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CMR Institute of Technology

Redefining Quality Education

COMPUTER PROGRAMMING AND DATA STRUCTURES


LABORATORY MANUAL
For

I - B.TECH (2010-11)

Department of Computer Science & Engineering CMR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Kandlakoya (v), Medchal road, Hyderabad-501 401
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Redefining Quality Education

COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LAB Objectives: To make the student learn a programming language. To teach the student to write programs in C to solve the problems. To Introduce the student to simple linear data structures such as lists, stacks, queues. Recommended Systems/Software Requirements: Intel based desktop PC ANSI C Compiler with Supporting Editors Week l. a) Write a C program to find the sum of individual digits of a positive integer. b) A Fibonacci Sequence is defined as follows: the first and second terms in the sequence are 0 and 1.Subsequent terms are found by adding the preceding two terms in the sequence. Write a C program togenerate the first n terms of the sequence. c) Write a C program to generate all the prime numbers between 1 and n, where n is a value supplied by the user. Week 2. a) Write a C program to calculate the following Sum: Sum=1-x2/2! +x4/4!-x6/6!+x8/8!-x10/10! b) Write a C program toe find the roots of a quadratic equation. Week 3 a) Write C programs that use both recursive and non-recursive functions i) To find the factorial of a given integer. ii) To find the GCD (greatest common divisor) of two given integers. iii) To solve Towers of Hanoi problem. Week 4 a) The total distance travelled by vehicle in t seconds is given by distance = ut+1/2at2 where u and a are the initial velocity (m/sec.) and acceleration (m/sec2). Write C program to find the distance travelled at regular intervals of time given the values of u and a. The program should provide the flexibility to the user to select his own time intervals and repeat the calculations for different values of u and a. b) Write a C program, which takes two integer operands and one operator from the user, performs the

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Redefining Quality Education operation and then prints the result. (Consider the operators +,-,*, /, % and use Switch Statement)
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Week 5 a) Write a C program to find both the largest and smallest number in a list of integers. b) Write a C program that uses functions to perform the following: i) Addition of Two Matrices ii) Multiplication of Two Matrices Week 6 a) Write a C program that uses functions to perform the following operations: i) To insert a sub-string in to a given main string from a given position. ii) To delete n Characters from a given position in a given string. b) Write a C program to determine if the given string is a palindrome or not

Week 7 a) Write a C program that displays the position or index in the string S where the string T begins, or 1 if S doesnt contain T. b) Write a C program to count the lines, words and characters in a given text. Week 8 a) Write a C program to generate Pascals triangle. b) Write a C program to construct a pyramid of numbers. Week 9 Write a C program to read in two numbers, x and n, and then compute the sum of this geometric progression: 1+x+x2+x3+.+xn For example: if n is 3 and x is 5, then the program computes 1+5+25+125. Print x, n, the sum Perform error checking. For example, the formula does not make sense for negative exponents if n is less than 0. Have your program print an error message if n<0, then go back and read in the next pair of numbers of without computing the sum. Are any values of x also illegal ? If so, test for them too. Week 10 a) 2s complement of a number is obtained by scanning it from right to left and complementing all the bits after the first appearance of a 1. Thus 2s complement of 11100 is 00100. Write a C program to find the 2s complement of a binary number. b) Write a C program to convert a Roman numeral to its decimal equivalent.

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Week 11 Write a C program that uses functions to perform the following operations: i) Reading a complex number ii) Writing a complex number iii) Addition of two complex numbers iv) Multiplication of two complex numbers (Note: represent complex number using a structure.) Week 12 a) Write a C program which copies one file to another. b) Write a C program to reverse the first n characters in a file. (Note: The file name and n are specified on the command line.) Week 13 a) Write a C programme to display the contents of a file. b) Write a C programme to merge two files into a third file ( i.e., the contents of the first file followed by those of the second are put in the third file) Week 14 Write a C program that uses functions to perform the following operations on singly linked list.: i) Creation ii) Insertion iii) Deletion iv) Traversal Week 15 Write C programs that implement stack (its operations) using i) Arrays ii) Pointers Week 16 Write C programs that implement Queue (its operations) using i) Arrays ii) Pointers Week 17 Write a C program that uses Stack operations to perform the following: i) Converting infix expression into postfix expression ii) Evaluating the postfix expression

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Redefining Quality Education

Week 18 Write a C program that implements the following sorting methods to sort a given list of integers in ascending order i) Bubble sort ii) Selection sort Week 19 Write C programs that use both recursive and non recursive functions to perform the following searching operations for a Key value in a given list of integers : i) Linear search ii) Binary search

Week 20 Write C program that implements the following sorting method to sort a given list of integers in ascending order: i) Quick sort Week 21 Write C program that implement the following sorting method to sort a given list of integers in ascending order: i) Merge sort Week 22 Write C programs to implement the Lagrange interpolation and Newton- Gregory forward interpolation. Week 23 Write C programs to implement the linear regression and polynomial regression algorithms. Week 24 Write C programs to implement Trapezoidal and Simpson methods.

Text Books 1. C programming and Data Structures, P. Padmanabham, Third Edition, BS Publications 2. Mastering C, K.R. Venugopal and S.R. Prasad, TMH Publications.

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Redefining Quality Education 3. The Spirit of C, an introduction to modern programming, M.Cooper, Jaico Publishing House. 4 Practical C Programming,Steve Oualline,OReilly,SPD. TMH publications. 5. Computer Basics and C Programming, V. Rajaraman, PHI Publications. 6. Data structures and Program Design in C,R.Kruse,C.L.Tondo,B.P.Leung,M.Shashi,Pearson Education.
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CONTENTS

S No

Program Name PART-A INTRODUCTION


a) Sum of individual digits of a positive integer b) Fibonacci sequence c) Prime numbers between 1 and n. a) Calculate Sum=1-x2/2! +x4/4!-x6/6!+x8/8!-x10/10! b) To find the roots of a quadratic equation a) C programs that use both recursive and nonrecursive functions i) To find the factorial of a given integer. ii) To find the GCD (greatest common divisor) of two given integers. iii) To solve Towers of Hanoi problem. a) C program to find the distance traveled at regular intervals of time given the values of u and a. b) To perform arithmetic operations using switch.

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2 3

29 31

36

a) Find both the largest and smallest number in a list of integers. b) C program that uses functions to perform i) Addition of Two Matrices ii) Multiplication of Two Matrices a) C program that uses functions to perform the following operations: i) To insert a sub-string in to a given main ii) To delete n Characters from a given position b) C program to determine if the given string is a palindrome or not

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43

a) C program that displays the position of the sub string 46 in a main string b) C program to count the lines, words and characters in a given text.

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8 9

a) C program to generate Pascals triangle. b) C program to construct a pyramid of numbers C program to read in two numbers, x and n, and then compute the sum of this geometric progression:1+x+x2+x3+.+xn a) C program to find the 2s complement of a binary number. b) C program to convert a Roman numeral to its decimal equivalent. C program that uses functions to perform the following operations: i) Reading a complex number ii) Writing a complex number iii) Addition of two complex numbers iv) Multiplication of two complex numbers (Note: represent complex number using a structure.) a) C program which copies one file to another. b) C program to reverse the first n characters in a file. a) Write a C program to display the contents of a file. b) Write a C program to merge two files into a third file

48 50

10

51

11

54

12 13

56 58

PART-B 14
C program that uses functions to perform the following operations on singly linked list. i) Creation ii) Insertion iii) Deletion iv) Traversal

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C programs that implement stack (its operations) using i) Arrays ii) Pointers

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C programs that implement Queue (its operations) using i) Arrays ii) Pointers C program that uses Stack operations to perform the following: i) Converting infix expression into postfix expression ii) Evaluating the postfix expression

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C program that implements the following sorting 88 methods to sort a given list of integers in ascending order i) Bubble sort ii) Selection sort C programs that use both recursive and non recursive 92 functions to perform the following searching operations for a Key value in a given list of integers : i) Linear search ii) Binary search C program that implements the following sorting method to sort a given list of integers in ascending order i) Quick sort C program that implement the following sorting method to sort a given list of integers in ascending order: i) Merge sort C programs to implement the Lagrange interpolation and Newton- Gregory forward interpolation C programs to implement the linear regression and polynomial regression algorithms. C programs to implement Trapezoidal and Simpson methods.

20

98

21

101

22 23 24

103 106 108

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PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT STAGES:


a) Program design: At this stage define a problem and its solution. problem specification: the program must be thoroughly understand the problem and the input output and special processing specification represent the most important information collection during this phase. Solution: The solution method is to be developed. b) Using planning tools: The solution method is described step by step when solution method had been outlined. It must be represent by using alorithm notations or flow charts symbols. c) Coding: It is relatively easier to convert the algorithm into a program in a computer language i.e. C,C++. d) Compiling: Translate the program into machine code. typing errors(syntax errors) are found quickly at the time of compiling the program most C implementations will generate diagnostic messages when syntax errors are detected during compilation. e) Executing: Running the program the run time errors may occur during the execution of programs even though it is free from syntax errors. Syntactic & Run time errors generally produce error messages when program executed. These are easy to find and can be corrected. The logical error which is very difficult to detect. These are existence of logically incorrect instructions. These errors can be know only after output is executed. f) Testing and validation: Once program is written , a program must be tested and then validated. The program always must guarantee to produce correct results. In above stages a), b),c) are purely manual process. remaining all stages related its computer.

