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CONTENTS

MSC.Fatigue QuickStart Guide

MSC.Fatigue QuickStart Guide

 

1

 
 

Introduction

Purpose of Guide, 2 Assumptions, 2 Organization of Guide, 2 Definitions, 3 The Fatigue “Five-Box Trick”, 4 Life Prediction Methods, 5 FE Analysis Methods, 5 Design Philosophies, 6 Life Estimation Process, 7 When to Use Which Method?, 8 Different Methods of FE Import, 9

   

MSC.Nastran FE Model and Results, 9 ABAQUS (or Advanced FEA) FE Results, 11 ANSYS FE Results, 12 MSC.Marc FE Results, 12 PATRAN Neutral and Result Files, 13 I-DEAS Master Series Universal Files, 19 MSC.Patran FEA Result Files, 20

   

Directory Structure, 21 MSC.Fatigue Modules, 22 MSC.Fatigue Output Files, 26

 

2

 
 

A Simple S-N Analysis

Problem Description, 30 Objective, 30

   

Geometry, 31

   

Import the Model, 31 View the Stress Results, 32

   

Set Up the Fatigue Analysis, 33 Solution Parameters, 34 Material Information, 35

 

Loading Information, 38

   

Run the Fatigue Analysis, 42 Review the Results, 43

   

View the Life Contour Plot, 43 Tabular Listing, 44 What If?, 44

   

Concluding Remarks, 46 Multiple Mean Stress Curve Support, 47

   

Set Up the Fatigue Analysis, 47 Run the Fatigue Analysis, 49

 

3

 
 

Rainflow Cycle

Problem Description, 54

Load the Previous S-N Analysis Parameters, 55

 

Counting

Objective, 54

   

Set Up the Fatigue Analysis, 55

Loading Information, 56

   

Run the Fatigue Analysis, 60

   

Rainflow Cycle Counting, 60 Damage Summation, 60 Speeding up the Analysis, 61

   

Review the Results, 62

   

Tabular Listing, 62 Histogram Matrix, 62 Effect of Mean Stress, 64 Probabilistic Nature of Fatigue, 65

   

Concluding Remarks, 67

 

4

 
 

Component S-N

Problem Description, 70

 

Analysis

Objective, 70

   

Geometry, 71

   

Import the Model and Results, 71 View the Stress Results, 72

   

Set Up the Fatigue Analysis, 73 Solution Parameters, 74 Material Information, 74 Loading Information, 80

   
   

Run the Fatigue Analysis, 83 Review the Results, 84

   

View the Life Contour Plot, 84 Tabular Listing, 85 Design Optimization, 85

   

Concluding Remarks, 88 Batch Operations, 88

 

5

 
 

A Simple e-N Analysis

Problem Description, 90 Objective, 90

   

Geometry, 91

   

Import the Model, 91 View the Stress Results, 91

   

Set Up the Fatigue Analysis, 92 Solution Parameters, 93 Material Information, 94 Loading Information, 100

   

Run the Fatigue Analysis, 104 Rainflow Cycle Counting, 104 Elastic-Plastic Correction, 104

   

Review the Results, 106 View the Life Contour Plot, 107

   

Concluding Remarks, 108

   

Other Notch Corrections, 108 Stresses vs. Strains, 108

 

6

 
 

Residual Stress

Problem Description, 112 Objective, 112

   

Geometry, 113

   

Import the Model, 113 View the Stress Results, 113

   

Set Up First Fatigue Analysis, 115 Solution Parameters, 115 Material Information, 115 Loading Information, 116

   
   

Run the Fatigue Analysis, 117 Review the Results, 117

   

Set Up Second Fatigue Analysis, 118 Include the Residual Stress, 118 Run the Fatigue Analysis, 119 Review the Results, 119

   

Investigate Mean Stress, 120 Investigate Surface Finish/Treatment, 123 Concluding Remarks, 125

 

7

 
 

Introduction to

Problem Description, 128

 

Crack Growth

Objective, 128

   

Geometry, 129

   

Import the Model, 129 Define a Compliance Function, 129

   

Set Up the Fracture Analysis, 133 Solution Parameters, 134 Material Information, 135 Loading Information, 138

   

Run the Fracture Analysis, 140

   

Cycle by Cycle Growth, 140 The Fatigue Crack Propagation Rectangle, 141

   

Review the Results, 142 Tabular Listing, 142 Interactive Operation, 142 Optimization, 144

   

Concluding Remarks, 146

   

Analysis without an FE Model, 146 MSC.Fatigue Files, 147

 

8

 
 

Design

Problem Description, 150

 

Philosophies

Objectives, 150

   

S-N Analysis of Lug Weld, 152 Solution Parameters, 152 Material Information, 152

   
   

Loading Information, 154 Job Control, 154 Results - Factor of Safety Analysis, 154

   

e-N Analysis of Lug, 157 Solution Parameters, 157 Material Information, 157 Loading Information, 157 Job Control, 157 Results, 158

   

LEFM Analysis of Lug, 159 Solution Parameters, 159 Material Information, 161 Loading Information, 161 Job Control, 161 Results, 161

   

Concluding Remarks, 163

 

9

 
 

Multiple Loads

Problem Description, 166 Objectives, 166

   

S-N Analysis of Engine Mounting Lug, 168 Solution Parameters, 168 Material Information, 168 Loading Information, 170 Job Control, 173 Results, 174

   

Crack Growth Analysis of Engine Lug, 177 Solution Parameters, 177 Material Information, 178 Loading Information, 179 Job Control, 180 Results, 180

 

10

 
 

A Multiaxial

Problem Description, 182

 

Assessment

Objectives, 182

   

Geometry, 184

   

Import FE Model and Results, 184 Post/Create Groups, 185

   
   

View the Stress Results, 186

   

Determine the Critical Location, 188 Solution Parameters, 189 Material Information, 190 Loading Information, 190 Job Control, 194

   

Evaluate Results, 197 Biaxiality - a Multiaxial Assessment, 198

   

Concluding Remarks, 205

 

11

 
 

Welding

Introduction, 210

   

Problem Description for Spot Weld Analysis with Spot Welds Modeled as Stiff BARS, 211

   

Objective, 211 Geometry and FE Results, 212 Define a Group of CBARS, 214 Spot Weld S-N Analysis, 215 Solution Parameters, 215 Material Information, 215 Loading Information, 219 Job Control, 221 Results Evaluation, 222

   

Problem Description for Spot Weld Analysis with Spot Welds Modeled as CWELDS, 226

   

Objective, 226 Reading in the Model and CWELD Results, 226 Set Up the Spot Weld Analysis, 227 Run the Spot Weld Analysis, 229

   

Problem Description for Spot Weld Analysis with Spot Welds Modeled with CHEX/MPC, 230

   

Objective, 230 Reading in the Model and CHEX/MPC Results, 230 Convert CHEX/MPC to Equivalent BARs, 231 Set Up the Spot Weld Analysis, 232 Run the Spot Weld Analysis, 233

   

Concluding Remarks, 236

 

Problem Description for a Seam Weld Analysis, 237 Objective, 237

   

Geometry and FE Results, 238 Creating a Weld Group, 238 Viewing the Stress Results, 239

   

Setting up the Seam Weld Analysis, 240 Material Information, 241 Loading Information, 243 Listing the Fatigue Results, 244

   

Concluding Remarks, 248

 

12

 
 

Wheels Module -

Problem Description, 250

 

Analysis of Rotating Structures

Geometry and FE Results, 251 Viewing the Stress Results, 252

   

Setting Up the Wheels Analysis, 254 Solution Parameters, 254 Material Information, 254 Loading Info, 256

   

Fatigue Analysis and Results, 259

   

Plotting the Fatigue Results, 259 Wheels Interactive Menu, 260

   

Concluding Remarks, 265

 

13

 
 

A Software Strain Gauge

Problem Description, 268 Objective, 268

   

Geometry and FE Results, 269 The Gauge Tool, 269 FE Results Extraction, 274

   

Time History Extraction, 276

   

Fatigue Analysis Setup, 276 Solution Parameters, 277 Material Information, 277 Loading Information, 279 Job Control, 281 Run Soft S/G (SSG), 282

   

Correlation Techniques, 283

 

Overlays and Cross Plots, 283 Signal Statistics, 284

   

Rosette Analysis, 285 Single Location Uniaxial Life Analyzer, 288 Single Location Multiaxial Life Analyzer, 289

   

Concluding Remarks, 292

 

14

 
 

Dynamic Fatigue

Introduction, 294 Objective, 294

   

Analysis Using Transient Results, 296 Transient Keyhole Job, 296 Static Keyhole Job, 299

   

Modal Superposition Method, 300 Vibration Fatigue, 302

   

Definitions, 303 Frequency Domain Life Estimation - General Procedure, 303 Vibration Fatigue Analysis Setup, 306 Additional Job Setups - Multiple Load Inputs, 313 Results, 318

   

Comparison Studies, 324

   

Pseudo-Static vs. PSD Approach, 324 FE Model and Analysis, 324 Pseudo-static Fatigue Analysis Setup, 328 Results, 330 Dynamic Transient vs. PSD Approach, 336 Plot Mode Shapes, 337 Run Vibration Analyses, 337 Run Transient Analyses, 338 View and Compare Results, 339 Recreate the Transfer Function, 341 Plot the Stationarity, 344 Random Vibration FE Results, 345

 

15

 
 

Temperature

Temperature Corrected MSC.Fatigue Analysis, 348

 

Corrected Fatigue Analysis

Objective, 348 Import the Model, 349 Set Up the Fatigue Analysis, 350 Run the Fatigue Analysis, 354

   
 

16

 
 

Aerospace

Aerospace Spectrum File Support, 358

 

Spectrum File

Objective, 358

 

Support

File Definitions, 359

   

Spectrum file, 359 Example Spectrum File, 359 Load Control file, 360 Example Load Control File, 360

   

Example Problem, 361

   

Solution Parameters, 361 Material Information, 361 Loading Information, 362 Run Fatigue Analysis, 363

   

Conclusion, 364

 

17

 
 

Multiple Fatigue

Introduction, 366

Solution Parameters, 367

Conclusion, 377

 

Analysis

Example Problem, 367

 

(Duty Cycle

Analyzer)

   

Material Information, 367 Loading Information, 368 Sequence Information, 369 Event Information, 370 Entering Load Data, 371 Managing the Duty Cycle Form, 374 Job Control, 375 Review Results, 375

 

18

 
 

Fatigue Utilities

Problem Description, 380

   

Fatigue Preprocessing, 381 Low Damage Removal, 381

   

Material Management, 383

   

Materials Database Manager - PFMAT, 383 ASCII Materials File Reader, 383

   

Advanced Loading Utilities, 384

   
 

