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Scenario:

CECIL - Hot Spot on Kiln

Questions: Definition:

High temp on the kiln shell Scanner on kiln Mobile pyrometer (Patroller) Visible by eye Three types A. B. C Normal' shell temp in area of burning zone (340 to 400 degC) Coating thickness to protect bricks (20 cm) Causes: Flame shape - too bushy Damaged burner Mis-aligned burner (not on axis of kiln) Thermal shocks Cycling kiln Change of fuel Loss of fuel Loss of feed Kiln feed not on target High SR Overlimed Overburning Loss of coating Loss of brickwork Ring in kiln breaks up Poor function of shell cooling fans Kiln brick thickness (min 10 cm') Effects / risks Shell deforms (requires replacement) No tyre slip leading to contraction and shell pinching Kiln bricking difficult when shell is deformed Cost of replacement bricks Cracks on shell which can lead to failure Production loss Import clinker Operator Actions Inform shift supervisor Infrom patroller and measure with mobile pyrometer Adjust kiln shell cooling fans if temp>425 degC If temp drops below 400 degC stop fans Hot spot Type A Most dangerous as under the tyre Inform supervisor about position, size and temp Stop the kiln and wait until temp is less than 475 degC Put kiln on barring gear. Turn the kiln and stop when spot is under meal Turn kiln 2/3 times only Hold kiln in position for no more than 15 mins Re-start kiln if temp falls to 400 degC Stop kiln if red spot re-appears Hot spot Type B Inform supervisor about position, size and temp Place cooling fans on the spot Check flame Check kiln feed chemistry Adjust chemistry (2/3 hours for new feed to come through) Contine to monitor the flame and spot Decrease fuel by 20% and adjust all other parameters accordingly

If Spot continues to increase in temp STOP the kiln Hot spot Type C Most difficult spot as not in coating zone. Coating unstable. Inform supervisor about position, size and temp Place cooling fans on the spot Check flame If Spot continues to increase in temp STOP the kiln For all spots - check for bricks in cooler Never put water on the shell - thermal shock In heavy rain - turn kiln on barring gear Total marks available Marks given based on interview % Confidence: Uneasy (1), At ease (2), Very easy (3) Clear and straight explanation: Uneasy (1), At ease (2), Very easy (3) Assessment of questions

Operator Operator Operator Operator Operator Operator KALLOS Klara OPREA Ana PLESA Cristian SIMON Boglarka BARA Szuszanna BOACA Elena Answer Answer Answer Answer Answer Answer / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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/ / / / / / / / / 59 39 66.1 1.5 2.5 Good

/ / / / / / / / / 59 43 72.9 2 2 Good

/ / / / / / / / / 59 40 67.8 3 3 Good

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/ / 59 29 49.2 1.5 1.5 Good

/ / 59 38 64.4 1.5 2 Struggling

/ / 59 41 69.5 1 2 Struggling

Operator SCHIOPU Alexandra Answer / / / / / / / / / /

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/ / 59 36 61.0 3 3 Good

Question on LSF - Lime Saturation Factor

Question on LSF - Lime Saturation Factor What does LSF stand for - (Lime Saturation Factor) What is it used for - (predicting clinker burnability and characteristics) How is it defined - (based on 4 oxides) Does LSF in raw mix take into account the ash chemistry from burner fuel - (yes/should do!) What is the reason for the lower LSF of clinker compared to the raw meal - (Silica from the coal ash) What is the LSF target for plant - (95%) What happens when LSF is lower than target: Less material to be decarbonated and hence more heat available for burning The less CaO will be available to combine with C2S and less C3S will be produced If LSF above target what is the consequence - (over-limed) What happens to free lime - (increases) How to recover: Cannot do much on kiln. Increasing heat may cause overheating - red spot Question on fCaO - Free lime What can cause fCaO to be high: Over-liming through too high LSF Underburning If raw mix is over-limed what effect will this have on free lime: Increases free lime and cannot recover What are the effects of high fCaO on cement: Hydration of free lime in cement results in expansion as volume occupied by the free lime increases 1.6 times. Reduces the setting time by as much as 40 to 50 mins with free lime going from 0.5 to 1.5% Question on cooler What are the functions of a grate cooler: Heat recovery and maximum cooling of clinker What is average time for clinker to remain in cooler and what is temp reduction in clinker: 30 mins and typically 1380 to 100 degC If clinker is cooled too slowly what happens: C3S decomposes into C2S. This decreases short term strength and increases free lime a little bit Magnesis crystallises out of the liquid phase. Magnesia hydrates slowly and can cause expansion years later in concrete Chrystaline structure of C2S changes. It reduces reactivity and hydraulic properties of the cement If clinker temp too high can affect gypsum reactivity in the cement mill How would you improve heat recovery from the cooler: Increase bed depth thickness What is typical bed depth thickness - (50/60 to 80/90 cm) What is the typical heat recuperated from the grate back to the kiln: 70 to 80% If clinker is very fine what effect does this have on the cooler: Increases the undergrate pressure / permeability Grate speed increases to keep pressure constant Heat recovery is reduced

Question on KFUI What does KFUI stand for - (Kiln Feed Uniformity Index) Which index is used for KFUI reporting - (C3S) When does KFUI sample have to be taken - (every day at same time) What is the Lafarge standard for KFUI -(<14) What parameters are reflected in a good KFUI: Increased clinker production Stability of kiln feed dosing system Question on Cold Kiln What is meant by a cold kiln - verbal explanation required What are cold kiln indicators: Kiln amps - reducing Sec air temp decreasing NOx decreases Load in kiln flattens Clinker granulometry How to recover from this condition: Reduce feedrate Reduce kiln speed

Operator Operator Operator Operator Operator Operator KALLOS Klara OPREA Ana PLESA Cristian SIMON Boglarka BARA Szuszanna BOACA Elena Answer Answer Answer Answer Answer Answer / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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