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Speed, Wavelength, Frequency Types of Waves Radio Frequency Bands Propagation Mechanisms Radio Propagation Effects Free-Space Propagation Land Propagation Path Loss Fading: Slow Fading / Fast Fading Delay Spread Doppler Shift Co-Channel Interference The Near-Far Problem Digital Wireless Communication System Analog and Digital Signals Modulation Techniques

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Light speed = Wavelength x Frequency = 3 x 108 m/s = 300,000 km/s

System AC current FM radio Cellular Ka band satellite Ultraviolet light

Frequency 60 Hz 100 MHz 800 MHz 20 GHz 1015 Hz

Wavelength 5,000 km 3m 37.5 cm 15 mm 10-7 m

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Sky wave Ionosphere (80 .720 km) Mesosphere (50 .50 km) Rece iver Troposphere (0 .80 km) Space wave tter i m s Tran 4 Ground wave Earth Stratosphere (12 .12 km) .

3 MHz 3 MHz .3 GHz 3 GHz .30 kHz 30 kHz .300 GHz 300 GHz .Classification Band Initials Extremely low Infra low Very low Low Medium High Very high Ultra high Super high Extremely high ELF ILF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF Frequency Range < 300 Hz 300 Hz .300 kHz 300 kHz .30 MHz 30 MHz .30 GHz 30 GHz .3000 GHz Characteristics Ground wave Ground/Sky wave Sky wave Space wave Tremendously high THF 5 .300 MHz 300 MHz .3 kHz 3 kHz .

g. Reflection Propagation wave impinges on an object which is large as compared to wavelength .e. even when LOS (line of sight) does not exist Scattering Objects smaller than the wavelength of the propagation wave . lamp posts 6 . etc. walls. Diffraction Radio path between transmitter and receiver obstructed by surface with sharp irregular edges Waves bend around the obstacle. buildings. street signs.g. the surface of the Earth.e.. foliage.

Building Direct Signal hb Reflected Signal Diffracted Signal hm Receiver Transmitter d 7 .

Ae is effective area. and Gt is the transmitting antenna gain. 8 . Assuming that the radiated power is uniformly distributed over the surface of the sphere.hb hm Transmitter Distance d Receiver The received signal power at distance d: Pr = AeGtPt 4πd 2 where Pt is transmitting power.

higher the gain for the same size antenna 9 . same diameter. c = λ f (c is speed of light) Example: Antenna with diameter = 2 m. typically 0.55) D = diameter thus.4 dB Frequency = 14 GHz.021 m G = 46. frequency = 6 GHz. For a circular reflector antenna Gain G = η ( π D / λ )2 η = net efficiency (depends on the electric field distribution over the antenna aperture. wavelength = 0.05 m G = 39. G = η (π D f /c )2.9 dB * Higher the frequency. ohmic heating . wavelength = 0. losses.

e.. L is the propagation loss in the channel. L = LP LS LF Fast fading Slow fading Path loss 10 . The received signal power: Gt Gr Pt Pr = L where Gr is the receiver antenna gain. i.

This shows greater the fc . more is the loss. Definition of path loss LP : Pt LP = . where fc is the carrier frequency.45 + 20 log10 f c (MHz) + 20 log10 d (km). Pr Path Loss in Free-space: LPF (dB) = 32. 11 .

Simplest Formula: Lp = A d-α where A and α: propagation constants d : distance between transmitter and receiver α : value of 3 ~ 4 in typical urban area 12 .

Path Loss in Free-space 130 Path Loss Lf (dB) 120 110 100 90 80 70 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 fc=150MHz fc=200MHz fc=400MHz fc=800MHz fc=1000MHz fc=1500MHz Distance d (km) 13 .

for small & medium city ⎪ 2 ⎭ ⎩3.75hm (m)] − 4.78[log10 f c (MHz)] + 18.94 14 2 .1log10 f c ( MHz ) − 0.33 log10 f c (MHz) − 40.82 log10 hb (m) − α [hm (m)] + [44.97. for f c ≤ 200MHz ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.9 − 6.4 ' # 28 & Open area: LPO (dB) = LPU (dB) − 4.55 log10 hb (m)]log10 d (km) where ⎧[1.29[log10 1.54 hm (m)]2 − 1.55 + 26. for l arg e city ⎪ α [hm (m)] = ⎨8.8].16 log10 f c ( MHz) − 13. Urban area: LPU (dB ) = 69.1.7]hm (m) − [1.56 log10 f c ( MHz ) − 0. for f c ≥ 400MHz ⎪ Suburban area: 2 " % f ( MHz ) LPS (dB) = LPU (dB) − 2 $log10 c − 5.2[log10 11.

Path loss in decreasing order: Urban area (large city) Urban area (medium and small city) Suburban area Open area 15 .