Arithmetic Manipulation - MART, 384 Multi-Channel Editor - MCOE, 385 Rainflow Cycle Counter - MCYC, 387 Formula Processor - MFRM, 391 File Cut and Paste - MLEN, 393 Multi-File Manipulation - MMFM, 394 Peak-Valley Extraction - MPVXMUL, 395 Simultaneous Values Analysis DAC/RPC - MSIMMAX, 395 Amplitude Distribution - MADA, 397 Auto Spectral Density - MASD, 398 Fast Fourier Filtering - MFFF, 398 Butterworth Filtration - MBFL, 400 Frequency Response Analysis - MFRA, 400 Statistical Analysis - MRSTATS, 401 Header/Footer Manipulation - MFILMNP, 402

 

Advanced Fatigue Utilities, 403

 

Single Location S-N Analysis - MSLF, 403 Single Location e-N Analysis - MCLF, 404 Cycle and Damage Analysis - MCDA, 405 Cycles File Lister - MCYL, 406 Time Correlated Damage - MTCD, 407 Single Location Vibration Fatigue - MFLF, 408 Stress-Strain Analysis - mSSA, 409 Multi-Axial Life Analysis - MMLF, 409 Crack Growth Data Analysis - MFCG, 410 Kt/Kf Evaluation - MKTAN, 411

 

Graphical Display Utilities, 412

 

Graphical Editing-mGED, 412 Multi-File Display - mMFD, 412 Two Parameter Display - mTPD, 414 Polar Display - mPOD, 414 Three Dimensional Display - mP3D, 415 Plot File (.plt) Display - MQPLOT (for UNIX), 415 Plot File (.plt) Display - MWNPLOT (for Windows), 416 Printer and Device Setup - MPLTSYS, 416 Plot/Pen Colors Utility - MNCPENS, 418

 

File Conversion Utilities, 420

 

Convert Binary .dac to ASCII - MDTA and Convert ASCII to Binary .dac - MATD, 420 Signal Regeneration - MREGEN, 420 Convert RPC File to .dac - MREMDAC and Convert .dac to RPC file - MDACREM, 421 Cross Platform Conversion - MCONFIL, 422 Waterfall File Create - MWFLCRE, 422

 
   

Other Utilities, 423 Environment Settings - MENM, 423

 

19

 
 

Miscellaneous

Problem Description, 426

 

Features

 

A

Element Centroidal Calculations, 427 Group Averaging, 428 Extracting Time Histories, 429 Identify Critical Location, 430 Defining Histogram Matrices, 431 Constant Amplitude Zero Mean Time Histories, 434

 

Glossary of Terms

Glossary Terms, 436

 

B

 
 

Material Listing

Material Types, 456 Material Listing, 459 Alternative Names, 467

 

C

 
 

Support

Where to Get Help, 474 Accessing Help from a Form, 474

   

Technical Support Centers, 475 Preparing to Call the Hotline, 476

   

MSC Offices, 477

 

INDEX

MSC.Fatigue QuickStart Guide, 479

   

MSC.Fatigue QuickStart Guide

CHAPTER

1

Introduction

Purpose of Guide Definitions When to Use Which Method? Different Methods of FE Import MSC.Fatigue Modules Directory Structure

 

2

  • 1.1 Purpose of Guide

Welcome to MSC.Fatigue.

MSC.Fatigue is an advanced fatigue life estimation program for use with finite element analysis. When used early in a development design cycle it is possible to greatly enhance product life as well as reduce testing and prototype costs, thus ensuring greater speed to market. It is jointly developed in close cooperation between MSC.Software Corporation and its fatigue technology partner, nCode International, Ltd. of Sheffield, England.

The purpose of this manual is to provide you with typical example problems to demonstrate proper usage of the program. Each example is designed to show certain aspects and help to convey various principles of fatigue life estimation. The intent is to get you up to speed as quickly as possible without a steep learning curve or hours sifting through a thick manual.

Assumptions

This guide makes certain assumptions of the reader. The basic assumptions made are, a good knowledge of basic computer skills and terminology, and a working knowledge of finite element analysis. This manual does not deal with creation of finite element models or any aspects of actual finite element analyses except where necessary to achieve proper fatigue life estimations.

This manual assumes that the user has little or no experience with fatigue analysis in general and therefore makes every effort to explain principles of fatigue life estimation from example to example. It is not meant to be an exhaustive course on fatigue analysis however. For this we refer you to the MSC.Fatigue User’s Guide and the many references sited therein.

Organization of Guide

All chapters but this one, serve as tutorials to learn the basics of MSC.Fatigue.

First read this chapter in its entirety and then after a successful installation, it is highly suggested that you start at the first example and work your way sequentially. Each exercise introduces concepts that build on each other from exercise to exercise.

 

1.2

Definitions

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

3

The first concept to understand before embarking on this tutorial is the definition of the term fatigue within the confines of this guide. Very often the terms fatigue, fracture, and durability are used interchangeably. Each does, however, convey a specific meaning.

Note:

Throughout this manual, when a new term or concept is introduced or mentioned for the first time, it is highlighted in blue italics. This means that a definition is provided in Glossary of Terms (App. A).

What is Fatigue?

Although many definitions can be applied to the word, for the purposes of this manual, fatigue is failure under a repeated or otherwise varying load which never reaches a level sufficient to cause failure in a single application.

It can also be thought of as the initiation and growth of a crack, or growth from a pre- existing defect, until it reaches a critical size, such as separation into two or more parts.

Fatigue analysis itself usually refers to one of two methodologies: either the stress- life or S-N method, commonly referred to as total life since it makes no distinction between initiating or growing a crack, or the local strain or strain-life (ε-N) method, commonly referred to as the crack initiation method which concerns itself only with the initiation of a crack.

Fracture specifically concerns itself with the growth or propagation of a crack once it has initiated.

Durability is then the conglomeration of all aspects that affect the life of a product and usually involves much more than just fatigue and fracture, but also loading conditions, environmental concerns, material characterizations, and testing simulations to name a few. A true product durability program in an organization takes all of these aspects (and more) into consideration.

Note:

Fatigue cracks initiate and grow as a result of cyclic plastic deformation. Without plasticity there can be no fatigue failure. All attempts are made in this guide to explain how plasticity is taken into account when determining fatigue life from linear elastic finite element analysis.

 

4

The Fatigue “Five-Box Trick”

Almost without exception, each exercise is constructed around the concept of the fatigue “five-box trick.” The illustration to the right depicts this well. For any life analysis whether it be fatigue or fracture there are always three inputs. The first three boxes are these inputs:

The Fatigue “Five-Box Trick” Materials Loading Analysis Results Geometry
The Fatigue
“Five-Box Trick”
Materials
Loading
Analysis
Results
Geometry
  • 1. Cyclic Material Information: Materials behave differently when they are subject to cyclic as opposed to monotonic loading. Monotonic material properties are the result of material tests where the load is steadily increased until the test coupon breaks. Cyclic material parameters are obtained from material tests where the loading is reversed and cycled until failure at various load levels. These parameters differ depending on the fatigue analysis type involved.

  • 2. Service Loading Information: The proper specification of the variation of the loading is extremely important to achieve an accurate fatigue life prediction. The loading can be defined in various manners. Whether it be time based, frequency based, or in the form of some sort of spectra depends on the fatigue analysis type to be used. When working with finite element models the loading can be force, pressure, temperature, displacement, or a number of other types. Loading in the test world usually refers to the acquisition of a response measurement, usually from a strain gauge.

  • 3. Geometry Information: Geometry has different meanings depending on whether you are working from a finite element model or from a test specimen. In the testing world, the geometry input is the K t (stress concentration factor) since the point of failure is usually away from the actual point of measurement. Therefore a geometry compensation factor (K t ) is defined to relate the measured response to that at the failure location. You can think of this as a fudge factor. With a finite element model the local stresses and strains are known at all locations (K t =1 at all locations). The FE geometry gives us the entire stress distribution needed for fatigue life calculations. For crack growth analysis the geometry definition takes on yet another form as a compliance function.

 

The correctness and accuracy of each of these inputs is important in that any error in any of these will be magnified through the fatigue analysis procedure, the fourth box, since this process is logarithmic. A ten percent error in loading magnitude could result in a 100% error in the predicted fatigue life.

 

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

5

Do not worry too much about this, because the fifth box is the postprocessing or results evaluation. This can take on the form of color contours on a finite element model or a tabular listing but also quite often leads back into the three inputs to see what effect variations of these inputs will have on the life prediction. This is referred to as a sensitivity or a “what if” study. This is extremely useful at times when you are not quite sure about the accuracy of one of the inputs. The software denotes this as “optimization” in places.

Life Prediction Methods

MSC.Fatigue uses three life prediction methods as already mentioned earlier. These are total life, crack initiation, and crack propagation. Total life is aptly named in that only the total life of the component is of concern and not when a crack will initiate or how quickly it will

Total Life Crack Initiation Crack Growth = + N N f i N p
Total Life
Crack Initiation
Crack Growth
=
+
N
N f
i
N p

grow. The three methods are related to each other by the fact that the total number of cycles

to failure, N f , equals the number of cycles to initiate a crack, N i , plus the number of

cycles to propagate that crack, N

p

. The three methods have grown out of different

needs over the decades using different techniques and having different degrees of accuracy. So in theory this equation is true, but in practice when applying the three methods to the same problem, rarely, if ever does it add up.

In reality however, rarely are all three methods used on the same problem, mainly because different industries adopt different analysis methods depending on the driving design philosophy. See Design Philosophies (p. 6).

FE Analysis Methods

In addition to the three life prediction methods, MSC.Fatigue also supports use of these methods using stress/strain response results from different finite element analysis techniques. The table below summarizes which FE analysis types are applicable to which life prediction methods in this release of the software.

Life Prediction Methods versus FE Analysis Results

Total Life

Crack Initiation

Crack Growth

Linear Static

Linear Static

Linear Static

Linear Transient

Linear Transient

Linear Transient

Frequency

   

Response

Random Vibration

   
 

6

Design Philosophies

There are three main fatigue design philosophies. Each centers around one of the fatigue life estimation methodologies. To illustrate the three consider the design of a stool.

Safe Life

The safe life philosophy is a philosophy adopted by many, but especially the ground vehicle industry. Products are designed to survive a specific design life. Full scale tests are usually carried out with margins of safety applied. In general, this philosophy results in fairly optimized structures such as a stool with three legs. Any less than three legs and it would fall over. This philosophy adopts the crack initiation method and is used on parts and components that are relatively easy and inexpensive to replace and not life threatening if failure were to occur. Most of the life is taken up in the initiation of a crack. The propagation of that crack is very rapid and short in comparison.

6 Design Philosophies There are three main fatigue design philosophies. Each centers around one of the

Fail Safe

On the other end of the spectrum of design philosophies is that of fail safe. This is where a failure must be avoided at all costs. And if the structure were to fail it must fall into a state such that it would survive until repairs could be made. This is illustrated with our stool now having six legs. If one leg were to fail, the stool would remain standing until repairs could be made. This philosophy is heavily used in safety critical items such as in the aerospace or offshore industries.

