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RESEARCH

AND

DEVELOPMENT

BULLETIN

RD057.01D

tL

Performance of Shrinkage-Compensating Concretes in Slabs


by H. G. Russell

PORTLAND CEMENT
Research and Development/ Consfruci~on

ASSOCIATION
Jechnology Laboratories

/---

Performance

of Shrinkage-Compensating Concretes in Slabs


by H. G. Russell*

HIGHLIGHTS

Use of shrinkage-compensating concretes to reduce drying-shrinkage cracking is well established. In general, applications have been successful. However, it is important during design to recognize the many factors that influence expansion and subsequent shrinkage.
Objective
/---

This investigation was undertaken to determine the effects of type of cement, type of aggregate, percentage and position of reinforcement, slab thickness, and curing conditions on the expansion and subsequent shrinkage of concrete slabs made with three different shrinkage-compensating cements. Structural features that influence the amount of shrinkage compensation were defined and their effects determined. Some concretes performed better than others. This should not be interpreted to mean that one cement is superior to another. Rather, it should be understood that final performance of the slab is governed by the amount of initial expansion.
Scope

Forty-one slabs, 4 ft (1.22 m) long and 2 ft (610 mm) wide, were reinforced and loaded to simulate portions of larger reinforced concrete slabs. Three types of commercially available shrinkagecompensating cements, Types S, K, and M, were used, as well as both lightweight and normal-weight aggregates. The effects of internal restraint, pro*Manager, Structural Development Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Section, Ill.

vialed by different amounts of reinforcement ranging from O~oto 1j~~o, and the effects of different positions of the reinforcement were investigated. All suecimens were made from concrete w;th 28-day compressive strength of about 4600 psi (3 1.7 MPa). Strains in the concrete and reinforcement were measured at selected intervals. The experimental program was divided into two parts. In the first part, measurements of expansion and shrinkage were made on 29 slabs. The majority of the slabs were tested in flexure at age 250 days. These tests were used to evaluate the effects of the variables on cracking and flexural strength. In general, the level of expansion affected the cracking loads but had no influence on flexural strength. Slabs not tested at 250 days were stored for 1000 days for shrinkage measurements over the longer time period. Based on the test results, the final amount of shrinkage was Dredicted. The required expansive poten~ial to achieve complete shrinkage compensation was determined. In the second part, tests were conducted to measure the properties of shrinkage< ompensating concretes under constant axial load. Initial deformation and time-dependent shortening under load were measured. The results were compared with data from similar specimens containing Type I cement.
Conclusions

The following conclusions were made: 1. All shrinkage-compensating concrete slabs in the test program had a

final net drying shrinkage less than that of corresponding slabs made with Type I cement. 2. Initial expansion of the reinforced slabs did not compensate completely for drying shrinkage. 3. Each type of shrinkage-compensating cement gave a different amount of expansion. However, the measured values should not be considered typical for each cement since the level of expansion will vary depending on the chemical formulation of the cement and the other constituents in the concrete. 4. Lightly reinforced slabs had considerably more expansion than heavily reinforced slabs. The amount of reinforcement had very little effect on the amount of subsequent shrinkage. Therefore, better shrinkage compensation was achieved with the lightly reinforced slabs. 5. When the reinforcement was placed close to one face only, differential expansion occurred between opposite faces of the slab. This caused the slab to curl. 6. Slab thickness did not appear to affect the amount of expansion. However, the thicker slabs had less subsequent shrinkage and would need less expansion to achieve complete shrinkage compensation. 7. Slabs that were sealed on one face to had differential prevent drying shrinkage between the sealed and drying faces. Consequently, the slabs curled as they dried. The slab that was completely sealed had no shrinkage.

p~~tla~d

cement

Association

1$17L3

Performance

of Shrinkage-Compensating

Concre~es in Slabs

8. Flexural tests indicated that the level of expansion increased the cracking moment but did not affect flexural strength. 9. The flexural strength of shrinkagecompensating concretes can be predicted accurately using conventional strength equations. 10. From creep tests, it was found that initial, instantaneous deformations can be predicted accurately using the modulus of elasticity of unrestrained 6x12-in. (152x305-mm) cylinders over the same stress range. 11 Creep of slabs containing shrinkagecompensating concretes was higher than that of corresponding slabs made with Type I cement.

sisted of constant stress applied to the ends of the specimen. These are identified as Creep Specimens. An earlier report(4) provided the initial results from shrinkage specimens and complete results from the fully restrained specimens. This present report describes the long-term behavior of the shrinkage specimens up to 1000 days, and the complete behavior of the creep specimens.

