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You are on page 1of 5

2, July 2010

A Single Phase Induction Generator As Wind

Generator A New Concept and Design

Mrs. N.R. Kulkarni,

1

Dr.(Mrs.) Y.S. Apte

2

1

Associate ProIessor in Electrical Engg.Modern College oI Engg.Pune,India

nrkmcoegmail.com

2

Retired ProIessor,IIT,Mumbai,India

yashoda.aptegmail.com

12345674- Experimentation is done on a standard

induction motor, run as a single phase induction

generator. The guidelines obtained from the performance

of this trial machine are used to design and construct a

novel prototype single phase induction generator. This

novel design combines the concepts of ac tachogenerator,

ac servomotor and dc self excited generator. It can

generate at low sub synchronous speeds corresponding

wind speeds being of the order of two to three meters/sec.

Utility of this machine for converting wind power to

electrical power for household consumption is put forth as

a novel concept in this field. Details of construction and

mathematical design of a prototype machine are given.

The performance of the prototype machine is shown to

tally well with the design.

89A B CD5E3 B Fwind generator Tachogenerator, sub

synchronous speed, push pull amplifier, prototype

machine etc

I. INTRODUCTION

Section II presents some experiments conducted on a

trial machine and design oI a prototype single phase

wind generator. In section III principle oI operation oI

single phase Induction generator based on tacho

generator principle is elaborated. In Section IV

analytical design oI 1-ph. Induction generator is

described. In Section V peripheral circuit and

experimental setup is given. Section VI gives

experimental results, Excel and Matlab simulated

results with prototype machine and waveIorms

obtained. Section VII concludes with highlighting the

contributions oI this work. Future scope is described at

the end.

II. TRIAL ON PROTOTYPE MACHINE

A typical single phase induction motor oI rating 230

V, 3 Amp and 300 watt was taken Ior converting it to a

single phase generator Ior testing the novel concept oI

generating a voltage oI constant Irequency and

magnitude proportional to all speeds including the sub

synchronous speeds. This concept is taken Irom

working principle oI tachogenerator. Two windings,

main and auxiliary oI the machine were rewound at

quadrature in space so that no magnetic coupling

between the two windings takes place. Current ratings

oI main and auxiliary windings were 2.4A and 0.68A

respectively. Tapings at 50 winding were taken out

Ior Ilexibility oI connections and provision oI Ieedback.

A good quality Ian chosen by experimentation Irom a

number oI Ians was mounted on the generator shaIt.

From the analysis oI the experiments done on this

machine, it is concluded that designing a generator

based on the above concept would be worthwhile aIter

implementing some improvements such as increase in

length and optimising parameters like number oI i/p,

o/p winding turns and swg oI conductor, rotor

resistance (i.e. material used Ior rotor bars), proper

selection oI stampings etc. The basic principle oI

working oI generator is given below.

III. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF WORKING OF SINGLE

PHASE GENERATOR

The basic principle oI working oI the proposed

machine is that the o/p voltage is generated Ior any

speed ~ 0 and it increases with increasing rotor speed

and Irequency oI output is the same as input Irequency

as in AC tachogenerator.

Two windings are mounted at right angle to each

other i.e. in space quadrature. Rotor is squirrel cage i.e.

bars with end rings creating a short-circuited secondary

winding. Resistance oI rotor winding is taken high so

that X/R is small. Due to this Zero speed onward

generating action takes place and single phase motoring

action is eliminated. Most oI the literature on induction

generators |5,6,7,8,9,10|

reports generation at high or

super synchronous speeds making it useless Ior small

scale household generation where wind speeds are low.

When i/p is given to reIerence winding the magnetic

Iield produced along its axis can be represented as

equivalent to two clockwise and anticlockwise Iields oI

same magnitude and rotating in same directions. So the

torque produced is zero at standstill condition where

the torque oI each component is equal and opposite .

For any other speed (given by driving torque) the

resultant torque due to the two components is nonzero

and is negative due to x/R ratio oI the rotor keptsmaller

6

2010 ACEEE

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ACEEE International Journal on Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, July 2010

than1(generating action).It is balanced against the

driving torque giving steady speed.