Damage Tolerant

6 Design Philosophies There are three main fatigue design philosophies. Each centers around one of the

The middle ground philosophy is that of damage tolerance. This philosophy, adopted heavily in the aerospace community and nuclear power generation, relies on the assumption that a flaw already exists and that a periodic inspection schedule will be set up to ensure that the crack does not propagate to a critical state between inspection periods. As implied, this philosophy adopts the crack growth method. This is illustrated using our stool (now with four legs) but with someone inspecting it.

This particular design philosophy is generally used in conjunction with the fail safe philosophy, first to design for no failure. and then to assume that, for whatever reason, a flaw exists and must be monitored.

6 Design Philosophies There are three main fatigue design philosophies. Each centers around one of the
 

Life Estimation Process

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

7

The life estimation process really centers around two major relationships.

  • 1. The first relation is that of the loading environment to the stresses and strains in the component or model. This load-strain or load-stress relation is determined using finite element modeling and running linear elastic FE analysis. It is dependent on the characterization of the material properties and in some instances requires that a notch correction procedure take place. For the purposes of this discussion a notch correction is simply a way to compensate for plasticity from a linear FE analysis.

  • 2. The second relation is that of the stresses or stains to the life of the component or model. This is accomplished by using damage modeling. Each fatigue life method has its own techniques to determine and sum damage which shall be explained as you progress through the example problems.

The Life Estimation Process

Loading Load-Strain Environment Relationship
Loading
Load-Strain
Environment
Relationship

Stresses

Strain-Life

Strains

Relationship

Life
Life
Life Estimation Process CHAPTER 1 Introduction 7 The life estimation process really centers around two major
Damage Modeling
Damage
Modeling

Linear Elastic FE Material Characterization Notch Correction

Note:

All example problems were created on the Windows platform as well as all graphical dumps of screen shots. The graphics may appear slightly differently on UNIX platforms; however, all operations are identical unless specified otherwise. In some situations, you may need to double click the mouse on the Windows platform whereas on UNIX, a single click performs the operation.

 

8

  • 1.3 When to Use Which Method? Of the three fatigue methods used to predict life, it is important to understand when to use which. This will become more evident as you proceed through this manual and work each exercise. As a quick answer to this question, the following guidelines are presented. S-N (Total Life)

Long life fatigue problems where there is little plasticity since the S-N method is based on nominal stress

Components where crack initiation or crack growth modeling is not appropriate, e.g., composites, welds, plastics, and other non-ferrous materials

Situations where large amounts of pre-existing S-N data exist

Components which are required by a control body to be designed for fatigue using standard data such as MIL handbook data.

Spot weld analysis and random vibration induced fatigue problems

Crack Initiation Mostly defect free, metallic structures or components

Components where crack initiation is the important failure criterion - safety critical components

Locating the point(s) where cracks may initiate, and hence the growth of a crack should be considered

Evaluating the effect of alternative materials and different surface conditions Components which are made from metallic, isotropic ductile materials which have symmetric cyclic stress-strain behavior

Components that experience short lives - low cycle fatigue - where plasticity is dominant

Crack Growth

Pre-cracked structures or structures which must be presumed to be already cracked when manufactured such as welds

 

Pre-prediction of test programs to avoid testing components where cracks will not grow Planning inspection programs to ensure checks are carried out with the correct frequency To simply determine the amount of life left after crack initiation Components which are made from metallic, isotropic ductile materials

which have symmetric cyclic stress-strain behavior

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

9

  • 1.4 Different Methods of FE Import

There are various methods of results import or access to FE results available in MSC.Fatigue. The most common methods, and the one most often used in the exercises described in the following chapters, is the import of Output2 files.

Note:

Although the method of import is discussed in this section for various analysis codes and file types, once the results are imported into the database they are all treated the same by MSC.Fatigue. This means that any linear static or transient stress or strain tensor results that exist or can be imported into the database are supported by MSC.Fatigue. Thus, the supported analysis codes are not necessarily limited to those discussed here and can include customer customization of proprietary or in-house codes within the MSC.Patran environment.

To prepare to run each of these exercises in this section, create a fully reversed unit load using PTIME, the same as was done in the very first exercise in the manual. Call it unitload.

MSC.Nastran FE Model and Results

You will need the following files to perform this mini-exercise:

keyhole.bdf, keyhole.op2, keyhole.xdb, nastran_op2.fin, nastran_xdb.fin

To use MSC.Nastran results you must set the Analysis Preference to MSC.Nastran. This is done either when you open a new database and are asked for the New Model Preferences | Analysis Code or you can change it anytime from the Preference | Analysis pulldown selection.

Open a new database called keyhole, and set the Analysis Preference to MSC.Nastran. Overwrite any old database if necessary. There are two types of files that can be used from MSC.Nastran:

Output2 Files

CHAPTER 1 Introduction 9 1.4 Different Methods of FE Import There are various methods of results

The first type is the Output2 file. This file is very convenient to use because it generally contains both the finite element results and the model FE connectivity information. To import an Output2 file:

  • 1. In Pre&Post, select the Import application switch on the main form. (This is the Analysis switch in MSC.Patran.)

  • 2. Set the Action to Access Results, the Object to Read Output2, and the Method to Both.

 

10

  • 3. Select the Output2 file, keyhole.op2, using the file browser from the Select Results

File ... button and then press Apply.
File
...
button and then press Apply.

XDB Files

10 3. Select the Output2 file, keyhole.op2 , using the file browser from the Select Results

The second type of MSC.Nastran file supported is the XDB file which is a MSC.Nastran result database. The results contained in this file are not actually imported into the database but are retained in the XDB file. A direct access attachment is made between the database and the XDB file. To access XDB results:

  • 1. In Pre&Post, select the Import application switch on the main form. (This is the Analysis switch in MSC.Patran.)

  • 2. Set the Action to Access Results, the Object to Attach XDB, and the Method to Result Entities. Select the XDB file, keyhole.xdb, using the file browser from the Select Results File ...

button and then press Apply.

Now we have read results and the model data from an Output2 file and have attached an XDB file. The exact same results are available from the Results application from the two different data sources in our example.

You should note that we read the model data from the Output2 file. This was unnecessary to do since this could have been done from the XDB file also. When you reopen the database and access any result cases associated with an XDB file, it will be reattached as long as you have not moved or deleted it.

Input Files

Another mechanism for importing model data only from MSC.Nastran is to read the input file. This is done either from File | Import with the Object set to Model and the Source set to MSC.Nastran Input; or this is done from the Import application (Analysis application in MSC.Patran) with the Action set to Read Input File. You can try this with the keyhole.bdf file in a new database if you wish.

Note:

When you read an MSC.Nastran input file and then import the results from an Output2 or XDB file, but be sure to set the Method to Results Entities only.

 

Summary

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

11

With the database now containing the model and two sets of FE results, run a fatigue analysis using either the file, nastran_op2.fin or nastran_xdb.fin. Go to the main MSC.Fatigue setup

form and in the Jobname databox type nastran_op2 or nastran_xdb depending on which one you wish to run and press the carriage return to read in the job parameters. Investigate the job

setup if you wish; then open the Job Control

form and submit the analysis. Successful

... completion of this exercise requires that the keyhole.op2 file be read in first and then the

keyhole.xdb file attached to the database. If for some reason the jobs do not run properly,

check carefully the Loading Info

form to make sure the correct Result Cases are selected.

... Close the database when you are finished.

In summary, MSC.Nastran FE results and model information can be used in MSC.Fatigue in the following ways:

  • 1. Read both the model and results information directly into the database from an Output2 file.

  • 2. Attach an XDB file to the database to access the results and specify to import the model information from the XDB file into the database.

  • 3. Read the model information from an MSC.Nastran input deck into the database and use the Output2 or XDB methods to access the results information only.

ABAQUS (or Advanced FEA) FE Results

You will need the following files to perform this mini-exercise: keyhole.fil, abaqus.fin. To use ABAQUS or Advanced FEA results you must set the Analysis Preference to ABAQUS or MSC.Advanced FEA.This is done either when you open a new database and are asked for the New Model Preferences | Analysis Code or you can change it anytime from the Preference | Analysis pulldown selection. Open a new database called keyhole, and set the Analysis Preference to ABAQUS. Overwrite the old database if necessary. To read in the results and model data from ABAQUS:

Summary CHAPTER 1 Introduction 11 With the database now containing the model and two sets of
Summary CHAPTER 1 Introduction 11 With the database now containing the model and two sets of
  • 1. In Pre&Post, select the Import application switch on the main form. (This is the Analysis switch in MSC.Patran.)

  • 2. Set the Action to Read Results and the Object to Both.

  • 3. Select the results file, keyhole.fil, using the file browser from the Select Results File ...

button and then press Apply.

 

12

  • 4. Go to the main MSC.Fatigue setup form and in the Jobname databox type abaqus and press the carriage return to read in the fatigue job parameters from the abaqus.fin file. Investigate the job setup if you wish; then open the Job Control ... form and submit the analysis. Close the database when you are finished.

ANSYS FE Results

You will need the following files to perform this mini-exercise: keyhole.rst, ansys.fin. To use ANSYS results you must set the Analysis Preference to ANSYS.This is done either when you open a new database and are asked for the New Model Preferences | Analysis Code or you can change it anytime from the Preference | Analysis pulldown selection. Open a new database called keyhole, and set the Analysis Preference to ANSYS 5 and overwrite any old database if necessary. To read in the results and model data from ANSYS:

12 4. Go to the main MSC.Fatigue setup form and in the Jobname databox type abaqus
12 4. Go to the main MSC.Fatigue setup form and in the Jobname databox type abaqus
  • 1. In Pre&Post, select the Import application switch on the main form. (This is the Analysis switch in MSC.Patran.)

  • 2. Set the Action to Read Results and the Object to Both.

  • 3. Select the results file, keyhole.rst, using the file browser from the Select Results File ...

button and then press Apply.

  • 4. Go to the main MSC.Fatigue setup form and in the Jobname databox type ansys and press the carriage return to read in the fatigue job parameters from the ansys.fin file. Investigate the job setup if you wish; then open the Job Control the analysis. Close the database when you are finished.

...

form and submit

MSC.Marc FE Results

You will need the following files to perform this mini-exercise: keyhole.t16, marc.fin.

 

To use MSC.Marc results you must set the Analysis Preference to MSC.Marc. This is done either when you open a new database and are asked for the New Model Preferences | Analysis Code or you can change it anytime from the Preference | Analysis pulldown selection.

Open a new database called keyhole, and set the Analysis Preference to MSC.Marc. Overwrite any old database if necessary.