SHRINKAGE

SPECIMENS

BACKGROUND

The proper use of a shrinkage-compensating concrete has long been recognized as a means of reducing cracking and shrinkage movements in concrete structures. t11 * Many factors that affect expansion and subsequent shrinkage have been reported and summarized in two ACI Committee publications.2 ) Both ACI Committee publications indicate that the structural behavior of shrinkage-compensating concrete members is not fully understood. A laboratory promajor experimental gram(l) was initiated, therefore, to supply some of the missing information. The program also identified the effects of several significant variables on the long-term performance of reinforced concrete slabs made with shrinkagecompensating cements. That overall test program was divided into three parts based on type of external restraint at the ends of the test specimens. In the majority of the tests, no external restraint was applied. The concrete expansion or shrinkage was restrained only by the reinforcement. These specimens are identified as Shrinkage Specimens. The second group involved an external restraining force that completely prevented expansion or shrinkage of the specimens. Required force was measured. These are identified as Fully Restrained Specimens. The third type of restraint con*Superscript numbers in parenthesesdesignate references at the end of this report.

All specimens were 4 ft (1.22 m) long and 2 ft (610 mm) wide. Generally, they were 6 in. (152-mm) thick although some 3-in. (76-mm) and 9-in. (229-mm) slabs were used. The main variables were cement type, reinforcement percentage, and aggregate type. Minor variables were slab thickness, depth of reinforcement, and type of curing. Combinations of variables are identified in Table 1.
Symmetrically Reinforced Slabs

Internal restraint in two directions was provided by Grade 60 high-strength reinforcement with nominal reinforcement percentages of O, A, ~, and 13Ain each direction. For lightweight concrete specimens, every combination of cement type and reinforcement percentage was used. These were all 6-in. -thick (152-mm) slabs reinforced with two-way reinforcement at top and bottom. The 3-in. thick (76-mm) and 9-in. -thick (229-mm) lightweight concrete slabs were cast with 1A% reinforcement. Normal-weight slabs 6 in. (152 mm) thick were cast using Type K cement with the three lowest percentages of reinforcement. Thickness effects were investigated with 3-in. (76-mm) and 9-in, (229-mm) slabs containing ~~o reinforcement. All normal-weight slabs had two-way reinforcement at middepth.
Unsymmetrically Reinforced Slabs

Three shrinkage-compensating cements designated as Types S, K, and M were included. Specimens made with Type I cement were used as a basis forcomparison.

Three slabs were tested to determine their behavior with an unsymmetrical arrangement of reinforcement. Slabs were 6 in. (152 mm) thick and cast with Type K cement. One layer of reinforcement was provided in each direction. The mat was placed close to one face with bars in the long direction having

TABLE

1. Slab Description
Slab

and Identification
Slab number O/.
13A

description
Thickness, in. (mm) Nominal o

Cement type Symmetrical I s i K K K K K

reinforcement, 1/.
1/2

Aggregate** reinforcement LW LW LW LW LW LW NW NW NW

6 6 6 6 3 9 3 6 9

(152) (152) (152j (152) (76) (229) (76) (152) (229)

?A KA MA

!B KB MB

IG Sc KC MC KE KF KM

~D KD MD

KJ

KN KL KP

Unsymmetrical K K Sealed K K
All LW slabs were

reinforcement LW NW 6 (152) 6 (152) KG KQ

slabs NW NW
2x4 ft (610x1220 see NW is normal

6 (152) 6 (152)

KRt KTtt
tCompletely TTSealed on

KUtt
sealed. one face only.

mm).

For

reinforcement is lightweight,

details

Appendix. weight.

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Research and DeveIopmen~

Bulletin

Fig. 1. Shrinkage specimens.

s~.in. (19-mm) cover. Two specimens were made with lightweight aggregate and one with normal-weight aggregate.
Slabs with Sealed
P.

Faces

Specimen KR was completely sealed in copper foil after removaj from the forms at about 6 hours. Specimens KT and KU had foil placed on one face and the edges only. These two were wrapped in polyethylene for 3 days after they were cast. All suecimens were 6 in. (152 mm) thick and made with normal-weight aggregate. The longitudinal reinforcement was located at middepth and the lateral reinforcement alternated between sides.
Test Procedure

intervals. At age 250 days, the reinforced specimens were tested in flexure. Unreinforced specimens were retained until 1000 days for further shrinkage measurements. Instrumentation details and test methods are given in the Av~endix. ..

Expansion

and Shrinkage
REINFORCED

Behavior
SLABS

SYMMETRICALLY

The relationship between longitudinal strains and age are shown in Fig. 2. Zero age refers to data taken before form removal and prior to any expansion.

