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Working with Templates

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Template Basics
Your template-based product's library includes a variety of templates. Templates define the topology, major role, and default parameters for subsystems. This tab includes template information that is specific to your product. For general template information, as well as information about the other files that make up model architecture, see Building Models.

Conventions in Template Descriptions


For each template description, we provide the following:
Overview - A brief description of the template. Template Name - The file name containing the template. Major Role - The major role of the template. Application - The types of analyses in which you can use the template. Description - A complete description of the template and its use. Limitations - Limitations of the template design that you should be aware of. Files Referenced - The property or MNF files that the template uses to define such entities as

bushings, springs, and flexible bodies.


Topology - How the different entities of the template connect and how forces or torques are

transferred from one entity to another.


Parameter Variables - The parameter variables that store key information in the template. For

example, in templates, parameter variables often store angles for a suspension or the orientation of axes.
Communicators - Communicators used in the template. Notes - Miscellaneous information about the template.

When we refer to communicator and parameter names, we often use the notation [lr] to indicate that there is both a left and right communicator or parameter of the specified name.

About Designing Templates


Adams/Car templates are parameterized models in which you define the topology of vehicle components. Building a template means defining parts, how they connect to each other, and how the template communicates information to other templates and the test rig. At the template level, it is not crucial that you correctly define the parts, assign force characteristics, and assign mass properties, because you can modify these values at the subsystem level. It is very important, however, to correctly define part connectivity and exchange of information, because you cannot modify them at the subsystem level.

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When building templates, keep in mind the assembly process. That is, make sure that your templates can communicate to each other and can communicate to the test rigs you specify. In Adams/Car, communicators define how models communicate.

Template Updates
The 2005 Driving Machine employs vehicle controllers developed by MSC.Software, commonly known as Machine Control, which replaces DriverLite functionality, and Adams/SmartDriver. You must update Adams/Car 2003 powertrain and body templates to make the compatible with the enhanced Driving Machine in MD Adams/Car. To better control speed and path, the 2005 Driving Machine needs additional information about the vehicle. In particular, the speed controller uses a feed-forward function to ensure quick and accurate response. However, this requires information about the available engine brake torque, engine drive torque, brake torque, and aerodynamic drag. You supply this information by creating new output communicators in your templates powertrain and body/aerodynamic templates. In addition, you must also enter vehicle parameter data, such as overall steering ratio that is stored in the assembly file. Powertrain Template Update You should update powertrain templates by creating new output communicators to match the following input communicators in the testrig used by the Driving Machine:
testrig.cis_max_engine_driving_torque testrig.cis_max_engine_braking_torque testrig.cis_engine_speed testrig.cis_engine_map

Maximum engine driving and braking torques For closed-loop machine control, the maximum engine driving and braking torques must be communicated to the Driving Machine. The machine control uses these values in its feed forward computations when determining the needed throttle and brake inputs to achieve a target longitudinal acceleration. The Driving Machine expects powertrain templates to provide these torques as Solver Variables. The torques should depend on the engine speed. You must add two output communicators to your powertrain template and the corresponding entities that are output. The entities are data element solver variables that compute the maximum driving and maximum braking torques the powertrain subsystem produces at the current engine speed. Note that without this information machine control of the vehicle speed and/or longitudinal acceleration will be unreliable. In the powertrain.tpl and .powertrain_lt.tpl template files distributed in the shared car database, there are Adams/Solver VARIABLEs with functions computing the maximum powertrain torque (fully open throttle) and maximum powertrain brake torque (closed throttle): AKISPL(MAX(0,VARVAL(engine_speed)/ucf_angle_to_radians),1,gss_en gine_torque)

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AKISPL(MAX(0,VARVAL(engine_speed)/ucf_angle_to_radians),0,gss_en gine_torque) These functions interpolate the 3D engine map spline at the current engine speed for at full throttle (max engine driving torque) and closed (0) throttle position (max engine braking torque). The output communicators you create to output these Adams/Solver VARIABLE are: Name: engine_driving_torque Matching Name: engine_maximum_driving_torque Entity Type: solver_variable Minor Role: inherit Entity: engine_driving_torque Name: engine_braking_torque Matching Name: engine_maximum_braking_torque Entity Type: solver_variable Minor Role: inherit Entity: engine_braking_torque Engine Map If your powertrain contains an engine map spline (torque vs. engine speed and throttle position), you can output the spline to the Driving Machine via an output communicator to achieve better control of speed and longitudinal acceleration. However, the engine map is optional. Define the engine_map output communicator as: Name: engine_map Matching Name: engine_map Entity Type: spline Minor Role: inherit Entity: gss_engine_torque In the templates powertrain.tpl and powertrain_lt.tpl distributed in the shared car database, the engine_map output communicators reference the gss_engine_torque spline entity. In your own templates, choose the appropriate spline. The engine speed is a solver variable outputting the engine speed in radians/s. Engine speed In the case of a closed-loop controller on the vehicle forward velocity, you must define an output communicator in your powertrain template, as follows: Name: engine_speed Matching Name: engine_speed

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Entity Type: solver_variable Minor Role: inherit Entity: engine_speed The solver variable, engine_speed, represents the engine rotational velocity expressed in angular/time units [rad/second]. In the powertrain template distributed in the shared car database , engine_speed is defined as MAX(0,DIF(._powertrain.engine_omega)). The __mdi_sdi_testrig references the output communicator you define and SmartDriver uses that communicator in the smart_driver_controller_inputs_array. The SmartDriver controller input array references various entities used to sense certain vehicle states. Adding the engine_speed communicator enables the longitudinal controller so you can perform a constant-speed maneuver or any other type of closed-loop machine control. Aero Drag Force If your vehicle model includes aerodynamic forces, then the drag force affects the longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle. The feed-forward speed controller can account for the drag force when predicting the throttle position needed to follow velocity or acceleration profile, if you create an output communicator that passes the aerodynamic drag force to the __mdi_sdi_testrig. If your vehicle model does not include aerodynamic forces, then you do not need to create an output communicator for the drag force. The chassis template delivered in the shared car database, for example, has an aerodynamic force modeled using a GFORCE. The GFORCEs drag (longitudinal) force component is measured in a solver VARIABLE named aero_drag_force with this function expression: GFORCE(aero_forces,0,4,aero_drag_reference_marker) Then, the aerodynamic drag is output to the __mdi_sdi_testrig using output communicator of type solver variable: Name: aero_drag_force Matching Name: aero_drag_force Entity Type: solver_variable Minor Role: inherit Entity: aero_drag_force Other Vehicle Parameters Some sets of quantities that are used by the Adams/SmartDriver lateral and longitudinal controllers cannot be easily inferred from the vehicle model. These quantities are defined in the test rig as parameter variables and are easily accessible. To modify vehicle parameters, display the Set Full-Vehicle Parameters dialog. From the Simulate menu, point to Full Vehicle Analysis, and then select Set FullVehicle Parameters. In the resulting dialog box, you can set the following ratios that affect the lateral dynamics of the vehicle, providing Adams/SmartDriver information about the characteristics of the steering system. Bad values

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almost certainly guarantee solver failure in closed-loop events or, if successful, the vehicle will most certainly be off course.
Steering Ratio - Dimensionless ratio between the steering wheel angle and the road wheel

angle. You can obtain this value by running a steering analysis on the front suspension and steering assembly.
Steering Rack Ratio - Ratio (angle/length) between the steering hand wheel and the rack

displacement expressed in S.I. units. This parameter influences the response of the controller only when driving by force/displacement. The following parameters help Adams/SmartDriver in predicting and calculating the brake signal:
Max. Front/Rear Brake Torque - Maximum torque, expressed in model units, representing the

torque generated for each front/rear brake in condition of maximum brake demand, also expressed in model units.
Brake Bias - Front to rear dimensionless ratio. It can be computed as max_front_brake_torque /

(max_front_brake_torque + max_rear_brake_torque). These parameters are saved to the assembly file, as well as to the test rig in session.

Creating Topology for Your Templates


Topology in Adams/Car consists of creating elements, such as hardpoints, parts, attachments, and parameters that define subsystems, as explained next:
Creating hardpoints - You first create hardpoints. Hardpoints are the Adams/Car elements that

define all key locations in your model. They are the most elementary building blocks that you can use to parameterize locations and orientations for higher-level entities. Hardpoint locations define most parts and attachments. Hardpoints are only defined by their coordinate locations.
Creating parts - Once youve defined hardpoints, you create parts and define them using the

hardpoints that you created. In this tutorial, you create two types of parts: general parts, such as control arm and wheel carrier, and mount parts.
Creating attachments - Finally, you create the attachments, such as joints and bushings, and

parameters which tell Adams/Car how the parts react in relation to one another. You can define attachments for the compliant and kinematic analysis modes. The compliant mode uses bushings, while the kinematic mode uses joints. Before you begin to build a template, you must decide what elements are most appropriate for your model. You must also decide which geometries seem most applicable to each part or whether you want any geometry at all. Once youve decided, you create a template and create the basic topology for it.

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Working with Communicators


You use communicators to exchange of information between subsystems, templates, and the test rig in your assembly. This topic includes information for Adams/Car communicators. For general information on communicators, see the Build tab. Learn more about working with communicators in Adams/Car:
Communicators in the Suspension Test Rig Communicators in the SDI Test Rig Matching Communicators with Test Rigs

Communicators in the Suspension Test Rig


The following tables describe the input and output communicators in the suspension test rig (.__MDI_SUSPENSION_TESTRIG). In the tables, the notation:
[lr] indicates that there is both a left and right communicator of the specified name, as in

ci[lr]_camber_angle.
s indicates a single communicator, as in cis_steering_rack_joint.