To use MSC.Marc results you must set the Analysis Preference to MSC.Marc. This is done either

To read in the results and model data from MSC.Marc:

CHAPTER 1 13 Introduction
CHAPTER 1
13
Introduction
  • 1. In Pre&Post, select the Import application switch on the main form. (This is the Analysis switch in MSC.Patran.)

  • 2. Set the Action to Read Results and the Object to Both.

  • 3. Select the results file, keyhole.t16, using the file browser from the Select Results File ...

button and then press Apply.

  • 4. Go to the main MSC.Fatigue setup form and in the Jobname databox type marc and press the carriage return to read in the fatigue job parameters from the marc.fin file. Investigate the job setup if you wish; then open the Job Control the analysis. Close the database when you are finished.

...

form and submit

PATRAN Neutral and Result Files

You will need the following files to perform this mini-exercise: key.out, keyhole.nod, keyhole.els, keyhole.res_tmpl, patran_nod.fin, patran_els.fin, external.fin.

PATRAN Neutral files contain model information and PATRAN Result files contain FE results. Both are simple ASCII files with standard formats that have been used for years in the CAE community. Many proprietary and in-house codes use these standard formats. Because of the simplicity of these files it is simple to create them from any source for use with MSC.Fatigue. There are two types of PATRAN Result files: nodal and elemental.

PATRAN Neutral Files

Only the nodes and elements are of interest or even necessary from a PATRAN Neutral file for use with MSC.Fatigue. The format of this file is made up of various packets. The pertinent packets necessary for MSC.Fatigue are (in order):

  • 25 File title

  • 26 Summary data

    • 1 Node data

    • 2 Element data

      • 21 Named components (group information - optional)

      • 99 End of file flag

 

14

The format of each of these packets is (see the file keyhole.out as an example):

Packet Type 25: Title Card

 

Header Card

 

Format

(I2,8I8)

25

ID

IV

KC

 

ID=0 Not applicable

IV=0 Not applicable

KC=1

User Title Card

Format

(20A4)

TITLE

=

Identifying title may contain up to 80 Characters

 

Packet Type 26: Summary Data

 
 

Header Card

 

Format

(I2,8I8)

26

ID

IV

KC N1

N2

N3

N4

N5

ID=0 n/a

N1=Number of Nodes

 

IV=0 n/a

N2=Number of Elements

KC=1

Summary Data Card

 

Format

(3A4, 2A4, 3A4)

 

DATE

TIME

VERSION

=

 

DATE

= Date neutral file was created

TIME

= Time neutral file was created

VERSION

 

PATRAN release number - not necessary

Packet Type 01: Node Data

Header Card

Format

(I2,8I8)

1

ID

IV

KC

ID=Node ID

IV=0 n/a

KC=2

Data Card 1

Format

(3E16.9)

XYZ

 

X =X Cartesian Coordinate of Node Y =Y Cartesian Coordinate of Node Z =Z Cartesian Coordinate of Node

Data Card 2

Format

(I1, 1A1, I8, I8, I8, 2X, 6I1)

ICF

GTYPE

NDF

CONFIG

CID

PSPC

None of these parameters are necessary but the card must exist.

 
 

CHAPTER 1

15

Introduction

Packet Type 02: Element Data

 
 

Header Card

 

Format

(I2,8I8)

2

ID

IV

KC

N1

N2

 

ID=Element ID IV=Shape (2 = bar, 3 = tri, 4 = quad, 5 = tet, 7 = wedge, 8 = hex)

 

KC=1 + (NODES + 9)/10 + (N1 +4)/5(for text files) N1=Number of associate data values N2=ID of node in XY-plane (bar only)

Data Card 1

 

Format

(I8, I8, I8, I8, 3E16.9)

   

Data Card 2

 

Format

(10I8)

   

Data Card 3

 

Format

(5E16.9)

ADATA=Associate data values (will not be present if N1 is zero)

Packet Type 21: Named Components

Header Card

 

Format

(I2,8I8)

21

ID

IV

KC

 

ID=Component number

IV=2 times the number of data pairs

KC=1 + (IV + 9)/10

 

Data Card 1

 

Format

(A12)

NAME =Component Name

 

Data Card 2

Format

(10I8)

NTYPE(1)*

ID(1)

NTYPE(2)

ID(2)

NTYPE(5)

ID(5)

(NTYPE(i), ID(i)) =Data pairs of type and ID number of each item in (i = 1,

IV/2)component.

 

* NTYPE meanings:

 

5-node

8-quadrilateral

6-bar

9-tetrahedron

7-triangle

 

11-wedge

12-hexahedron

NTYPEs 6-12 may have 100 or 200 added to the basic NTYPE. The number of hundreds is usually the number of midside nodes.

 

16

Packet Type 99: End of Neutral File

Header Card

 

Format

(I2, 8I8)

99

ID

IV

KC

 

ID=0 not/applicable

IV=0 not/applicable

KC=1

PATRAN Nodal Result Files

These files contain results at nodes and are formatted as such:

Record 1:

TITLE

(80A1)

Record 2:

NNODES,MAXNOD,DEFMAX,NDMAX,NWIDTH

(2I9 E15.6, 2I9)

Record 3:

SUBTITLE1

(80A1)

Record 4:

SUBTITLE2

(80A1)

Record 5 to n+4:

(5E13.7))

NODID,(DATA(J), J=1, NWIDTH)(I8,

where

Parameter

Description

TITLE

80A1 title stored in an 80 word real or integer array

SUBTITLE1

Same format as TITLE

SUBTITLE2

Same format as TITLE

NNODES

Number of nodes (integer)

MAXNOD

Highest node ID number (integer)

DEFMAX

Maximum absolute displacement (real)

NDMAX

ID of node where maximum displacement occurs (integer)

NWIDTH

Number of columns after NODID for nodal information (integer)

NODID

Node ID number (integer)

DATA

Result quantities organized by column index (real)

PATRAN Elemental Result Files

These files contain results at element centroids and are formatted as such:

Record 1:

TITLE

(80A1)

Record 2:

NWIDTH

(I5)

Record 3:

SUBTITLE1

(80A1)

Record 4:

SUBTITLE2

(80A1)

Record 5 To N+4:

(2I8, /, (6E13.7))

ID, NSHAPE, (DATA(J), J=1,NWIDTH)

 
 

CHAPTER 1

17

Introduction

where

Parameter

Description

 

TITLE

80A1 Title Stored In An 80 Word Real Or Integer Array

SUBTITLE1

Same format as TITLE

SUBTITLE2

Same format as TITLE

NWIDTH

Number Of Columns Of Data Stored In The File (Integer)

ID

Element Identification Number (Integer)

NSHAPE

Essential Shape Code (Bar = 2, Tri = 3, Quad = 4, Tet = 5, Pyr = 6, Wedg = 7, Hex = 8; Int.)

DATA

Result Quantities Organized By Column Index (Real)

Import the Files

All of these files can be imported into the database.

  • 1. Open a new database called keyhole. Overwrite old database if necessary.

  • 2. Import the Neutral file (key.out) first (File | Import - Object=Model, Source=Neutral). Keep the Analysis Preference set to MSC.Nastran and ignore any error/warning messages. The FE model is now in the database and should be visible from the graphics screen. Now import the FE results. There are two files to import, a nodal results file and an element centroidal results file that contain stress components.

  • 3. From File | Import set the Object to Results and the Format to PATRAN2 .nod .... Two file browsers will appear, one asking for a template file and the other asking for the actual results file. The template file is called keyhole.res_tmpl and you will have to locate it from the browser which defaults to a standard installation directory. Once you have found and selected the template file, select the result file (keyhole.nod) and press the Apply button to have it imported. The template is a file that defines how the columns of a PATRAN Results file will be translated and stored in the database. MSC.Fatigue requires stress or strain tensors when imported into the database. Therefore the template file defines which 6 columns compose the 6 components of the tensor.

  • 4. Repeat this procedure with the elemental results file (keyhole.els) but set the Format to PATRAN2 .els ....

 

18

  • 5. Go to the main MSC.Fatigue setup form and in the Jobname databox type patran_nod or patran_els and press the carriage return to read in the fatigue job parameters from the patran_nod.fin or patran_els.fin file. Investigate the job setup if you wish; then open the Job Control

form and submit the analysis. Success of

... this exercise requires that the .nod file be read first and the .els file second. If the jobs

fail, check that the proper Results Cases are called out in the Loading Info Note that the patran_els setup uses Element as the Results Location.

...

form.

External File Access

  • 6. Before proceeding make a copy of the file keyhole.nod from a system window or DOS prompt and call it keyhole1.nod.

  • 7. The PATRAN Results files can also be accessed directly by MSC.Fatigue instead of through the database. Read the job setup file external.fin by typing external in the Jobname databox and then pressing enter.

  • 8. Open the Loading Info External.

...

form and note that the Results From optionmenu is set to

  • 9. On the right side of the form the name of the external file is specified by putting a # in the place of the load case ID. Even for one load case this is necessary. This is why you renamed or copied the file to include a number in it. The spreadsheet Load Case ID corresponds to the external file number that will be used for accessing the results, e.g., Load Case ID 10 will use file filename10.nod if filename#.nod is specified as the External File Name.

  • 10. Submit the job from the Job Control

...

form if you so desire.

Note:

Be careful as you import strains from external PATRAN Results files. Strains accessed directly from the database are required to be true or tensor strains, and not engineering strains. MSC.Fatigue will convert them to engineering strains (by multiplying the shear components by two) in order to properly calculate strain combination parameters such as von Mises. If you import a PATRAN Results file that contains strains make sure they are true strains and not engineering strains. If they are engineering strains then you must access them externally. You can specify whether strains are tensor or engineering strains from the Strain Type selection on

the Loading Info ...

form only if the access is External.

Creating External Files

With the ability of MSC.Fatigue to access external results files in this manner and with the ability of Pre&Post and MSC.Patran to write external results files, virtually any tensor result that exists in the database can be accessed by MSC.Fatigue.

In the Results application, with the Object set to Report, you can specify the results to output and the format in which to write them such as an .nod or an .els file.

For example, to write out an .nod file from the Results application:

1.

Set the Action to Create, the Object to Report, and the Method to Overwrite File.

 

CHAPTER 1

19

Introduction

  • 2. Select the Result Case and the Result to output and specify the 6 components of the tensor to be output from the Selected Quantities.

2. Select the Result Case and the Result to output and specify the 6 components of
  • 3. Under Target Entities, make sure that the Addlt. Display Control is set to Nodes.

3. Under Target Entities, make sure that the Addlt. Display Control is set to Nodes .
  • 4. Under Display Attributes enter a file name and set the Report Type to Data Only.