+800

+400
Type S Lightweight Type I Lightweight

.-

.2,Type K Lightweight Type


-O?VMA

t
Expansion
o

..oo~

+ 800

/----

Specimens were cast vertically and forms removed at 6 to 7 hours. Except for the slabs with sealed faces, the sides and ends of the specimens were coated with a multipurpose latex adhesive to reduce moisture loss. The specimens were wrapped in polyethylene sheets for 3 days after casting. During the entire test program, they were stored at constant ambient conditions of 70 F (21 C) and 55% relative humidity. Several specimens are shown in Fig. 1. Length changes of reinforcement and concrete were measured with a mechanical strain gage.(s) Initial readings of concrete and reinforcement strains were taken before form removal. Thereafter, readings were taken at suitable

40:=
+400 Type 9- KP K Normal Welghl Shrinkage

z+ 800 M Llghtwelght

0.4 -400

C,

..-

, o
50 100 Age, 150 cloys 200

I
250

50

100
Age,

150 cloys

200

250

Fig. 2. Length changes age specimens.

of symmetrically

reinforced

shrink-

Performance

of Shrinkage-Compensating

Concretes in Slabs

All specimens expanded during the curing period under polyethylene. The maximum amount of expansion and the corresponding compressive stress in the concrete for each specimen are listed in Table 2. Further discussion of the effect of test variables on the amount of expansion are given in a previous report. c] The removal of polyethylene sheets at 3 days resulted in rapid shrinkage in most specimens. However, the 6- and 9in. -thick (152- and 229-mm) slabs made with Type K cement and lightweight aggregate continued to expand at a very slow rate for the next 15 days. Readings on all reinforced specimens continued until 250 days. It has been shown previously [4)that the amount of reinforcement has a considerable effect on the level of expansion. Lightly reinforced slabs expand considerably more than heavily reinforced slabs. However, the effect of reinforcement is not as great on shrinkage. This is demonstrated by the shape of the shrinkage part of the curves in Fig. 2. For specimens with the same thickness, the curves are approximately parallel. The effect of reinforcement on the net change in length at age 250 days is shown in Fig. 3. It can be seen that only the very lightly reinforced lightweight specimens had a net expansion. Nor. real-weight slabs with shrinkage-compensating cement and slabs with Type I cement had considerable net shrinkage.

TABLE

2. Length

Changes

and Stresses
Concrete stress,

Average strain, millionths Slab number 1A IB Ic ID SA SB SG SD KA KB KC KD MA MB MC MD KE KF KJ KL KM KN KP KG KH KQ KR KT KU Maximum expansion 10 0 0 0 495 396 323 177 556 273 239 109 696 439 341 177 204 136 202 101 67 90 91 125t 841 61 T 815 29t 165 188 165T 177 14ot 160
on 6x1 2-in. 1 ksi opposite on

f:
at 28 days, psi 5020 5070 4820 4740 4610 4950 4670 4750 4420 3930 4280 4170 4440 4750 4790 4430 4880 4900 4730 4390 4300 4550 4790 5340 5600 4480 4300 4670 4610 -,

Age 250 days -366 -344 -360 -296 106 -15 -106 -190 275 -lo -27 -129 248 -26 -122 -210 -214 -64 -235 -271 -373 -387 -220 -206 480 -235 462 -388 -275 220 -306 101 -309 87
(152x205-mm) : 6.89 MPa faCeS.

Maximum compression o 0 0 0 0 29 41 81 0 20 30 49 0 32 43 79 25 20 0 6 7 5 7 46 -15 54 -18 6 -2 12 11 15

Age 250 days o -25 -46 -133 0 -1 -14 -87 0 -1 -3 -58 0 -2 -15 -93 -26 -9 0 -18 -41 -21 -16 -lo +3 -48 +16 -65 +22 +14 -5 -11

Measured 1 psi = 6.69 TExp6nsions

cvlinders

cured

samQ

as slabs.

kPa,

+ 400 ---+ \
q

Type
Type Type Type

I S K M K

Lightweight Lightweight Llghfweight Lightweight Normol Weight

Expansion

o x
u

200 :\
<1 ,\

.. .
-,-,

A Type

Slab Stroln, millionths

<,\\

L:<.. .>, -200 ~~~~

~ti_----------- . . . . . . .z .. .

Shrinkage

\ \ -400 o 0.5 Reinforcement := 1.0 Percentage 1.5 2.0

Fig. 3. Effect of reinforcement age at age 250 days.

on expansion

and shrink-

The advantage of using a shrinkagecompensating cement as compared with a regular .portland cement is clearly demonstrated in Fig. 3. The curve for the Type I cement lightweight slabs lies considerably below curves for shrinkage-compensating lightweight slabs. The difference between the curves is less for greater reinforcement. The upward trend of the curve for Type I cement lightweight slabs is the result of reinforcement restraining the shrinkage. Measured strains on unreinforced slabs up to 1000 days are shown in Fig. 4. The trend in the data observed during the first 250 days continued to 1000 days.