A simple explanation oI the operation with

approximate phasor diagram is given below Iollowed

by design oI generator. Alternating Ilux vin vm sinwt

is produced due to current carried by reIerence or input

coil which is excited with ac voltage oI Irequency w

radian/sec.When rotor is rotated with speed N rpm ,

voltage is induced in rotor bars (Vgrb) under each halI oI

the reIerence/ input winding i.e. in the single turn rotor

coil with its axis along the quadrature axis. Directions

oI current in rotor bars under the two halves are

opposite as linear speeds are in opposite directions.

They Iorm a single coil carrying the current and

creating Ilux in quadrature.

The operation oI ac tachogenerator is similar to a dc

tacho generator because the excitation Ilux and the

generated rotor Ilux are at quadrature in space in both.

The magnitudes oI the voltages generated in the rotors

oI both are proportional to speed. However the Iluxes

being ac in the ac tachogenerator no brushes are

required to obtain output but the output voltage due to

the generated quadrature Ilux can be taken Irom stator

by transIormer action.

IV.DESIGN OF GENERATOR

Choice oI prototype machine

Material Ior stampings CRGO

Maximum Ilux density Ior

CRGO

1.6 wb/m

2

Diameter (OD) oI stator

(same as trial machine)

10.5 cm

Length oI stator was chosen

as Ls (Iour times oI trial

machine)

40 cm

Length oI air gap kept Lg 0.055 cm

Diameter oI rotor Dr 6.29 cm

Number oI stator slots 24

Stator slot pitch SSP 1.15 cm

Stator slot depth SSD 1.525 cm

Thickness below the slot Thmin 1.3 cm

Number oI Rotor slots 18

Rotor tooth width RTW 0.6 cm

Crossectional area oI rotor

slot

0.12 cm

2

rotor bar material Brass

Following are the steps oI design done in Window`s

Excel sheet.

The input Ilux density B is taken as reIerence vector as

shown in fig I. with arbitrary magnitude and phase

angle zero. Then Ilux uin is oI magnitude B*area oI a

slot*4 (As 4 slots are used Ior input winding at one

side) and same phase angle zero.

Flux density in tooth and core is calculated to keep

them within allowed limit.

Flux density oI tooth Bth wb/m

2

B*Single slot

pitch/Slot tooth width

Flux density in core

Bc wb/m

2

(4/2)/((Ls/100)*(Thmin/100))

Excitation Irequency is taken as an adjustable design

parameter Ampere turns (AT) required Ior gap

AtgiB*800000*2*Lg/100 |4|

Total ampere turns ATi 1.25*Atgi taking into

account those Ior the magnetic material path.EmI

induced per turn is

EmI/turn Et 4.44*4*f volts (rms).

Total emI induced in input winding Ei Et *No oI

turns Magnetising Current (rms) required Ior the given

Ampere turns Im (ATi/Ti)/\2 Magnetising reactance

Ior the given magnetising path Xmi Induced emI in

input winding/ Im Ei / Im

Lm Xmi/ (2*a*f)

Input winding resistance and output winding resistance,

Ri and Ro respectively can be measured.Input winding

leakage reactance Xli is assumed 15 oI Xmi

Total input impedance Ri fXli

The resistances oI rotor are calculated Ior rotor winding

around direct axis as Rrd and Ior rotor winding around

quadrature axis as Rrq each oI the two windings taken

as single turn winding.So the current Ird in rotor

winding around the direct axis given by transIormer

action is

Ird Induced emI per turn/resistance Rrd

Ird Ird transIerred to stator side Ird /No oI input turns

A. Rotor Side Calculations

As per the principle tachogenerator, generated

voltage by reIerence Ilux (Primary generation) in rotor

bar is

Jgrb d 4in/dtd (B *A)/dt

Where AArea engaged by Ilux, Bcorresponding Ilux

density Bm *sinwt. So

Jgrb d (Bm *sinwt *A)/ dt d (Bm *sinwt *S*L)/dt

Where S length oI arc oI stator engaged by Ilux

So Jgrb Bm*L ( d (sinwt*S)/dt) Bm*L*J *sinwt

where J velocity oI rotor bar.

