Apple versus Samsung: Jury foreman justifies $1bn verdict

By Leo KelionTechnology reporter

The judge in the case could still treble the amount of damages Samsung has to pay because the jury said the infringements were "wilful" Continue reading the main story

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Full transcript of Apple-Samsung juror Apple-Samsung: Expert opinions Google reacts to Apple patent win

The verdict in the recent Apple-Samsung patent trial in the US has sent shockwaves through the tech industry. The jury ruled that Apple be awarded $1.05m (£665m) after its South Korean rival infringed several of its software technologies and designs Samsung's own claims of patent breaches were rejected. The decisions have been picked over at length by both the media and public. Questions have been asked: Did the jury spend enough time considering the facts? Was a Californian jury inherently biased? And, based on the evidence, was the verdict wrong?

Velvin Hogan was the foreman in the jury. He is chief technology officer at Multicast Labs, which develops video technology for the web, and was familiar with the US patent system before the trial.

Velvin Hogan said his familiarity with the US patent system helped the jury reach its verdict so quickly

He spoke to the BBC to address concerns he had about some of the reports, and asked that it be known that he had not been paid for this or any other interview. What follows is an edited version of the conversation. A full transcript is also available: What was the crucial bit of evidence that convinced you to give a verdict that was so decisive in Apple's favour rather than Samsung's? One of the most decisive pieces of evidence was reading the minutes for myself of a meeting that was held at a very high level between Google executives and Samsung executives. It was for a tablet and Google was concerned that for the sake of their operating system that the look and feel and the methodology that they [Samsung] were using to create their tablet was getting too close to what Apple was doing. And in the memo themselves - remember this was minutes - they stated that Google demanded that they back away from that design. And later there was a follow-up memo among themselves, these executives, and in black and white it says: we elect to not pass this information down to the divisions that were actually involved in the design. So, from the sake of the engineers they went merrily along continuing their design not given any orders to back away. They knew nothing of that meeting. To me that kind of raised a light bulb in my head that when I got in the jury room I wanted to read the minutes of that meeting myself.

The jurors wanted to send a message to the industry at large that no matter who you are . but we also had sealed source code in its entirety from both sides.When we went into deliberation in the jury room we not only had all the physical evidence of everything that was presented. The jury deliberated for 21 hours before reaching its verdict A lot has been made about the original interview you gave to Reuters in which you said you wanted to make the award sufficiently high to be painful to Samsung..whether you are Apple. you need to be prepared to pay the cost for that. There has been concern this might have be prejudicial and the awards should have been based on the facts alone. we actually had the memos that were talked about in the trial. and there was a piece of evidence after a piece of evidence that just clearly stacked up.that is where it had been taken out of context.. I have tried to make it clear that it wasn't an attempt [to take] a punitive standpoint. and again I emphasise wilfully. . or anybody if you wilfully take the risk to cross the line and start infringing and you get caught. And it wasn't necessarily focused at Samsung . whether you are Samsung. but not unreasonable.

at [a bird's eye-view from] the 40.000 foot-level. And vice versa of that was also true. And that is the thing that most people at large do not understand about the legal system. And as a result of that you have heard a lot of hype in the media about did we turn our back on prior art. when we put it to the test. And in example after example. the hardware was different. .. One could not be exchanged for the other. it had to be interchangeable. So the point being. the software was an entirely different methodology. But the stipulation under the law is for the prior art to be sufficient to negate or invalidate Apple's patents in this case. more importantly. even though the outcome of the two seemed similar..Apple presented this chart as evidence that Samsung had changed its approach after the iPhone had been unveiled There were two issues. the internal methodology of how you got there was entirely different. and the more modern software could not be loaded onto the older example and be run without error. looking at Apple's case: whether Samsung had infringed their patents and whether the patents were valid. Why weren't you convinced by Samsung's arguments that Apple's patents were invalid since prior art existed showing similar ideas? Prior art was considered. it had to be sufficiently similar or.