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Research and Development

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n
UNSYMMETRICALLY REINFORCED SLABS

The relationships between longituclinal strains and age for unsymmetrically reinforced slabs are shown in Fig. 5. For slabs with eccentric reinforcement, the more distant face from the steel expanded considerably more than the nearer one. For lightweight-aggregate slabs, the expansions were almost independent of the amount of steel and much greater than those for normal-weight slabs. Following removal of the polyethylene sheets, shrinkage on both faces of all three specimens was about equal.
SLABS WITH SEALED FACES

I
+ 800

+ 400

Longltudlnol Strain millionths , 0

1
~L . +. I 0.230/o-One

KH - .Lightweight Lighlwelght Norma lweight 0.23/. 0.42%O 230/. -KG KH -KO

-.

-. ._

-. .>KO

:==-. .

-400

For specimens sealed on one face, the expansions of opposite faces were about equal and only slightly less than those of the completely sealed slab, After polyethylene removal, the exposed face began to shrink whereas the sealed face continued to expand for about 20 days. Maximum expansion in each direction and corresponding stresses for each face are given in Table 2. Net strain and shrinkage values at 250 days are also given. On the basis that plane sections remain plane, slab curvatures can be calculated. These curvatures are shown in Fig. 6. A curvature of 100 is equivalent to deflection of about 3/16 in. for a 10-ft span. (A metric curvature of 4 is equivalent to 4.5 mm in a 3-m span.) Curvature caused by offcenter reinforcement in slabs KG, KH, and KQ increased rapidly due to differential ex-

+ 400 FcIce Sealed-KT. ,0.23 /Q- F.lly


SeOled-KRl

Longitudinal
StrOin,

L..-...
o
Sealed Face

millionths

0.42

/. -ODe

Foce

Seoled

-KU

---150 200

.
25o

-400

50

100
Age, cloys

Fig. 5. Length change of unsymmetrically sealed shrinkage specimens.

reinforced

and

pansion. Thereafter, the curvature remained approximately constant. In contrast, curvature of the partially sealed specimens, KT and KU, did not increase until the exposed face started to shrink. In this case the curvature was caused by differential shrinkage.
Complete Shrinkage Compensation

Expansion

oo~

+ 400

LOng#iudinal Slroin, millionths o \

-400

Type

L.W.

,----

Shrinkage

-800~~ o 200 400


Age,

600
days

800

1000

Fig. 4. Length

change

of unreinforced

slabs.

Based on the measured length changes of the unreinforced slabs for 1000 days, final length changes were calculated. The shrinkage portion of the curves was assumed to follow a hyperbolic equation as suggested by Hansen and Mattock.(h) A least-squares analysis was performed to fit a curve to the measured strain for each specimen. The final amount of shrinkage from the time of maximum expansion was calculated from the hyperbolic equation. Calculated values are tabulated in Table 3. Also listed in Table 3 are actual initial expansions and calculated final length changes. It can be seen that for Type K and M lightweight slabs initial expan-

Performance

of Shrinkage-Compensating

Concre~es in Slabs

150
0.420/.
k m =:- L.W-KH

4
Curvature I/mm ,millionihs

Curvature l/in, millionths

KT

KU

KG

KH

KQ

50

0,23/.
0,42/.

NW- KT NW-KU

moments at first cracking were higher in the shrinkage-compensating slabs than in the corresponding Type I slabs. This clearly demonstrates there is less tensile stress due to shrinkage in a shrinkagecompensating slab than in the corresponding Type I cement specimen. These results further substantiate research by Pfeifer. [g) Measured and calculated flexural strengths of the slabs also are listed in Table 4. The following equation was used to calculate flexural strength.

-,

50

I00
Age, days

150

200

250

+$=+6*)
slabs.

1)

Fig. 6. Curvature

of unsymmetrically

restrained

where M= bending j, moment


b = width of slab

sions were sufficient to offset the calculated final shrinkage and complete shrinkage compensation was obtained. For the other slabs, initial expansion was not sufficient, Expansive potential of shrinkagecompensating concrete can be measured using standard 3x3x 10-in. (76x76x 254-mm) restrained prisms.() A relationship between slab expansion and restrained-prism expansion has been established{31 for different amounts of slab reinforcement. Using Fig. 3.3.2 of Reference 3, the required expansive potential for complete shrinkage compensation has been determined for each slab. Values are given in Table 3. Required prism expansions for complete compensation fall within the range of 398 to 524 millionths. Note that this amount of expansive potential will provide complete shrinkage compensation for the unreinforced concretes used in this program. For reinforced slabs, slab expansion is reduced as the amount of reinforcement is increased. Shrinkage also is reduced. However, the reduction is far greater for expansion. Conse-

quently, to achieve complete shrinkage compensation, the expansive potential should be higher for more heavily reinforced slabs. When the amount of reinforcement in a slab varies from area to area, an average expansion should be used. The lightly reinforced areas will then be overcompensated and the heavily reinforced areas undercompensated. It should be noted that shrinkage also depends upon slab thickness and concrete materials.
Flexural Tests