Communicators in the Suspension Test Rig

The communicator: ci[lr]_camber_angle

Belongs to the class: parameter_real

From minor role: any

Receives: Camber angle value from the suspension subsystem. Sets the correct orientation of the test rig wheels. Location of the differential. Toe angle value from the suspension subsystem. Sets the correct orientation of the test rig wheels. Part to which the test rig wheels can attach. Upright part from suspension subsystem. Not matched (fixed to ground). Location of the wheel center from the suspension subsystem. Test rig wheels attach to the suspension at that location.

ci[lr]_diff_tripot ci[lr]_toe_angle

location parameter_real

any any

ci[lr]_suspension_mount ci[lr]_suspension_upright ci[lr]_jack_frame ci[lr]_wheel_center

mount mount mount location

any any any any

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The communicator: cis_driveline_active

Belongs to the class:

From minor role:

Receives: Integer value stored in the suspension template/subsystem that indicates the activity of the drivetrain. Part to which differential outputs are constrained. Integer value stored in the leaf spring template (currently not available). Steering-rack translational joint from the steering subsystem. Steering-wheel revolute joint from the steering subsystem. Array used in the suspension characteristic calculations; comes from the suspension subsystems.

parameter_integer any

cis_powertrain_to_body cis_leaf_adjustment_steps cis_steering_rack_joint cis_steering_wheel_joint

mount

any

parameter_integer any joint_for_motion joint_for_motion any any any

cis_suspension_parameters_ARRAY array

Output Communicators in Suspension Test Rig

The communicator: cos_leaf_adjustment_multiplier cos_characteristics_input_ARRAY

Belongs to the class: array array

From minor role: any any

Outputs: Leaf Spring toolkit. It is currently not supported in the standard product. Suspension, vehicle, and test-rig parameters array IDs used by suspension characteristics calculations routines. Outputs the ge[lr]_diff_output parts. Outputs array of Adams IDs used by the conceptual suspension module. Outputs array of Adams IDs used by the conceptual suspension module.

co[l,r]_tripot_to_differential cos_tire_forces_array_left cos_tire_forces_array_right

mount array array

any any any

Communicators in the SDI Test Rig


The following tables describe the input and output communicators in the SDI test rig (.__MDI_SDI_TESTRIG). In the tables, the notation [lr] indicates that there is both a left and right communicator of the specified name. Input Communicators in SDI Test Rig

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The communicator: cis_body_subsystem cis_chassis_path_reference

Belongs to the class: mount marker

From minor role: inherit any

Receives: Output from the body subsystem. It indicates the part that represents the body. Marker from the body subsystem. It is used to measure path, roll, and sideslip error in a constant radius cornering maneuver. Marker from the body subsystem. It is used in Adams/Driver simulations. Adams/Solver variable for engine revolute speed, in rotations per minute, from the powertrain subsystem. Adams/Solver variable for engine revolute speed, in radians per second, from the powertrain subsystem. Marker used to measure the distance traveled in the forward direction of the vehicle, from the body subsystem. Real parameter variable for final drive ratio, from the powertrain subsystem. Steering-rack translational joint from the steering subsystem. Steering-wheel revolute joint from the steering subsystem. Output from brake subsystem (maximum brake signal value). Output from powertrain subsystem (maximum engine rpm value). Output from powertrain (maximum number of allowed gears). Output displacement limits from steering subsystem. Used by the Standard Driver Interface. Output force limits from steering subsystem. Used by the Standard Driver Interface. Output angle limits from steering subsystem. Used by the Standard Driver Interface.

cis_driver_reference cis_engine_rpm

marker solver_variable

any any

cis_engine_speed

solver_variable

any

cis_measure_for_distance

marker

any

cis_diff_ratio cis_steering_rack_joint cis_steering_wheel_joint cis_max_brake_value cis_max_engine_speed cis_max_gears cis_max_rack_displacement

parameter_real joint_for_motion joint_for_motion parameter_real parameter_real

any front front any any

parameter_intege any r parameter_real any

cis_max_rack_force cis_max_steering_angle

parameter_real parameter_real

any any

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The communicator: cis_max_steering_torque cis_max_throttle cis_min_engine_speed cis_rotation_diff

Belongs to the class: parameter_real parameter_real parameter_real diff

From minor role: any any any any

Receives: Output from steering subsystem. Output from powertrain (maximum value of throttle signal). Output from powertrain subsystem (minimum engine rpm value, used for shifting strategy). Output from powertrain (it is a differential equation used to measure crankshaft acceleration; its integral is used for engine rpm). Spline for transmission gears (output from powertrain: reduction ratios for every gear). The transmission input engine variable from the powertrain template. Clutch slip differential equation from the powertrain template. The clutch initial displacement (engine crankshaft torque at static equilibrium) from the powertrain template. The hub parts (wheel carriers) from suspension templates (front and rear) The hub parts (wheel carriers) from suspension templates (front and rear)

cis_transmission_spline

spline

any any any any

cis_transmission_input_omega solver_variable cis_clutch_diff cis_clutch_displacement_ic diff solver_variable

ci[lr]_front_suspension_mount mount ci[lr]_rear_suspension_mount mount

front rear

Output Communicators in SDI Test Rig

The communicator: cos_brake_demand cos_clutch_demand cos_desired_velocity cos_initial_engine_rpm cos_throttle_demand

Belongs to the class: solver_variable solver_variable solver_variable parameter_real solver_variable

From minor role: any any any any any

Outputs: Brake demand to the brake subsystem. Clutch demand to the powertrain subsystem. Desired velocity Adams/Solver variable. Other subsystems can reference it. Initial engine RPM real variable to the powertrain subsystem. Throttle demand to the powertrain subsystem.

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The communicator: cos_transmission_demand cos_sse_diff1

Belongs to the class: solver_variable diff

From minor role: any any

Outputs: Transmission (gear) demand to the powertrain subsystem. Differential equation computed during quasistatic prephase, used to control the vehicle longitudinal dynamics. X,Y,Z location of standard tire reference marker (positioned appropriately at the correct height, including 2% of road penetration).

cos_std_tire_ref

location

any

Matching Communicators with Test Rigs


When you create a template, you must meet the following conditions to ensure that an analysis will work with your new template:
The template must be compatible with other templates and with the test rigs, for example, the

.__MDI_SUSPENSION_TESTRIG. The template must also contain the proper output communicators.
If the template is a suspension template (for example, its major role is suspension), the template

must contain a suspension parameters array. The suspension parameters array identifies to the suspension analysis how the steer axis should be calculated and whether the suspension is independent or dependent. For example, for a suspension template to be compatible with the suspension test rig, the suspension template must contain either the mount or the upright output communicators. In the following table, the notation [lr] indicates that there is both a left and right communicator of the specified name. Output Communicators in Suspension Templates

The communicator: co[lr]_suspension_mount co[lr]_wheel_center co[lr]_toe_angle co[lr]_camber_angle

Belongs to the class: mount location parameter_real parameter_real

From minor role: inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit

Receives: suspension_mount suspension_upright wheel_center toe_angle camber_angle

co[lr]_suspension_upright mount

The co[lr]_suspension_mount output communicators publish the parts to which the test rig wheels should mount. As you create these communicators, ensure that you set their minor role to inherit. By setting the minor role to inherit, the communicator takes its minor role from the minor role of the subsystems that use your suspension template.

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The co[lr]_wheel_center output communicators publish the location of the wheel centers to the test rig so the test rig can locate itself relative to the suspension. As you create these types of communicators, make sure that you also leave their minor role set to inherit. The toe and camber communicators (co[lr]_toe_angle and co[lr]_camber_angle) publish, to the test rig, the toe and camber angles set in the suspension so the test rig can orient the wheels correctly.

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Templates
Conceptual Steering System
Overview Using conceptual templates, Adams/Car allows you to study system-level vehicle dynamics without having to create detailed multibody suspension models.

Figure 1

Conceptual Steering System

Template name _concept_steering Major role Steering Application Suspension and full-vehicle analyses with the conceptual suspension system template.

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Description The conceptual steering system is a very simple model of steering that communicates the steering-wheel revolute joint to the conceptual suspension system. The conceptual suspension system uses the rotation of the joint i and j markers as a measure of the steering input. Topology The conceptual steering system template consists of a steering wheel and column rotating through a revolute joint. The revolute joint connects the rigid bodies to a mount part. Communicators Mount parts provide the connectivity from the template to the body subsystems. Output communicators publish steering limits for displacement, angle, and force, and torque information. The following table lists the communicators in the template.

The communicator: cos_max_steering_angle cos_max_steering_torque cos_steering_wheel_joint cis_steering_column_to_ body

Belongs to the class: parameter_real parameter_real joint_for_motion mount inherit inherit inherit inherit

Has the role:

Conceptual Suspension System


Overview Using conceptual templates, Adams/Car allows you to study system-level vehicle dynamics without having to create detailed multibody suspension models. You can use the conceptual suspension system to define the wheel movements with respect to the body using a collection of characteristic curves or dependencies.

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Figure 2

Conceptual Suspension System

Template name _concept_suspension Major role Suspension Application Suspension or full-vehicle analyses. You can mix and match conceptual suspensions in a full-vehicle assembly with multibody suspension models. Default files referenced References the file dwb_front.scf, stored in the suspension_curves.tbl directory in the Adams/Car shared database. The suspension characteristic file defines kinematic relations or dependencies between suspension characteristic angles, suspension track, and base and the vertical wheel and steer travel. Topology The topology of the template is very simple, and you do not need to modify it in the Template Builder.

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Three curve-to-curve constraints drive each wheel carrier along a predefined trajectory. A user-written curve subroutine calculates the trajectory depending on the inputs to the system, such as the forces and torques coming from the tire subsystem and the amount of wheel and steer travel. A conceptual suspension will have four degrees of freedom. A conceptual vehicle, therefore, will have 14 degrees of freedom. The following table lists the model topology for the left side of the template. The right side entities are connected in a similar way.

