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Verbals 1. Gerunds A verbal is a word formed from a verb but functioning as a different part of speech.

A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that functions as a noun. Like an ordinary single-word noun, a gerund may be used as a SUBJECT

DIRECT OBJECT

RETAINED OBJECT

SUBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT

OBJECT OF PREPOSITION

APPOSITIVE

DELAYED APPOSITIVE In the example below, the gerund phrase renames the subject, this.

NOTE: Do not confuse gerunds with verbs (predicates) in the progressive tense. GERUND

PREDICATE VERB

Even though is cooking and was scratching end in -ing, they are not gerunds because they are used as predicate verbs, not as nouns. 2. Participles A verbal is a word formed from a verb but functioning as a different part of speech. A participle is a verbal that functions as an adjective. Two kinds of participles: A. Present participles, always ending in -ing, are created from the form of a verb used with the verb to be ( am, is, are, was, were, been) as an auxiliary verb (progressive tense). Removing the auxiliary verb and using the -ing form of the main verb as an adjective produces a present participle.

B. Past participles, usually ending in -ed or -en, are created from the form of a verb used with the verb to be as an auxiliary verb (passive voice).

Removing the auxiliary verb and using the -en form of the main verb as an adjective produces a past participle.

Past participles may also be part of a participial phrase.

Participles and participial phrases should be placed near the nouns they modify. They may either precede or follow a noun.

3. Infinitives A verbal is a word formed from a verb but functioning as a different part of speech. An infinitive is a verbal formed by placing to in front of the simple present form of a verb. Examples: to swim to think to read to be to cut to turn Infinitives may function as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns. A. Adjectival infinitives Just like a single-word adjective, an infinitive used as an adjective always describes a noun. An adjectival infinitive always follows the noun it describes. EXAMPLE

Like gerunds and participles, infinitives may incorporate other words as part of their phrase. EXAMPLE

B. Adverbial infinitives Just like a single-word adverb, an infinitive used as an adverb always describes a verb. An adverbial infinitive usually occurs at the beginning or at the end of a sentence and does not need to be near the verb it describes. EXAMPLE: Adverbial infinitive at sentence beginning

EXAMPLE: Adverbial infinitive at sentence end

HINT: You can always identify an adverbial infinitive by inserting the test words in order in front of infinitive. If the words in order make sense, the infinitive is adverbial.

PUNCTUATION NOTE: 1. Use a comma after the adverbial infinitive when it starts a sentence. 2. Do not separate the adverbial infinitive from the rest of the sentence if the infinitive ends the sentence. C. Nominal infinitives Like a single-word noun, a nominal infinitive may function as a

SUBJECT

DIRECT OBJECT

RETAINED OBJECT

SUBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT

APPOSITIVE

DELAYED APPOSITIVE

Infinitives - Exercise 1 Directions: Locate the infinitive phrase in each sentence. Identify each as adverbial, adjectival, or nominal. Example: Bill opened the door to let me into the room. Answer: to let me into the room, adverbial 1. Because he loved French, Pierre refused to speak any other language. 2. The most important thing to do is not always obvious. 3. To keep the passageways clear, they blocked the pedestrian traffic. 4. The student had four questions to ask the instructor after class. 5. To do well in that class, you must spend hours in the library. 6. To do well in that class is my primary goal this semester. 7. Hemingway reeled the fish in slowly to keep it securely on the line. 8. We finally found the best actor to play that difficult role. 9. Jones is attempting to eat forty-five hot dogs. 10. The salesperson altered his pitch to suit each potential buyer. Infinitives - Exercise 2 Directions: Locate the infinitive phrase in each sentence. Identify each as adverbial, adjectival, or nominal. Example: Bill opened the door to let me into the room. Answer: to let me into the room, adverbial 1. The governor's plan to fix the budget only made problems worse.. 2. Nothing is left but to pick up the pieces and go on. 3. My grandmother's attempt to skateboard ended in disaster. 4. We began to suspect our neighbors of vandalism. 5. Malcolm struggled hard to free himself. 6. He tried to make picnic lunches for the team. 7. FEMA has come to clear away the debris from the storm. 8. We all have the right to give voice to our opinions. 9. To get more votes, I called everyone I knew. 10. Your attempts to hurt my feelings have been unsuccessful. Infinitives - Exercise 3 Directions: Locate the infinitive phrase in each sentence. Identify each as adverbial, adjectival, or nominal. Example: Bill opened the door to let me into the room. Answer: to let me into the room, adverbial 1. The governor's plan to fix the budget only made problems worse. 2. Henry brought Jeri a ring to show his love. 3. Each year Merriweather tried to find more deductions for his tax return. 4. To patch the hole in the tire, the mechanic inserted a plug. 5. She learned to read and write English in Kenya. 6. Eric's desire to do everything perfectly will eventually frustrate him. 7. To pay that much money for a television is foolish. 8. Yesterday Smith exercised all day to lose some weight before the wedding. 9. His only ambition was to succeed at his job. 10. To attempt an explanation for this phenomenon would do little good.

Infinitives - Exercise 4 Directions: Locate the infinitive phrase in each sentence. Identify each as adverbial, adjectival, or nominal. Example: Bill opened the door to let me into the room. Answer: to let me into the room, adverbial 1. To be alone can be frightening. 2. Eric stood by the window to watch for his sister's arrival. 3. Hal firmly intends to buy a hybrid car. 4. World War I was a war to end all wars. 5. He had to stand on his tiptoes to see the group onstage. 6. Mel is making a kite to fly in the contest. 7. Bob's New Year's resolution is to exercise at least three times each week. 8. Last Thursday was an evening to remember. 9. To meet your deadline will be very difficult. 10. To get enough points for that prize, you must purchase at least $100 worth of merchandise. Infinitives - Exercise 5 Directions: Locate the infinitive phrase in each sentence. Identify each as adverbial, adjectival, or nominal. Example: Bill opened the door to let me into the room. Answer: to let me into the room, adverbial 1. There is only one right way to do this math problem. 2. Every employee's ambition is to be assigned to the London office. 3. To protect your eyes, you should wear sunglasses. 4. I attempted to do something generous for her. 5. She was about to study for the final examination. 6. You should go to the store to get a few more items. 7. The test to be taken tomorrow is not difficult. 8. My plan is to become a fashion model. 9. To leave the meeting before Tim's speech would be useless. 10. To get a good seat, we must arrive early. Infinitives - Exercise 6 Directions: Locate the infinitive phrase in each sentence. Identify each as adverbial, adjectival, or nominal. Example: Bill opened the door to let me into the room. Answer: to let me into the room, adverbial 1. To run five miles is hard exercise. 2. Jen has a desire to improve her skill on the piano. 3. Howard asked to chair the committee. 4. Bill's primary achievement was to finish the work. 5. To find the prize, you must first empty the box of its contents. 6. To write a best seller is the dream of every novelist. 7. We will need a week to finish that work. 8. Mark's attempt to swim across the river ended in failure. 9. There is nothing left except to clean up the mess. 10. He wanted to fly around the world.