= yield strength of reinforcement area of tension reinforcement d = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement .~i = compressive strength of concrete
AS=

All reinforced specimens were tested in flexure at age of about 250 days. The test setup is shown in Fig. 7. Specimens were loaded over a simple span of 46 in. with a midspan line load. Strain gages were attached to the tension face to detect first cracking. All specimens were loaded to destruction. Values of the moment at first cracking and corresponding tensile stress for all slabs are listed in Table 4. It can be seen that for Specimens B, C, and D,

For lightly reinforced specimens, measured and calculated values are in close agreement. However, for the more heavily reinforced slabs, strength was influenced by shear and the behavior was not predominantly flexure. The relationship between midspan moment and deflection for all specimens is shown in Fig. 8. Different levels of expansion in the lightly reinforced slabs are apparent at the point-where the curves change direction sharply. However, after cracking slab behavior was essentially the same.
CREEP SPECIMENS

Description

TABLE

3. Values for Complete


Length change

Shrinkage

Compensation
Slab

am
Calculated final length change

IA-LW

SA-LW

KA-LW

MA- LW

KJ-NW

Creep properties of shrinkage-compensating-cement concretes under constant stress were determined from tests on specimens similar to the shrinkage specimens. All slabs were 6 in. (152 mm) thick and 24 in. (610 mm) wide. Tops and bottoms of specimens were modified so that a high compressive force could be applied to the ends. In addition, holes were provided in the specimens so that tension rods could transfer

-,

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TABLE

4. Flexural

Test

Results
Strength Concrete stre ~th

First cracking
Tensile

Slab number
Symmetrical

Moment, lb in./in. *

stress,
psi*

Measured,
lb in./in. *

Calculated, lb in,/in.

J-S.>
psi

f:>
psi*

reinforcement

-.
465 335 390 520 475 425 475 440 415 613 585 470 435 360 570 530 530 625 4340 7160 16050 4060 6820 16100 4230 7150 16640 4020 7650 18050 2300 17260 4500 6050 920 9300 3570 7220 24070 3450 7850 25480 3550 7520 25000 3520 7990 25060 2180 19490 4160 6560 730 9800

IB Ic ID SB SG SD KB KC KD MB MC MD KE KF KL
KM KN KP Unsymm

3040 2210 2870 3320 3110 3150 3130 2900 3160 4020 3920 3640 720 5630 3420 3330 850 6610 rical

520 . 510 515

6050 5750 5650 6360 6190 6100 5130 5590

505 495 500 510

5450 5530 5390 5120 6020 6040 4990

4890 5150

Fig. 7. Flexural

test arrangement,

600

5420

reinforcement

zEE!EEm~
Sealed KR KT KU slabs 4760 4440 4547 755 720 725 5130 4980 6530 4300 4530 6590 565 4840 5480 5190
20 1 psi = 6,69 kPa, 1 lb in,/in, of first = 4.45 crack N.m/m 5 in. (127 mm) away from midspan 1Moment at location
M!dspon De flectl.an, mm

10 , Type I- LW

10
ype S-LW

10 , ype K-LW

10
rype M- LW

10 -/

720D

1 72 ,.. S

1 727.

Kc!

, 720/. . MD

50

the load from one end to the other. The main variables in the tests were type of cement and percentage of reinforcement. The test variables for each specimen are identified in Table 5. Reenforcement arrangement was identical to that used for shrinkage specimens. Specimens were cured under polyethylene for 3 days and thereafter at 70 F(210 C) and 5594 relative humidity. Maximum expansion was reached within the first 3 days. Between the third and fourteenth days, specimens were free to shrink similar to shrinkage specimens. At 14 days, a total force equivalent to an average compressive stress of 1000 psi (6.89 MPa) was applied to the ends of the slabs. At suitable intervals, the force was adjusted to maintain the stress at the desired value. Strains in the con-

/ [ 0.46%K( G / L 0.46%MC

G Midsoan
Moment kip. ,n/>n

G==

G= Mtdsoan

0 20 Tyoe K S-LW-KF
rype K-NW rype K Type K-NW

o t.4. m.n+
kt4. m/m.

10

~,,-Nw-Kp

0.~Z%LW.K,

50

0.420/. - KU
046V-. M

3: NW-KN
0.23%3,,. LW. KE KU

0 23% NW-K F 2,237.. LW.K(

E 0 23-h -K.=

0
0

0.25

0.25 I,

0.25

0.25

0 3

Mldspan

De flect,.m,

Fig. 8. Moment versus deflection

relationships.