ALGORITHM: A method of representing the step by step logical procedure for


solving program in natural language is algorithm.

SPARSE NOTATIONS FOR ALGORITHAMS:


1) General form of PROCEDURE Procedure NAME (parameter list) Declarations Statements end NAME 2) General form of FUNCTION Function NAME (parameter list) Declarations Statements end NAME

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Redefining Quality Education 3) For comment line: // This is comment// 4) Variable declaration : integer x ,y; char c, d; Boolean a,b; 5) Assignment of variables <variable> <expression> 6) Boolean values: true ,false 7) Logical operators: and , or , not 8) Relational operators: < , <= , = , >=, > 9) Conditional statement: a) if cond then s1 else s2 endif b) case : cond 1: s1 : cond 2 : s2 . : cond :n : else : s n+1 end case 10) Iterative statements: a) while condition do s repeat b) loop s until condition repeat c) for vble <- start to finish by increment do s repeat 11) Input read (argument list); Output print(argument list);

FLOWCHART:
There is another way to write the steps involved in any process ,this is by making use of various symbols . The symbols form a diagram that represents the steps in a pictorial fashion similar to an algorithm. This is also very easy to understand such a diagram is flow chart. Flowcharts help us understand the logic of an operation easily. They are good communication devices and also helps in algorithm maintenance. The most common symbols using drawing flow charts are given below:

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Redefining Quality Education

FLOWCHART SYMBOLS:

Oval

Terminal

start/stop/begin/end Making data available for processing(Input) or recording of the process

Parallelogram

Input/ Output

Document

Print out

Show data output in the Form of document

Rectangle

Process

Any processing to be done A process changes or moves data. An assignment Operation. Decision or switching type of operations.

Diamond

Decision

Circle

Connector

Used to connect different parts of flowchart.

Arrow

Flow

Joins two symbols and also represents flow of Execution.

Bracket with Broken line

Annotation

Descriptive comments or explanation.

Double sided Rectangle

Predefined process

Modules or subroutines specified elsewhere.

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Special Symbols: if-else statement:


Start

For statement:
i=0 i<n i++

Input n

Condition

While statement::
false true
condition

Statements Statements

statements

End

End

Switch statement:

do-while

true variable false


equals second case Body of second case Body of first case

Statements

true condition

true
Body of Default

false End End

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STARTING TO TURBO 'C':Double clicking the mouse's left button on a


Turbo C icon or By clicking start, selecting programs and then clicking Turbo C or Selecting MS-DOS prompt mode and change the directory to TC or Turbo C and then type TC at the DOS prompt and press Enter. Turbo C opens and displays a main menu. Pressing any key removes the version copyright notice, and places the cursor on the File option of the menu bar.

HOT KEYS IN TURBO 'C':


F1 Provides context-sensitive help for the items selected. F2 Save the current file to disk. F3 Window to enter file name to load. F5 Toggle: Zoom or Unworn active window. F6 Switch to active window. F7 Move to previous error. F8 Move to next error. F10 Go to the top line of main menu bar. ALT-F5 To view the results. Alt-F9 Compile current file to .OBJ. Alt-D Pull-down Debug menu. Alt-E Go to Edit mode. Alt-F Pull-down File menu. Alt-O Pull-down Options menu. Alt-R Pull-down Run menu (may Compile Link first). Alt-X Exit from the Turbo C to DOS/Windows desktop. Ctrl-F9 Run the current file. Esc To cancel the running command.

C SYNTAX Structure of 'C' Program:


Documentation section Link section Definition section Global declaration section main( ) function section { Declaration part Execution part } ex: /*name of the program*/ #include<stdio.h>

main() { int i=10; printf("%d",i); }

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Sub program section Function 1 Function 2 Documentation section: It consists with name of the program and other details. Link section: It provides header files to the computer to link library functions. Definition section: It defines all Symbolic constants. Global declaration section: It declares Global variables which are useful in all functions of the program. main( ) function section: It consists with declaration part and executable part. Sub program section: It contains the entire user defined functions called in main function.

Character set: The Character set in C are grouped into 1)Letters,2)Digits,


3)Special characters. a) Alphabets: A,B,C.Z; a, b, c z. b) Digits 0,1,2..9. c) Special character: @,#,$,^.etc.

Key words: These are pre defined words have a fixed meanings. All key words
must be written in lower case letters. Auto break char continue else enum goto if return short struct switch void volatile case default extern int signed typedef while char do float long sizeof union const double for register static unsigned

Constants: Constants in C refer to fixed values do not change during the execution
of the program. 1) Integer constant: It refer to a sequence of digits, 0 through 9 preceded by - or +. Ex: 149, -980, +45. 2) Real constants: the quantities which are represented by numbers containing fractional part. Ex:0.78, 2.45. It is also represented in exponential notation Ex: the value 4356.78 can represented as 4.35678e3. 3) Single character constant: It contains a character enclosed within a pair of single quote marks. Ex: '2' , 'a' .

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Redefining Quality Education 4) String constant: It is a sequence of characters enclosed in double quotes. Ex: "india" , "2*3", "n". 5) Back slash character constant(Escape sequences): '\n' for new line '\t' for horizontal tabulator '\v ' for vertical tabulator '\0' Null character.

Data Types:
Data type int char float double size 2 bytes 1 byte 4 bytes 8 bytes range -32,768 to 32,767 -128 to 128 -3.4e-38 to 3.4e+38 -1.7e-308 to1.7e+308

Variables: It is a data name that may be used to store value. Variable name may
consist of letters ,digits, underscore(_) characters subject to the following conditions: 1) Variable must begin with letter. 2) Variable name should not be more than 8 characters. 3) Upper case and Lower case are significant. 4) Variable name should not be key word. 5) White space is not allowed. Declaration of variables: Declaration tells to the compiler variable name with specifying data type. a) Primary type : Syntax : data-type variable1,variable2,..variable n; Ex : float marks; b) User defined type : C supports a feature known as type definition that allows user to define an identifier. Syntax : typedef data-type identifier; Ex: typedef int units; c) Enumerated data type: It contains enumeration constants represented by identifiers. Syntax: enum identifier { value 1,value 2,..value n}; Ex: enum day { Monday, Tuesday,Sunday}; d) Declaring variable as constant: The value of variable can be made to remain constant. syntax: const data-type variable = value; Ex : const int max = 40;

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Redefining Quality Education e) Declaring variable as volatile :The value of variable may be changed by some external reasons from out side. Syntax : volatile data-type variable; Ex : volatile int date ;

Declaration of storage classes: a) Automatic variable: Local variable known to only to the function in which is declared default is auto . syntax : auto data-type variable; Ex : auto int number; b) Extern variables: Global variable known to all functions in the file. It is used to crossing files. Syntax: extern data-type variable; Ex: extern int number; c) Static variables: Local variable, which exists and retains its value even after the control is transferred to the calling function. Syntax : static data-type variable; Ex :static int x; d) Register variables: Local variable, which is stored in the CPU register. It is fast access variable. Syntax : register data-type variable; Ex :register int x; ** Very local variables are more priority than local, local variables are more priority than global. Assigning values to variables: Value can be assigned to variables using the assignment operator. Syntax : data-type variable-name =constant; Ex: int units =123; Multiple assigning : Ex : x = y= z = max; Type casting: C allows, if the operation are of different it types the lower type is converted to the higher type to before operation proceed. Syntax : (type-name) expression/value; Ex: x = (int) 7.5 result = 7 Abstract data type: It is a tool which specifies the logical properties of a data type . Syntax: abstract typedef < integer , integer > RATIONAL Defining symbolic constants: This is useful when a constant will be used number of places in a program. # define symbolic-name value Ex : #define MAX 100 # define PI 3.14159

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Operators:
a) Arithmetic operators: +, - , * , / , % b)Assignment operators: Use to assign result of expression to variable. = operator c) Relational operators: These are used to compare two operands and then depend on their relation certain decision are made. < ,> , <= , >= ,!= ,==, d) Increment operators: Used for incrementing by 1. ++var (pre) ,var++ (post) e) Decrement operators: Used for decrementing by 1. --var (pre), var-- (post) f) Bit operators: These are low level operators it works only on integers used for testing and shifting bits. & (and), | (or) ,<< (left shift) ,>>(right shift) , ^(ones compliment) g) Logical operators :These operators are used test more than one condition. The result must be in either TRUE or FALSE. Logical not operator changes TRUE to FALSE vise versa. && (and) , || (or) , ! ( Logical not) f) comma operator: It is used to combine two related expressions. (,)