The joint: left_ptcv_O (point-to-curve) left_ptcv_X (point-to-curve) jolrev_spindle_upright joltra_tripot_to_differential jolcon_drive_sft_int_jt jolcon_drive_sft_otr jolinp_dummy_wheelplane_y jolinp_dummy_wheelplane_z jolori_dummy_wheelplane_ori josfix_subframe_to_body Parameters

Connects the part: wheel_carrier_left dummy_left_X hub_left gel_tripot gel_tripot gel_drive_shaft dummy_left_X dummy_left_X dummy_left_X ges_subframe mts_body mts_body

To the part:

wheel_carrier_left mtl_tripot_to_differential gel_drive_shaft hub_left wheel_carrier_left wheel_carrier_left wheel_carrier_left mts_body

The toe and camber parameter values define the wheel spin axis, and the unsprung mass parameter variable defines the wheel carrier part mass. Finally, 68 hidden variables define the dependency flags array, with each of parameters setting the status (active or inactive) of a dependency. Communicators Mount parts provide connectivity from the template to the body subsystems and differential. Input communicators receive information about the tire forces, the steer axis, and the steering-wheel joint. Output communicators publish toe, camber, steer axis, and wheel center location information. The following table lists the communicators in the template.

The communicator: ci[lr]_ARB_pickup ci[lr]_tripot_to_differential cis_body cis_characteristics_input_ARRAY cis_steering_wheel_joint

Belongs to the class: location mount mount array joint_for_motion

Has the role: inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit

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The communicator: cis_tire_forces_array_left cis_tire_forces_array_right co[lr]_camber_angle co[lr]_suspension_mount co[lr]_suspension_upright co[lr]_toe_angle co[lr]_tripot_to_differential co[lr]_wheel_center cos_driveline_active cos_engine_to_subframe cos_suspension_parameters_ARRAY

Belongs to the class: array array parameter_real mount mount parameter_real location location parameter_integer mount array

Has the role: inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit

Notes:

Spring and damper entities in the conceptual suspension template consist of a special userdefined element. A user-written subroutine computes the forces. The subroutine takes into account the nonlinear spring/damper characteristics and the stabilizer bar forces You must use the conceptual suspension system template with the Conceptual Steering System.

Disc-Brake System
Overview The disc-brake system template represents a device that applies resistance to the motion of a vehicle.

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Figure 3

Disc-Brake System

Template name _brake_system_4Wdisk Major role Brake. Application Full-vehicle analysis to simulate the effect of braking on the dynamics of the vehicle. Description The disc-brake system template represents a simple model of a brake system. It applies a rotational torque between the caliper and the rotor. Files referenced None. Topology The caliper part is mounted to the suspension upright, while the rotor is mounted to the wheel. A rotational SFORCE is applied between the two parts.

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Parameters The toe and camber values that the suspension subsystem publishes define the spin axis orientation. In addition, the braking torque is expressed as a function of a number of parameters. The following table lists the parameters in the template.

The parameter: front_brake_bias front_brake_mu front_effective_piston_radius front_piston_area front_rotor_hub_wheel_offset front_rotor_hub_width front_rotor_width max_brake_value rear_brake_mu rear_effective_piston_radius rear_piston_area rear_rotor_hub_wheel_offset rear_rotor_hub_width rear_rotor_width Limitations

Takes the value: Real Real Real Real Real Real Real Real Real Real Real Real Real Real No units No units mm mm2 mm mm mm No units No units mm mm2 mm mm mm

Its units are:

The disc-brake template is a simple model of a brake system. It does not model the complex interaction between the rotor and caliper. Communicators Mount parts provide the connectivity between the template and suspension subsystems. Input communicators receive information about the toe and camber suspension orientation and the wheelcenter location. Input to the brake system is brake demand. The following table lists the communicators in the template.

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The communicator: ci[lr]_front_camber_angle ci[lr]_front_rotor_to_wheel ci[lr]_front_toe_angle ci[lr]_front_wheel_center ci[lr]_front_suspension_ upright ci[lr]_rear_rotor_ro_wheel ci[lr]_rear_suspension_ upright ci[lr]_rear_toe_angle ci[lr]_rear_camber_angle ci[lr]_rear_wheel_center cis_brake_demand cos_max_brake_value

Belongs to the class: parameter_real mount parameter_real location mount mount mount parameter_real parameter_real location solver_variable parameter_real front front front front front rear rear rear rear rear any inherit

Has the role:

Notes:

The torque on the rotor depends on a number of parameters. The front right torque function is:
T = 2 x PistonArea x BrakeLinePressure x x EffectivePistonRadius x STEP

where:
BrakeLinePressure is calculated as follows:

BrakeLinePressure = BrakeBias * BrakeDemand * 0.1 where:


BrakeBias defines the front and rear proportioning of the brake line pressure.

Note that although the term is constant, in reality, simple hydraulic systems allow dynamic front and rear proportioning of the brake pressure depending on a number of factors, including longitudinal slip angle of the tires and dynamic load transfer.
BrakeDemand is the force on the pedal (N) as it is output from the analysis. 0.1 is a conversion factor that converts into pressure the force applied on the

pedal.
STEP is the function of the rotation of the rotor to wheel and suspension upright

markers. The function prevents backward spinning of the wheels. STEP is a simple function that measures the WZ rotation of the marker on the rotor with respect to the marker on the upright and reverses the sign of the applied torque if the wheel is spinning backward.

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Double-Wishbone Suspension
Overview A double-wishbone suspension is one of the most common suspension designs. It uses two lateral control arms to hold the wheel carrier and control its movements.

Figure 4

Double-Wishbone Suspension

Template name _double_wishbone Major role Suspension Application Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies

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Description The double-wishbone template represents the most common design for doublewishbone suspensions. You can use the template as a front steerable suspension or as a rear non-steerable suspension. You can set subsystems based on this template to kinematic or compliant mode. In kinematic mode, Adams/Car replaces the bushings that connect the control arms to the body mount part with a corresponding purely kinematic constraint. Adams/Car also does this for the top mount and lower strut mount. You can deactivate the subframe part, as well as the halfshafts. A spring acts between the upper mount part and the lower strut. A bumpstop acts between the upper and lower strut parts. Files referenced Bushings, springs, dampers, and bumpstops property files Topology The lower wishbone connects to a subframe or to the mount if you've deactivated the subframe. The upper wishbone connects to the body mount part. A spherical joint constrains the upright part to the upper and lower arms. A spherical joint also connects the tie rods to the uprights. Tie rods attach to mount parts through convel joints. Convel joints also connect the tripots to the drive shafts. A static rotation control actuator locks the rotational degree of freedom of the hub during quasi-static analyses.

The joint: jklrev_lca jolsph_lca_balljoint jolsph_tierod_outer jolcon_tierod_inner josfix_subframe_rigid jklhoo_top_mount_kinematic jolsph_uca_balljoint jolcyl_lwr_upr_strut jklrev_uca jklhoo_lwr_strut_kinematic joltra_tripot_to_differential jolcon_drive_sft_int_jt jolcon_drive_sft_otr

Connects the part: gel_lower_control_arm gel_upright gel_tierod gel_tierod ges_subframe gel_upper_strut gel_upper_control_arm gel_lower_strut gel_upper_control_arm gel_lower_strut gel_tripot gel_tripot gel_drive_shaft

To the part: ges_subframe gel_lower_control_arm gel_upright mtl_tierod_to_steering mts_subframe_to_body mtl_strut_to_body gel_upright gel_upper_strut mtl_uca_to_body gel_lower_control_arm mtl_tripot_to_differential gel_drive_shaft gel_spindle

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Parameters Toe and camber variables define wheel spin axis, spindle part, and spindle geometry. The following table lists the parameters in the template.

The parameter: phs_driveline_active phs_kinematic_flag pvs_subframe_active pv[lr]_toe_angle pv[lr]_camber_angle pv[lr]_drive_shaft_offset Communicators

Takes the value: Integer Integer Integer Real Real Real No units No units No units Degrees Degrees mm

Its units are:

Mount parts provide connectivity from the template to body subsystems and the differential. Output communicators publish toe, camber, steer axis, and wheel-center location information to the appropriate subsystems and the test rig. The following table lists the input and output communicators.

The communicator: ci[lr]_ARB_pickup ci[lr]_strut_to_body ci[lr]_tierod_to_steering ci[lr]_tripot_to_differential ci[lr]_uca_to_body cis_subframe_to_body co[lr]_arb_bushing_mount co[lr]_camber_angle co[lr]_droplink_to_ suspension co[lr]_suspension_mount co[lr]_suspension_upright co[lr]_toe_angle co[lr]_tripot_to_differential co[lr]_wheel_center cos_driveline_active

Belongs to the class: location mount mount mount mount mount mount parameter_real mount mount mount parameter_real location location parameter_integer

Has the role: inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit

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The communicator: cos_engine_to_subframe cos_rack_housing_to_suspension_subframe cos_suspension_parameters_ARRAY

Belongs to the class: mount mount array

Has the role: inherit inherit inherit

Note:

The integer parameter variables allow you to activate and deactivate the subframe part and the driveshafts. The kinematic flag variable toggles between kinematic and compliant mode.

Flexible LCA Double-Wishbone Suspension


Overview The flexible LCA double-wishbone suspension template is similar to the standard Double-Wishbone Suspension. In the flexible template, however, a flexible representation replaces the rigid body lower control arms.

Figure 5

Flexible LCA Double-Wishbone Suspension

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Template name _double_wishbone_flex Major role Suspension Application Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies Description Flexible bodies replace the left and right rigid lower control arms. MNF files referenced LCA_left_shl.mnf and LCA_right_shl.mnf. In addition, because of the way the node IDs are numbered, you can swap the default modal neutral files with LCA_left_tra.mnf and LCA_right_tra.mnf. Topology In addition to the general topology described for the Double-Wishbone Suspension, this template uses interface parts to connect the flexible bodies to the rest of the suspension. Node IDs define the location of interface parts. Parameters Refer to the Double-Wishbone Suspension. Communicators Refer to the Double-Wishbone Suspension.

ISO Road Course


Overview The ISO road course template represents a closed circuit with an ISO lane-change section.

