoor applications. To reduce false alarms this type of detector is usually combined with a passive infrared detector or "Dualtec" alarm.

Photo-electric beams
Photoelectric beam systems detect the presence of an intruder by transmitting visible or infrared light beams across an area, where these beams may be obstructed. To improve the detection surface area, the beams are often employed in stacks of two or more. However, if an intruder is aware of the technology's presence, it can be avoided. The technology can be an effective long-range detection system, if installed in stacks of three or more where the transmitters and receivers are staggered to create a fence-like barrier. Systems are available for both internal and external applications.

Glass break detection


The glass break detector may be used for internal perimeter building protection. Glass break acoustic detectors are mounted in close proximity to the glass panes and listen for sound frequencies associated with glass breaking.

Smoke, heat, and carbon monoxide detectors


Most systems may also be equipped with smoke, heat, and/or carbon monoxide detectors. These are also known as 24 hour zones (which are on at all times). Smoke detectors and heat detectors protect from the risk of fire and carbon monoxide detectors protect from the risk of carbon monoxide. Although an intruder alarm panel may also have these detectors connected, it may not meet all the local fire code requirements of a fire alarm system.

Vibration (shaker) or inertia sensors


These devices are mounted on barriers and are used primarily to detect an attack on the structure itself. The technology relies on an unstable mechanical configuration that forms part of the electrical circuit. When movement or vibration occurs, the unstable portion of the circuit moves and breaks the current flow, which produces an alarm. The technology of the devices varies and can be sensitive to different levels of vibration. The medium transmitting the vibration must be correctly selected for the specific sensor as they are best suited to different types of structures and configurations.

Passive magnetic field detection


This buried security system is based on the Magnetic Anomaly Detection principle of operation. The system uses an electromagnetic field generator powered by two wires running in parallel. Both wires run along the perimeter and are usually installed about 5 inches apart on top of a wall or about 12"/30 cm below ground. The wires are connected to a signal processor which analyzes any change in the magnetic field. 4

E-field
This proximity system can be installed on building perimeters, fences, and walls. It also has the ability to be installed free standing on dedicated poles. The system uses an electromagnetic field generator powering one wire, with another sensing wire running parallel to it.

Microwave barriers
The operation of a microwave barrier is very simple. This type of device produces an electromagnetic beam using high frequency waves that pass from the transmitter to the receiver, creating an invisible but sensitive wall of protection. When the receiver detects a difference of condition within the beam (and hence a possible intrusion), the system begins a detailed analysis of the situation. If the system considers the signal a real intrusion, it provides an alarm signal that can be treated in analog or digital form.

Microphonic systems
Microphonic based systems vary in design but each is generally based on the detection of an intruder attempting to cut or climb over a chainwire fence. Usually the microphonic detection systems are installed as sensor cables attached to rigid chainwire fences, however some specialised versions of these systems can also be installed as buried systems underground. Depending on the version selected, it can be sensitive to different levels of noise or vibration. The system is based on coaxial or electro-magnetic sensor cable with the controller having the ability to differentiate between signals from the cable or chainwire being cut, an intruder climbing the fence, or bad weather conditions.

Taut wire fence systems


A taut wire perimeter security system is basically an independent screen of tensioned tripwires usually mounted on a fence or wall. Alternatively, the screen can be made so thick that there is no need for a supporting chainwire fence. These systems are designed to detect any physical attempt to penetrate the barrier. Taut wire systems can operate with a variety of switches or detectors that sense movement at each end of the tensioned wires

Fibre optic cable


A fibre-optic cable can be used to detect intruders by measuring the difference in the amount of light sent through the fibre core. If the cable is disturbed, light will 'leak' out and the receiver unit will detect a difference in the amount of light received. The cable can be attached directly to a chainwire fence or bonded into a barbed steel tape that is used to protect the tops of walls and fences. This type of barbed tape provides a good physical deterrent as well as giving an immediate alarm if the tape is cut or severely distorted. Other types work on the detection of change in polarization which is caused by fiber position change.

H-field
This system employs an electro-magnetic field disturbance principle based on two unshielded (or 'leaky') coaxial cables buried about 1015 cm deep and located at about 1 metre apart. The transmitter emits continuous Radio Frequency (RF) energy along one cable and the energy is received by the other cable. When the change in field strength weakens due to the presence of an object and reaches a pre-set lower threshold, an alarm condition is generated.