7

2010 ACEEE

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ACEEE International Journal on Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, July 2010

Jgrb Bm*J*L sinwt

Thus generated voltage has two components oI 90

degree phase diIIerence

Generated voltage in turn Jgrt 2Bm*J*L sinwt

B. Quadrature / Output Side Calculations

The output side capacitor is designed to maximize

the output voltage due to resonance.Xmo is magnetising

reactance reIerred to output in output circuit

Xmo Xmi*(To/Ti)

2

Magnetising reactance reIerred to rotor side is

Xmr Xmo Xmo/ (To

2

)

At resonating condition Xmo Xco

Capacitive reactance reIerred to rotor side Xco Xco/

(To

2

)

Output resistance reIerred to rotor side Ro Ro/ (To

2

)

For no load condition and with the resonating capacitor

across the output Emq Jgrt (Neglecting the

approximation because oI the output winding resistance

Ro)Then the output current reIerred to rotor side Ior

Emq/ (RofXco)

Output voltage reIerred to rotor side Jor Ior *Xco

Output voltage Jop Jor*To

The Ilux density in quadrature axis Bmq is

BmqB*Emq /Ei

Vgrd i.e. Voltage generated in rotor bar (secondary

generated voltage) around direct axis has two

components similar to the primary generation

Jgrd1 Bmq*v*L*sinwt Total Jgrd 2Jgrd1

Total impedance oI rotor circuit ZrdRrdXmr

Current due to Vgrd generated in rotor circuit is Igrd

IgrdJgrd/Zrd, Ird Ei /Rrd

Erd

Ird

Bmq Im Bin Vgrt

Igrd Vgrd

Fig I. Phasor diagram

Input current IiIrd IgrdIm

At input side there are 138 turns centre tapped. So input

voltage Jin 2EiZi*Ii

Xci is input capacitor connected across input winding.

It is chosen practically in such a way that input

waveIorms have good sinusoidal shape though the

ampliIier input is a square wave.

Current in input capacitor Jin /Xci

Total current in the input circuit IinIiIc

IdcIin/1.11 Average output voltage is Voavg Total

resistance at output side Ro Rrd

Approximate Output power ((Joavg-Jb)*Jb)/(RoRrd)

Vb is the loading battery voltage.

Input powerIdc*Jinp/2

Parameters considered Ior optimising the output in the

excel design sheet are

i) The Input winding & Output winding turns

ii) Rotor winding resistance iii) Frequency oI reIerence

input iv) Capacitance across the output winding.

The density oI the excitation Ilux is adjusted so as to

obtain output voltage oI the speciIied value required Ior

charging a 12 volts battery. Out oI the 24 slots in the

stampings 8 and 16 slots are used Ior input winding and

output winding respectively. Those are at quadrature in

space. Total turns accommodated in these slots are

136(6868) with 34 conductors in a slot Ior input

winding and 400(200200) with 50 conductors in a slot

Ior output winding. Resistances oI these windings are

6.0 ohm and 12 ohm respectively. Rotor is squirrel

cage. Rotor bar resistance is 0.0064ohm. The resistance

oI the single turn rotor winding oI the cage rotor around

direct axis and quadrature axis winding are 0.0016

&0.0032 respectively. The chosen material Ior rotor

bars is brass

V. PERIPHERAL CIRCUITS AND LABORATORY

SETUP

As the optimizing Irequency happens to be not

equal to 50 Hz, the excitation voltage needs to be

generated. A low Irequency generator Irom laboratory

is used Ior this purpose. As its output current is very

low (about 100 mA) a three stage ampliIier was

designed. Switching mode, square wave input and

push-pull type stages are chosen Ior the design in order

to keep loss in transistors low to avoid their heating.

Electrical motor is used to drive the generator Ior

laboratory experiments. The linear wind speeds

required to create rotational speeds oI the Iollowing

table are in the range oI 2.5m/s to 5m/s Ior the chosen

Ian oI diameter 1m and this small generator oI dia.