Precedence of operators:
Operator priority */% high +low Note: evaluate from left to right Format descriptor: %d for signed decimal integer %u for unsigned decimal integer %s for string %f for float %c for character

Input / Output functions:


These functions permit the transfer data between computer and the standard input/output devices. a) Formatted I/O Functions: Used to transfer single character, numerical values, strings. Output syntax printf( "control string", arg1, arg2,.argN); Ex: printf ("%c", a); Input syntax: scanf( "control string ", & var1,&var 2,&var n); Ex: scanf("%d", &x);

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Redefining Quality Education b)Character I/O Functions: Used to transfer single character. Input syntax: char variable = getchar(); Output syntax: putchar(char variable); c) String I/O Functions: Used to transfer strings. Input syntax: gets(string); Output syntax : puts(string); Control flow structures:
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1)Selective control structure(conditional structures): a) Simple if statement: syntax: if(condition) { statement-block; } b) if-else statement syntax: if(condition) { statement-block; } else { statement- block; } c) else if statement syntax: if(condition 1) { statement-block; } elseif(condition 2) { statement-block; } else { statement-block; } c) nested if-else statement syntax: if(condition1) { if(condition 2) { statement-block; } else { statement-block; }
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Redefining Quality Education else {

statement-block; } d) switch statement :It provides an alternative of several if statements. Syntax: switch (expression) { case value1: statement 1; break; case value2: statement 2; break; .. . Default: statements; break; } e) Ternary operator ( ? : ): It is used replace the statements in the form if-then-else syntax: conditional expression ? expression 1: expression 2 Ex: flag = (x<0) ? 0 : 1 Iterative control structure(Repetitive structures): These structures repeats sequence of instructions until condition satisfies. a) while loop: syntax: while(expression) { statement: } b) do - while loop: The statements in the loop are executed and the testing done at the end of loop. syntax: do { statement; } while(condition); c) for loop: syntax: for ( initialization ; condition ; increment) { statement; } d) break statement: It transfer the control to the end of the construct. if(condition)

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break; e) continue statement: It transfers the control to next iteration by skipping following statements. if(condition) continue; f) goto statement: It transfer control to the statement that follows the label where it is defined. if( condition) goto label

Arrays: An array is a group of related data items that share a common name
a) One dimensional array: It is a list of items can be given a variable name using only one subscript. syntax : data-type array-name [array-size]; Ex: int number[10]; Initialization: syntax: data-type array-name [array-size]={list of values}; Ex: int number [5] = {1,4,6,10,32 }; b) Two dimensional array : It is a list of items can be given a variable name using two subscripts. Syntax: data-type array-name [row-size][column-size]; Ex: int table[2][4]; Initialization : data-type array-name[row-size][column-size]={list of values}; Ex: int table[2][4]={ {1,6,4,8,9},{4,3,8,5}}; a) Multi dimensional array: syntax: data-type array-name [s 1][s 2][s3]..[sn]; Ex: float table [4][5][2];

String:

String is an array of characters terminated by the null character. a) String declaration: syntax: char string-name[size]; Ex: char city[10]; Initialization: Ex : char city[10]= "hyderabad"; b) String functions: String concatenation strcat(s1,s2); String comparison int n= strcmp(s1,s2); String copying strcpy(s1,s2) ; String length int n=strlen(string);

Pointers: It is nothing but a variable that contains the address of another variable.
Pointer&variable: Declaration of pointer variable: Syntax: data-type * pointer-variable; Ex: int *p; (integer pointer) char *p; (character pointer) float*p; (float pointer)

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Initialization: Syntax: pointer-variable= &variable; Ex: int a=10; int*p; p=&a; Pointers to pointer: Syntax : data-type ** pointer variable; Declaration of void pointer : Syntax: void * pointer-variable; Ex: void * e; e= &a; Pointers & arrays: Declaration of array of pointers: Syntax: data-type *variable[size]; Ex: char *ptr[5]; Declaration of pointer to array: Ex: (int *p) [5]; Pointers &functions: Declaration of pointer to function; Syntax: return-type data-type (*fptr)(fun.arg.list); Ex : int test (double); int(*p)(double); p=test; Pointers &structures: Declaration of pointer to structures: Syntax : Struct tag { data-type member1; data-type member2; .. }: struct tag * p,a; p=&a; Accessing structure contents by pointer variable a) Dot operator ( . ) ex : (*ptr).member1; b) Arrow operator (->) ex: ptr-variable-> member1; Structure with pointers: Ex: struct node { int data; struct node * link;(link is a pointer to structure) };

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Functions: It is meant for performing a specific task which is repeated each time
the program calls it. Functions are two types 1) Library functions 2) User defined functions. Function definition(called function): It introduces a new function by declaring type of value it returns and parameters. Syntax: function-name(formal arg-list) argument declaration: { local variable declaration; executable statement1; return(expression); } Function declaration(function call): Syntax: function-name (actual arguments); Actual arguments: These parameters used in calling function. They may be constant or variable. Formal arguments: These parameters used in called function. These must be variable.

Command line Arguments: It is a parameter applied to a program when


program is invoked. Syntax: main(arg c, arg v) argc(argument counter) : It is an integer variable which contains number of arguments. argv(argument vector):It is an array of string, it contains arguments passed from command line. argv[0] always specifies name of the program.

Structures: It is a collection of logically related data items of different types using a single name. Structure allocates separate memory space for each member.
Structure definition: It creates a format of structure variables that may be used in structure. syntax: struct structure-name Ex: struct student { { data-type variable 1; int rollno: data-type variable 2; float marks; ; .; }; }; Structure declaration: It allocates a memory for declared structure. syntax: struct structure-name variable1,variable2; ex: struct student s1,s2,s3;

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Structure initialization: ex : struct student s1={ 123 , 67.89}; Accessing structure contents: Syntax : Dot operator ( . ) structure-name . structure-member; Arrow operator(->) pointer to structure. Structure member.

Union: It permits several different data types to be stored in the same memory space
on single name. Union save the memory space but it can handle only one member at a time. Union definition: Syntax: union union-name { data-type member 1; data-type member 2; }; Union declaration: syntax : union union-name variable;

Memory Allocation Functions: Memory allocation classified in to two categories. 1) Static memory allocation, which is at, compiles time. 2) Dynamic memory allocation which is at run time. a) Allocating a block of memory: Syntax: ptr = (cast-type*) malloc(n* (sizeof(data-type)); b) Allocating multiple blocks of memory: Syntax: ptr=(cast-type*) calloc (n, sizeof(data-type)); c) Releasing the used space: Syntax: free(ptr); d) Altering the size block: Syntax : ptr = realloc(ptr, newsize); File Handling Functions: File is a collection of similar type of records. fwrite(),
fread() files are binary files ,remaining files are ASCII files a) Declaration of file pointer: Syntax: FILE *fp; b) File opening: Syntax: fp = fopen("filename",mode); if mode = r Open in reading mode. = w Open in writing mode. c) File closing: Syntax: fclose(fp); d) Character i/o from files Syntax: fgetc(fp); fputc( character,fp); e) String i/o with files: syntax: fgets( string,length,fp);

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Redefining Quality Education fputs(string,fp); f) Formatted i/o with files fscanf(fp,"control string",list); fprintf(fp,"control string",list);

f) Records i/o with files: Used to perform i/o operations on binary files. fwrite( &structure,size of one record,,no.of records,fp); fread( &structure,size of struct,no. of records,fp); h) Random access to files: To returns current offset position in the file. long int n=ftell(fp); To reposition the pointer at the beginning of file rewind(fp); To shift in current position on a file. fseek(fp,offset,position); i) Error handling: Test end of file condition. Syntax: feof(fp); Test status of file an error has been detected. Syntax: ferror(fp);

DOS CAMMANDS
The book is summarizes the main features and used of data structures, using C programming language under MS_DOS operating system, hence the following DOS commands helps to use the operating system File: A file consists of group of characters. A file consists of two parts: 1. File name Ex: STAFF 2. Extension Ex: TXT, .EXE, .COM, .DOC, .DAT, .PAS, .C, .CPP, AND.BAT Directory: A directory is nothing but group of files like: Ex: File name file size date of creation time of creation CMRIT.EXE 22 27-08-03 12.00AM DOS Commands: There are basically two types of commands: 1. Internal Commands 2. External Commands 1. Internal Commands: These commands are generally loaded when an operating system itself is loaded into the memory. So these commands are stored in computer main memory. Ex: CLS, DIR, TYPE, TIME, DATE, REN etc. 2. External Commands: These commands are stored in Disk Files. Stored in Secondary memory like disk. Ex: FORMAT, MEM etc. MS-DOS Prompt: C: \ MYDIR TIME: This command displays time of system and ask the user to change if he wants