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Figure 6

ISO Road Course

Template name _ISO_road_course Major role Environment Application With the optional Adams/Driver module Description The ISO road course template consists of shell elements and frustums, and represents a closed circuit with an ISO lane-change section. Files referenced Geometry elements (shells) reference shell files stored in the Adams/Car shared database in the shell_graphics.tbl directory. The shell files are Iso_road_inr.shl, Iso_road_otr.shl, and Iso_road_c.shl. Topology All the graphic elements are created on the ground part.

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Parameters Contains no parametric information. Communicators Contains no communicators.

Note:

The corresponding Adams/Driver representation of this course is available as a trace on the x-y plane and lane width in the driver_roads.tbl directory. The file is called ISO_road_course.drd. You can use the file to run full-vehicle analyses with Adams/Driver. Including the ISO road course template in your full-vehicle assembly adds a graphical representation of the circuit.

MacPherson Suspension
Overview The MacPherson suspension design in this template is similar to the SLA geometry, and is probably the most often used suspension for passenger cars in the world. It uses a telescopic strut incorporating a damper element. The upper end is fixed to the body and the lower end is located by linkages. The MacPherson design provides advantages in packaging, and it is generally used for front-wheel-drive cars.

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Figure 7

MacPherson Suspension

Template name _macpherson Major role Suspension Application Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies Description The MacPherson suspension template represents the most common design for MacPherson suspensions. You can use the template as a front steerable suspension or as a rear non-steerable suspension. You can set the subsystems based on this template to kinematic or compliant mode. In kinematic mode, Adams/Car replaces the bushings with the corresponding kinematic constraints. The bushings connect the control arm and the damper strut to the body mount parts. You can also activate or deactivate driveshafts.

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A spring acts between the upper strut part and the lower strut. Bumpstops and reboundstops are also present. Files referenced Bushings, springs, dampers, bumpstops, and reboundstops property files Topology The MacPherson suspension template represents a standard design employing a one-piece lower control arm (also known as A-arm) and a subframe. The upright to which the wheel mounts is located by the lower control arm, the tie rod, and the strut. The lower control arm regulates the fore-aft and lateral motions of the upright. The tie rod controls steering rotation of the upright, and the strut controls the vertical motion of the upright and the side and front view rotations, as well. A static rotation control actuator locks the rotational degree of freedom of the hub during quasi-static analyses. The following table lists the topological information of the left side of the MacPherson suspension.

The joint: jklrev_lca jolsph_lca_balljoint jolcyl_strut jolsph_tierod_outer jolcon_tierod_inner jksfix_subframe_rigid jklhoo_top_mount_kinematic joltra_tripot_to_differential jolcon_drive_sft_int_jt jolcon_drive_sft_otr jolrev_spindle_upright Parameters

Connects the part: gel_lower_control_arm gel_upright gel_upright gel_tierod gel_tierod ges_subframe gel_upper_strut gel_tripot gel_tripot gel_drive_shaft gel_spindle

To the part: ges_subframe gel_lower_control_arm gel_upper_strut gel_upright mtl_tierod_to_steering mts_subframe_to_body mtl_strut_to_body mtl_tripot_to_differential gel_drive_shaft gel_spindle gel_upright

Toe and camber variables in the template define the wheel spin axis, spindle part, and spindle geometry. The following table lists the parameters in the templates.

The parameter: phs_driveline_active phs_kinematic_flag

Takes the value: Integer Integer

Its units are: No units No units

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The parameter: pv[lr]_toe_angle pv[lr]_camber_angle pv[lr]_drive_shaft_offset Communicators Real Real Real

Takes the value:

Its units are: Degrees Degrees mm

Mount parts provide the connectivity from the template to the body subsystems and differential. Output communicators publish toe, camber, steer axis, and wheel-center location information to the appropriate subsystems and test rig. The following table lists the input and output communicators in the template.

The communicator: ci[lr]_ARB_pickup ci[lr]_strut_to_body ci[lr]_tierod_to_steering ci[lr]_tripot_to_differential cis_subframe_to_body co[lr]_arb_bushing_mount co[lr]_camber_angle co[lr]_droplink_to_ suspension co[lr]_suspension_mount co[lr]_suspension_upright co[lr]_toe_angle co[lr]_tripot_to_differential co[lr]_wheel_center cos_driveline_active cos_rack_housing_to_ suspension_subframe cos_suspension_parameters_ARRAY

Belongs to the class: location mount mount mount mount mount parameter_real mount mount mount parameter_real location location parameter_integer mount array

Has the role: inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit

Note:

The integer parameter variables let you activate and deactivate the driveshafts. The kinematic flag variable toggles between kinematic and compliant mode replacing the joints with the corresponding elastic elements. For example, Adams/Car replaces the revolute joints that connect the lower control arms to the subframe with bushings

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Multi-Link Suspension
Overview The multi-link suspension represents an independent suspension model for use as a rear suspension.

Figure 8

Multi-Link Suspension

Template name _multi_link Major role Suspension Application Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies Description The multi-link suspension template represents a common rear independent suspension design. It includes a subframe (represented by the outline graphics) that is connected to the upper arm, to the lateral links, and to the track rod. The suspension is nonsteerable and intended to be used as a rear suspension only.

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Files referenced Springs, dampers, and bushings property files Topology Spherical joints, which are active in kinematic mode, connect the uprights to links. Bushings connect the trailing links to the mount parts. Springs and dampers act between the trailing links and the body. A static rotation control actuator locks the rotational degree of freedom of the hub during quasi-static analyses. The following table provides a topological map of the template.

The joint: jklsph_hub_tl jklhoo_trailing_link_body jklrev_ula_sbf joltra_dpr_upr_dpr_lwr jklsph_dpr_lwr_tl jklhoo_dpr_spring_seat_upper jksfix_sbf_body jklsph_hub_ll jklsph_hub_tr jklhoo_sbf_ll jklhoo_sbf_tr jklsph_hub_ula joltra_tripot_to_differential jolcon_drive_sft_int_jt jolcon_drive_sft_otr jolrev_spindle_upright Parameters

Connects the part: gel_Upright gel_Trailing_Link gel_upper gel_Damper_Upper gel_Damper_Lower gel_Damper_Upper ges_Subframe gel_Upright gel_Upright ges_Subframe ges_Subframe gel_Upright gel_tripot gel_tripot gel_drive_shaft gel_spindle

To the part: gel_Trailing_Link mtl_trailing_link_body ges_Subframe gel_Damper_Lower gel_Trailing_Link mtl_Spring_Seat_Upper mtl_body_sbf_front gel_lateral gel_Track_Rod gel_lateral gel_Track_Rod gel_upper mtl_tripot_to_differential gel_drive_shaft gel_spindle gel_Upright

Toe and camber variables in the template define the wheel spin axis, spindle part, and spindle geometry. The following table lists the parameters in the templates.

The parameter: phs_driveline_active phs_kinematic_flag pvs_subframe_active

Takes the value: Integer Integer Integer No units No units No units

Its units are:

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The parameter: pv[lr]_toe_angle pv[lr]_camber_angle pv[lr]_drive_shaft_offset Communicators Real Real Real

Takes the value: Degrees mm mm

Its units are:

The following table lists the communicators in the template.

The communicator: ci[lr]_body_sbf_front ci[lr]_body_sbf_rear ci[lr]_Spring_Seat_Upper ci[lr]_trailing_link_body ci[lr]_tripot_to_differential co[lr]_camber_angle co[lr]_suspension_mount co[lr]_suspension_upright co[lr]_tripot_to_differential co[lr]_wheel_center cos_driveline_active cos_suspension_ parameters_ARRAY

Belongs to the class: mount mount mount mount mount parameter_real mount mount location location parameter_integer array

Has the role: inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit

Note:

The integer parameter variables let you activate and deactivate the subframe part and the driveshafts. The kinematic flag variable toggles between kinematic and compliant mode.

Parallel-Link Steering System


Overview The parallel-link steering system template is essentially a four-bar mechanism consisting of a pitman arm, center link, and idler arm.

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Figure 9

Parallel-Link Steering

Template name _parallel_link_steering Major role Steering Application Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies Description A recirculating ball steering gear transmits motion from the steering wheel to the pitman arm. The pitman arm rotates to impart motion to the center link and idler arm. The translation of the center link pulls and pushes the tie rods to steer the wheels. Files referenced Steering assist and torsion bar deflection property file. The default property file is mdi_steer_assis.ste, stored in the steer_assist.tbl directory of the shared Adams/Car database.

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Topology The recirculating ball steering gear consists of three major parts:
Ball screw Rack Sector

The steering wheel rotates the steering input shaft. A torsion bar attaches the steering input shaft to a ball screw. The ball screw imparts translational motion to the steering gear through a coupler. The steering gear, in turns, rotates the sector through a coupler, which is connected directly to the pitman arm shaft. The following table maps the topology of the template.

The joint: joshoo_column_intermediate joshoo_intermediate_shaftinput josrev_steering_wheel joscyl_steering_column josfix_column_housing_to_housing_ mount jolsph_centerlink_arm jolrev_pitman_arm_steering_gear josrev_ball_screw_steering_gear josrev_input_shaft_steering_gear jostra_rack_steering_gear josfix_steering_gear_housing josper_centerlink_pitman_arm vfo_steering_assist gksred_ball_screw_input_shaft_lock grsred_steering_wheel_column_lock grsred_ball_screw_rack grsred_pitman_arm_rack

Connects the part: ges_steering_column ges_intermediate_shaft ges_steering_wheel ges_steering_column ges_column_housing ges_center_link gel_arm ges_ball_screw ges_input_shaft ges_rack ges_steering_gear_housing ges_center_link ges_rack

To the part: ges_intermediate_shaft ges_input_shaft ges_column_housing ges_column_housing mts_steering_column_to_body gel_arm swl_steering_gear_mount swl_steering_gear_mount swl_steering_gear_mount swl_steering_gear_mount swl_steering_gear_mount gel_arm swl_steering_gear_mount

josrev_ball_screw_steering josrev_input_shaft_steering_ _gear gear josrev_steering_wheel joscyl_steering_column josrev_ball_screw_steering jostra_rack_steering_gear _gear jolrev_pitman_arm_steerin g_gear jostra_rack_steering_gear

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Parameters A parameter variable switches between kinematic and compliant mode, effectively defining the status of the ball screw input shaft lock reduction gear. Communicators The following table lists the communicators in the template.