But let's not say me specifically. And the converse of that was true. What was key to us. Do you think if you hadn't been on the jury then we might have ended up with a very different verdict? I think so. The individuals would have ultimately come to a verdict.I showed the jurors that the two methods in software were not the same. the verdict might have been different . It might have been a lot longer.or it might have been the same. when we looked at the source code ..I was able to read source code . Let's say if there had not been an individual who had the technical background.Samsung used this image to suggest there had not been a sudden change in direction after the iPhone There had speculation that Samsung might be awarded damages as well because of its claim that Apple had infringed its technologies.you couldn't load the new software methodology in the old system and expect that it was going to work. nor could they be interchangeable because the hardware that was involved between the old processor and the new processor . is that [the technologies] had to be interchangeable.. and there had not been an individual who had gone through the process. And so consequently. . I believe that the jury system in this country stands.

Do you think this verdict will have implications for other companies who use Android? .was not the genre for that. What needs to be understood by those outside that are watching this and listening to it. It's a landmark case and. What I applaud is the fact that there is a discussion going on. this court. we as jurors were sworn to abide by the rules and the stipulations in law as they exist today. do you think it is broken and sick and needs reform? I believe we definitely need to continue the discussion. this case for this country is historical. no matter whether we or anyone else feel personally that the patent procedure in this country or the patent system is broken or sick. A lot has been made of the idea that Apple may have ultimately been gunning for Android rather than just specifically for Samsung. as people have said. at the time we made the decision.But what definitely would have been required is passing more questions to the judge and having them come back. That wasn't our authority and it wasn't what we were supposed to do. Not everybody agrees with me or agrees with the decision that we made. But if the community of engineers at large believes that it needs to be changed or re-reviewed. I have no doubt that. The jury rejected Apple's claim that the shape of its iPad had been infringed by Samsung And personally. In our case we didn't have to.myself included . But that's OK. Do you have a concern that this case and the verdict given could encourage further patent litigation? Yes. this trial. number one. But as jurors we took the job seriously. It was not the right place. and this set of jurors . we set the bar rather high. the rules are today what they are. Whether I believe it is sick or broken or needs to be fixed or not.

and for that reason it's not among the 26 accused phones. It uses icons. but just don't cross it. perhaps like no other on the globe. And I think Samsung has the capability. and they are more than sufficiently different than what the iPhone. and two of Samsung's divisions are here down the road north-east of where this decision was made. And it is of a slider variety so it has a normal keyboard. this trial took place in San Jose in the heart of Silicon Valley and Apple is located just down the road west of where the trial was. But the methodology that is used by the company building that can get as close as they want to to that line of infringement. The way those two operating systems function are sufficiently different enough that there is no infringement.. there is no infringement. the phone that I have is a Motorola Droid X2 and the reason I'm mentioning that is because it is in the record.. When you look at how the code is running and what the outcome is you will find that when you compare even that phone against the current patents that Apple is using. A hearing has been scheduled for December to consider Apple's demand that eight phones be banned from sale At the 40. My point is that the consumer at large does not have to lose functionality. Just to make it clear.000 foot-level there are some what you would perceive to be similarities. Don't cross the infringement line. . what Apple uses. even though there is some similarity.No. A lot of people have said this case happened in Apple's backyard. to be able to do it sufficiently fast enough that they are not going to lose any revenue.. Those two operating systems can stand side-by-side. make some changes so that you're not going to cross it and then innovate like crazy. it was told to the judge and told to the court when asked that question. so what else would you expect? Yes. And that's really the most important part.

TECHNOLOGY From other news sites       SiliconValley.Everybody knows Samsung. There is absolutely no ground to say that Apple had a hometown advantage. everybody in this valley knows Apple. other evidence27 Aug 2012 About these results Related Internet links  Multicast Labs The rise of state capitalism The spread of a new sort of business in the emerging world will cause increasing problems Jan 21st 2012 | from the print edition   . Samsung. TECHNOLOGY Apple-Samsung: Expert opinions 28 AUGUST 2012.comIt?s not over: Apple-Samsung talk from juror. Certainly it did not influence any of us on the jury panel. about Google and Android55 hrs ago Yahoo! UK and IrelandApple shares soar after court victory. TECHNOLOGY Google reacts to Apple patent win 27 AUGUST 2012. More on This Story Related Stories    Full transcript of Apple-Samsung juror 31 AUGUST 2012. while rivals suffer27 Aug 2012 ZDNet AustraliaApple victory aftermath: Samsung stock slips and experts question jury speed27 Aug 2012 Sky NewsSamsung Shares Plunge After Apple Verdict27 Aug 2012 Los Angeles TimesJurors in Apple-Samsung case delved into emails.