6.29cm and length 40cm

VI. EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS

The capacitor Ci across the input winding is chosen

practically Ior good sinusoidal Iorm oI Vin across the

8

2010 ACEEE

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ACEEE International Journal on Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, July 2010

input winding. Capacitor connected across i/p winding

Ci1100 microF, Capacitor connected across o/p

winding Co 122 microF Observations taken on this

system with no load on output are given in Table No

I(i). WaveIorms are observed and they are good. The

observations tallied well with the corresponding

variables oI design sheet. The system perIormance was

enhanced Iurther by giving Ieedback The Ieedback

design could not be done in excel sheet as the soItware

cannot do circular computation. So Ieedback design

was done by practical trials. It was then veriIied by

MATLAB simulation.Again Ieedback capacitor CI was

chosen practically to maximize output voltage. This CI

is 50 microF (100100 microF in series)The results oI

experimentation Ior Ieedback and loading (12V

battery) and the waveIorms are given below in FigII.

It is observed Irom above mentioned readings and

waveIorms that output increases with speed more than

proportionately and results are matching with excel

sheet design results. In closed loop circuit the Ieedback

capacitor was chosen to give maximum output voltage.

As it was expected the output voltage is larger in this

case. WaveIorm across (VcI and Vo) and (VcI and Vin )

were observed in order to measure relative phase

angles. Both the pair have common point as earthing

point oI DSO. So one Irom each pair is taken as

negative while calculating phase diIIerence between Vo

and Vin as shown in Table No I.(ii)

TABLE NO I(I)

OBSERVATIONS FOR OPEN LOOP SYSTEM

Sr.No Speed Vip Vcc Freq Idc Vop

1 800 7 3.92 18.5 0.75 4

2 1200 7 3.92 19.4 0.75 8

3 1500 7 3.92 22.9 0.75 14

4 1550 8 3.95 23.4 0.75 16

5 1690 8 3.95 23.9 0.75 25

6 1750 8 3.95 24 0.65 26

7 1925 8 3.95 26.2 0.65 28

where Vip Peak input voltage Vcc Battery voltage required Ior ampliIier Freq Input Irequency Idc AmpliIier output current/current in the halI input winding ,Vop Peak output voltage

TABLE NO I.(II)

OBSERVATIONS FOR FEEDBACK AND LOADING 12 V BATTERY

Matlab Simulation

The Excel model is Iitted to the practical observations

by minor adjustment oI the parameters like ampere

turns required Ior magnetic path, leakage Ilux density,

air gap length, Rrd etc which cannot be measured

accurately.

9

2010 ACEEE

DOI: 01.ijepe.01.02.02

Sr

No

Speed

rpm

freq

Hz

Idc

Amp

Vop

Volts

Vip

Volts

Ifb

A

IL

mA

Vcc

Volts

Angle

bet Vin

and Vcf

Angle

bet

Vout

and Vcf

Angle

betVi&V

o

1 1350 19.3 0.7 15 7 0.085 0 3.9 54 21 33

2 1350 19.3 0.725 12 7 0.05 5 3.9 54 21 33

3 1500 20.8 0.7 20 7 0.1 0 3.9 72 15 63

4 1500 20.8 0.725 12 7 0.08 15 3.9 72 15 57

5 1650 22.5 0.7 32 7 0.14 0 3.9 80 15 65

6 1650 22.5 0.75 12 7 0.08 24 0.3 80 21 59

7 1750 23.0 0.7 33 7 0.15 0 3.9 90 16 74

8 1750 23.0 0.7 12 7 0.08 25 3.9 90 24 66

ACEEE International Journal on Electrical and Power Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, July 2010

Then magnitude and phase angles oI all variables

matched well with Excel results. The same model is

then simulated in Matlab to observe dynamic

perIormance.

The waveIorms oI various variables matched with

those observed in practical and saved by photograph oI

the display on oscilloscope.It is easy to veriIy dynamic

perIormance oI machine by Matlab simulation. So

veriIication oI results oI experimentations Ior open

loop is done by Matlab simulation as well as by Excel.

Fig.II. Vop &Vinp Ior1500 rpm

TABLE NO II.