The communicator: ci[lr]_steering_gear_to_body ci[lr]_steering_gear_to_suspension_subframe cis_steering_column_to_ body co[lr]_tierod_to_steering cos_steering_rack_joint cos_steering_wheel_joint

Belongs to the class: mount mount mount mount joint_for_motion joint_for_motion

Has the role: inherit inherit inherit front inherit inherit

Note:

The parallel-link steering template contains general spline elements. The general spline element gss_torsion_bar spline provides torque as a function of the angular deflection of the input shaft relative to the ball screw. A switch part is also present. It allows you to explore two different topological solutions. You can rigidly connect the steering gear to the body or to the suspension_subframe part.

Pitman Arm Steering System


Overview The pitman arm steering system template is a simple steering system derived from a parallel-link design. It is commonly used in trucks. It consists of a three-bar mechanism: pitman arm, draglink, and tie rod.

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Figure 10

Pitman Arm Steering System

Template name _pitman_arm Major role Steering Application Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies Description A recirculating ball steering gear transmits motion from the steering wheel to the pitman arm. The pitman arm rotates to impart motion to the draglink. The draglink pulls and pushes the tie rod and steers the wheels. Files referenced The point torque actuator references the torsion_bar datablock in the mdi_steering.ste property file, stored in the Adams/Car shared database, under the steer_assists.tbl table or directory. Topology The recirculating ball steering gear consists of three major parts:

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Ball screw Rack Sector

The steering wheel rotates the steering input shaft. The steering input shaft attaches to the ball screw through a torsion bar, currently locked by a coupler. The ball screw imparts translational motion to the rack, through a coupler. The rack, in turns, rotates the sector through a coupler. The sector is connected directly to the pitman arm shaft. The pitman arm drags the draglink, which is directly connected to the right wheel, and pulls the tie rod, connected to the left wheel. Spherical joints connect the draglink and tie rod. The following table maps the topology of the template.

The joint: joshoo_intermediate_shaft_i nput josrev_steering_wheel joscyl_steering_column

Connects the part: ges_intermediate_shaft ges_steering_wheel ges_steering_column

To the part: ges_intermediate_shaft ges_input_shaft ges_column_housing ges_column_housing mts_steering_column_to_body

joshoo_column_intermediate ges_steering_column

josfix_column_housing_to_h ges_column_housing ousing_mount josrev_pitman_arm_steering _gear jossph_centerlink_arm josrev_input_shaft_steering_ gear josrev_ball_screw_steering_ gear jostra_rack_steering_gear jossph_draglink_to_tierod grsred_steering_wheel_colu mn_lock gksred_ball_screw_input_sh aft_lock grsred_pitman_arm_rack grsred_ball_screw_rack

mts_steering_gear_to_suspension ges_idle_arm _subframe ges_idle_arm ges_input_shaft ges_ball_screw ges_rack ges_draglink josrev_steering_wheel josrev_ball_screw_steering_gear josrev_pitman_arm_steering_gea r josrev_ball_screw_steering_gear ges_draglink mts_steering_gear_to_suspension _subframe mts_steering_gear_to_suspension _subframe mts_steering_gear_to_suspension _subframe ges_tierod joscyl_steering_column josrev_input_shaft_steering_gear jostra_rack_steering_gear jostra_rack_steering_gear

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Parameters A parameter variable switches between kinematic and compliant mode, effectively defining the status of the ball screw input shaft lock reduction gear. Communicators The following table lists the communicators in the template.

The communicator: ci[lr]_steering_gear_to_suspension_subframe cis_steering_column_to_ body cos_tierod_to_steering cos_draglink_to_steering cos_steering_wheel_joint

Belongs to the class: mount mount mount joint_for_motion joint_for_motion

Has the role: inherit inherit front inherit inherit

Note:

The pitman arm steering system template does not interface with any of the Adams/Car shared database suspension templates because those suspension templates have tie rods. To correctly assemble the pitman arm steering to a suspension subsystem, you must remove the tie rods from the suspension. The draglink and the tie rod have to be mounted to the left and right upright parts.

Powertrain System
Overview The Adams/Car shared database includes a powertrain template, powertrain.tpl. The template models an engine, manual transmission, and a limited-slip differential that may be used for a front engine, frontwheel-drive vehicle, or a rear engine, rear-wheel-drive vehicle.

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Figure 11

Powertrain

Template name _powertrain Major role Powertrain Application Full-vehicle assemblies Description The powertrain system template represents an engine, clutch, transmission, and differential:
Engine model - Consists of a single part (ges_engine) representing the total mass and inertia of

the engine block, clutch housing, and transmission. A general spline element (gss_engine_torque) represents the engine's steady-state torque versus engine speed and throttle position. Before any analysis, gss_engine_torque is updated by reading the engine torque versus engine speed and throttle from a powertrain property file. For example, mdids://acar_shared/powertrains.tbl/V8_240HP_400Nm.pwr.

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To allow for larger integration time steps during simulation, the engine crankshaft is not

included as a part in the templates. Instead of a rotating crankshaft part, a differential equation (engine_omega) integrates the engine crankshaft's rotational acceleration (Adams/Solver requires one integration time step for each 60 degrees of part rotation). The engine crankshaft's rotational acceleration is the difference between the engine torque and the clutch torque divided by the engine rotational inertia.
Clutch model - The clutch torque is modulated by the clutch demand, which ranges in value

from zero (0) to one (1):


A clutch demand of zero means that the driver's foot is off the clutch pedal and the clutch is

closed.
A clutch demand of one means that the driver has pushed the clutch pedal completely to the

floor and the clutch is open. You can set the values of clutch demand, for which the clutch is completely closed or open, using the parameter variables pvs_clutch_closed and pvs_clutch_open. The clutch develops torque only when it is at least partially closed and there is some slip displacement or slip speed between the engine crankshaft and the transmission input shaft. When the clutch is closed, it acts like a torsional spring-damper, except that the maximum clutch torque developed is limited by the clutch capacity, which you can modify (pvs_clutch_capacity). You also set the clutch's torsional stiffness and damping. When the clutch is partially closed, the clutch stiffness and damping, as well as the clutch capacity (torque), are scaled by the clutch demand. The clutch slip speed is the difference between the engine crankshaft and the transmission input shaft rotational speeds. When the clutch is closed, the clutch slip displacement is the integral of the clutch slip speed. When the clutch is open, the clutch slip displacement decays to zero with a time constant given by pvs_clutch_tau.
Transmission model - The transmission model is simple: it applies the gear ratio selected by the

gear demand, and has no rotating inertia. The clutch torque is multiplied by the selected gear ratio and applied to the differential input shaft. The differential input shaft speed is likewise multiplied by the same ratio to determine the transmission input shaft speed. You can set the number of gears and the ratio for each gear:
A gear number of zero (0) represents neutral. A gear number of minus one (-1) represents reverse. Differential model - The differential model has rotating left and right output shaft parts that

connect to half-shafts in suspension subsystems. The differential input shaft speed is the average of the left and right output shaft speeds multiplied by the final drive ratio you enter. Likewise, the transmission output torque is multiplied by the final drive ratio and then split equally between the two output shafts. A reaction torque is applied about the longitudinal axis to the ges_engine part. The differential model includes a limited slip torque that acts between the left and right differential output shafts. The torque depends on the difference between the output shaft speeds. The limited slip torque-speed characteristic is read from a property file in the differentials.tbl.

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Files referenced The file, V12_engine_map.pwr, stored in the powertrains.tbl directory, defines the engine map. The differential references the MDI_viscous.dif property file, stored in the differentials.tbl directory. The MDI_viscous.dif property file defines the slip torque-speed relationship as a two-dimensional spline. Topology The powertrain template contains very simple topological information because it is a functional representation of the powertrain. The only general rigid parts, besides the engine body, are the diff outputs and the revolute joints that connect the rigid bodies to the engine body. Parameters The following table lists the powertrain system template parameters.

The parameter: phs_kinematic_flag

Takes the value: Integer

Its units are: No units

Description: When flag = 1, engine is rigidly mounted to chassis; when flag = 0, engine is mounted on bushings. Set from the Adjust menu. Maximum torque clutch can sustain with zero slip speed. Value of clutch demand at which clutch is fully closed. Value should be less than pvs_clutch_open and in the range of 0 and 1. Clutch damping torque per unit of clutch slip speed. Value of clutch demand at which clutch open. Clutch torque developed per unit of clutch slip. Time constant for clutch slip decay when clutch is open. Proportional gain used in EMS idle speed control Value of throttle demand that corresponds to the maximum capability of the EMS system

pvs_clutch_capacity pvs_clutch_close

Real Real

Torque No units

pvs_clutch_damping pvs_clutch_open pvs_clutch_stiffness pvs_clutch_tau pvs_ems_gain pvs_ems_max_throttle

Real Real Real Real Real Real

Torsional_damping No units Torsional_stiffness Time No units No units

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The parameter: pvs_ems_trottle_off

Takes the value: Real

Its units are: No units

Description: Value of throttle demand at which EMS system engages idle speed control Engine idle speed in RPM. Engine rotational inertia. Must be greater than zero. Maximum engine speed in RPM. Differential input shaft (pinion) to ring gear ratio. Transmission input shaft to output shaft ratio for gears 1 through 6. 1 = include powertrain graphics; 0 = do not include powertrain graphics Number of gear ratios in the transmission. Value of throttle demand for which throttle is fully open (throttle demand = 0 is throttle closed).

pvs_engine_idle_speed pvs_engine_inertia pvs_engine_rev_limit pvs_final_drive pvs_gear_[1-6]

Real Real Real Real Real

RPM Inertia RPM No units No units

pvs_graphics_flag

Integer

No units

pvs_max_gears pvs_max_throttle

Integer Real

No units No units

Communicators Mount parts provide the connectivity from the template to the body subsystems. Output communicators publish information, such as engine RPM and transmission spline. The following tables list the input and output communicators in the powertrain system template. Input Communicators