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Syntax: TIME DATE: This command displays date of the system and asks the user to change if he wants. Syntax: DATE DIR: This command displays contents in the directory. Syntax: DIR </Options> COPY : By using this command a user can copy various file into another file and also copy a group files from one directory to other directory and also copy a group files from one disk to the other disk. . Syntax: COPY <File1> <File2> COPY <File1><Directory Name> COPY < Disk1 > < Disk> Ex: COPY my.txt your.txt COPY my.txt c:\tc COPY c: \my. txt a: TYPE: Displays the content of the file Syntax: TYPE <FILE> Ex: TYPE AUTOEXEC.BAT REN: Renames one file to another name. It will changes the filename. Syntax: REN <File!> <File2> Ex: REN my.txt cmrcet.txt CLS: Clears the screen Syntax: CLS Ex: CLS CD: Changes the directory Syntax: CD <Directory Name> Ex: CD CMRIT Changes from any directory to Parent directory CD\ Changes from any Directory to Root directory MD: Creates a new sub-directory. A sub-directory is nothing but directory with in a Directory Syntax: MD<Directory Name>

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C PROGARMS
WEEK1 1a)/* A Fibonacci Sequence is defined as follows: the first and second terms in the sequence are 0 and 1. Subsequent terms are found by adding the preceding two terms in the sequence. Write a C program to generate the first n terms of the sequence.*/

Program : #include <stdio.h> void main() { int num1=0, num2=1,no,counter,fab; clrscr(); printf("<===========PROGRAM TO FIND THE FIBONACCI SERIES UP TO N NO. IN SERIES=========>"); printf("\n\n\n\t\tENTER LENGTH OF SERIES (N) : "); scanf("%d",&no); printf("\n\n\t\t\t<----FIBONACCI SERIES---->"); printf("\n\n\t\t%d %d",num1,num2); //LOOP WILL RUN FOR 2 TIME LESS IN SERIES AS THESE WAS PRINTED IN ADVANCE for(counter = 1; counter <= no-2; counter++) { fab=num1 + num2; printf(" %d",fab); num1=num2; num2=fab; } getch(); } Result:
<===========PROGRAM TO FIND THE FIBONACCI SERIES UP TO N SERIES=========> ENTER LENGTH OF SERIES (N) :5 <----FIBONACCI SERIES---->"

01123

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1.b) /* Write a C program to generate all the prime numbers between 1 and n, where n is a value supplied by the user. */ Program: #include <stdio.h> void main() { int no,counter,counter1,check; clrscr(); printf("<-----------------------PRIME NO. SERIES------------------------>"); printf("\n\n\n\t\t\tINPUT THE VALUE OF N: "); scanf("%d",&no); printf("\n\nTHE PRIME NO. SERIES B/W 1 TO %d : \n\n",no); for(counter = 1; counter <= no; counter++) { check = 0; //THIS LOOP WILL CHECK A NO TO BE PRIME NO. OR NOT. for(counter1 = counter-1; counter1 > 1 ; counter1--) if(counter%counter1 == 0) { check++; // INCREMENT CHECK IF NO. IS NOT A PRIME NO. break; } if(check == 0) printf("%d\t",counter); } getch(); }

Result: <-----------------------PRIME NO. SERIES------------------------> INPUT THE VALUE OF N:10 012357

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1.c) /* Write a C program to find the sum of individual digits of a positive integer.*/ Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int num, k=1, sum=0; clrscr(); printf("Enter the number whose digits are to be added:"); scanf("%d",&num); while(num!=0) { k=num%10; sum=sum+k; k=num/10; num=k; } printf("Sum of the digits:%d",sum); getch(); }

Result: Enter the number whose digits are to be added:1234 Sum of the digits:10

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WEEK-2

2.a) /* Write a C program to calculate the following Sum: Sum=1-x2/2! +x4/4!-x6/6!+x8/8!-x10/10! */ Program: #include <stdio.h> #include <math.h> void main() { int counter,f_coun; float sum=0,x,power,fact; clrscr(); printf("<-----------------------PROGRAM FOR SUM OF EQ. SERIES---------------------->"); printf("\n\n\tEQUATION SERIES : 1- X^2/2! + X^4/4! - X^6/6! + X^8/8! X^10/10!"); printf("\n\n\n\tENTER VALUE OF X : "); scanf("%f",&x); for(counter=0, power=0; power<=10; counter++,power=power+2) { fact=1; //CALC FACTORIAL OF POWER VALUE for(f_coun=power; f_coun>=1; f_coun--) fact *= f_coun; //EQ. FOR SUM SERIES sum=sum+(pow(-1,counter)*(pow(x,power)/fact)); } printf("SUM : %f",sum); getch(); } Result: <-----------------------PROGRAM FOR SUM OF EQ. SERIES-----------------------> ENTER VALUE OF X:2 SUM :0.5840

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2.b)/* Write a C program toe find the roots of a quadratic equation. */ Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<math.h> void main() { float a,b,c,root1,root2; clrscr(); printf("\n Enter values of a,b,c for finding roots of a quadratic eq:\n"); scanf("%f%f%f",&a,&b,&c); /*checking condition*/ if(b*b>4*a*c) { root1=-b+sqrt(b*b-4*a*c)/2*a; root2=-b-sqrt(b*b-4*a*c)/2*a; printf("\n*****ROOTS ARE*****\n"); printf("\n root1=%f\n root2=%f",root1,root2); } else printf("\n Imaginary Roots."); getch(); } Result: Enter values of a,b,c for finding roots of a quadratic eq: 4,5,6 Roots are real and imaginary. Enter values of a,b,c for finding roots of a quadratic eq: 2,3,4 Roots are imaginary Root1=00.750000+j1.198958 Root2=-0.750000-j1.198958.

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WEEK-3 3.a) /* Write C programs that use both recursive and non-recursive functions To find the factorial of a given integer.*/ Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> unsigned int recr_factorial(int n); unsigned int iter_factorial(int n); void main() { int n,i; long fact; clrscr(); printf("Enter the number: "); scanf("%d",&n); if(n==0) printf("Factorial of 0 is 1\n"); else { printf("Factorial of %d Using Recursive Function is %d\n",n,recr_factorial(n)); printf("Factorial of %d Using Non-Recursive Function is %d\n",n,iter_factorial(n)); } getch(); } /* Recursive Function*/ unsigned int recr_factorial(int n) { return n>=1 ? n * recr_factorial(n-1) : 1; } /* Non-Recursive Function*/ unsigned int iter_factorial(int n) { int accu = 1; int i; for(i = 1; i <= n; i++) { accu *= i; } return accu; }

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Result: Enter the number:5 Factorial of 5 Using Recursive Function is 120 Factorial of 5 Using Non-Recursive Function is 120

3.b)/* Write C programs that use both recursive and non-recursive functions To find the GCD (greatest common divisor) of two given integers.*/ Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<math.h> unsigned int GcdRecursive(unsigned m, unsigned n); unsigned int GcdNonRecursive(unsigned p,unsigned q); int main(void) { int a,b,iGcd; clrscr(); printf("Enter the two numbers whose GCD is to be found: "); scanf("%d%d",&a,&b); printf("GCD of %d and %d Using Recursive Function is %d\n",a,b,GcdRecursive(a,b)); printf("GCD of %d and %d Using Non-Recursive Function is %d\n",a,b,GcdNonRecursive(a,b)); getch(); } /* Recursive Function*/ unsigned int GcdRecursive(unsigned m, unsigned n) { if(n>m) return GcdRecursive(n,m); if(n==0) return m; else return GcdRecursive(n,m%n); } /* Non-Recursive Function*/ unsigned int GcdNonRecursive(unsigned p,unsigned q) { unsigned remainder; remainder = p-(p/q*q); if(remainder==0) return q; else GcdRecursive(q,remainder); }

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Result: Enter the two numbers whose GCD is to be found:12 48 GCD of 12 and 48 Using Recursive Function is 12 GCD of 12 and 48 Using Non-Recursive Function is 12

3.c)/* Write C programs that use both recursive and non-recursive functions To solve Towers of Hanoi problem.*/ Program: #include<conio.h> #include<stdio.h> /* Non-Recursive Function*/ void hanoiNonRecursion(int num,char sndl,char indl,char dndl) { char stkn[100],stksndl[100],stkindl[100],stkdndl[100],stkadd[100],temp; int top,add; top=NULL; one: if(num==1) { printf("\nMove top disk from needle %c to needle %c ",sndl,dndl); goto four; } two: top=top+1; stkn[top]=num; stksndl[top]=sndl; stkindl[top]=indl; stkdndl[top]=dndl; stkadd[top]=3; num=num-1; sndl=sndl; temp=indl; indl=dndl; dndl=temp; goto one; three: printf("\nMove top disk from needle %c to needle %c ",sndl,dndl); top=top+1; stkn[top]=num; stksndl[top]=sndl; stkindl[top]=indl; stkdndl[top]=dndl; stkadd[top]=5;