4. Under Display Attributes enter a file name and set the Report Type to Data Only
  • 5. ... databoxes. Set the Alignment of the Title to Left. Enter four lines for the Title as such:

Open the Format

form. Set the File Width to 80 and blank out all other

 

TITLE $NNODES$MAXNOD$DEFMAX$NDMAX$NWIDTH

SUBTITLE1

SUBTITLE2

Set the Value Format of the Entity ID to %I8% and all of the Components to %E13.7% except for the YZ Component which should be %E13.7%%1N%.

  • 6. Press Apply to create the result file which can then be accessed externally by MSC.Fatigue.

To create an element centroidal results file you follow the same procedure except the Addlt. Display Control must be set to Element Centroids; you must select NSHAPE and the 6 components in that order from the Select Results mode of the form; the format of the second line of the Title must be only $NWIDTH and the NSHAPE column Value Format must be %I8%%1N% (all others should be components should be %E13.7%).

For more information on creating report files, see the MSC.Patran User’s Guide or access the on-line help from Pre&Post.

I-DEAS Master Series Universal Files

Note:

This type of Model and Results import is only available in the Pre and Post version. It is not available in MSC.Patran.

Open a new database called keyhole, and set the Analysis Preference to anything. Overwrite the old database if necessary. You will need the following files for this mini-exercise:

keyhole.unv, universal.fin.

To import model and results data from a Universal file using Pre&Post:

  • 1. Select File | Import.

  • 2. Set the Object to Model and the Source to Universal File.

 

20

  • 4. Go to the main MSC.Fatigue setup form and in the Jobname databox type universal and press the carriage return to read in the fatigue job parameters from the universal.fin file. Investigate the job setup if you wish; then open the Job Control ... form and submit the analysis. Close the database when you are finished.

Note:

Both model and results are read even though we only specified that the Model be read. Also you can achieve the same by typing uf_reader.select_file( "keyhole.unv", "OPEN" ) in the MSC.Patran command window.

MSC.Patran FEA Result Files

One last type of results file can also be accessed by MSC.Fatigue which is a file produced by the MSC.Patran FEA analysis code which produces a .res results file. There are two ways to access it, either by importing its contents into the database or by accessing it externally.

Import the neutral file key.out as you did in PATRAN Neutral and Result Files (p. 13). Then import the results into the database by using the File | Import mechanism with the Object set to Results and the Format set to P/FEA 2 .res.

To access the results directly from the file itself, on the Loading Info

form set the Results

... From pick to MSC.Patran FEA. Then type in the name of the file on the right side of the form

or use the Select File button to use a file browser.

If you would like to experiment with these operation, copy these files to your directory:

keyhole.res, patran_fea.fin, patran_res.fin. Open a new database called keyhole and import the file and use the two setup files to run the fatigue jobs.

 
  • 1.5 Directory Structure

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

21

After a successful installation of MSC.Fatigue, there will be the following directory structure under fatiguexx or patranxx (where xx is the version number):

fatiguexx or patranxx app-defaults bin icons helpfiles mscfatigue_files test_files res_templates schema
fatiguexx or patranxx
app-defaults
bin
icons
helpfiles
mscfatigue_files
test_files
res_templates
schema
executables on-line help files central material database result file templates central environment installation
executables on-line help files central material database result file templates central environment installation
 
executables on-line help files central material database result file templates central environment installation

executables

on-line help files

central material database

result file

templates

central environment

installation

executables on-line help files central material database result file templates central environment installation
 

Motif resource files

bin

database

help mats

help

help mats

mats

help mats
 

schema files

 

MSC.Fatigue Pre&Post or MSC.Patran executables

 

user interface icons

 
   

test files

 

User’s Guide

nssys

QuickStart Guide

QuickStart Guide central loading database
 

central loading database

 
 

ptime

 
example problem files for all problems in this manual
 

example problem files for all problems in this manual

 

examples

Note:

If you are a Patran customer your MSC.Fatigue documentation is delivered on the MSC.Patran documentation CD. For standalone customers the MSC.Patran documentation CDs are delivered in the delivery kit.

 

22

  • 1.6 MSC.Fatigue Modules MSC.Fatigue is made up of a number of actual executable modules. Below is a list of MSC.Fatigue program modules with brief descriptions of their function. The use of most of these modules is presented throughout this manual. The list is given here for reference.

Table 1-1 MSC.Fatigue Modules and Descriptions

 

Module Name

Description

 

MSC.Fatigue Pre&Post

Allows for import of finite element (FE) model and stress/strain results data, with graphical, form driven setup of fatigue analysis jobs, graphical evaluation of FE stress and fatigue life results, and access to all other modules of MSC.Fatigue. This same functionality is also found in MSC.Patran.

 

Analysis Modules:

(in bin directory)

 

FEFAT

S-N and crack initiation analysis from FE static and transient stress/strain data including multi-axial assessments and factor- of-safety analysis.

 

FEMLF

Multi-axial crack initiation analysis from FE static and transient stress/strain data including factor-of-safety analysis.

 

FEVIB

Random vibration induced fatigue analysis from FE frequency response and random vibration stress results. This module uses the S-N method.

 

SPOTW

Spot weld fatigue analysis using the S-N method and FE results from MSC.Nastran bar and beam elements which simulate the spot welds.

 

PCRACK

Crack growth analysis using FE stress results from static or transient analysis.

 

SEAMW

Seam weld analysis using the stress (cubic) results from a MSC.Nastran run.

 

WHEELS

Wheels analysis using FE stress results.

 

SSG

Software strain gauge analysis using FE strains results.

 

Data Management:

 
 

PAT3FAT

Translates FE analysis stress/strain or force results from MSC.Patran or MSC.Fatigue Pre&Post databases into a MSC.Fatigue analysis input file.

 

PCPOST

Crack growth results viewer and tabular listings.

   
 

CHAPTER 1

23

Table 1-1 MSC.Fatigue Modules and Descriptions

Introduction

Module Name

Description

PFMAT

Materials database manager.

PFPOST

Results tabulator for basic S-N and crack initiation analysis, multi-axial assessment, factor-of-safety, and vibration induced fatigue results.

PKSOL

Compliance function library and generator for crack growth analysis.

PTIME

Loading database manager for time and frequency signals.

Graphical Display:

(in bin directory)

MGED

Graphical time and frequency signal editor.

MGRAPHIC

Batch graphical plotter (UNIX only).

MMFD

Multi-file time and frequency signal display.

MP3D

Histogram and waterfall (3D), three parameter (x, y, z) display.

MPLTSYS

Plotter and printer definition setup (UNIX only).

MPOD

Polar display plots for critical plane and spot weld analysis.

MQLD

Quick look display of single parameter (y-only) time and frequency signals.

MTPD

Two parameter display of x-y data sensitivity plots.

MQPLOT

Displays and prints plot files with slide show capability (UNIX only).

MWNPLOT

Displays and prints plot files with slide show capability (Windows only).

MNCPENS

Utility program for modifying plot colors (curves, background, text, grid lines, etc.).

Load Manipulation:

(in bin directory)

MADA

Amplitude distribution analysis of time domain signals.

MART

Arithmetic manipulation of loading files.

MASD

Auto-spectral density function creation from time domain signals.

MBFL

Butterworth filtration of time domain signals.

 

24

Table 1-1 MSC.Fatigue Modules and Descriptions

 

Module Name

Description

 

MCOE

Multi-channel creator/editor for loading signal files.

 

MFFF

Fast Fourier filtering of time domain signals.

 

MFILMNP

Load signal header/footer manipulation.

 

MFRA

Frequency response analysis of time domain signals.

 

MCYC

Rainflow cycle counter processing of a time series signal.

 

MFRM

Formula processor for load signal files.

 

MLEN

File length manipulation.

 

MMFM

Multi-file manipulation (addition, subtraction, division, multiplication).

 

MPVXMUL

Peak/valley slicing routine for multiple time signals.

 

MRSTATS

Running statistics of time signals.

 

Fatigue Utilities:

(in bin directory)

 

MCDA

Cycle and damage analysis display.

 

MCLF

Single shot crack initiation analyzer for stress or strain data.

 

MCYL

Cycles file lister/tabulator.

 

MFCG

Crack growth data analyzer.

 

MFLF

Single shot vibration fatigue analyzer for stress response power spectral density information.

 

MKTAN

Stress concentration library for use with MCLF and MSLF.

 

MMLF

Single shot multi-axial fatigue analyzer for stress/strain rosette data.

 

MSLF

Single shot S-N analyzer for stress data.

 

MSSA

Stress-strain analysis including elastic-plastic corrections, and rosette analysis.

 

MTCD

Time correlated damage analysis for crack initiation runs.

 

File Conversion:

(in bin directory)

 

MCONFIL

Cross-platform file translation.

 

MDACREM

RPC to DAC file translation.

   
 

CHAPTER 1

25

Table 1-1 MSC.Fatigue Modules and Descriptions

Introduction

Module Name

Description

MREMDAC

DAC to RPC file translation.

MDTA

Binary to ASCII load signal translation.

MATD

ASCII to binary load signal translation.

MREGEN

Regeneration of time signal from cycle files.

MWFLCRE

Waterfall plot (3 parameter) creation from multiple single parameter files and separation of waterfall plots into multiple single parameter files.

General Utilities:

FASTAN

Manages fast analysis executions from MSC.Patran or MSC.Fatigue Pre&Post. Runs in batch only.

FEFTRN

Translates FE data directly from MSC.Nastran xdb files and old I-DEAS universal files into a MSC.Fatigue analysis input deck.

MENM

MSC.Fatigue environment manipulator.

PFSETFONT

Sets or changes fonts for the Mask driven user interface (UNIX only).

UNVFES

Translates old I-DEAS universal files into MSC.Fatigue analysis input decks. Works only in batch mode and is called from FEFTRN.

 

26

  • 1.7 MSC.Fatigue Output Files MSC.Fatigue creates a number of files during an analysis. Every attempt is made to explain the use of these files throughout the examples. A listing of the basic files using generic names are shown in the table below along with a brief description.

Table 1-2 MSC.Fatigue Output Files

File

 

Description

name.db

This is the database containing the FE model and its results created by Pre&Post or MSC.Patran.

jobname.fin

This is the job control file that is written by Pre&Post or MSC.Patran when you press the Apply button in the Job

Control

...

form. The following Actions create this form: Full

Analysis, Partial Analysis, Translate Only, Save Job Only. If you take a look at this file it contains Parameter=keyword entries. It defines the analysis set up as specified when you fill out the various forms. You can read this file in under the Job Control ... form also when the Action is set to Read Saved Job.

jobname.fes

This is the fatigue analysis input file. It is a binary file and contains all information necessary to run a complete fatigue analysis using the FEFAT analyzer. It is created by the PAT3FAT and FATTRANS translators which read the jobname.fin file and the FE results information from the database name.db. You can view the contents of this file with

the Utilities

option in FEFAT. The Action, Translate Only on

... the Job Control

...

form will create this file and then stop.

jobname.fpp

This binary file is created by FEFAT after preprocessing. It is the result of the rainflow cycle count. The Action, Partial

Analysis on the Job Control point and then stop.