it has undergone a dramatic revival. backed by the state but behaving like a privatesector multinational. as the economy matured. State-directed capitalism is not a new idea: witness the East India Company. In the 1990s most state-owned companies were little more than government departments in emerging markets. the assumption was that. sits at the heart of Moscow's new financial district. a banking powerhouse. the government would close or privatise them. China Central Television's building resembles a giant alien marching across Beijing's skyline. home to Malaysia's oil company. These are all monuments to the rise of a new kind of hybrid corporation. measured by reserves. whether in major industries (the world's ten biggest oil-and-gas firms. In this section      »The rise of state capitalism Salve Italia The politics of plutocracy Not quite too late Light and wrong Reprints Related topics  Globalisation . And they are on the offensive. Yet they show no signs of relinquishing the commanding heights. soar above Kuala Lumpur. But as ourspecial report this week points out. the 88-storey Petronas Towers. has 600m customers. the gleaming office of VTB. are all state-owned) or major markets (state-backed companies account for 80% of the value of China's stockmarket and 62% of Russia's). State-backed firms accounted for a third of the emerging world's foreign direct investment in 2003-10. Look at almost any new industry and a giant is emerging: China Mobile.OVER the past 15 years striking corporate headquarters have transformed the great cities of the emerging world. for example.

and a growing number of emerging-world leaders agree with them.    South Africa China Economics Privatisation and nationalisation With the West in a funk and emerging markets flourishing. Studies show that state companies use capital less efficiently than private ones. The leading practitioner is now China. South Africa is also flirting with the model. When the government favours one lot of companies. and beyond. the Chinese state has loosened its grip on the economy: its bureaucrats concentrate on industries where they can make a difference. Overall. This development raises two questions. rather. they see it as a sustainable model. the Chinese no longer see state-directed firms as a way-station on the road to liberal capitalism. They think they have redesigned capitalism to make it work better. The best national champions are outward-looking. and compelling smaller companies to merge to form national champions. and even the same patriotic talking-points. let in foreign firms and embraced Western management ideas. Let a thousand mobiles bloom Yet a close look at the model shows its weaknesses. Russia's wild privatisation under Boris Yeltsin in the 1990s alarmed many emerging countries and encouraged the view that governments can mitigate the strains that capitalism and globalisation cause by providing not just the hard infrastructure of roads and bridges but also the soft infrastructure of flagship corporations. The new model bears little resemblance to the disastrous spate of nationalisations in Britain and elsewhere half a century ago. State giants soak up capital and talent that might have been used better by private companies. In 2009 China Mobile and another state giant. made profits of $33 billion —more than China's 500 most profitable private companies combined. an early exponent of this idea. emerging markets? The law of diminishing returns State capitalism's supporters argue that it can provide stability as well as growth. China's infrastructure companies win contracts the world over. In many countries the coddled state giants are pouring money into fancy towers at a time when entrepreneurs are struggling to raise capital. China National Petroleum Corporation. Among Westerners there. is now interfering with the likes of Vale and Petrobras. How successful is the model? And what are its consequences—both in. but also owned chunks of companies. And governments are selective in their corporate holdings. the others suffer. The tight connection between its government and business will no doubt be on display when the global elite gathers in the Swiss resort of Davos next week. which embraced privatisation in the 1990s. . So Lee Kuan Yew's government in Singapore. acquiring skills by listing on foreign exchanges and taking over foreign companies. The Brazilian government. and grow more slowly. government delegates often take the opposite view to those from the private sector: Chinese delegates from both sides tend to have the same point of view.