The communicator: ci[lr]_diff_tripot ci[lr]_tire_force cis_clutch_demand cis_engine_to_subframe cis_initial_engine_rpm cis_powertrain_to_body

Entity class: location force solver_variable mount parameter_real mount

From minor role: inherit inherit inherit inherit any inherit

Matching name: tripot_to_differential tire_force clutch_demand engine_to_subframe initial_engine_rpm powertrain_to_body

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The communicator: cis_sse_diff1 cis_throttle_demand cis_transmission_demand Output Communicators

Entity class: diff solver_variable solver_variable

From minor role: inherit inherit inherit

Matching name: sse_diff1 throttle_demand transmission_demand

The communicator: co[lr]_output_torque co[lr]_tripot_to_differential cos_clutch_displacement_ic cos_default_downshift_rpm cos_default_upshift_rpm cos_diff_ratio cos_engine_idel_rpm cos_engine_map cos_engine_max_rpm cos_engine_rpm cos_engine_speed

Entity class: force mount solver_variable parameter_real parameter_real parameter_real parameter_real spline parameter_real solver_variable parameter_real

To minor role: inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit

Matching name: output_torque tripot_to_differential clutch_displacement_ic min_engine_speed max-engine_speed diff_ratio engine_idle_rpm engine_map engine_revlimit_rpm engine_rpm engine_speed engine_maximum_driving _torque engine_maximum_brakin g_torque max_gears max_throttle powertrain_gse transmission_input_omeg a transmission_spline

cos_max_engine_driving_torque solver_variable cos_max_engine_braking_torqu e cos_max_gears cos_max_throttle cos_powertrain_gse cos_transmission_input_omega cos_transmission_spline solver_variable

parameter_integer inherit parameter_real gse solver_variable spline inherit inherit inherit inherit

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Note:

The engine and clutch portion of the powertrain is implemented as a GSE (general state equation) element in solver. The gsesub associated with this element is available here. The solver_variable "analysis_type" indicates whether the analysis is steady-state or dynamic. When the analysis_type is steady-state the engine torque map and transmission gear ratios are ignored.

Quad-Link Axle Suspension


Overview The quad-link axle suspension template is an example of a dependent suspension model. The wheels are mounted at either end of a rigid beam so the movement of one wheel is transmitted to the opposite wheel causing them to steer and camber together. Solid beam axle suspensions are commonly used on the front of heavy trucks, where high-load carrying capacity is required.

Figure 12

Quad-Link Axle Suspension

Template name _quad_link_axle

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Major role Suspension Application Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies Description The quad-link axle suspension template represents a common design for solid axles suspensions. You can use the template as a front steerable suspension or as rear nonsteerable suspension. You can set subsystems based on this template to kinematic or compliant mode. In kinematic mode, Adams/Car replaces the bushings that connect the lower and upper links to the body mount part with the corresponding purely kinematic constraints. Files referenced Bushing, spring, and damper property files Topology Spherical joints connect the upper and lower links to the solid axle. The draglink is attached to the bell crank. The bell crank moves the tie rod, which steers the wheels. Revolute joints connect the uprights to the solid axle. A joint force actuator locks the hub to the wheel carrier. The following table maps the topology of the template.

The joint: jklhoo_lower_link_frame jklhoo_upper_link_frame jklsph_upper_link_axle jklsph_lower_link_axle jolrev_knuckle_axle josrev_bell_crank_axle jossph_draglink_pitman_arm joshoo_draglink_bell_crank jossph_tierod_knuckle jolrev_bearing josinp_tie_rod_bell_crank

Connects the part: gel_lower_link gel_upper_link gel_upper_link gel_lower_link gel_knuckle ges_bell_crank ges_draglink ges_draglink ges_tierod gel_hub ges_tierod

To the part: mtl_lower_link_frame mtl_lower_link_frame ges_axle ges_axle ges_axle ges_axle mts_draglink_steering ges_bell_crank gel_knuckle gel_knuckle ges_bell_crank

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Parameters Toe and camber variables define wheel spin axis, spindle part, and spindle geometry. The following table lists the parameters in the template.

The parameter: phs_kinematic_flag pv[lr]_toe_angle pv[lr]_camber_angle Communicators Real Real

Takes the value: Integer No units Degrees Degrees

Its units are:

Mount parts provide the connectivity from the template to body subsystems and steering. Output communicators publish toe, camber, steer axis, and wheel center location information to the appropriate subsystems and the test rig. The following table lists the input and output communicators.

The communicator: ci[lr]_lower_link_frame ci[lr]_spring_upper_to_body ci[lr]_upper_link_frame cis_draglink_steering co[lr]_camber_angle co[lr]_suspension_mount co[lr]_suspension_upright co[lr]_toe_angle co[lr]_wheel_center cos_suspension_ parameters_ARRAY

Belongs to the class: mount mount mount mount parameter_real mount mount parameter_real location any

Has the role: inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit

Note:

The kinematic flag variable toggles between kinematic and compliant mode.

Rack and Pinion Steering System


Overview The rack and pinion steering system is usually found in passenger cars. The pinion gear translates the rotary motion of the steering wheel into the linear motion of the rack. The rack moves the tie rods back and forth to steer the vehicle.

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Figure 13

Rack and Pinion Steering System

Template name _rack_pinion_steering Major role Steering Application Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies Description A series of hooke joints, which connect the three steering column shafts, transmit motion from the steering wheel to the pinion. A revolute joint connects the lower column shaft to the rack housing. A bushing (torsion bar) connects the shaft to the pinion. A revolute joint connects the pinion to the rack housing. In kinematic mode, a reduction gear is active and connects the steering input shaft revolute joint to the pinion revolute joint. The underlying Adams/View entity (a coupler) is active only in kinematic mode. The reduction gear (pinion to rack) converts pinion rotational motion to the rack translational motion. A

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translational joint constrains the rack to the rack housing. An additional VFORCE provides the steering assist force. Files referenced Property file, mdi_steer_assis.ste, stored in the steer_assist.tbl of the shared Adams/Car database. It defines the steering assist vector force. Topology The following table maps the topology of the template.

The joint: joshoo_column_intermediate joshoo_intermediate_shaftinput jostra_rack_to_rackhousing josrev_steering_wheel josrev_pinion joscyl_steering_column_to_body josrev_steering_input_shaft jksfix_rigid_rack_housing_mount steering_assist_vforce gksred_input_shaft_pinion_lock grsred_steering_wheel_column_lock grsred_pinion_to_rack Parameters

Connects the part: ges_steering_column ges_intermediate_shaft ges_rack ges_steering_wheel ges_pinion ges_steering_column ges_steering_shaft ges_rack_housing ges_rack josrev_steering_wheel josrev_pinion

To the part: ges_intermediate_shaft ges_steering_shaft ges_rack_housing mts_steering_column_to_body ges_rack_housing mts_steering_column_to_body ges_rack_housing sws_rack_house_mount ges_rack_housing joscyl_steering_column_to_bo dy jostra_rack_to_rackhousing

josrev_steering_input_shaft josrev_pinion

A parameter variable switches between kinematic and compliant mode. You can set the activity of the steering assist vector force through the hidden parameter variable, steering_assist_active. A series of parameters define the maximum values of angle, rack displacement, rack force, and steering-wheel torque. Communicators The following table lists the input and output communicators.

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The communicator: cis_rack_housing_to_ suspension_subframe cis_rack_to_body cis_steering_column_to_ body co[lr]_tierod_to_steering cos_max_rack_ displacement cos_max_rack_force cos_max_steering_angle cos_max_steering_torque cos_steering_rack_joint cos_steering_wheel_joint

Belongs to the class: mount mount mount mount parameter_real parameter_real parameter_real parameter_real joint_for_motion joint_for_motion

Has the role: inherit inherit inherit front inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit

Note:

The rack and pinion steering system template contains general spline elements. The gss_torsion_bar spline gives the torque as a function of the angular deflection of the input shaft relative to the pinion. The template also contains a switch part, which lets you explore two different topological solutions. You can connect the steering rack housing to the body or to the suspension_subframe.

Rear Driveline System


Overview The rear driveline system template provides an example model of a driveline for rear-wheel drive (RWD) vehicles.

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Figure 14

Rear Driveline System

Template name _driveline_rwd Major role Driveline Application Full-vehicle assemblies Description The rotational motion of the front propshaft is transmitted to the rear shaft and from there to the diff outputs. Diff outputs should be connected to the driving wheels. Files referenced Bushing property files

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Topology The rear driveline template consists of a two-piece propshaft, a slip yoke, and a differential. For convenience, the template includes the propshaft input part for applying motion or torque. The propshaft input part attaches to the powertrain through a revolute joint. A bearing supports it at its aft. The front propshaft attaches to the support bearing through an inline joint primitive that prevents translation of the front propshaft perpendicular to the propshaft's spin axis. Hooke joints transmit the motion to the slip yoke part. The slip yoke supports and transmits torque to the rear propshaft through a translational joint. The differential input shaft receives torque from the rear propshaft through a hooke joint. The differential is an open design rather than a limited slip. Four bushings mount it to the body. Setting kinematic mode fixes the differential housing to the body and deactivates the bushings. The following table maps the topology of the template.

The joint: josrev_diff_input jolrev_diff_output jorrev_diff_output joshoo_propshaft_at_diff joshoo_propshaft_input_to_ front joscon_propshaft_front_to_ yoke jostra_propshaft_rear_to_yoke josrev_propshaft_input_to_ trans jksfix_diff_housing_to_body

Connects the part: ges_diff_input gel_diff_output ger_diff_output ges_propshaft_rear ges_propshaft_input ges_propshaft_front ges_propshaft_rear ges_propshaft_input ges_diff_housing

To the part: ges_diff_housing ges_diff_housing ges_diff_housing ges_diff_input ges_propshaft_front ges_slip_yoke ges_slip_yoke mts_propshaft_input_to_powertrai n mts_diff_housing_to_body ges_propshaft_front mts_propshaft_support_to_body mts_propshaft_support_to_body mts_propshaft_support_to_body jolrev_diff_output jorrev_diff_output jorrev_diff_output

josinl_support_bearing_to_propshaft_f ges_support_bearing ront josori_support_bearing_orientation josinp_support_bearing_ location jksinl_support_bearing_to_ body grsdif_differential grsdif_differential grsdif_differential Parameters ges_support_bearing ges_support_bearing ges_support_bearing josrev_diff_input josrev_diff_input jolrev_diff_output

The parameter variable final_drive_ratio defines the pinion to ring ratio.