Piezoelectric sensor
A piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses the piezoelectric effect to measure pressure, acceleration, strain or force by converting them to an electrical charge.

Block Diagram

HARDWARE USED

Piezoelectric sensor
The Piezoelectric effect is an effect in which energy is converted between mechanical and electrical forms. It was discovered in the 1880's by the Curie brothers. Specifically, when a pressure (piezo means pressure in Greek) is applied to a polarized crystal, the resulting mechanical deformation results in an electrical charge. Piezoelectric microphones serve as a good example of this phenomenon. Microphones turn an acoustical pressure into a voltage. Alternatively, when an electrical charge is applied to a polarized crystal, the crystal undergoes a mechanical deformation which can in turn create an acoustical pressure. An example of this can be seen in piezoelectric speakers. (These are the cause of those annoying system beeps that are all too common in today's computers). Electrets are solids which have a permanent electrical polarization. (These are basically the electrical analogs of magnets, which exhibit a permanent magnetic polarization). In general, the alignment of the internal electric dipoles would result in a charge which would be observable on the surface of the solid. In practice, this small charge is quickly dissipated by free charges from the surrounding atmosphere which are attracted by the surface charges. Electrets are commonly used in microphones. Permanent polarization as in the case of the electrets is also observed in crystals. In these structures, each cell of the crystal has an electric dipole, and the cells are oriented such that the electric dipoles are aligned. Again, this results in excess surface charge which attracts free charges from the surrounding atmosphere making the crystal electrically neutral. If a sufficient force is applied to the piezoelectric crystal, a deformation will take place. This deformation disrupts the orientation of the electrical dipoles and creates a situation in which the charge is not completely canceled. This results in a temporary excess of surface charge, which subsequently is manifested as a voltage which is developed across the crystal. In order to utilize this physical principle to make a sensor to measure force, we must be able to measure the surface charge on the crystal. Two metal plates are used to sandwich the crystal making a capacitor. As mentioned previously, an external force cause a deformation of the crystal results in a charge which is a function of the applied force. In its operating region, a greater force will result in more surface charge. This charge results in a voltage , where is the charge resulting from a force f, and C is the capacitance of the device. In the manner described above, piezoelectric crystals act as transducers which turn force, or mechanical stress into electrical charge which in turn can be converted into a voltage. Alternatively, if one was to apply a voltage to the plates of the system described above, the resultant electric field would cause the internal electric dipoles to re-align which would cause a deformation of the material. An 8

example of this is the fact that piezoelectric transducers find use both as speakers (voltage to mechanical) and microphones (mechanical to electrical). Arduino Microcontroller Arduino is a single-board microcontroller designed to make the process of using electronics in multidisciplinary projects more accessible. The hardware consists of a simple open source hardware board designed around an 8-bit Atmel AVR microcontroller, though a new model has been designed around a 32-bit Atmel ARM. The software consists of a standard programming language compiler and a boot loader that executes on the microcontroller. Arduino boards can be purchased pre-assembled or do-it-yourself kits. Hardware design information is available for those who would like to assemble an Arduino by hand. It was estimated in mid-2011 that over 300,000 official Arduinos had been commercially produced at that point. An Arduino board consists of an Atmel 8-bit AVR microcontroller with complementary components to facilitate programming and incorporation into other circuits. An important aspect of the Arduino is the standard way that connectors are exposed, allowing the CPU board to be connected to a variety of interchangeable add-on modules known as shields. Some shields communicate with the Arduino board directly over various pins, but many shields are individually addressable via an IC serial bus, allowing many shields to be stacked and used in parallel. Official Arduinos have used the megaAVR series of chips, specifically the ATmega8, ATmega168, ATmega328, ATmega1280, and ATmega2560. A handful of other processors have been used by Arduino compatibles. Most boards include a 5 volt linear regulator and a 16 MHz crystal oscillator (or ceramic resonator in some variants), although some designs such as the LilyPad run at 8 MHz and dispense with the onboard voltage regulator due to specific form-factor restrictions. An Arduino's microcontroller is also preprogrammed with a boot loader that simplifies uploading of programs to the onchip flash memory, compared with other devices that typically need an external programmer. At a conceptual level, when using the Arduino software stack, all boards are programmed over an RS-232 serial connection, but the way this is implemented varies by hardware version. Serial Arduino boards contain a simple level shifter circuit to convert between RS-232-level and TTL-level signals. Current Arduino boards are programmed via USB, implemented using USB-to-serial adapter chips such as the FTDI FT232. Some variants, such as the Arduino Mini and the unofficial Boarduino, use a detachable USB-to-serial adapter board or cable, Bluetooth or other methods. (When used with traditional microcontroller tools instead of the Arduino IDE, standard AVR ISP programming is used.) The Arduino board exposes most of the microcontroller's I/O pins for use by other circuits. The Diecimila, Duemilanove, and current Uno provide 14 digital I/O pins, six of which can produce pulse-width modulated signals, and six analog inputs. These pins are on the top of the board, via female 0.1 inch headers. Several plug-in application shields are also commercially available.