South Africa and Brazil do not. But these countries have. Both for their own sake. Coal India is hardly an advertisement for efficiency (see article). It gives them the clout that private-sector companies would take years to build. state capitalism has an obvious appeal. State companies are good at copying others. The Chinese of all people should understand that the best way to learn from history is to look at its long sweep. for instance. the world's great centres of innovation are usually networks of small start-ups. of a national government. then they no longer need the crutch of state support. Thus the model produces cronyism. Rising powers have always used the state to kick-start growth: think of Japan and South Korea in the 1950s or Germany in the 1870s or even the United States after the war of independence. and. and in the interests of world trade. For emerging countries wanting to make their mark on the world. But it may take many years for the model's weaknesses to become obvious. But its dangers outweigh its advantages. in the meantime. Some may be taking a punt on governments as much as companies. it is likely to cause all sorts of problems. Western politicians are beginning to lose patience with state-capitalist powers that rig the system in favour of their own companies. need to watch out. overt or covert. Nor does the model guarantee stability. inequality and eventually discontent—as the Mubaraks' brand of state capitalism did in Egypt. partly because they can use the government's clout to get hold of their technology. In China highly educated princelings have taken the spoils. State-capitalist governments can be capricious. Investors in emerging markets. State capitalism works well only when directed by a competent state.Those costs are likely to rise. often former KGB officials. State-owned companies make a few big bets rather than lots of small ones. at a time when the likely Republican nominee for president wants to declare China a currency manipulator on his first day of office. . And everywhere state capitalism favours well-connected insiders over innovative outsiders. Others may find their subsidiaries or joint ventures in emerging markets pitted against state-backed favourites. but as they have to produce ideas of their own they will become less competitive. the practitioners of state capitalism need to start unwinding their huge holdings in favoured companies and handing them over to private investors. If these companies are as good as they boast they are. dominate both the Kremlin and business. Many Asian countries have a strong mandarin culture. In Russia a clique of “bureaugarchs”. Another concern is the impact of the model on the global trading system —which. over time. Ensuring that trade is fair is harder when some companies enjoy the support. with scant regard for minority shareholders. invariably found that the system has limits. is already at risk.

AK Shiva Kumar PhD c. medical. and underserved areas is very challenging.Human resources for health in India Prof Mohan Rao PhD a. A comprehensive national policy for human resources is needed to achieve universal health care in India. Bringing qualified health workers to rural. and siddha) and homoeopathy to work in these areas while adopting other innovative ways of augmenting human resources for health. quantity. The public sector will need to redesign appropriate packages of monetary and non-monetary incentives to encourage qualified health workers to work in rural and remote areas. At the same time. Such a policy might also encourage task-shifting and mainstreaming doctors and practitioners who practice traditional Indian medicine (ayurveda. and the rapid privatisation of medical and nursing education has implications for its quality and governance. The migration of qualified allopathic doctors and nurses is substantial and further strains the system. . additional investments will be needed to improve the relevance. Little attention is paid during medical education to the medical and public health needs of the population. Mirai Summary India has a severe shortage of human resources for health. Such issues are a result of underinvestment in and poor governance of the health sector —two issues that the government urgently needs to address. especially those living in rural areas. Nurses do not have much authority or say within the health system. Dr Krishna D Rao PhD b Chatterjee MPH d. and quality of nursing. yoga and naturopathy. Many Indians. and the resources to train them are still inadequate. and public health education in the country. Thiagarajan SundararamanMD e . It has a shortage of qualified health workers and the workforce is concentrated in urban areas. receive care from unqualified providers. remote. unani.