Performance

of Shrinkage-Compensating

Concretes in Slabs

TABLE

5. Identification of Creep Specimens


Slab number

TABLE

6. Properties

of Slabs

at Initial
Initial

Loading
strain, millionths Measured Calculated

Slab
number

f:>
psi*

E,,
ksi* 2390 2460 2360 2420 2250 2390 2580 2290 ~ 2710
1 ksi = 6.89

E,,
ksi Measured 386 373 343 439 390 353 476 408 373 416 433 322 Calculated . 418 388 359 413 422 356 388 415 320

~ement type

] Reinforcement o IA-C SA-C KA-C MA-C 0.46 It-c Se-c KC-C MC-C T

Percentage 1.72 ID-C SD-C KD-C MD-C

T
s K PA

IA-C I c-c I D-C SA-C Se-c SD-C KA-C KC-C KD-C MA-C MC-C MD-C
1 psi = 6.89

28200 26900 28200 26900 28200 26900 28200 26900


MPa


1,05 1.01 0.98 1,15 0.97 1.05 1.07 0,96 0.99

3940 4100 3780 3870 3820 3620 4350 3980 5180

crete and reinforcement were measured at selected time intervals using a 10-in. (254-mm) mechanical strain gage.() Reinforced specimens were maintained under load until age 250 days. Plain concrete specimens were maintained under load until 1000 days.

kPa,

Initial

Response
0.5

Column

Stiffness

Coefficient,

MPo

Slab properties at initial loading are given in Table 6. Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity were measured on 6x12-in. (152x305-mm) cylinders at 14 days when the slabs were loaded. The concrete modulus was calculated between O and 1000 psi (6.89 MPa). Measured strains due to a compressive stress of 1000 psi (6.89 MPa) also are given in Table 6. For reinforced suecimens. strains are the average of those measured on reinforcement; and concrete. Calculated strains are based on the measured modulus of elasticity and nominal cross-sectional areas. Fig. 9 shows the variation of initial strains with column stiffness coefficient. The data clearly indicate that the initial or instantaneous shortening of reinforced shrinkage-compensating concrete members can be calculated accurately using the conventional theory of elasticity,

0.4

30 0.3
Initial Strain millionths per psi Initial Strain millionths

0.2
25
0

per

Nlmm2

Type Type Type

S K M

0.1

0 50
ASES ,ksi

1000
Column Stiffness

2000
Coefficient

3000
AC

4000
EC+ Ag

Fig. 9. Initial

strain versus column

stiffness

for creep tests.

Behavior

under

Sustained

Load

Strains measured on the creep specimens were the sum of strains caused by expansion, instantaneous shortening, creep, and shrinkage. To obtain the strains caused by creep alone, the strains caused by the other effects were subtracted from the measured values. Expansion and shrinkage strains were ob-

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400

\----

-800 Creep Strain, mi[llonths ~13/1%-KD 0 Type K

-400
\ o-/o-KA

o
Type M

tained from the corresponding shrinkage specimens. Instantaneous shortening was taken as the strain that occurred on loading and those values are given in Table 6. Creep strains for all specimens up to age 250 days are plotted in Fig. 10. For each cement type, creep was less in the reinforced specimens, behavior similar to portland cement concretes. However, amount of creep in the shrinkage-compensating-cement specimens was higher than in the corresponding Type I cement specimens. The higher water-cement ratio of shrinkage-compensating specimens was a factor contributing to higher creep. However, since the differences were large, there were probably other effects involved. Data obtained from the unreinforced specimens up to 1000 days are compared in Fig. 11. The trend in the data is similar to that obtained over the first 250 days.
CONCLUDING REMARKS

-400

- Soo ~.~
o 50 100
Age, clays I 50

200

250

Fig. 10. Creep properties of all specimens for 250 days.

Through an experimental investigation of concrete slabs made with three different shrinkage-compensating cements, the effects of percentage and position of reinforcement, slab thickness, and curing condition were determined for lightweight and normal-weight concrete slabs. Major conclusions are given under Highlights at the beginning of this report.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

-200

Creep Sir0in,_400 millionths

This investigation was carried out in the Structural Development Section of the Portland Cement Association under the direction of Dr. W. G, Corley. Fabrication and testing of the specimens were performed by the sections technical staff. Particular credit is due B. W. Fullhart, S. Zintel, and W. Hummerich, Jr., for their assistance with the laboratory work.

-600

-*OO

~ o

200

400
Age,

1000

days specimens for

Fig. 11. Creep 1000 days.

properties

of unreinforced

10

Performance

of Shrinkage-Compensating

Concretes in Slabs

REFERENCES 1. Klein Symposium on Expansive Cement Concretes, SP-38, American

the PCA Research and Development Laboratories, Vol. 1, No. 1,

Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1973, 491 pages. 2. ACI Committee 223, ExpansiveCement ConcretesPresent State of Knowledge, Journal of the Vol. 67, No. 8, August 1970, pages 583-610. 3. ACI Committee 223, Recommended
Practice for the Use of ShrinkageCompensating Concrete (ACI 223Concrete Institute, 77), American American ceedings, Concrete Institute, Pro-