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num=num-1; temp=sndl; sndl=indl; indl=temp; dndl=dndl; goto one; four: if(top==NULL) return; num=stkn[top]; sndl=stksndl[top]; indl=stkindl[top]; dndl=stkdndl[top]; add=stkadd[top]; top=top-1; if(add==3) goto three; else if(add==5) goto four; } /* Recursive Function*/ void hanoiRecursion( int num,char ndl1, char ndl2, char ndl3) { if ( num == 1 ) { printf( "Move top disk from needle %c to needle %c.", ndl1, ndl2 ); return; } hanoiRecursion( num - 1,ndl1, ndl3, ndl2 ); printf( "Move top disk from needle %c to needle %c.", ndl1, ndl2 ); hanoiRecursion( num - 1,ndl3, ndl2, ndl1 ); } void main() { int no; clrscr(); printf("Enter the no. of disks to be transferred: "); scanf("%d",&no); if(no<1) printf("\nThere's nothing to move."); else printf("Non-Recursive"); hanoiNonRecursion(no,'A','B','C'); printf("\nRecursive"); hanoiRecursion(no,'A','B','C'); getch(); }

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Result: Enter the no. of disks to be transferred:4 Move disk 1 from L to C Move disk 2 from L to R Move disk 1 from C to R Move disk 3 from L to C Move disk 1 from R to L Move disk 2 from R to C Move disk 1 from L to C Move disk 4 from L to R Move disk 1 from C to R Move disk 2 from C to L Move disk 1 from R to L Move disk 3 from C to R Move disk 1 from L to C Move disk 2 from L to R Move disk 1 from C to R

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WEEK- 4: 4.a)/* Write a C program, which takes two integer operands and one operator form the user,performs the operation and then prints the result. (Consider the operators +,,*, /, % and use Switch Statement)*/ Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int a,b,res,ch; clrscr(); printf("\t *********************"); printf("\n\tMENU\n"); printf("\t********************"); printf("\n\t(1)ADDITION"); printf("\n\t(2)SUBTRACTION"); printf("\n\t(3)MULTIPLICATION"); printf("\n\t(4)DIVISION"); printf("\n\t(5)REMAINDER"); printf("\n\t(0)EXIT"); printf("\n\t********************"); printf("\n\n\tEnter your choice:"); scanf("%d",&ch); if(ch<=5 & ch>0) { printf("Enter two numbers:\n"); scanf("%d%d",&a,&b); } switch(ch) { case 1: res=a+b; printf("\n Addition:%d",res); break; case 2: res=a-b; printf("\n Subtraction:%d",res); break; case 3: res=a*b; printf("\n Multiplication:%d",res); break; case 4:

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res=a/b; printf("\n Division:%d",res); break; case 5: res=a%b; printf("\n Remainder:%d",res); break; case 0: printf("\n Choice Terminated"); exit(); break; default: printf("\n Invalid Choice"); } getch(); } Result: ********************* MENU ******************** (1)ADDITION (2)SUBTRACTION (3)MULTIPLICATION (4)DIVISION (5)REMAINDER (0)EXIT ******************** Enter your choice:1 Enter two numbers:2 3 Addition:5

4.b)/* The total distance travelled by vehicle in 't' seconds is given by distance = ut+1/2at2 where 'u' and 'a' are the initial velocity (m/sec.) and acceleration (m/sec2). Write C program to find the distance travelled at regular intervals of time given the values of 'u' and 'a'. The program should provide the flexibility to the user to select his own time intervals and repeat the calculations for different values of 'u' and 'a'*/ Program: #include <stdio.h> #include <math.h> void main() {

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int tim_intrval, counter,time; float accl, distance=0, velos; clrscr(); printf("<===========PROGRAM FOR CALC TOTAL DISTANCE TRAVELED BY A VECHIAL===========>"); printf("\n\n\n\t\t\tNO OF TIME INTERVALS : "); scanf("%d",&tim_intrval); for(counter = 1; counter <= tim_intrval; counter++) { printf("\n\t\t\tAT T%d TIME(sec) : ",counter); scanf("%d",&time); printf("\t\t\tVELOCITY AT %d sec (m/sec) : ",time); scanf("%f",&velos); printf("\t\t\tACCLERATION AT %d sec (m/sec^2): ",time); scanf("%f",&accl); distance += (velos*time + (accl*pow(time,2))/2); } printf("\n\n\n\tTOTAL DISTANCE TRAVELLED BY VEHICLE IN %d INTERVALS OF TIME : %f",tim_intrval,distance); getch(); } Result: <===========PROGRAM FOR CALC TOTAL DISTANCE TRAVELED BY A VECHIAL===========> Enter the time interval value in seconds:12 Enter the acceleration value in m/(sec square):34 Enter the initial velocity value in m/sec:56 The distance traveled in meters is:3120.000000.

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WEEK-5 5.a)/* Write a C program that uses functions to perform the following: i) Addition of Two Matrices ii) Multiplication of Two Matrices*/ Program: #include<stdio.h> void main() { int ch,i,j,m,n,p,q,k,r1,c1,a[10][10],b[10][10],c[10][10]; clrscr(); printf("************************************"); printf("\n\t\tMENU"); printf("\n**********************************"); printf("\n[1]ADDITION OF TWO MATRICES"); printf("\n[2]MULTIPLICATION OF TWO MATRICES"); printf("\n[0]EXIT"); printf("\n**********************************"); printf("\n\tEnter your choice:\n"); scanf("%d",&ch); if(ch<=2 & ch>0) { printf("Valid Choice\n"); } switch(ch) { case 1: printf("Input rows and columns of A & B Matrix:"); scanf("%d%d",&r1,&c1); printf("Enter elements of matrix A:\n"); for(i=0;i<r1;i++) { for(j=0;j<c1;j++) scanf("%d",&a[i][j]); } printf("Enter elements of matrix B:\n"); for(i=0;i<r1;i++) { for(j=0;j<c1;j++) scanf("%d",&b[i][j]); } printf("\n =====Matrix Addition=====\n"); for(i=0;i<r1;i++) { for(j=0;j<c1;j++)

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printf("%5d",a[i][j]+b[i][j]); printf("\n"); } break; case 2: printf("Input rows and columns of A matrix:"); scanf("%d%d",&m,&n); printf("Input rows and columns of B matrix:"); scanf("%d%d",&p,&q); if(n==p) { printf("matrices can be multiplied\n"); printf("resultant matrix is %d*%d\n",m,q); printf("Input A matrix\n"); read_matrix(a,m,n); printf("Input B matrix\n"); /*Function call to read the matrix*/ read_matrix(b,p,q); /*Function for Multiplication of two matrices*/ printf("\n =====Matrix Multiplication=====\n"); for(i=0;i<m;++i) for(j=0;j<q;++j) { c[i][j]=0; for(k=0;k<n;++k) c[i][j]=c[i][j]+a[i][k]*b[k][j]; } printf("Resultant of two matrices:\n"); write_matrix(c,m,q); } /*end if*/ else { printf("Matrices cannot be multiplied."); } /*end else*/ break; case 0: printf("\n Choice Terminated"); exit(); break; default: printf("\n Invalid Choice"); } getch(); } /*Function read matrix*/

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int read_matrix(int a[10][10],int m,int n) { int i,j; for(i=0;i<m;i++) for(j=0;j<n;j++) scanf("%d",&a[i][j]); return 0; } /*Function to write the matrix*/ int write_matrix(int a[10][10],int m,int n) { int i,j; for(i=0;i<m;i++) { for(j=0;j<n;j++) printf("%5d",a[i][j]); printf("\n"); } return 0; }

Result: ************************************ MENU [1]ADDITION OF TWO MATRICES [2]MULTIPLICATION OF TWO MATRICES [0]EXIT ********************************** Enter your choice:1 Input rows and columns of A & B Matrix:2 2 Enter elements of matrix A: 1111 Enter elements of matrix B: 2222 =====Matrix Addition===== 3 3 3 3

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5.b)/* Write a C program to find both the largest and smallest number in a list of integers*/ Program: main( ) { int a[10],small,lar,i,n; printf(Enter the value of n); scanf(%d,&n); for(i=0;i<n;i++) { Printf(enter a[%d]value:,i); Scanf(%d,&a[i]); } Small=a[0]; Lar=a[0]; For(i=1;i<10;i++) { If(a[i]>lar) Lar=a[i]; If(a[i]<small) Small=a[i]; } Printf(Largest integer is :%d\n,lar); Printf(Smallest integer is :%d\n,small); Getch(); }

Result: Enter the value of n 5 Enter a[0] value:10 Enter a[1] value:5 Enter a[2] value:20 Enter a[3] value:9 Enter a[4] value:6 Largest integer is:20 Smallest integer is:5