Music Educators Journal. in conjunction with the time each class is seen each week. This. MIDI keyboard and programs such as “Finale”. This was something that has become very seldom. it can create disruptions in the class if the student using the computer has a question. composition in the music education classroom doesn’t have to be something that is avoided because it is too complicated. “Rhapsody”. the National Standards for Music were introduced and among the list of the eight standards was composing. One of the reasons is because traditional composing and notation is quite complex and a lot of information must be known in order to be able to do it. One of the suggestions was to use the computer in front of the class just like you would any other visual aid in conjunction with your teaching. more preferable way was to arrange the chairs in the class around the computer so that all of the students can see the screen and hear the audio. The students can sit down in any order they choose and rotate turns using the computer. Another advantage with this is that it also helps to prevent boredom from sitting for the entire time because they get to move up to the next chair every time they change turns. Business Finance Hence to unburden the hospital personnel. in the music education classroom. the article presented a very brief historical background of the purpose of music education and how composing was viewed and used. if at all present. the healthcare sector has channelized the administrative workload in an independent enterprise called medicaltranscription. individuals are appointed Home Repair that have certain abilities and criteria that must be fulfilled as per company norms. After the initial summary. (May 2000). resulting in an instant composition. With a computer. 2012 Health The medical sector is under immense pressure when it comes to balancing the administrative technicalities with the increase hospitalization of patients on a daily basis. (May 2001). Another. 44-49. Advantages of Iphone medical apps Technology Articles | August 27. The main point of the article was that because of technological advances. This article dealt with composing in the music education classroom and the emerging technologies that can assist with the process. Will Technology Transform Music Education? Beckstead. There is also an issue with the teacher being able to monitor exactly what the student is doing on the computer. These companies form a bond with Travel the hospital to provide conversion of audio files regarding the details of a patient into textual format that can be referred in case the need arises in the future. One computer can deliver whole-class instruction. In 1994. Some teachers set the computer up in the back corner of the room and allow select students to go and use it while the normal lesson is being taught. having and using only one computer can be detrimental to the music class. However. or “Music Writer” a student can very easily play their composition on the keyboard and the computer will automatically notate what the student is playing. Will technology transform music education? Music Educators Journal. This way. would take entirely too much valuable time that could be spent on things that could be more quickly and easily mastered.Special repoOne Computer Can Deliver Whole-Class Instruction rt at a glance ssner. For this process. There are also now emerging music notation programs that allow input from a microphone that will transcribe the voice or other non-MIDI instruments. These . 34-40. If used in certain ways. D. The main point of the article was to give a few ideas and encourage creative thinking from the teachers on how to use their classroom computer to its fullest potential. This was a very interesting article that presented several ideas for using one single computer in the music classroom. This sends the notion to the students that the lesson being presented to the class is not that important. Finally. technology has completely reformed these limitations of composition in the classroom. all of the students have a chance to use the computer equally and all of the students observing also have the opportunity to learn the entire lesson by watching their peers. K.

Article Tags: Medical Transcription Source: Free Articles from ArticlesFactory. To help thetranscription process to be much simpler. These apps can be downloaded on an android compatible cell phone or net book that enables recording on the move. With the increasing employees and trustworthy technological developments. The speed of storing and transmitting is powerful and swift making it extremely effective. It is a field that is gaining prominence with every passing minute. for more information visit here: www. The free download facilities allow the app to be installed in any android or cloud based phone without too many technical complications.com .com Home Business Law ECommerce Other Internet Partners California Bail Bonds Bounty Hunters Immigration Attorney Moving Relocation Services Crystal Awards and Trophies Alpine Car Audio Carpet Cleaning Los Angeles ABOUT THE AUTHOR Orra Health is a unique transcription software application from Acroseas Global Solutions. It can be easily purchased from the android market and can be installed in a few simple steps. Eliminating the complexities in functioning and installing. Technology Computers Autos Family Orra is one such Iphone based medical app that has gained prominence owing to its range of features Communication that works in the benefit of the medical expert as well as the transcriptionist. a pioneer in medical transcription services. Medical transcription on the whole has uplifted the Sports economical conditions of the developing nations by providing job opportunities to the unemployed population.transcriptionists have background knowledge about medical linguistics and have a sufficient level of speed and accuracy while typing. this app is being more famous as the day goes by. These records are arranged alphabetically or in an order preferred by the hospital management.orratech. These companies are independent and legally approved by legal bodies and government Self Help agencies. A doctor can utilise their leisure hours in a productive way to store and record the patients information. the medical transcription has become a large enterprise and has formed a crux of every hospital across the seven seas. These software Entertainment are aligned along with a security system that to avoid loss of data or modification by unauthorized personnel. The administrative stress is eliminated and the hospital has a functional system that provides up to date data regarding the different patients and their related details. iphone medical apps have been made available. Orra is a medical app that has been formulated to be compatible with android based phones. Education Iphone medical apps have been created to enhance the transcription sector and provide facilities that utilises the travelling hours by doing productive work. The level of reliability is good and efficiency in services makes it a doctor’s go to app. The audio files are converted into textual matter by transcribers to store it in large Marketing databases in case of future referral of the case. These apps have no overhead expenditure that makes it economically worthless.