The Arduino Nano, and Arduino-compatible Bare Bones Board and Boarduino boards may provide male header pins on the underside of the board to be plugged into solderless breadboards. There are a great many Arduino-compatible and Arduino-derived boards. Some are functionally equivalent to an Arduino and may be used interchangeably. Many are the basic Arduino with the addition of commonplace output drivers, often for use in school-level education to simplify the construction of buggies and small robots. Others are electrically equivalent but change the form factor, sometimes permitting the continued use of Shields, sometimes not. Some variants use completely different processors, with varying levels of compatibility. The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 . It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Uno differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it features the Atmega8U2 programmed as a USB-to-serial converter. BLUETOOTH Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength radio transmissions in the ISM band from 24002480 MHz) from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security. Created by telecom vendor Ericsson in 1994,it was originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS-232 data cables. It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization. Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group, which has more than 18,000 member companies in the areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics. Bluetooth was standardized as IEEE 802.15.1, but the standard is no longer maintained. The SIG oversees the development of the specification, manages the qualification program, and protects the trademarks. Bluetooth operates in the range of 24002483.5 MHz (including guard bands). This is in the globally unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency band. Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spread spectrum. The transmitted data is divided into packets and each packet is transmitted on one of the 79 designated Bluetooth channels. Each channel has a bandwidth of 1 MHz. The first channel starts at 2402 MHz and continues up to 2480 MHz in 1 MHz steps. It usually performs 1600 hops per second, with Adaptive Frequency-Hopping (AFH) enabled. Originally Gaussian frequency-shift keying (GFSK) modulation was the only modulation scheme available; subsequently, since the introduction of Bluetooth 2.0+EDR, /4-DQPSK and 8DPSK modulation may also be used between compatible devices. Devices functioning with GFSK are said to be operating in basic rate (BR) mode where an instantaneous data rate of 1 Mbit/s is possible. The 10

term Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) is used to describe /4-DPSK and 8DPSK schemes, each giving 2 and 3 Mbit/s respectively. The combination of these (BR and EDR) modes in Bluetooth radio technology is classified as a "BR/EDR radio". Bluetooth is a packet-based protocol with a master-slave structure. One master may communicate with up to 7 slaves in a piconet; all devices share the master's clock. Packet exchange is based on the basic clock, defined by the master, which ticks at 312.5 s intervals. Two clock ticks make up a slot of 625 s; two slots make up a slot pair of 1250 s. In the simple case of single-slot packets the master transmits in even slots and receives in odd slots; the slave, conversely, receives in even slots and transmits in odd slots. Packets may be 1, 3 or 5 slots long but in all cases the master transmit will begin in even slots and the slave transmit in odd slots. Bluetooth provides a secure way to connect and exchange information between devices such as faxes, mobile phones, telephones, laptops, personal computers, printers, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, digital cameras, and video game consoles. It was principally designed as a low-bandwidth technology.

Communication and connection


A master Bluetooth device can communicate with a maximum of seven devices in a piconet (an ad-hoc computer network using Bluetooth technology), though not all devices reach this maximum. The devices can switch roles, by agreement, and the slave can become the master (for example, a headset initiating a connection to a phone will necessarily begin as master, as initiator of the connection; but may subsequently prefer to be slave). The Bluetooth Core Specification provides for the connection of two or more piconets to form a scatternet, in which certain devices simultaneously play the master role in one piconet and the slave role in another. At any given time, data can be transferred between the master and one other device (except for the little-used broadcast mode The master chooses which slave device to address; typically, it switches rapidly from one device to another in a round-robin fashion. Since it is the master that chooses which slave to address, whereas a slave is (in theory) supposed to listen in each receive slot, being a master is a lighter burden than being a slave. Being a master of seven slaves is possible; being a slave of more than one master is difficult. The specification is vague as to required behavior in scatternets

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