January 1959, pages 12-20 and 4044; Vol. 1, No. 2, May 1959, pages 30-37; and Vol. 1, No. 3, September 1959, pages 35-41. Also, PCA Development Department Bulletin D33. 10. Shideler, J. J., Lightweight Aggregate Concrete for Structural Use, Vol. 54, pages 299-328. Also PCA Development Department Bulletin D 17. 11. Hanson, J. A., Replacement of Lightweight Aggregate Fines with Natural Sand in Structural Concrete, Journal of ~he American
Concrete Institute, Proceedings, Journal of the American Institute, Proceedings, Concrete

Detroit, 1977, 21 pages. 4. Russell, H. G.j Design of Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete Slabs,


Klein Symposium on Expansive Cement Concretes, SP-38, American

Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1973, pages 193-226. Also, PCA Research and Development Bulletin RD034D 5. Hanson, N. W., and others, Facilities and Test Methods of PCA Structural LaboratoryImprovements 1960-65~ Journal of the PCA
Resear~h and Development Laboratories, Vol. 3, No. 2, May 1961,

Vol. 61, No. 7, July 1964, pages 779793. Also PCA Development Department Bulletin D80. 12. Deformed
and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement Society for (A6 15-74a) American

Testing and Materials, phia, 11 pages.


APPENDIX: LABORATORY

Philadel-

gravel. The aggregates are identified as Nos. 14 and 8, respectively, in References 10 and 11. Concrete was mixed in a 6 cu ft (O.17 mj) tilting-drum mixer for 2 to 3 minutes after adding all materials. Water content was controlled to provide a concrete slump of 4 to 6 in. (102 to 152 mm) at the mixer. For lightweight concretes an air content of about 5% was provided. No air-entraining agent was added to the normal-weight concretes. One batch of concrete was used for each slab and its control specimens. All cylinders and control prisms were cast in heavy steel molds. The cylinders were stripped at the same time as the main specimens. Thereafter, they were cured in polyethylene bags for 3 days. High-strength reinforcement meeting the requirements of American Society for Testing and Materials A615 Designation Grade 60( 12) was used in the specimens. Measured steel properties are given in Table 8. Each mat of reinforcement contained the same spacing of bars in both directions. Reinforcement details are given in Table 9.
Fabrication

WORK

pages 27-31; Vol. 7, No. 1, January 1965, pages 2-9; and Vol. 7, No. 2, May 1965, pages 24-38. Also PCA Development Department Bulletin D91. 6. Hansen, T. C., and Mattock, A. H., Influence of Size and Shape of Member on the Shrinkage and Creep of Concrete, Journal of the
American Concrete Institute, Proceedings, Vol. 63, No. 2, February

Fabrication, instrumentation, ing of the specimens followed procedures employed at the Cement Association Structural opment Laboratory. Details scribed elsewhere. (3 9,
Concretes

and teststandard Portland Develare de-

1966, pages 267-290. Also PCA Development Department Bulletin D103. 7. Proposed Method of Test for Restrained Expansion of ShrinkageCompensating Concrete, 1975 Annual Book of ASTM Standards,

Average concrete proportions are given in Table 7. The lightweight aggregate was expanded shale and the normalweight aggregate was Elgin sand and

Form sides for specimens were made of 3A-in. (19-mm) plywood stiffened with 2x4-in. (52x 102-mm) lumber. The form was mounted on two 4x4-in. (102x 102mm) steel crossheads that were stressed to the floor of the laboratory. The form base consisted of a 2-ft-long (1.22-m) channel with vertical flanges. The channel was bolted to the top of the crossheads. Short anchorage rods were welded to the channel and projected into the concrete to provide support for the specimen after form removal. The an-

American Society for Testing and Philadelphia, Part 14, Materials, pages 667-671. 8. Pfeifer, D. W., Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete in Walls, Klein
Symposium
Concrete,

TABLE

7. Mix Proportions
Quantlties per cubic Aggregates Coarse 655 640 640 Medium 370 360 360 Fine 590 575 575 579 889 yard of concrete, lb Aggregate type

on Expansive
SP-38,

Cement

crete Institute, 165-191. 9. Hognestad, E., and others, Facilities and Test Methods of the PCA Structural Laboratory, Journal of

American ConDetroit, 1973, pages

m
Cement
1 lb/cu yd = 0.593 kg/m3 Total weiaht of coarse and

1009
889 n

T830 805 805 300 325 325 816 326 1465 285

Sand

Water

medium

PCA

Research and Development

Bulletin

11

/---=
TABLE 9. Reinforcement Details

TABLE
Bar size 2 3 4 5
ksi

8. Steel Properties
E.,
ksi 27200 28200 26900 26400

f,>
ksi 56.8 71.9 60.4 65.2

f.,
ksi 83.3 110.5 100.1 109.6

~LayerA

Zlz
1

= 6.89

MPa

Specimen number

Bar spacing, c/c in. (mm)