5 percent. Clearly.‖ According to the Wall Street Journal. If there were any time for the White House to get serious about Beijing’s predatory trade policies. In any event. especially in a period of deteriorating economic conditions. and perhaps his organizational approach will result in more effective policies. correctly called the task force proposal ―the most comprehensive effort by any administration to rethink approaches to trade enforcement since the creation of the WTO.‖ Yet that is not saying much. and the Bush team inexplicably allowed Beijing to continually game the system after . Ted Alden of the Council on Foreign Relations.‖ said President Obama in his State of the Union message on Tuesday. if it failed to achieve that record-smashing mark. the new grouping will be a task force combining officials from the Treasury.1 billion. China may have racked up as much as a $300 billion trade surplus against America last year. this is it. it will surely surpass its 2010 surplus against the US of $273. he announced the creation of the ―Trade Enforcement Unit. Last Wednesday. And to make sure other nations comply with their obligations. China’s surpluses are not sustainable. Commerce. and Energy Departments as well as the US Trade Representative’s office. The Clinton administration made a strategic mistake by agreeing to China’s admission into the global trade organization before it was ready to abide by international standards. the target of the Trade Enforcement Unit is China.Is Obama Getting Serious about China Trade? 25 January 2012 ―I will not stand by when our competitors don’t play by the rules. the World Bank downgraded its global growth estimate by a full percentage point to 2. The 2010 deficit with China is the largest single-country one in the history of the United States. in comments carried in the January 12th Nelson Report. The president is right to highlight the China issue. Despite the generic name. it was only billion or two short.

despite the trade actions he has launched against China.the country’s accession in 2001. President Obama. The question now is. Yet the effort to maintain this dialogue appears misguided. as this patient ―engagement‖ approach is what contributed to our problems in the first place. by giving the Chinese more time to engage in delaying tactics while racking up trade surpluses. ―Ever since he endorsed the 2008 version of the Senate currency bill early in his first White House run. does he have the will to use it? China Targets American Jobs—Again 29 August 2012 . America has become an even more important market for China. For instance. The common element of the policies of the two presidents is the belief that Washington must work cooperatively with the Chinese. still shares this view.‖ After decades of broken Chinese trade promises. the president already has the legal tools to enforce China’s trade obligations. President Obama has the bargaining power. President Obama has had all the evidence of Chinese economic transgressions he could possibly want to justify strong retaliatory actions. as Tonelson also points out. we should realize that the only thing that will work going forward is the full use of our economic leverage. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner apparently discussed the task force proposal with Chinese officials during his visit there this month. One does not need to believe that Obama’s task force is a ploy—―Will anyone be fooled?‖ Tonelson asked—to understand that the US will not make progress until Washington realizes it must move beyond ―dialogue. As Alan Tonelson of the US Business & Industry Council wrote this month.‖ And. And what would that leverage be? With the collapse of European orders for Chinese goods last year.