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Limitations The rear driveline template uses a number of rotating parts. If the driveline dynamics are not of interest to you, then it is more efficient to apply direct drive torque to the wheels, because the rotating parts in the template might slow the numerical integration during the analysis. Communicators Output communicators of the type mount publish the left and right differential output shafts to the suspension templates and subsystems. The following table lists the input and output communicators.

The communicator: ci[lr]_tripot_to_differential cis_diff_housing_to_body cis_driveline_torque cis_propshaft_input_to_ powertrain cis_propshaft_support_to_ body co[lr]_tripot_to_differential

Belongs to the class: location mount solver_variable mount mount mount

Has the role: rear inherit inherit inherit inherit rear

Rigid Chassis
Overview The rigid chassis template represents the base frame of a vehicle.

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Figure 15

Rigid Chassis

Template name _rigid_chassis Major role body Application Suspensions, tires, and steering systems in full-vehicle assemblies Description A single rigid body part models the chassis. Files referenced Shell elements create the chassis graphic. All the shell files are stored in the Adams/Car shared database, in the shell_graphics.tbl directory. Topology The ges_chassis part is unconstrained. Parameters The rigid chassis template defines a series of parameter variables, most of which are used to compute the aerodynamic forces acting on the body. The following table lists the parameters in the template. For a detailed description of the force function, see Force Function Description.

The parameter: pvs_aero_drag_active pvs_aero_frontal_area pvs_air_density pvs_drag_coefficient Force function description Real Real Real

Takes the value: Integer No units Area Density No units

Its units are:

Adams/Car expects air density and area parameter variables to be in model units. As a result of an air stream interacting with the vehicle, forces and moments are imposed on the vehicle. Out of the three forces and three moments, only the most relevant ones are modeled in the template. The aerodynamic general force takes into consideration the drag force (longitudinal force) and torque (pitching moment and torque along the y-axis of the vehicle, in the SAE coordinate system). In detail:

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F = 0.5 x AirDensity x DragCoeff x Area x VX(chassis)2 T = F x DZ (RideHeight) The pitching moment acts to transfer weight between the front and rear axles. It arises because the drag does not act at the ground plane. Therefore, it accounts for the elevation of the drag force. Limitations The rigid body modeling of the chassis does not account for torsional stiffnesses and other effects. You could create a more accurate representation of a chassis frame by connecting the multiple rigid bodies though spring dampers to take into account torsional stiffnesses and using modal flexibility. Communicators The rigid chassis template defines a series of mount part communicators. The assembly process matches them with the corresponding output communicators created in suspensions, steering, and other subsystems. The following table lists the communicators. Note that the output communicator tierod_to_steering (rear) allows the tierod_to_steering mount parts in the rear suspension to connect to the chassis body.

The communicator: co[lr]_spring_to_body co[lr]_strut_to_body co[lr]_tierod_to_steering co[lr]_tv_link co[lr]_uca_to_body co[lr]_upr_link_fr co[lr]_upr_link_rr cos_aero_drag_force cos_body cos_body_subsystem cos_chassis_path_ reference cos_concept_to_body cos_diff_housing_to_body cos_driver_reference cos_measure_for_distance cos_powertrain_to_body cos_propshaft_support_to_body cos_rack_to_body

Belongs to the class: mount mount mount mount mount mount mount force mount mount mount mount mount mount mount mount mount mount inherit inherit rear inherit any inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit rear inherit inherit inherit rear inherit

Has the role:

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The communicator: cos_steering_column_to_ body cos_subframe_to_body cos_aero_force

Belongs to the class: mount mount force inherit inherit inherit

Has the role:

Note:

The rigid chassis light template (_rigid_chassis_lt) is exactly the same as the rigid chassis template (_rigid_chassis), but without the shell graphic geometry.

Simple Anti-Roll Bar System


Overview The simple anti-roll bar system template represents a bar fitted transversely to the suspension. The bar is made out of steel or a user-defined material. The bar is installed in a vehicle to reduce the roll of the vehicle body as the vehicle takes a corner. It increases suspension roll rate.

Figure 16

Simple Anti-Roll Bar System

Template name _antiroll_simple

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Major role Antiroll Application Suspension and full-vehicle analyses Description The anti-roll bar system template provides a simple model of anti-roll bar (also known as stabilizer bar). It consists of two bar halves connected by a torsional spring-damper component. Files referenced Bushing property files Topology A revolute joint connects the two bar halves of the anti-roll bar system. Bushings then attach the bar halves to the body or to the suspension subframe. Drop links transmit the suspension motion to the bar ends. The drop links attach to the suspension with spherical joints and to the bar ends with convel joints. The following table maps the topology of the anti-roll bar system template.

The joint: jo[lr]sph_droplink_ upper_bal jo[lr]con_droplink_to_arb josrev_arb_rev_joint arb_torsion_spring (rotational spring) Parameters

Connects part: ge[lr]_droplink ge[lr]_droplink ger_arb ger_arb ge[lr]_arb gel_arb gel_arb

To part: mt[lr]_droplink_to_suspension

A parameter variable (pvs_torsional_stiffness) defines the torsional stiffness of the spring-damper component. The following table lists the parameter, its value, and units.

The parameter: pvs_torsional_stiffness Limitations

Takes the value: Real variable

Its units are: Nmm/Degrees

The anti-roll bar system template represents a simple approximation of a stabilizer bar. For more complex solutions, you would need to create a more accurate representation of the bar through the discretization of rigid bodies, nonlinear rods, or flexible bodies.

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Communicators Mount parts provide the connectivity to the suspension subsystems. An output communicator exports information about the location of the ARB pick-up point. The following table lists the communicators that the template uses.

The communicator: ci[lr]_arb_bushing_mount ci[lr]_droplink_to_suspension co[lr]_ARB_pickup

Belongs to the class: mount mount location inherit inherit inherit

Has the role:

Notes:

The spring-damper component applies a rotational action-reaction force between the two bar halves. The following linear equation describes the torque applied at the i marker: Ta = -C(da/dt) - Kt (a - ANGLE) + TORQUE where:
C is the damping term (defaults to 0 in the template). Kt is the torsional stiffness. a is the angle between the bar halves. ANGLE is the initial angular displacement. TORQUE is the torsional preload. Torque applied on the j marker is equal and

opposite to the torque on the i marker.

Simple Powertrain
Overview The simple powertrain template is an example model that outputs drive torque either to the wheel subsystems or to the driveline subsystems in response to throttle and transmission gear demands.

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Figure 17

Simple Powertrain

Template name _powertrain_simple_Ddrive Major role Powertrain Application Full-vehicle assemblies to simulate the effect of a powertrain generating torque to the driving wheels or to the driveline systems. Description The simple powertrain template represents an engine. It does not include the inertia effects of the reciprocating and rotating engine and transmission parts. It also does not include the engine torque speed characteristic. You can connect the powertrain to the driveline, if one is present, or directly to the driving wheels. You set the selection during assembly when Adams/Car assigns communicators. Files referenced None

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Topology The simple powertrain template consists of a single powertrain part that represents the total engine and transmission mass. Three bushings and a mount part attach the powertrain part to the body subsystems. Two different reaction torques act on the powertrain part: one is active if the driveline is present and one is active if the direct drive torque is applied to the wheels. You should note that the different axes (lateral for reaction torque of direct drive and longitudinal for reaction torque on driveline) about which the reaction torques are acting. The following table maps the topology of the powertrain.

The joint: jksfix_rear_engine_mount driveline_torque_reaction direct_drive_torque_reaction Parameters

Connects the part: ges_powertrain ges_powertrain ges_powertrain

To the part: mts_powertrain_to_body ges_powertrain ges_powertrain

The simple powertrain template includes a set of Adams/Solver variables that calculate the engine, transmission, driveline, and direct torques. The following table lists the parameter variables. For a detailed description of the functional equations, see:
Engine torque Transmission torque Driveline torque front and rear Direct drive torque

The parameter: phs_kinematic_flag pvs_engine_height pvs_engine_length pvs_engine_width pvs_front_drive_ distribution pvs_front_final_drive_ratio pvs_gear_ratio_[1,6] pvs_gear_ratio_neutral pvs_gear_ratio_reverse pvs_max_engine_torque Real Real Real Real Real Real Real Real Real

Takes the value: Integer mm mm mm

Its units are: No units

No units No units No units No units No units Nmm

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The parameter: pvs_pumping_loss pvs_rear_final_drive_ratio pvs_throttle_lag Engine torque Real Real Real

Takes the value: Nmm

Its units are: No units s

Engine torque is primarily a linear function of the throttle demand and the maximum engine torque that the powertrain can output. To ensure that the torque does not change too abruptly, the throttle demand is filtered through a first order lag (differential equation) with a time constant given by the parameter variable pvs_throttle_lag. Further, to ensure that the engine torque is zero at time=0 and builds up smoothly during the initial 0.1 second of simulation, the throttle demand is multiplied by a STEP function. Finally, a pumping loss term, which you can change, is subtracted from the engine torque, such that: EngineTorque = STEP x (ThrottleActual/100 x MaxTorque) - Loss Transmission torque The transmission torque is the engine torque multiplied by the selected transmission gear ratio. The transmission gear ratios are stored in a spline (gear ratio spline). TransmissionTorque = Engine x GearRatio Driveline torque front and rear The simple powertrain template outputs driveline torque for front and rear drivelines. The torque is split between front and rear according to the parameter variable, front_drive_distribution. If the front or rear driveline activity is set to off (no drivelines are available at the assembly creation), then the appropriate driveline torques are set to 0: DrivelineTorqueFront = TransmissionTorque x (distribution/100) DrivelineTorqueRear = TransmissionTorque x 1.0 - (distribution/100) Direct drive torque Direct drive torque is output to the front and rear wheel subsystems when no driveshafts are available. The direct drive torque is split between the front and rear wheels according to the parameter variable, front_rear_distribution. It is multiplied by the appropriate final drive ration (differential ratio) and divided by two to equally split the torques between the left and right wheel. The following is an example of the direct drive torque for the front left wheel: Torque = TransmissionTorque/2 x FinalRatio x distribution/100

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Communicators The simple powertrain template has a series of mount part communicators. The assembly process matches them with the corresponding output communicators created in other subsystems. The following table lists the communicators in the template.