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WEEK-6 6.a)/* Write a C program that uses functions to perform the following operations: To insert a sub-string in to given main string from a given position.*/ Program: #include <stdio.h> #include <conio.h> #include <string.h> void main() { char a[10]; char b[10]; char c[10]; int p=0,r=0,i=0; int t=0; int x,g,s,n,o; clrscr(); puts("Enter First String:"); gets(a); puts("Enter Second String:"); gets(b); printf("Enter the position where the item has to be inserted: "); scanf("%d",&p); r = strlen(a); n = strlen(b); i=0; // Copying the input string into another array while(i <= r) { c[i]=a[i]; i++; } s = n+r; o = p+n; // Adding the sub-string for(i=p;i<s;i++) { x = c[i]; if(t<n) { a[i] = b[t]; t=t+1; } a[o]=x; o=o+1; }

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printf("%s", a); getch(); } Result: Enter First String: Ramu is a good boy Enter Second String: very Enter the position where the item has to be inserted:10 Ramu is a very good boy 6.b)/* Write a C program to determine if the given string is a palindrome or not */ Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> enum Boolean{false,true}; enum Boolean IsPalindrome(char string[]) { int left,right,len=strlen(string); enum Boolean matched=true; if(len==0) return 0; left=0; right=len-1; /* Compare the first and last letter,second & second last & so on */ while(left<right&&matched) { if(string[left]!=string[right]) matched=false; else { left++; right--; } } return matched; } int main() { char string[40]; clrscr(); printf("****Program to test if the given string is a palindrome****\n"); printf("Enter a string:"); scanf("%s",string); if(IsPalindrome(string)) printf("The given string %s is a palindrome\n",string);

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else printf("The given string %s is not a palindrome\n",string); getch(); return 0; } Result: ****Program to test if the given string is a palindrome**** Enter a string: madam The given string madam is a palindrome 6.c)/* Write a C program that uses functions to perform the following operations: To delete n Characters from a given position in a given string.*/ Program: #include <stdio.h> #include <conio.h> #include <string.h> void delchar(char *x,int a, int b); void main() { char string[10]; int n,pos,p; clrscr(); puts("Enter the string"); gets(string); printf("Enter the position from where to delete"); scanf("%d",&pos); printf("Enter the number of characters to be deleted"); scanf("%d",&n); delchar(string, n,pos); getch(); } // Function to delete n characters void delchar(char *x,int a, int b) { if ((a+b-1) <= strlen(x)) { strcpy(&x[b-1],&x[a+b-1]); puts(x); } } Result: Enter the string Ramu is a very good boy Enter the position from where to delete 10 Enter the number of characters to be deleted 4
Ramu is a good boy

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WEEK-7 7.a)/* Write a C program to count the lines, words and characters in a given text*/ Program: #include <stdio.h> main() { char line[81], ctr; int i,c,end = 0,characters = 0,words = 0,lines = 0; printf("KEY IN THE TEXT.\n"); printf("GIVE ONE SPACE AFTER EACH WORD.\n"); printf("WHEN COMPLETED, PRESS 'RETURN'.\n\n"); while( end == 0) { /* Reading a line of text */ c = 0; while((ctr=getchar()) != '\n') line[c++] = ctr; line[c] = '\0'; /* counting the words in a line */ if(line[0] == '\0') break ; else { words++; for(i=0; line[i] != '\0';i++) if(line[i] == ' ' || line[i] == '\t') words++; } /* counting lines and characters */ lines = lines +1; characters = characters + strlen(line); } printf ("\n"); printf("Number of lines = %d\n", lines); printf("Number of words = %d\n", words); printf("Number of characters = %d\n", characters); } Result: KEY IN THE TEXT. GIVE ONE SPACE AFTER EACH WORD. WHEN COMPLETED, PRESS 'RETURN'. Admiration is a very short-lived passion.

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Admiration involves a glorious obliquity of vision. Always we like those who admire us but we do not like those whom we admire. Fools admire, but men of sense approve. Number of lines = 5 Number of words = 36 Number of characters = 205 7.b)/* Write a C program that displays the position or index in the string S where the string T begins, or -1 if S doesn't contain T*/ Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { char s[30], t[20]; char *found; clrscr(); /* Entering the main string */ puts("Enter the first string: "); gets(s); /* Entering the string whose position or index to be displayed */ puts("Enter the string to be searched: "); gets(t); /*Searching string t in string s */ found=strstr(s,t); if(found) printf("Second String is found in the First String at %d position.\n",found-s); else printf("-1"); getch(); } Result: Enter the first string: software engineer Enter the string to be searched:engineer Second String is found in the First String at 9position.

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WEEK-8 8.a) /* Write a C program to generate Pascal's triangle. */ Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int bin,p,q,r,x; clrscr(); bin=1; q=0; printf("Rows you want to input:"); scanf("%d",&r); printf("\nPascal's Triangle:\n"); while(q<r) { for(p=40-3*q;p>0;--p) printf(" "); for(x=0;x<=q;++x) { if((x==0)||(q==0)) bin=1; else bin=(bin*(q-x+1))/x; printf("%6d",bin); } printf("\n"); ++q; } getch(); } Result: Rows you want to input:5 Pascal's Triangle for 5 rows:

1 1 1 1 1 4 3 6 2 3 4 1 1 1 1

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8.b)/* Write a C program to construct a pyramid of numbers. */ Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { int num,i,y,x=35; clrscr(); printf("\nEnter the number to generate the pyramid:\n"); scanf("%d",&num); for(y=0;y<=num;y++) { /*(x-coordinate,y-coordinate)*/ gotoxy(x,y+1); /*for displaying digits towards the left and right of zero*/ for(i=0-y;i<=y;i++) printf("%3d",abs(i)); x=x-3; } getch(); } Result: Enter the number of lines: 5 Pyramid of numbers for 5 is:

4 6

3 5 7

2 4 6 8

1 3 5 7 9

2 4 6 8

3 5 7

4 6

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WEEK-9 9.a) /*Write a C program to read in two numbers, x and n, and then compute the sum of this geometric progression: 1+x+x2+x3+.+xn For example: if n is 3 and x is 5, then the program computes 1+5+25+125.Print x, n, the sum Perform error checking. For example, the formula does not make sense for negative exponents - if n is less than 0. Have your program print an error message if n<0, then go back and read in the next pair of numbers of without computing the sum. Are any values of x also illegal ? If so, test for them too. */ Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<math.h> void main() { int s_sum,i,x,n; clrscr(); printf("Enter the values for x and n:"); scanf("%d %d",&x,&n); if(n<=0 || x<=0) { printf("Value is not valid\n"); } else { printf("Value is valid\n"); s_sum=1; for(i=1;i<=n;i++) { s_sum=s_sum+pow(x,i); } printf("Sum of series=%d\n",s_sum); } getch(); } Result: Enter the values for x and n:5 3 Value is valid Sum of series=156

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WEEK-10 10a) /* 2s complement of a number is obtained by scanning it from right to left and complementing all the bits after the first appearance of a 1. Thus 2s complement of 11100 is 00100. Write a C program to find the 2s complement of a binary number.*/ Program: #include <stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void complement (char *a); void main() { char a[16]; int i; clrscr(); printf("Enter the binary number"); gets(a); for(i=0;a[i]!='\0'; i++) { if (a[i]!='0' && a[i]!='1') { printf("The number entered is not a binary number. Enter the correct number"); exit(0); } } complement(a); getch(); } void complement (char *a) { int l, i, c=0; char b[16]; l=strlen(a); for (i=l-1; i>=0; i--) { if (a[i]=='0') b[i]='1'; else b[i]='0'; } for(i=l-1; i>=0; i--) { if(i==l-1) { if (b[i]=='0')

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b[i]='1'; else { b[i]='0'; c=1; } } else { if(c==1 && b[i]=='0') { b[i]='1'; c=0; } else if (c==1 && b[i]=='1') { b[i]='0'; c=1; } } } b[l]='\0'; printf("The 2's complement is %s", b); } Result: Enter the binary number 11100 The 2's complement is 00100. 10.b) /* Write a C program to convert a Roman numeral to its decimal equivalent. */ Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<string.h> #include<stdlib.h> void main() { int *a,len,i,j,k; char *rom; clrscr(); printf("Enter the Roman Numeral:"); scanf("%s",rom); len=strlen(rom); for(i=0;i<len;i++) { if(rom[i]=='I')

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a[i]=1; else if(rom[i]=='V') a[i]=5; else if(rom[i]=='X') a[i]=10; else if(rom[i]=='L') a[i]=50; else if(rom[i]=='C') a[i]=100; else if(rom[i]=='D') a[i]=500; else if(rom[i]=='M') a[i]=1000; else { printf("\nInvalid Value"); getch(); exit(0); } } k=a[len-1]; for(i=len-1;i>0;i--) { if(a[i]>a[i-1]) k=k-a[i-1]; else if(a[i]==a[i-1] || a[i]<a[i-1]) k=k+a[i-1]; } printf("\nIts Decimal Equivalent is:"); printf("%d",k); getch(); } Result: Enter the Roman Numeral:XIV Its Decimal Equivalent is 14