essentially fixes the value of the yuan by buying and selling currencies so that it stays within a predetermined band. robust economies in Western Europe and North America dragged China out of its troubles by buying just about everything Chinese factories were making for export.7 percent in 2011. the renminbi. but he did not refer to depreciation of the national currency. Because the growth of electricity historically outpaces the growth of the economy. Some analysts believe the yuan. The index plummeted. Perhaps Wen Jiabao is now focused on exports because exports cured China’s last downturn. The most reliable indicator of Chinese economic activity. The country’s premier suggested technical fixes. In fact. Why? Because his primary plan. evident over the course of the last several months. Zero growth? That startling assessment is not only possible.2 percent in the April–July period. The renminbi has depreciated against the dollar by about 1 percent this year after it climbed—due to Washington’s pressure—4. . it may even be on the high side. That’s possible. as the renminbi is informally known. Exports increased only 1. making it clear that August will be the tenth straight month when the critical manufacturing sector in China contracted. Then. exports increased 7. Official statistics tell us the country is expanding in the high single digits—7. the country’s central bank. Beijing is doubling down on its mercantilist approach to global commerce. And it’s not hard to see why. HSBC released its closely watched Flash Purchasing Managers’ Index for this month. has increased an average of less than 1. such as faster payment of tax rebates. inShare1 Email Print That’s a rather large omission considering the circumstances. but we do not know the market value of the Chinese currency. The HSBC Flash Index had gloomy news on this front as well: the new export sub-index revealed a quickly deteriorating environment for Chinese goods. The People’s Bank of China. The Chinese economy is slumping.8 percent in the first seven months of the year. it’s evident China cannot be growing faster than zero. Manufacturing is contracting and bringing the rest of the economy down with it. This time.0 percent in July over the same month last year. the production of electricity. the rest of the world is not riding to the rescue.8 percent growth in the first half of this year—but in reality the economy has flatlined. has been to force down the value of the currency to make Chinese products cheaper on global markets. In short. and this means China could miss its target of 10 percent export growth.On Saturday. which was triggered by the Asian Financial Crisis at the end of the 1990s. On Thursday. is undervalued by as much as 40 percent against the dollar. Wen Jiabao said China will try to export its way out of its current economic troubles.

‖ Peter Navarro. Beijing. We can’t talk about the presidential campaign without talking about the economy. points out that Beijing’s currency manipulation has directly contributed to the closure of tens of thousands of American factories and the loss of millions of jobs here. We can’t talk about the economy without talking about jobs. Wen is doing this in the midst of the American election season. We should thank him. is throwing down a challenge Washington cannot ignore. is the reform of Washington’s China trade policies. he tells us. Wen. Chang's blog . when it will affect the direction of the next four years. and there is no better time to do that than now. The best American jobs program. with his new export promotion program and his emphasis on depreciating his currency. therefore. Wen is again resorting to mercantilism—the effect of which will be to take away even more American jobs and manufacturing.  Gordon G. And we can’t talk about jobs without saying the word ―China. is just daring the two presidential candidates to make Beijing’s currency manipulation a campaign issue. We need a national conversation on this complex and crucial matter. It should be.By focusing on boosting exports. co-author of Death by China and maker of a documentary of the same name.

and CEO of Symphony Technology Group. "These dedicated men and women bring a wealth of experience and talent to their new roles and I am proud to have them serve in this Administration.Obama names Bombay IIT graduate to key post By Arun Kumar | IANS India Private Limited – Sat 1 Sep. Chairman. on board of trustees of the John F. Announcing his intent to appoint Wadhwani and nine other general trustees of the centre. who received a BA from the Indian Institute of Technology in Bombay and an MS and Ph. including Aspect Development. having served as Co-Chair of the Maximum India Festival in 2011 and as a supporter of the 2010 Honours Gala. He is actively involved in Kennedy Centre initiatives. Set up in 1971 as a living memorial to former President John F. Previously.000 performances for audiences totaling nearly two million. and CEO of several software and IT companies. more than any other previous adminstration. He is the founder and Chairperson of the Wadhwani Foundation.D. an Indian American founder of several software and IT companies. Chairman." "I look forward to working with them in the months and years to come. and serves on the Board of Trustees of the Centre for Strategic and International Studies. . According to a White House announcement Wadhwani. Inc. Obama said. from Carnegie-Mellon University. Sep 1 (IANS) President Barack Obama has appointed Romesh Wadhwani. the centre is the busiest performing arts facility in the United States and annually hosts approximately 2. Kennedy Centre for the Performing Arts. whose administration has over a score Indian-Americans serving in senior positions. is the founder. 2012      Email 3 Print Washington. Wadhwani was the founder." added Obama. Kennedy.