Cover,

in,

AjB

,n

chorage rods were completely independent of the main reinforcement. Specimens were cast in several lifts and consolidated with an internal vibrator. Tops of the shrinkage specimens were screeded and finished with a float. For creep specimens, another channel, complete with anchor rods, was placed on top of the specimen. Care was taken to ensure that no air was trapped between channel and top of concrete. Holes for the loading rods in the creep specimens were made using 1-??-in.0. D. (44-mm) conduit. The conduit was removed at age 5 hours.
Instrumentation

1A, SA, KA, MA, KJ IB, SB, KB, MB IC, SC, KC, MC ID, SD, KD, MD KE, KL, KR, KT KF KG, KQ KH KM, KN %in. KP, KU 4 3 4 3 0 0 1 3 4 3 4 3 3 3

I
3 3

=19mm

L
3 5 3 6 8 8 4 (193) (193) (193) (193) (193) 3 4 4 2 8 8 6 8

8 8

(142) (193)

3/4 3A % 1

3/4 3A %

(142) (193)

Middepth
3/4

Middepth MidderXh

I
3h
3/4 %

All strains on the reinforcement and concrete were measured with a mechanical strain gage. Gage plugs were epoxied directly onto the reinforcement before assembling the mats. Holes around the points were formed in the concrete with polystyrene blocks that were later removed. To permit strain measurement at an early age, accurately located steel rods were cast into the concrete. These rods passed through the slab and through the holes in the forms. Clearance was provided between the rods and forms by polystyrene plugs. Three hours after casting, the plugs were glued to the ends of the steel rods. This enabled readings to be taken before form removal. For creep specimens, the applied loads were measured with load cells. P
Testing Procedures

The first set of strains was taken at 5 hours. A second set was taken at 6 hours immediately prior to form removal.

Generally, there was little difference between the 5- and 6-hour readings. As soon as the forms had been removed, the slab edges were sealed to prevent moisture loss. Copper foil was applied to the slabs with sealed faces. All slabs were then wrapped in polyethylene sheeting. A third set of strains was recorded. Additional readings were taken at appropriate intervals. The polyethylene sheet was removed at 3 days, and the specimens stored at about 70 F (21 C) and 55970relative humidity. At 14 days, the creep specimens were subjected to stress increments of 200 psi (1.38 MPa) up to 1000 psi (6.89 MPa), and strain data were recorded at each increment. The loads were applied with hydraulic rams. At 1000 psi (6.89 MPa), the loading rod nuts were tightened against crossheads at specimen ends and the rams deactivated. At 250 or 1000 days, the loads were removed using

the reverse procedure.


Flexural Tests

With the slabs placed vertically, flexural tests were conducted with a portable test rig as shown in Fig. 7. Specimens were loaded over a simple span of 46 in. (1. 12 m) with a line load at midspan. The loads were applied with hydraulic rams and measured with load cells located in the test rig. Central deflection of each slab was measured relative to the ends of the specimen with a potentiometer. The load cells and potentiometer were connected to an XY-recorder to obtain a continuous plot of load versus deflection. The loads were applied in increments. After cracking, crack widths were measured at each increment with a crack microscope. After testing, all specimens were broken open and the dimensions of the cross section measured.

12

Performance

of Shrinkage- Compensa~ing

Concretes in Slabs

This publication is based on the facts, tests, and authorities stated herein. It is intended for the use of professional personnel competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of the reported findings and who will accept responsibility for the application of the material it contains. Obviously, the Portland Cement Association disclaims any and all responsibility for application of the stated principles or for the accuracy of any of the sources other than work performed or information developed by the Association.

Li I I
I I

i I + I I I I t I

I I I 1 I I I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 1 ~
i I I I

concrete slabs, creep, curing, drying shrinkage, expansive cement concretes, expansive cement Type K, expansive cement Type M, expansive cement Type S, expansive cements, lightweight concretes, reinforced concrete, restraints, shrinkage compensating concretes, strains, structural design, tests.
KEYWORDS: ABSTRACT

Report of experimental investigation to evaluate performante of reinforced concrete slabs made with shrinkage-compensating concrete. Three types of shrinkage-compensating cements and both lightweight and normal-weight aggregates were used for 41 reinforced concrete slabs. Structural features that influence the amount of shrinkage compensation were defined and their effects determined. Russell, H. G., Performance REFERENCE: Concretes in Slabs (RD057.O 1D), Portland
of Shrinkage-Compensating

I I I I I I I I I I I I : I I I I I I I I I I I I

Cement

Association,

1978.

i I I I I ,------------------------

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--------------

PCA

R/D

Ser. 1574

PORTLAND
An organization
of cement manufacturers to improve and extend

CEMENT
the uses of portland cement

ml
I
and concrete

I ASSOCIATION
through scientific research, engineering field work, and market development.

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