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WEEK-11 11. /* Write a C program that uses functions to perform the following operations: i) Reading a complex number ii) Writing a complex number iii) Addition of two complex numbers iv) Multiplication of two complex numbers (Note: represent complex number using a structure.) */ Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<math.h> void arithmetic(int opern); struct comp { double realpart; double imgpart; }; void main() { int opern; clrscr(); printf("\n\n \t\t\t***** MAIN MENU *****"); printf("\n\n Select your option: \n 1 : ADD\n 2 : MULTIPLY\n 0 : EXIT \n\n\t\t Enter your Option []\b\b"); scanf("%d",&opern); switch(opern) { case 0: exit(0); case 1: case 2: arithmetic(opern); default: main(); } } void arithmetic(int opern) { struct comp w1, w2, w; printf("\n Enter two Complex Numbers (x+iy):\n Real Part of First Number:"); scanf("%lf",&w1.realpart); printf("\n Imaginary Part of First Number:");

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scanf("%lf",&w1.imgpart); printf("\n Real Part of Second Number:"); scanf("%lf",&w2.realpart); printf("\n Imaginary Part of Second Number:"); scanf("%lf",&w2.imgpart); switch(opern) { /*addition of complex number*/ case 1: w.realpart = w1.realpart+w2.realpart; w.imgpart = w1.imgpart+w2.imgpart; break; /*multiplication of complex number*/ case 2: w.realpart=(w1.realpart*w2.realpart)-(w1.imgpart*w2.imgpart); w.imgpart=(w1.realpart*w2.imgpart)+(w1.imgpart*w2.realpart); break; }

if (w.imgpart>0) printf("\n Answer = %lf+%lfi",w.realpart,w.imgpart); else printf("\n Answer = %lf%lfi",w.realpart,w.imgpart); getch(); main(); } Result: ***** MAIN MENU ***** Select your option: 1 : ADD 2 : MULTIPLY 0 : EXIT Enter your Option 1 Enter two Complex Numbers (x+iy): Real Part of First Number:2 Imaginary Part of First Number:3 Real Part of Second Number:2 Imaginary Part of Second Number:3 Answer =4+6i

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WEEK-12 12.a) /* Write a C program which copies one file to another.*/ Program: #include <stdio.h> #include <conio.h> #include <process.h> void main(int argc, char *argv[]) { FILE *fs,*ft; char ch; clrscr(); if(argc!=3) { puts("Invalid number of arguments."); exit(0); } fs = fopen(argv[1],"r"); if(fs==NULL) { puts("Source file cannot be opened."); exit(0); } ft = fopen(argv[2],"w"); if (ft==NULL) { puts("Target file cannot be opened."); fclose(fs); exit(0); } while(1) { ch=fgetc(fs); if (ch==EOF) break; else fputc(ch,ft); } fclose(fs); fclose(ft); getch(); } Result: Contents of the first file are copied into second file

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12.b) /* Write a C program to reverse the first n characters in a file. (Note: The file name and n are specified on the command line.)*/ Program: #include <stdio.h> #include <conio.h> #include <string.h> #include <process.h> void main(int argc, char *argv[]) { char a[15]; char s[20]; char n; int k; int j=0; int i; int len; FILE *fp; if(argc!=3) { puts("Improper number of arguments."); exit(0); } fp = fopen(argv[1],"r"); if(fp == NULL) { puts("File cannot be opened."); exit(0); } k=*argv[2]-48; n = fread(a,1,k,fp); a[n]='\0'; len=strlen(a); for(i=len-1;i>=0;i--) { s[j]=a[i]; printf("%c",s[j]); j=j+1; } s[j+1]='\0'; getch(); } Result: First n characters of the given file are reversed

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WEEK-13 13 a)Write a C program to display the contents of a file. Program: #include<stdio.h> Void main() { FILE *fp; Int c; If(fp=fopen(my.dat,w))==NULL) { Printf(\n\nERROR); Exit(1); } While((c=getc(stdin))!=EOF) Putc(c,fp); Printf(\nDONE); Fclose(fp); Getch(); } Result: DONE Displays the Contents of the Given File. 13 b)Write a C program to merge two files in to a third file (i.e the contents of the first file followed by those of the second are put into the third file) Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<stdlib.h> Void main(int argc,char *argv[]) { FILE *f1,*f2,*f3; Clrscr(); If(argc<3) Exit(2); If(f1=fopen(argv[1],r))==NULL) { Printf(\nERROR); Exit(1); } If(f2=fopen(argv[2],r))==NULL) { Printf(\nERROR);

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Exit(2); } If((f3=fopen(argv[3],w))==NULL) { Printf(\nERROR); Exit(1); } While((c=fgetc(f1))!=EOF) Fputc(c,f3); Fclose(f1); While((c=fgetc(f2))!=EOF) Fputc(c,f3); Fclose(f2); Fclose(f3); } Printf(\nDONE); } Result: DONE Contents of the first file followed by those of the second are put into the third file.

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PART-B

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WEEK-14 14.Write a C program that uses functions to perform the following operations on singly linked list i)creation ii)Insertion iii)Deletion iv)Traversal

SINGLE LINKED LIST A linked list contains elements at arbitrary locations. Each node of the list must. Linked lists are classified in to two categories 1) Single linked list list 2) Double linked list. Linked list implemented by self-referential structures linked list: It is unidirectional list, consists with node contains two fields. DATA: It contains information. PTR: It contains address of next node. Implementation of single linked list:
FUNCTIONS USED:

Function name create insert() del() count() reverse() search() display()


VARIABLES USED:

return type struct node void void int void void void

parameters no parameters struct node struct node struct node struct node struct node struct node

Variable name new start pre temp


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data type purpose pointer to struct node to store new node address pointer to struct node to store store starting node address pointer to struct node to store previous node address pointer to struct node to store temporary node address
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x pos ch ptr data


ALGORITHM :

Redefining Quality Education int store data of new node int store position where element to be insert,del. int store choice pointer to struct node pointer field of any node int information field of any node

Function INSERT(X, FIRST) X New item to be inserted START Address / Pointer to the first item of a linked list DATA Information field of a node PTR Pointer field of a node AVAIL Address/Pointer to the top element of the availability stack TEMP Temporary pointer variable // Obtain new from availability nodes stack// NEW AVAIL //Initialize fields of new node and its link to the list// DATA (NEW) X PTR (NEW) NULL //inserting element at starting of the list// if((START=NULL)and(POS=1) then PTR(NEW)START STARTNEW endif Return(START) // inserting middle of the list at given position// TEMPSTART while((I<=POS) and (PTR (TEMP)!=NULL)) do TEMP PTR (TEMP) II+1 repeat //set the link fields of new node // PTR (NEW) PTR (TEMP) PTR (TEMP)NEW Return(START) // inserting node at end of the list// while(PTR (TEMP)!=NULL) do TEMP PTR (TEMP) repeat // set link field of last node to NEW// PTR (TEMP)NEW

1. 2

3.

4.

5.

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Procedure DELETE(X, START) X Address of a node to be deleted START Address of the first node in the linked list POS position of the node which is to be deleted TEMP temporary node 1. // Check for under flow// if START = NULL then Print('Underflow') Return endif 2. //delete a node at the starting of the list// if(POS==1) then START PTR (START) else 3. // delete node at middle position of the list// TEMPSTART while((PTR (TEMP)!=NULL) and (I<POS)) do TEMP PTR (TEMP) II+1 repeat PTR (TEMP) PTR (PTR (TEMP)) 4. // delete a node at the end of the list// while(PTR (TEMP)!=NULL) do TEMP PTR (TEMP) repeat TEMPNULL return

Program: /*program on single linked list*/ #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<malloc.h> #include<stdlib.h> #include<process.h> struct node { int data; struct node *ptr; }; //creation of list//
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struct node *create() { /*declaration of structure*/ struct node *new,*start,*pre; int x; printf("\n Enter element-1 to stop;"); scanf("%d",&x); start=pre=NULL; while (x!=-1) { new=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)); new->data=x; new->ptr=NULL; if (start==NULL) start=new; else pre->ptr=new; pre=new; printf ("\n\t Enter the element -1 to stop:"); scanf("%d",&x); } return(start); } /*display the list*/ void display(struct node *start) { struct node *temp; temp=start; while (temp!=NULL) { printf("%d-->",temp->data); temp=temp->ptr; } } /*inserting element in to list*/ void *insert(struct node *start) { struct node *temp,*new; int i,x,pos; printf("\n Enter the value and the position"); scanf("%d%d",&x,&pos); new=(struct node*)malloc(sizeof(struct node)); new->data=x; new->ptr=NULL; if(pos==1 || start==NULL) { new->ptr=start; start=new;