though he's worth a cool $21. only spends$20 a day. so it's commendable that he hasn't let his wealth go to his head. 23 globally. Zong's "monk-like devotion to duty is legendary. he's a lot like wealthy peers who earn $100. he thinks like rich people.China's Richest Man Could Teach Us A Thing Or Two About Being Frugal By Jill Krasny | Business Insider – 16 hours ago      Email 2 Print Zong Qinghou may be China's richest man and rank No. these respondents planned to work well into their golden years. According to Bloomberg News.6 billion." with one Wahaha employee recalling he "reviewed every office expense. He worked hard. and lived incredibly below his means. the 66-year-old founder of Wahaha soft drinks. In fact." While you don't have to count every penny like Zong.000 or more and told PNC Financial Services that the recession has had little to no effect on their retirement planning goals. including the purchase of a broom. they're looking forward to punching out. In this way. He still does." Zong's trajectory from school shopkeep to beverage mogul spans more than two decades. turn around their spending habits (33%) and pay off their mortgage (23%). it's important to take note of the habits that got the baby boomer ahead. . Put simply. Beyond being disciplined savers like Zong. but he could easily earn the distinction for being most frugal. What's more. with three-quarters saying they'll "work in some fashion after retirement. Zong. which in turn has brought him great wealth. followed his passion. As the BBC's Nick Rosen discovered last Summer. a lot of the PNC survey respondents (46%) said they've worked hard to reduce their debt.

Rising social costs as government revenue declines: Improvements in social development raises costs for the government. from investment driven growth to consumer-led growth. Inflation is an intermediate to long-term problem for China which means the country needs to increase its "tolerance" for and "resilience" to inflation. Challenge of adjustments to industries: China needs to get rid of over-production at its industries and upgrade technologies. and finally from "traditional elements of production to advanced elements of production". "Japan and Latin America have gone through this transformation. but they did not do well and fell into the "middle-income trap" or the "high-income trap. some take solace in the fact that this is all part of China's plan to rebalance its economy and cool growth. health care. the country needs to conserve energy which is a problem for central and western China that are growing rapidly. However. Constraints on resources and environment are rising: Demand for energy and raw materials in China is massive. shift from government investment to private investment. "Accumulating economic bubbles": Years of rapid growth have led to many bubbles and now the concerns is that the bubbles will start to burst. Chinascope features excerpts from Li's work. In a paper." 5. Long-term inflation: Chinese consumer price inflation has gone from 6. because it increases spending on pensions. this would be considered a "soft landing. 6. The regions hope that Beijing will compensate them but a decline in the country's coffers mean this isn't very likely. But government revenue is falling since tax revenues . China is beginning to restructure. management. which will warrant a high degree of vigilance and attention. which we summarize here: 1. This means that "companies will face losses to the point of bankruptcy" and the pressure on employment will rise. housing continues to show weakness and bad debts rise. and employ more skilled personnel." We also face this challenge. "If the government uses a superb macro-control technique. housing. and timely cultivates new economic growth and new competitive advantages so that businesses are restructured and upgraded. 2.As Chinese data continues to deteriorate. deputy director at the Development Research Center of the State Council (DRC) writes that after 30 years of rapid growth." and the bubbles would not burst." 4. education etc. 3. Moreover. At the same time the country faces massive pressure to cut carbon dioxide emissions and protect the environment. down to 2. in 2013 there will be unprecedented pressure. lets the air out of the bubbles little by little without triggering an economic crisis or social unrest. Challenges from rebalancing: China faces 4 major shifts the shift from external demand to domestic demand.5 percent in 2011. China needs to promote this to maintain the pace of economic growth. And that the economy now faces 9 major challenges. Li Zuojun.2 percent in June 2012. Slowdown in economic growth: China's economy is slowing and this isn't temporary it reflects "the market's direction". 7.

which impacts the international environment for adjusting the exchange rate. 8. western countries are pushing to undermine Chinese competitiveness by calling for renminbi appreciation. 9. which has led to many resisting more reforms now. Weakening international environment: The global economic slowdown is likely to persist for another two or three years. Increased resistance to reform: Those with vested interests are against reforms in the Chinese economy. And ignorance has led to the belief that disparities between the rich and the poor for instance were brought about my market-oriented reform. "the international environment for China's overseas investments is deteriorating" because countries don't trust the Chinese and suspect they will steal their technologies or are doing it to control their resources. Moreover.from small and medium enterprises has fallen. and will be a blow to Chinese exports. and government income from land use is decreasing because of falling house prices. . Third.