Path Loss in Urban Area in Large City 180 fc=200MHz fc=400MHz fc=800MHz fc=1000MHz fc=1500MHz fc=150MHz Path Loss Lpu (dB) 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 0 10 20 30 Distance d (km) 16 .

Path Loss in Urban Area for Small & Medium Cities 180 Path Loss Lpu (dB) 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 0 10 20 30 fc=150MHz fc=200MHz fc=400MHz fc=800MHz fc=1000MHz fc=1500MHz Distance d (km) 17 .

Path Loss in Suburban Area 170 Path Loss Lps (dB) 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 fc=150MHz fc=200MHz fc=400MHz fc=800MHz fc=1000MHz fc=1500MHz Distance d (km) 18 .

Path Loss in Open Area 150 Path Loss Lpo (dB) 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 fc=150MHz fc=200MHz fc=400MHz fc=800MHz fc=1000MHz fc=1500MHz Distance d (km) 19 .

Fast Fading (Short-term fading) Slow Fading (Long-term fading) Signal Strength (dB) Path Loss Distance 20 .

e...The pdf of the received signal level is given in decibels by p(M ) = 1 e 2π σ 2 ( M −M ) − 2σ 2 .e. 10log10m. This fading caused by shadowing. σ is the standard deviation in decibels 21 . i. M is the area average signal level. i. the mean of M. where M is the true received signal level m in decibels. Log-normal distribution: . The long-term variation in the mean level is known as slow fading (shadowing or log-normal fading).

2σ p(M) M M The pdf of the received signal level 22 .

The pdf is p(r ) = r σ 2 e r2 − 2 2σ . r >0 where σ is the standard deviation. We have rm = 1. or vehicles.777σ 23 . The signal from the transmitter may be reflected from objects such as hills. buildings.5. When MS far from BS. the envelope distribution of received signal is Rayleigh distribution. Middle value rm of envelope signal within sample range to be satisfied by P(r ≤ rm) = 0.

8 σ=1 0.6 0.4 0.P(r) 1.2 σ=2 σ=3 r 2 4 6 8 10 0 24 The pdf of the envelope variation .0 0.

r ≥ 0 ⎝ σ ⎠ 25 . the envelope distribution of received signal is Rician distribution. The pdf is p(r ) = r where σ is the standard deviation. α is the amplitude of the direct signal σ 2 e r 2 +α 2 − 2σ 2 ⎛ rα ⎞ I 0 ⎜ ⎟. When MS is close to the BS. I0(x) is the zero-order Bessel function of the first kind.

4 α=1 α=2 α=3 Pdf p(r) 0.α= 0 (Rayleigh) 0.1 00 2 4 r σ=1 6 8 r The pdf of the envelope variation 26 .2 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.

27 . Depth of Fading: Ratio of mean square value and minimum value of fading signal. Fading Duration: Time for which signal is below given threshold. Fading Rate: Number of times signal envelope crosses middle value in positive going direction per unit time. Level Crossing Rate: Average number of times per second that the signal envelope crosses the level in positive going direction.

Thus. fD is the Doppler frequency. Doppler Effect: When a wave source and a receiver are moving towards each other. the frequency decreases. When they are opposing each other. λ is the wavelength of carrier. Doppler Shift in frequency: Moving speed v θ Signal 28 MS fD = v λ cosθ where v is the moving speed. When they are moving toward each other. the frequency of the received signal is f R = fC − f D where fC is the frequency of source carrier. . the frequency of the received signal is higher than the source. the frequency of the received signal will not be the same as the source.

This effect which spreads out the signal is called “Delay Spread”. Each path has different path length. When a signal propagates from a transmitter to a receiver. 29 . This forces signal to follow different paths. signal suffers one or more reflections. so the time of arrival for each path is different.

Signal strength V1 V2 Time V3 30 V4 .

The signals from close by reflectors Signal Strength The signals from intermediate reflectors The signals from far away reflectors Delay 31 .

32 . Caused by time delayed multipath signals Has impact on burst error rate of channel Second multipath is delayed and is received during next symbol For low bit-error-rate (BER) 1 R< 2τd R (digital transmission rate) limited by delay spread τd.

Transmission signal 1 1 Time 0 Received signal (short delay) Time Propagation time Delayed signals Received signal (long delay) Time 33 .

34 . Coherence bandwidth Bc: Represents correlation between 2 fading signal envelopes at frequencies f1 and f2. Is a function of delay spread. Two frequencies that are larger than coherence bandwidth fade independently. Concept useful in diversity reception Multiple copies of same message are sent using different frequencies.

rd is the desired signal ru is the interfering undesired signal β is the protection ratio for which rd ≤ βru (so that the signals interfere the least) If P(rd ≤ βru ) is the probability that rd ≤ βru . Cells having the same frequency interfere with each other. Cochannel probability Pco = P(rd ≤ βru ) 35 .

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