OPEN LOOP OUTPUT VOLTAGE FOR PRACTICAL OBSERVATION, MATLAB, EXCEL SIMULATION

r.No Speed

In rpm

Freq

In Hz

Vinp Vop Angle between Vin and Vo

Matlab

Design

Excel

Design

Observe

d values

Matlab

Design

Excel

Design

Observed

Values

Matlab

Design

Excel

Design

Observed

Values

1 1150 18.5 7.0 7.1 7.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 72 74 72

2 1350 19.2 7.0 6.9 7.0 13.0 13.06 13.5 90 81 108

3 1500 20 7.0 8.53 7.0 15.5 15.3 15 72 89 72

VII. CONCLUSION

As mentioned above the theoretical and practical

results tallied well. This developed conIidence in the

strategy oI design in which theoretical design and

practical design was alternately used as per

convenience and veriIied at every stage by the other.

The present research establishes that the innovative

concept oI using a single phase externally excited low

Irequency; induction machine working on a. c.

tachogenerator principle is useIul Ior household wind

generation as it operates at low wind speeds and over a

long enough range oI speeds giving constant Irequency

output. The machine is suitable as a household unit

because oI its low inertia and low maintenance

requirements. This is the Iirst successIul trial oI this

kind as Iound Irom recent literature survey.

REFERENCES

1)Hugh Piggott 'Wind power workshop` Centre Ior

Alternative Technology publication 1997

2)Paul Gipe 'Wind power for Home and Business` Ama:on

.com new edition2004

3)I.J.Nagrath & M. Gopal 'Control System Engineering

New age international publisher 3

rd

edition 1999

4)M.G.Sav 'PerIormance and design oI alternating current

machines CBS publisher & Distributers, New Delhi 3

rd

Edition, reprint 2002.

5)S.S. Murthy, H.C.Rai, A.K.Tandon 'A novel selI excited

selI regulated single phase Induction Generator part-I &II

IEEE transactions Energy Conversion, Vol 8, No3

September 1993 pp 377-388

6)S.P. Singh, Dr. B Singh and Dr. M.P. Jain, Optimisation

oI a SelI excited Cage Induction Generator Design IE (I)

JOURNAL: Vol 76 May 1995 pp 18-22

7)H.L. Rai, ProI. Singh, ProI S.S. Murthy 'SimpliIied

approach Ior the analysis oI single phase IE (I) JOURNAL

Vol 79 Feb 1999 pp 167-171

8)Abdin E.S., Xu. W. `Control Design and Dynamic

perIormance analysis oI wind turbine- induction generator

unit. IEEE transactions on Energy Conversion, Vo 15, No1

March 2000 pp 91-96

9)Bog Dow, S Borowy, Ziyad M Salameh 'Dynamic

response oI standalone wind energy conversion

system with battery energy storage to a wind gust IEEE

transactions on Energy Conversion, Vo 12, No1 March 1997

10)M.Godov Simoes, Sudipta Chakrabortv, Robert Wood

Induction generator Ior small wind energy system IEEE

power Electronics Societv News Letter Third edition 2006

pp 19-22

N.R. Kulkarni was born on 07 December, 1963. She received

the B.E. (Electrical) in1985 Irom WCE, Sangli, India, M.E.

(Electrical) in1998 and is pursuing Ph.D. (Electrical

Engg)degree, Currently, she is Associate proIessor in

Electrical Engineering Department, Modern college oI Engg

Pune. Her areas oI interest include electrical machines, wind

energy conversion, power quality, and control systems.

Y.S.Apte was born on 25 September 1939. She

received the B.E. (Electrical) Irom WCE, Sangli,

India in 1961, M. Tech (Electrical) in1966 and

Ph.D. degrees in1976Irom IIT, Mumbai, India

respectively. She was associated with IIIT,

Mumbai Ior 30 years and She is working as R&D

Dean in Modern College oI Engg. Pune She has

many publications in the areas oI Multivariable

control system. Her areas oI interest include

Multivariable control system & machine analysis,

system reliability and renewable energy.

10

2010 ACEEE

DOI: 01.ijepe.01.02.02

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