...

form will create all files up to this

jobname.fef

This is the results file of a fatigue analysis created by FEFAT when a Full Analysis is requested. It is an ASCII file and can be read back into Pre&Post or MSC.Patran to create life contour plots. It is also read by the MSC.Fatigue module PFPOST to do tabular listings of results. A jobname.fef_tmpl file is also created which is a template used when read back into Pre&Post or MSC.Patran defining the meaning of each column of results data in the jobname.fef file.

 
 

CHAPTER 1

27

Introduction

 

Table 1-2 MSC.Fatigue Output Files

 

File

 

Description

jobname.msg

This is the message file containing all messages during an analysis. If a job does not run properly for some reason, this is the file to look in first to find clues as to the problem.

jobname.sta

This is a one line status file read by the Monitor action from the

Job Control Form proceeds.

...

which is updated constantly as the analysis

 

28

MSC.Fatigue QuickStart Guide

CHAPTER

2

A Simple S-N Analysis

Problem Description

Geometry

Set Up the Fatigue Analysis

Run the Fatigue Analysis

Review the Results

Concluding Remarks

Multiple Mean Stress Curve Support

 

30

  • 2.1 Problem Description In this first example problem we start with a very simple model to introduce some fatigue analysis concepts by investigating the total life of the component shown to the side. For the purpose of this exercise we will refer to it as the keyhole model as it is a keyhole shape notched component. Due to symmetry only the top half of the keyhole was modeled. Objective

To introduce the S-N fatigue life prediction method, commonly referred to as the “total life” method.

30 2.1 Problem Description In this first example problem we start with a very simple model

All files necessary to perform this and subsequent examples are found in

<install_dir>/mscfatigue_files/examples (UNIX) x:<install_dir>\mscfatigue_files\examples (Windows)

Where, <install_dir> is the installation top level directory such as /msc/fatigueXX (/msc/patranXX) or z:\msc\fatigueXX (z:\msc\patranXX), z is the drive letter for Windows workstations, and XX is the version number. The <install_dir> is commonly referred to as P3_HOME and, as such, can be set as an environment variable as explained in the MSC.Fatigue Installation and Operations Guide under the section called User Environment. Each chapter will have a table in this section indicating which files are necessary for proper execution.

Table 2-1 Chapter 2 Necessary Files

File

P3_HOME/mscfatigue_files/examples/simpleSN.op2

Copy the file simpleSN.op2 to a clean working directory to begin.

 

2.2

CHAPTER 2

A Simple S-N Analysis

31

Geometry

A linear static finite element analysis has been performed already with a load magnitude of 10,000 Newtons. To begin, read this model and results information into a new database using MSC.Fatigue Pre&Post (referred to as Pre&Post from here on) or use MSC.Patran. From the system prompt or a DOS window in a clean directory invoke Pre&Post or MSC.Patran.

fXX or fatXX or fatigue where XX is the version number

p3 or patran

2.2 CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 31 Geometry A linear static finite element analysis has

Note:

Pre&Post or MSC.Patran can also be invoked from the Start menu on Windows workstations. In all cases, be sure that Pre&Post or MSC.Patran is running from the working directory.

After the graphical interface starts open a new database from File | New and call it keyhole. The model was run through an MSC.Nastran analysis, so keep the Analysis Preference set to MSC.Nastran when asked.

Import the Model

2.2 CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 31 Geometry A linear static finite element analysis has

Select the Import toggle switch (Analysis in MSC.Patran) on the main form. When the form appears, set the Action to Access Results, the Object to Read Output2, and the Method to Both (model and results). Press the Select Results File button and select the file simpleSN.op2. Press the Apply button. The model will then appear and you are ready to set up a fatigue analysis.

 

32

View the Stress Results

Before moving on to the fatigue analysis, first press the Results application switch on the main
Before moving on to the fatigue analysis, first
press the Results application switch on the main
form to view the stress results from the
MSC.Nastran analysis. The Create | Quick Plot
form is displayed. Go to the “Select Fringe
Result” listbox and select Stress Tensor . Set the
Quantity Option menu to Maximum Principal
2D. Press the Apply button and note the areas
of high stress. The maximum principal stress
appears to be about 333 MPa.
When you are done, press the Results switch
again to close down the Results application
form.
 
  • 2.3 Set Up the Fatigue Analysis

CHAPTER 2

A Simple S-N Analysis

33

To begin setup for a fatigue analysis, select the Analysis switch in Pre&Post (or from the Tools pulldown menu in MSC.Patran, select MSC.Fatigue and then Main Interface). This will bring up the MSC.Fatigue main form from which all parameters, loading and materials information, and analysis control are accessed.

2.3 Set Up the Fatigue Analysis CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 33 To begin setup

Access from MSC.Fatigue Pre&Post

2.3 Set Up the Fatigue Analysis CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 33 To begin setup

Access from MSC.Patran

Once the form is open, set the General Setup Parameters as follows:

  • 1. Analysis: S-N

  • 2. Results Loc.: Node This simply means that the fatigue lives will be determined at the nodes of the model.

  • 3. Nodal Ave.: Global Accept the default which simply means element nodal stresses will be averaged to the nodes for all element contributions.

  • 4. F.E. Results: Stress S-N analyses require stresses; you do not have a choice.

  • 5. Res. Units: MPa Model dimensions are millimeters and forces are in Newtons, therefore stress units are MPa.

  • 6. Jobname: simple_sn

  • 7. Title: Simple S-N Analysis

2.3 Set Up the Fatigue Analysis CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 33 To begin setup
 

34

Solution Parameters

Now open the Solution Params

...

form. On this form, set only these parameters:

  • 1. Mean Stress Correction: None The time signal we are using is fully reversed, R=-1. The S-N curve itself was generated by testing numerous polished test specimens at different constant amplitude, fully reversed (R=-1) loading conditions. (The parameters (power law) that defines the S-N curve was determined by regression analysis of the raw data.) Therefore no mean stress correction is required since there is no mean stress to speak of. Note: Acceptance values for Mean Stress Correction are Goodman, Gerber, Multiple Mean, or None. In Section 2.7, we shall demonstrate, the Multiple Mean Curve Method.

34 Solution Parameters Now open the Solution Params ... form. On this form, set only these
  • 2. Stress Combination: Max. Abs. Principal This is the stress parameter that will be used in the fatigue analysis. The stress tensor from the FE analysis results will be extracted at each node. However only a single stress value can be looked up on the S-N curve. So the six component values of the stress tensor will be resolved to the maximum absolute principal value which will be used as the stress look up parameter.

Press the OK button to continue.

 

CHAPTER 2

A Simple S-N Analysis

35

Material Information

Now press the Material Info

...

button on the main MSC.Fatigue form.

Select an S-N Curve

A spreadsheet appears whose cells need to be filled in. We will specify an S-N curve, a material surface finish and treatment, and a region on the model to which this combination will apply.

  • 1. Material: MANTEN_MSN Select the first cell of the spreadsheet with the cursor. A listbox appears at the bottom of the form from which you select a material (S-N curve). Select MANTEN_MSN.

  • 2. Surface Finish: No Finish The next cell becomes active and a pulldown menu appears. Select No Finish.

  • 3. Surface Treatment: No Treatment

CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 35 Material Information Now press the Material Info ... button

The next cell becomes active and a pulldown menu appears. Select No Treatment.

  • 4. Region: default_group

 

36

The next cell becomes active and a listbox appears. Select default_group. This is a default group of entities defined in the database. It contains all the nodes and elements of the model. This defines the area of the model (the entire thing) to which this combination of material, finish, and treatment are to be assigned.

36 The next cell becomes active and a listbox appears. Select default_group . This is a

View the S-N Curve

It is of interest to view the actual S-N curve that will be used to look up damage, and ultimately, calculate a fatigue life from the stresses of the model. Press the Materials Database Manager button. This will launch PFMAT, the materials database manager. First load the material by pressing or double clicking on the Load switch, selecting data set 1 from the optionmenu that pops up, and then selecting MANTEN_MSN from the list. You can then press or double click the Graphical Display switch to view the S-N curve.

Note:

Again, Pre&Post or MSC.Patran will be suspended until PFMAT is closed so that any newly created materials are recognized by the Pre&Post or MSC.Patran graphical interface.

 
CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 37 Note: The dashed line portion of the S-N curve

CHAPTER 2

A Simple S-N Analysis

37

CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 37 Note: The dashed line portion of the S-N curve

Note:

The dashed line portion of the S-N curve indicates a region where the S-N curve is invalid. The S-N fatigue analysis method is generally only good for high cycle fatigue problems, meaning that the number of cycles to failure is

generally very high. Note that this invalid region is below about 10 4 cycles. Another region of the curve is the “cut-off” region where the endurance

limit is defined (10 8 ). Anything above this limit will be reported back as being beyond the “cut-off” (infinite life).

The material information is complete. Select File | Exit to close the plot and eXit to

quit PFMAT. Press the OK button to close the Material Info

...

form.

 

38

Note:

An S-N curve is based on the principle of similitude. This simply means that if we can reproduce the same stress as that experienced in, say, Tower Bridge as shown to the right, in a test laboratory specimen made of the same material, then we can expect the life of the two to be about the same, if subjected to the same levels of stress.

38 Note: An S-N curve is based on the principle of similitude. This simply means that

S nom

Loading Information

Now in order to do a fatigue analysis using linear static FE results we must define how the load varies with time. This is easily done in MSC.Fatigue using the Loading Database Manager, PTIME.

Open the Loading Info

form. Then press

... the Time History Manager button. This will launch PTIME. The load will be defined as a constant amplitude, fully reversed loading. This will have the effect of oscillating the 10,000 Newton load from +10,000 to -10,000 newtons.

Note:

38 Note: An S-N curve is based on the principle of similitude. This simply means that

Pre&Post or MSC.Patran will be suspended during this operation until PTIME is closed. This is indicated by the blue busy signal in the top right corner. Since PTIME is a separate process, this suspension is necessary to make Pre&Post or MSC.Patran’s graphical interface recognize any new time signals.

 

CHAPTER 2

A Simple S-N Analysis

39

Define a Unit Load - Fully Reversed

When PTIME comes up, select Enter X-Y points as the method of input (on Windows you will have to double click on this option or select it and press the OK button). A form will appear that will ask for a file name, description and other information. Enter the following leaving defaults for those not mentioned:

  • 1. Filename: UNITLOAD

  • 2. Description 1: Constant Amplitude, Fully Reversed Unit Load

  • 3. Fatigue equivalent units: Cycles We are defining a single occurrence of this fully reversed, constant amplitude signal as one cycle of the loading.

CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 39 Define a Unit Load - Fully Reversed When PTIME

Press the OK button to go on. Next you will be prompted to enter the XY points. We actually only enter Y points as the X points are taken as evenly spaced intervals with the sample rate set to one. Enter the following numbers with a carriage return after each: 0, 1, -1, 0. End by putting in a blank entry and then press the End button.

Plot the Time History

PTIME returns to its main menu where you can select Plot an entry and press the OK button. A new form is displayed showing the Database Entry to plot. Accept the default file, UNITLOAD.

CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 39 Define a Unit Load - Fully Reversed When PTIME
CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 39 Define a Unit Load - Fully Reversed When PTIME
 

40

40

Note:

The mean of this signal is zero. In fatigue analysis, constant amplitude loading is usually accompanied by a description of the mean, commonly referred to as the R-ratio. The R-ratio is the minimum value of the signal divided by the maximum value and is a measure of the signals mean value. In this case R=-1 signifying a fully reversed load where the maximum and minimum absolute magnitudes are identical.

Select File | Exit to close the plot and press or double click the eXit switch in PTIME.

Associate the FE Load to its Time Variation

Now back

on the

Loading

Info

form

40 Note: The mean of this signal is zero. In fatigue analysis, constant amplitude loading is

... you must associate the time variation of the load that you just created to the FE load case. This is done via a spreadsheet. Three pieces of information must be input to the spreadsheet in the center of the form with all other parameters using their default settings.

  • 1. Load Case ID: 1.1-3.1-2- Place the cursor in the cell in the first column and click the mouse button. This selects the cell. A number of listboxes, buttons, and pulldown menus appear below the spreadsheet. This is where you specify the FE analysis results that you will use in the fatigue analysis. They appear empty at first. To fill them, press the Get/Filter Results

...

button. On this form turn the

Select All Results Cases toggle ON and press the Apply button. This will fill the listbox on the left with the only result load case that exists. Select it, and

 

CHAPTER 2

A Simple S-N Analysis

41

select Stress Tensor from the second listbox and then press the Fill Cell button. This will fill the cell with the internal IDs of the selected load case and its stress results. This is the significance of the numbers 1.1-3.1-2-. They are internal IDs only but are necessary to identify the results.

Note:

The actual load case ID numbers you see may differ from those shown here. What you want to select is the DEFAULT, Static Subcase and the corresponding Stress Tensor at layer Z1.

  • 2. Time History: UNITLOAD The middle cell becomes active after successfully selecting a FE load case. Another spreadsheet (with one row) appears at the bottom of the form from which you select the previously created time history file. Click on the UNITLOAD row anywhere with the mouse. This will fill the cell with the time history file name.

  • 3. Load Magnitude: 1.0 The next cell becomes active and a databox appears below the spreadsheet. Simply accept the default, which is unity. A specification of unity here signifies that the stresses from the FE analysis will be used “as-is” in the fatigue analysis and the time variation loading that we defined will be used to scale the stresses up or down as needed. You must press a carriage return (Return or Enter) to accept the value in the databox and fill in the cell in the spreadsheet. A common error is to forget to do this.

The time variation of the loading is now associated to the static FE results. Press the

OK button to close the Loading Info

...

form.

 

42

  • 2.4 Run the Fatigue Analysis

You are ready to run the fatigue analysis. Open the Job

Control

form. Set the Action to Full Analysis and press

... the Apply button. The database will close momentarily as the results information is extracted. When the database reopens, the job will have been submitted. You can then set the Action to Monitor Job and press the Apply button from time to time to view the progress. When the message

Fatigue analysis completed successfully

appears, the analysis is complete. Close down the Job

Control

...

form when done.

42 2.4 Run the Fatigue Analysis You are ready to run the fatigue analysis. Open the
 

CHAPTER 2

A Simple S-N Analysis

43

  • 2.5 Review the Results Open the Results

form on the main MSC.Fatigue setup

... form (not to be confused with the Results application switch on the main Pre&Post or MSC.Patran form). With the Action set to Read Results press Apply. The fatigue analysis results will then be read into the database.

View the Life Contour Plot

CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 43 2.5 Review the Results Open the Results form on

Just as you viewed the stresses earlier, you can view the life plot. Select the Results application switch on the main Pre&Post or MSC.Patran form. The Create | Quick Plot form will appear. On this form select the Total Life, simple-snfef item in the Select Result Cases listbox and the Log of Life (Cycles) item in the Select Fringe Result listbox and then press Apply. Note that the smallest life reported is approximately 5.65. This is a log

10 5.65

base(10) value. So the actual life value is .

Reporting life values in log units tends to spread the contour bands out for better results interpretation. Since such a large spread of results values can occur (from finite to infinite at locations where no damage occurs), it is not really practical to plot pure life values. Press the Results switch again to close the Results application.

CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 43 2.5 Review the Results Open the Results form on
 

44

44 Tabular Listing Press the Analysis switch to bring the main MSC.Fatigue form back (this is

Tabular Listing

Press the Analysis switch to bring the main MSC.Fatigue form back (this is not necessary in MSC.Patran). On the MSC.Fatigue Results ... form, change the Action to List Results and press Apply. This will start the module PFPOST which tabularly lists the fatigue analysis results. Accepting the jobname and the default filtering values, by pressing OK a couple of times, will get

you to the main menu. Press or double click the Most damaged nodes switch to view a tabular listing. Note the life value of approximately

10 5.65

=4.5E5 cycles on Node 1. Press Cancel to

quit the listing and press or double click eXit to leave PFPOST.

What If?

44 Tabular Listing Press the Analysis switch to bring the main MSC.Fatigue form back (this is

As one small exercise to introduce the concept of “what if” analyses, change the

Action to Optimize and press Apply (you do not need to enter a node number) on the

Results

form. This will launch the module FEFAT in its design optimization mode.

... FEFAT is the FE-fatigue analyzer used to calculate fatigue life. It can be run in both batch and interactive modes. When it comes up, press Worst Case to automatically select the node with the lowest life prediction. Enter a Design Life of 1E6 (a million)

 

CHAPTER 2

A Simple S-N Analysis

45

cycles. Press the OK button. The analyzer will re-analyze the fatigue life at Node 1 and will report the life value to you. Pressing the End button will put you into the main optimization menu.

CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 45 cycles. Press the OK button. The analyzer will re-analyze
CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 45 cycles. Press the OK button. The analyzer will re-analyze

Change the material from MANTEN_MSN to RQC100_MSN to see the effect of a different material on the fatigue life. Do this by pressing or double clicking the Material optimization switch and selecting or typing in the new material name. Press OK and then press or double click the Recalculate switch to report the new life. Note that the life is bettered by almost an order of magnitude.

CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 45 cycles. Press the OK button. The analyzer will re-analyze

Hint:

When you change materials, they must be the same types of materials (steel vs. steel, aluminum vs. aluminum, etc.) If you wish to change from steel to aluminum then the Young’s modulus changes would invalidate the results. There are some general guidelines on how to do this properly, however, in the MSC.Fatigue User’s Guide.

 

46

  • 2.6 Concluding Remarks This was a very simple analysis, the results of which should be obvious. The lowest life was naturally predicted at the highest stressed location. Because the loading was simple, perhaps a detailed fatigue analysis as performed here, was not necessary. In fact you could have simply extracted the highest principal stress (333 MPa) and gone directly to the S-N curve using PFMAT to assess the life. This, of course, starts to become very impractical with anything much more complicated as you will see in subsequent examples. As an exercise, go back to the Material Info

form and invoke the materials database

... manager, PFMAT, again and plot the S-N curve as done before. With the S-N curve plotted you can use the left mouse button positioned on the curve to read off coordinate values (reported in the lower left corner). You can also use the right mouse button to zoom in on the curve (click once on one side of the curve and again on the other side to zoom). To restore the curve, select the View | Full Plot option. You can read the life value right from the curve.

Hint:

To read the correct life value from the curve for this exercise, you must multiply the maximum principal stress at Node 1 by two (666 MPa) since the total range of the signal is twice the stress determined by the FE analysis since it is experiencing full reversal.

 

Note:

Note about plasticity: as mentioned in Introduction (Ch. 1), fatigue cannot occur without some local plasticity. The S-N method makes no effort to define the amount of plasticity or compensate for it in any specific manner. All plasticity is built into the S-N curve itself.

The S-N curve used in this exercise is known as a material S-N curve. This is significant because you must know beforehand what the S-N curve you use actually represents. In this case the S-N curve is representative of the actual material and relates local stress (σ) to life. That is, the monitored stress used to create the S-N curve is the stress at the actual failure location. This will become more clear when we discuss another type of S-N curve (component S-N) in a later exercise.

Exit from Pre&Post when finished with this exercise. Keep the files and directory for use in the next exercise.

 

CHAPTER 2

A Simple S-N Analysis

47

  • 2.7 Multiple Mean Stress Curve Support This section describes the multiple mean stress curve support in MSC.Fatigue. Multiple mean stress curve analysis uses empirical data to account for mean stress effects rather than analytical methods such as Gerber and Goodman. Multiple mean stress curve analysis is for S-N analysis only. Temperature corrections, certainty of survival, Optimization and Fast Analysis are not available for Multiple Mean Stress Curve S-N analysis. Set Up the Fatigue Analysis We will use the model in the previous exercise to run this test case. Leave all settings on the general setup form as is except for the Jobname and the Title. Set these as shown:

    • 1. Jobname: multi_mean

    • 2. Title: Multiple Menu Stress Curve

Solution Parameters

Open the Solution Params form. Set the Mean Stress Correction optionmenu to Multiple Mean Curves. Use the default values for all the other widgets. Press OK to close the form.

Material Information

Open the Material information form. It is identical to the standard S-N analysis, except:

An ASCII materials database is used (extension .mnd) instead of the standard Materials database (.mdb).

Selecting the Materials Database Manager button brings up a text editor instead of PFMAT.

Even though the Surface Finish, Treatment and Kf cells are visible they are not available for input.

CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 47 2.7 Multiple Mean Stress Curve Support This section describes
 

48

Click on the Materials Database Manager button to view the file containing the Multiple Mean Stress Curve data.

48 Click on the Materials Database Manager button to view the file containing the Multiple Mean
 

CHAPTER 2

A Simple S-N Analysis

49

Select the Material MANTEN from the listbox and pick the default_group for analysis. Click OK.

CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 49 Select the Material MANTEN from the listbox and pick

Loading Information

Open the Loading information form. This form should be still filled out from the previous example. Press OK to accept the inputs.

Run the Fatigue Analysis

Open the Job Control form. Set the Action to Full Analysis and press the Apply button. Monitor the job and once it has completed close the form. Open the Results form. Set the Action to List Results and press Apply. The PFPOST module is now displayed. Select the Jobname multi_mean and press OK. Accept the defaults on the next form by just pressing OK. Now select the detail Information switch. The form that is displayed shows that a life of 1.86E4 repeats, read off the zero mean MANTEN curve, is reported at Node 1. Press End to close the form. Press eXit to exit the PFPOST module.