The communicator: cis_driveline_active_front cis_driveline_active_rear cis_powertrain_to_body cis_throttle_demand cis_transmission_demand cos_diff_housing_to_powertrain cos_direct_drive_torque_front cos_direct_drive_torque_rear cos_driveline_torque_front cos_driveline_torque_rear cos_propshaft_input_to_powertrain

Belongs to the class: parameter_integer parameter_integer mount solver_variable solver_variable mount solver_variable solver_variable solver_variable solver_variable mount front rear inherit inherit inherit front front rear front rear rear

Has the role:

Tire System
Overview The tire system template provides three basic functions:
Supports vertical load. Develops longitudinal forces for acceleration and braking. Develops lateral forces for cornering.

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Figure 18

Tire System

Template name _handling_tire Major role Wheel Application Full-vehicle analyses Description The tire system template consists of wheel parts rigidly connected to mount parts. The tire contact patch forces are transformed in forces and torques applied at the hub. A series of user-written subroutines perform the force calculation depending on the tire property file that you selected. The contact type (string element) and the road property file determine the road model. For additional information about using Adams/Tire in Adams/Car, see the Adams/Tire online help. Files referenced The tire system template references a tire property file for each wheel part. The default tire property file is mdi_tire01.tir, stored the tires.tbl directory of the Adams/Car shared database.

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Topology A fixed joint connects the wheel part to the spindle mount part. Communicators Mount parts provide connectivity to the suspension subsystems, and output communicators publish information about tire forces and wheel orientation. The following table lists the communicators in the tire system template.

The communicator: ci[lr]_camber_angle ci[lr]_suspension_mount ci[lr]_toe_angle ci[lr]_wheel_center cis_driveline_active co[lr]_rotor_to_wheel co[lr]_wheel_orientation cos_tire_forces_array_left cos_tire_forces_array_right

Belongs to the class: parameter_real mount parameter_real location parameter_integer mount orientation array array inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit rear inherit inherit

Has the role:

Torsion Bar Double-Wishbone Suspension


Overview The torsion bar double-wishbone suspension template is a modified version of the standard DoubleWishbone Suspension. In this template, however, a torsion bar spring replaces the coil spring.

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Figure 19

Torsion Bar Double-Wishbone Suspension

Template name _double_wishbone_torsion Major role Suspension Application Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies Description In the torsion bar double-wishbone suspension template, a torsion bar spring replaces the coil spring used in the standard Double-Wishbone Suspension. The torsion bar consists of two bar halves connected by a rotational SFORCE (joint torque actuator). The rotational SFORCE exerted between the two bar halves is a function of a torsional stiffness and of the relative rotation along the torsion bar longitudinal axis. Files referenced Refer to the Double-Wishbone Suspension.

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Topology The torsion bar consists of two bar halves connected by a cylindrical joint and a joint torque actuator. The first half is rigidly connected to the lower control arm, and the second half is fixed to the mount part and gets rigidly connected to the chassis if you use the suspension in full-vehicle assemblies. Parameters The torsion bar double-wishbone suspension template includes additional parameter variables besides those described in the Double-Wishbone Suspension. The variable defining the torsional stiffness defines the torsion bar stiffness. Also, another parameter variable defines the torsional preload applied between the lower control arm and the torsion bar. The following table lists the additional parameters.

The parameter: pv[lr]_tbar_stiffness pvs_tbar_preload Communicators

Takes the value: Real Real

Its units are: Nmm/Degrees Nmm

Refer to the Double-Wishbone Suspension.

Note:

The torsion bar double-wishbone suspension template includes a toe adjustment. It uses an adjustable force Adams/Car element to reach a desired toe angle at static equilibrium.

Trailing Arm Suspension


Overview The trailing arm suspension template is one of the most simple and economical designs for independent suspensions.

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Figure 20

Trailing Arm Suspension

Template name _trailing_arm Major role Suspension Application Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies Description The trailing arm suspension template is a simple non-steerable suspension design. You can deactivate the driveline simply by selecting inactive in the Toggle Driveline Activity dialog box. Note that it is possible to define the spring concentric to the damper just by moving the spring upper- and lower-seat hardpoints. Files referenced Bushing, spring, damper, bumpstop, and reboundstop property files

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Topology Trailing arms to the left and right sides mount to a rigid subframe that in turns connects to the body mount part through bushings. The arms alone locate the wheel centers. Springs and dampers act between the arms and the body mount parts. A static rotation control actuator locks the rotational degree of freedom of the hub during quasi-static analyses. You can set the suspension to kinematic or compliant mode. Kinematic mode allows purely kinematic connections between the upper strut parts, arms, subframe, and mount parts, while compliant mode replaces the kinematic joints with their corresponding elastic elements. The following table maps the topology of the template.

The joint: jklhoo_upr_strut_to_body jklrev_arm_inner_ pivot jksfix_subframe_to_body_fixed jklhoo_lwr_strut_to_arm jolcyl_lwr_upr_ strut joltra_tripot_to_ differential jolcon_drive_sft_ int_jt jolrev_spindle_ upright Parameters

Connects the part: mtl_strut_to_body gel_arm ges_subframe gel_lower_strut gel_upper_strut gel_tripot gel_tripot gel_spindle

To the part: gel_upper_strut ges_subframe mts_subframe_to_body gel_arm gel_lower_strut mtl_tripot_to_differential gel_drive_shaft gel_arm

The driveline offset variable defines the driveline geometry. Toe and camber variables define wheel spin axis, spindle part, and spindle geometry.

The parameter: phs_kinematic_flag pv[lr]_toe_angle pv[lr]_drive_shaft_offset phs_driveline_active pv[lr]_camber_angle Communicators Real Real

Takes the value: Integer

Its units are: No units Degrees mm No units Degrees

Integer Real

Mount parts provide the connectivity from the template to the body subsystems. Output communicators publish toe, camber, steer axis, and wheel-center location information to the appropriate subsystems and the test rig. The following table lists the input and output communicators.

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The communicator: ci[lr]_spring_to_body ci[lr]_strut_to_body ci[lr]_tripot_to_differential cis_subframe_to_body co[lr]_camber_angle co[lr]_suspension_mount co[lr]_suspension_upright co[lr]_toe_angle co[lr]_tripot_to_differential co[lr]_wheel_center cos_driveline_active cos_suspension_ parameters_ARRAY

Belongs to the class: mount mount mount mount parameter_real mount mount parameter_real location location parameter_integer array inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit

Has the role:

Note:

The kinematic flag variable toggles between kinematic and compliant mode.

Twist Beam Suspension


Overview The twist beam suspension is a dependent suspension model intended for use only as a rear suspension. It does not include a panhard rod.

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Figure 21

Twist Beam Suspension

Template name _twist_beam Major role Suspension Application Suspension and full-vehicle assemblies Description The twist beam suspension template represents a common rear dependent suspension design. It does not include a subframe. The suspension is non-steerable and intended to be used as a rear suspension only. The twist beam is a flexible body generated using shell elements. Interface parts connect the flexible body to the rest of the suspension. You can toggle the suspension between kinematic and compliant modes. In addition, you can deactivate driveshafts.

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Files referenced Springs, dampers, and bushings property files. Also, the flexible body references the file PonteV.mnf, stored in the flex_bodies.tbl directory of the Adams/Car shared database. Topology A static rotation control actuator locks the rotational degree of freedom of the hub during quasi-static analyses. The following table maps the topology of the twist beam suspension.

The joint: jklhoo_upr_strut_to_body jolcyl_lwr_upr_strut joltra_tripot_to_differential jolcon_drive_sft_int_jt jolcon_drive_sft_otr jolhoo_strut_to_beam jklrev_beam_to_body jolrev_spindle_to_beam Parameters

Connects the part: mtl_strut_to_body gel_upper_strut gel_tripot gel_tripot gel_drive_shaft gel_lower_strut ipl_beam_to_subframe gel_spindle

To the part: gel_upper_strut gel_lower_strut mtl_tripot_to_differential gel_drive_shaft gel_spindle ipl_damper_lwr mts_body ipl_spindle_to_beam

In the twist beam suspension, toe and camber variables parameterize wheel spin axis, spindle part, and spindle geometry. The following table lists the parameters in the template.

The parameter: phs_driveline_active phs_kinematic_flag pv[lr]_toe_angle pv[lr]_camber_angle pv[lr]_drive_shaft_offset Communicators

Takes the value: Integer Integer Real Real Real No units No units Degrees Degrees mm

Its units are:

The following table lists the communicators in the template.

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The communicator: ci[lr]_spring_to_body ci[lr]_strut_to_body ci[lr]_tripot_to_differential cis_body co[lr]_camber_angle co[lr]_suspension_mount co[lr]_toe_angle co[lr]_tripot_to_differential co[lr]_wheel_center cos_driveline_active cos_suspension_parameters_ARRAY

Belongs to the class: mount mount mount mount parameter_real mount parameter_real location location parameter_integer array

Has the role: inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit inherit

Note:

The integer parameter variables let you activate and deactivate the driveshafts. The kinematic flag variable toggles between kinematic and compliant mode.