 

50

Lets take a closer look at the stress time history at this node. In order to do this the Action needs to be changed to Extract Time History. Enter Node 1 in the databox and press Apply. The MFATFE module is now displayed. On the first form select the Utilities switch. Next select the Node/Element options switch and press OK. On the next form press OK to accept the Result Filename, then select the User input switch and set the Node/Element ID to 1. Press OK. Select the Time History Extraction switch and press OK. This will bring up a table that shows the maximum and minimum stress values for Node 1. Press Cancel to close this form and bring up the graphical representation of the data as shown below.

50 Lets take a closer look at the stress time history at this node. In order

To close this picture select File | eXit. Select Return, then select return to Main menu, and finally select eXit to close the MFATFE module.

Make a note of this life as we will compare this life with and offset time history to demonstrate the Multi Mean Stress Curve concept.

Verification: On the General Setup form, change the Jobname to multi_mean_offset. Offset the Time History on the loading form by applying an offset of 0.3 that will yield an offset range mean of 100 Mpa. A 100 Mpa mean stress S-N curve exists in the database for MANTEN, the material used in the analysis above.

 

CHAPTER 2

A Simple S-N Analysis

51

Run the Job and list the results. The life at the same location (Node 1) drops to 2.3E3 repeats. The offset stress time history at Node 1 is shown below.

CHAPTER 2 A Simple S-N Analysis 51 Run the Job and list the results. The life

For a stress range of 666 Mpa, the 100 Mpa mean stress curve yields the life calculated.

 

52

MSC.Fatigue QuickStart Guide

CHAPTER

3

Rainflow Cycle Counting

Problem Description

Set Up the Fatigue Analysis

Run the Fatigue Analysis

Review the Results

Concluding Remarks

 

54

  • 3.1 Problem Description

This example is an extension of the previous example where the simple constant amplitude loading is replaced with a more complex randomly varying time signal.

54 3.1 Problem Description This example is an extension of the previous example where the simple

Invoke Pre&Post or MSC.Patran by typing the following symbols at the system prompt or from a DOS window:

fXX or fatX or fatigue where XX is the version number

p3 or patran

If you have not already, open the same database that you created in the previous example working in the same directory from the File | Open menu. The name of the database should be keyhole.

Objective

To predict the life of the keyhole subject to a varying load signal. To understand how to normalize the FE stresses. To introduce the concept to rainflow cycle counting. To introduce the concept of damage summation. To investigate the effect of mean stress. To investigate the probabilistic nature of fatigue.

Note:

The geometry and materials information are identical to that of the previous exercise.

 
  • 3.2 Set Up the Fatigue Analysis

CHAPTER 3

Rainflow Cycle Counting

55

To begin setup for a fatigue analysis press the Analysis switch in Pre&Post (or from the Tools pulldown menu in MSC.Patran, select MSC.Fatigue and then Main Interface). This will bring up the MSC.Fatigue main form from which all parameters, loading and materials information, and analysis control are accessed.

Access from MSC.Fatigue Pre&Post
Access from MSC.Fatigue Pre&Post
3.2 Set Up the Fatigue Analysis CHAPTER 3 Rainflow Cycle Counting 55 To begin setup for

Access from MSC.Patran

Load the Previous S-N Analysis Parameters

Instead of defining all the analysis parameters again, let us begin from the last analysis. Once the form is open, type the jobname of the previous example in the Jobname databox (simple_sn) and issue a carriage return (Return or Enter). You will be prompted to read in an old analysis setup file (it detects a file called simple_sn.fin in your local directory and reads in the parameters).

Hint:

You can do the same thing in the Job Control ... form with the Action set to Read Saved Job.

Now change the jobname and the title:

  • 1. Jobname: rf_cycle

  • 2. Title: Simple S-N Analysis, Variable Loading

3.2 Set Up the Fatigue Analysis CHAPTER 3 Rainflow Cycle Counting 55 To begin setup for
 

56

Loading Information

Open the Loading Info

form. Then press the Time History Manager button. This

... will launch PTIME. The time variation of the load will be defined by a signal called

SAETRN which is stored in the loading central database in the MSC.Fatigue installation directory.

56 Loading Information Open the Loading Info form. Then press the Time History Manager button. This

Copy SAETRN from the Central Database

When PTIME comes up, select Add an entry ... and then Copy from central as the method of input. A form will appear that will ask for a name. Use the List button to select SAETRN from the central database.

Scale the Time History Load

From the PTIME main menu, select Change an

entry ...

and then Polynomial transform. We are

56 Loading Information Open the Loading Info form. Then press the Time History Manager button. This

going to scale up the time history to represent the actual loading applied to the component. You will be asked for the Database Entry to transform and a new target file. Use the same name (SAETRN) for both and allow

 

CHAPTER 3

Rainflow Cycle Counting

57

overwrite. The transformation from will then appear. We simply want to scale the load up so all that is needed is to input a scale factor of 10 in the second databox. Press OK when done.

CHAPTER 3 Rainflow Cycle Counting 57 overwrite. The transformation from will then appear. We simply want
CHAPTER 3 Rainflow Cycle Counting 57 overwrite. The transformation from will then appear. We simply want
Finally a form appears allowing you to change any details associated with this time history. Enter
Finally a form appears allowing you
to change any details associated with
this time history. Enter the following:
1.
Description 1: Leave as is
2.
Description 2: Blank this out
3.
Load type: Force
4.
Units: Newtons
5.
Number of fatigue
equivalent units: 1
6.
Fatigue equivalent units:
Repeats
Life results will be reported
as the number of Repeats of
this entire loading sequence
and not as individual stress
cycles as in the previous exercise.

Plot the Time History

PTIME returns to its main menu where you can select Plot an entry. Accept the default file, SAETRN. Note that the maximum value is close to 10,000 Newtons. As a comparison to the previous example, which oscillated in a fully reversed fashion between positive 10kN and negative 10kN, this signal varies significantly with a very positive mean and only occasionally reaches or nears the 10kN maximum. We therefore would expect this loading to be less damaging with all else the same.

 

58

Select File | Exit to close the plot and press or double click the eXit switch in PTIME.

Associate the FE Load to its Time Variation

Now back on the Loading Info

form you must associate the time variation of the load

... that you just created to the static FE load case. Go to the spreadsheet as was done in the previous example. Two things need to be changed on this form.

58 Select File | Exit to close the plot and press or double click the eXit
  • 1. Time History: SAETRN Select the middle cell to make it active. Another spreadsheet (now with two rows) appears at the bottom of the form from which you select the time history file. Click on the SAETRN row anywhere with the mouse. This will replace the cell with the new time history file name.

  • 2. Load Magnitude: 10,000 The next cell becomes active and a databox appears below the spreadsheet. Change this entry to 10,000. You must press a carriage return (Return or Enter) to accept the value in the databox and fill the cell in the spreadsheet. Forgetting to do this is a common error.

The time variation of the loading is now associated to the static FE results. Press the

OK button to close the Loading Info

...

form.

Note:

In the previous example we entered unity for the Load Magnitude accepting the FE load as being the true representation of the load and thus the stresses. The time history, UNITLOAD, scaled the stress distribution between 1 and - 1 to signify the time variation of the loading. This time the time history SAETRN is used to define the actual loading as it changes with time. The FE load magnitude is therefore simply an arbitrary number used to obtain the stress distribution. The stresses in the FE analysis need to be normalized by this FE load magnitude of 10kN, to simulate the stress distribution due to a unit load.

 

CHAPTER 3

Rainflow Cycle Counting

59

The load magnitude acts as a divisor to normalize the stresses to obtain a stress

distribution due to a unit load as in the equation σ

ij

(t)=P(t)σ

ij

/P fea , where σ

ij

and P fea

are the stress tensor and load magnitude from the FE analysis, P(t) is the externally

defined time variation of the loading, and σ

ij

(t) is the resulting time variation of the

stress tensor (at any particular location in the component). This can be done because the analysis is linear elastic. Using linear elastic FE analysis and associating an external time variation of the loading for fatigue analysis is called the “pseudo-static” method. “It might be said that all stress analyses are basically fatigue analyses, the differences lying in the number of cycles of applied stress.” - quote from Carl C. Osgood, Fatigue Design (1982).

 

60

  • 3.3 Run the Fatigue Analysis

You are ready to run the fatigue analysis. Open the Job

Control ...

form, set the Action to Full Analysis and press

the Apply button. The database will close momentarily as the results information is extracted. When the database reopens, the job will have been submitted. You can then set the Action to Monitor Job and press the Apply button from time to time to view the progress. When the message

Fatigue analysis completed successfully

appears, the analysis is complete. Close down the Job

Control

...

form when done.

Rainflow Cycle Counting

60 3.3 Run the Fatigue Analysis You are ready to run the fatigue analysis. Open the

This analysis takes a few minutes to run to completion. The reason it takes longer than the previous example is due to the complex nature of the time signal. The program is performing a procedure called rainflow cycle counting, referred to as “preprocessing” in MSC.Fatigue. Cycle counting is a mechanism to extract and count the number of stress cycles in a signal.

60 3.3 Run the Fatigue Analysis You are ready to run the fatigue analysis. Open the

The term Rainflow is attributed to two Japanese gentlemen, Matsuishi and Endo, who invented the method. It is based on the concept of rain drops flowing off Japanese style pagoda roofs. Time history signals are stood on end and rain is visualized to run off of each peak or valley. Various rules were adopted to count cycles and reversals which is beyond the scope of this text; but suffice it to say that the end result of rainflow cycle counting is a set of constant amplitude signals and a count of the number of cycles in each. Cycle counts can be visualized as probability density functions (PDF) or as 3-dimensional histogram matrices as you will see later.

Damage Summation

It is important to break up a variable signal into a number of constant amplitude signals in order to assess the life from the S-N curve. The curve itself is created by a series of constant amplitude tests. So for each cycle in the signal you must look up the proper stress from the S-N curve. What stress to look up is the job of rainflow cycle

 

CHAPTER 3

Rainflow Cycle Counting

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counting. The next challenge to tackle is the summation of the damage from each cycle in order to report a total life due to all cycles. This is accomplished by way of the Palmgren-Miner linear damage summation law.

This states that damage can be summed by determining the ratio of the number of cycles experienced to the number of cycles to failure for a given stress range or level and then summing

Total Damage= ∑ ⁄ N i N f i ∆ D 1 = D 2 =
Total Damage=
N i
N f i
D 1 =
D 2 =
N
1
N f
1
N
2
N f 2

all the ratios for every stress range. When this number, known as Miner’s Constant, reaches unity, failure is said to have occurred. The predicted life is then determined by summing the percentage of lif