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} else { temp=start; i=2; while(i<pos&&(temp->ptr!=NULL )) { temp=temp->ptr; ++i; } new->ptr=temp->ptr; temp->ptr=new; } return(0); } /*deletion of nodefrom the list*/ void *del(struct node *start) { struct node *temp; int i,pos; printf("\n Enter the position of the Element to be delete"); scanf("%d",&pos); if(start!=NULL) { if (pos==1) start=start->ptr; else { temp=start; i=2; while (temp!=NULL&&i<pos) { temp= temp->ptr; ++i; } if (temp!=NULL) temp->ptr=(temp->ptr)->ptr; else printf("\n no element"); } } display(start); return(0); } /*count no. of nodes*/ int count (struct node *start) { struct node *temp;

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int c=0; temp=start; while (temp->ptr!=NULL) { temp=temp->ptr; c++; } return(c+1); } /*reversing the list*/ void reverse (struct node *start) { struct node *a,*b,*c; a=start; b=NULL; while (a!=NULL) { c=a->ptr; a->ptr=b; b=a; a=c; } start=b; display(start); } /*Searching an element*/ void search(struct node *start,int pos) { struct node *temp; int c=1; temp=start; while (temp!=NULL) if (temp->data==pos) { printf("\n%d is located at %d",pos,c); break; } else { temp=temp->ptr; c++; } } /*main program*/ void main () { int i,ch,ans,key; struct node *start;

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clrscr(); printf("\n MENU"); printf("\n 1.Create. \n 2.Insert .\n 3.Delete \n 4.Display \n 5. Count \n 6.Reverse the list.\n7.Search\n 8.Exit"); do { printf("\n\t Enter ur choice"); scanf ("%d", &ch) ; if(ch>8||ch<=0) { printf("Invalid choice, try again"); break; } switch (ch) { case 1: start=create(); break; case 2: insert(start); break; case 3: del(start); break; case 4: display(start); break; case 5: ans=count(start); printf("\n Count is %d",ans); break; case 6: reverse(start); break; case 7: printf("Enter an element to be searched:"); scanf ("%d", &key) ; search(start,key); break; case 8: exit(0); break; } }while(ch<=8); getch(); }

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Result:

MENU l.Create. 2.Insert . 3.Delete 4.Display 5.Count 6.Reverse the list. 7.Search 8.Exit. Enter ur choice 1 Enter element -1 to stop Enter ur choice 1 Enter element -1 to stop 20 10

10 20

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WEEK-15 15 a)Write a C program that implement stack (its operations) using Arrays&Pointers. STACK Stack is an ordered collection of data items which insertion and deletion operations are performs at one end( top of the stack).Stack is represented by array S with MAX size, TOP is a stack pointer, which specifies status of the stack. Stack works under Last In First Out (LIFO) principle. Ex: A coin stacker. Push operation is not possible if stack is in overflow (i,e.TOP=MAX). Pop operation is not possible if stack is in underflow (i.e. TOP=0) Stacks are used to evolution of simple expressions, conversion of infix, postfix, prefix expressions and in recursion methods. Implementation of stack using arrays:
FUNCTIONS USED:

Function name push () pop() display()


VARIABLES USED:

return type void int void

parameters s[],item s [] s[]

Variable name s[] max top item y ch


ALGORITHM :

data type int int int int int int

purpose to store stack elements size of stack stack pointer to store element to be pushed to store element to be pop to store choice

Procedure PUSH (S ,ITEM) S TOP 1. . An Array of MAX size representing stack. Stack pointer

ITEM Element to be push //Check for stack overflow//

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2. 3.

if TOP >= MAX then Print ('Stack Overflow') Return endif //Increment pointer Top to provide space for inserting element// TOP TOP + 1 //Insert ITEM at top of the stack// S[TOP] ITEM Return Function POP (S) S An Array of MAX size representing stack. TOP stack pointer Y Element deleted //Check for stack underflow// if TOP = 0 then Print ('Stack Underflow') Return endif //Retrieve the top element of stack// Y (S[TOP]) //Decrement pointer TOP to save the space// TOP TOP-1 Return(Y)

1.

2. 3

Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> int top=-1; void push(int [],int); int pop (int[ ]); void display (); int s[10]; void main() { int ch; int item,y; clrscr ( ) ; printf("\n\t MENU "); printf("\n\t1. Push");

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printf( "\n\t 2.Pop"); printf("\n\t 3.Display."); printf("\n\t 4.Exit"); do { printf("\n Enter ur choice"); scanf ( "%d" , &ch) ; if (ch>4||ch<=0) { printf ("\n Invalid choice "); break; } switch(ch) { case 1 : printf("\n\t Enter the element: "); scanf("%d",& item ); push(s, item ); break; case 2: y=pop ( s ) ; printf("\n\t the deleted break value %d" ,y); break; case 3 : display(); break; case 4 : exit(0); break; } }while(ch<=4); } void push(int s[],int item ) { if(top>10) printf("\t stack is overflow"); else { top=top+ 1 ; s[top]= item ; } } int pop(int s[]) { int x; if(top==-1) printf("\n\t the stack is underflow"); else

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{ x=s[top]; top--; } return x; } void display() { int i; for(i=top;i>=0;i--) printf( "%d\t" ,s[i]); }

Result: MENU 1. Push 2.Pop 3.Exit. 4.Display. Enter ur choice 1 Enter the element: 23 Value is pushed Enter ur choice 1 Enter the element: 13 Value is pushed Enter ur choice 1 Enter the element: 25 Value is pushed Enter ur choice 3 25 13 23

Implementation of stack using single linked list:


FUNCTIONS USED:

Function name Push() Pop() Display()


VARIABLES USED:

return type struct node struct node void

parameters struct node struct node struct node

Variable name
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data type
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new temp x ch top ptr

pointer to struct node pointer to struct node int int struct pointer struct pointer

Redefining Quality Education to store new node address to store temporary node address store data of new node store choice stack pointer to store any node address field

15 b) Write a C program that implement stack (its operations) using Pointers. Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<malloc.h> struct node { int data; struct node*ptr; }; /*inserting (push) an element*/ struct node*push(struct node* top) { struct node *new; int x; new=(struct node*)malloc(sizeof(struct node)); printf("\n"); printf("\n Enter the value to push"); scanf("%d",&x); new->data=x; new->ptr=top; top=new; return (top) ; } /*display the elements*/ void display(struct node *top) { while (top!=NULL) { printf("\t%d",top->data); top=top->ptr; } } /*deletion(pop) of node from stack*/ struct node*pop(struct node*top) { struct node*temp; temp=top;

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Redefining Quality Education if (top==NULL) printf("\n Stack is empty"); else { temp=temp->ptr; free (top) ; top=temp; } printf("\n One value deleted"); return (top) ;

} /*main program*/ void main ( ) { struct node*top; int ch; top=NULL; clrscr(); printf("\n MENU"); printf("\n1.Push.\n2.Pop.\n3.Exit."); do { printf("\n Enter ur choice"); scanf ("%d", &ch) ; if(ch>3||ch<=0) { printf("Invalid choice, try again"); break; } switch (ch) { case 1: top=push(top); display(top); break; case 2: top=pop(top) ; display(top); break; case 3: exit(0); break; } }while(ch<=3); getch(); }

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Result: MENU 1.Push. 2.Pop. 3.Exit. Enter ur choice 1 Enter the value to push 22 Enter ur choice 1 Enter the value to push 32 Enter ur choice 1 Enter the value to push 12 Enter ur choice 1 12 32 22

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WEEK-16 16 a)Write a C program that implements queue (its operations) using Arrays&Pointers QUEUES: Queue is an ordered list of data items such that new item inserts in to a queue at rear end, and deletes an item from queue at front end. Queue is represented with an array Q of MAX size ,FRONT and REAR are the front and rear pointers of the queue. Queue works under First In First Out (FIFO) principle. Ex: A 'Q' for a bus. Insertion is not possible if queue is in overflow (REAR=MAX). Deletion is not possible if queue is in underflow (FRONT=0) Implementation of queue using arrays:
FUNCTIONS USED:

Function name insert ( ) deletion () display()


VARIABLES USED:

return type void int void

parameters q,max,item q q

Variable name q[] max f,r item ch y


ALGORITHM :

data type int int int int int int

purpose to store queue elements size of the queue to store queue front ,rear pointers element to be insert to store choice to store deletion element

Procedure INSERT (Q, MAX, ITEM) Q An Array of MAX size representing queue F Front index of the queue R Rear index of the queue
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ITEM Information to be inserted at the rear of queue. At the time of creation of Q, F R 0; 1. // Check for queue overflow// if R >= MAX then Print ('Queue overflow') Return endif 2. //Increment Rear pointer to provide space for inserting element// RR+ 1 3. //Insert new element at rear end of queue// Q[R] ITEM 4. //If initially, the queue is empty, adjust the front pointer// if F= 0 then F 1 endif return Function DELETION (Q) Q F R Array of size MAX representing queue. Pointer to the front of queue Pointer to the rear of queue

Y Temporary variable 1. //Check for queue underflow// if F 0 then Print ('Queue Underflow') Return endif 2. //Delete the queue element at front end and store it into item// YQ[F] 3. //If queue is empty after deletion, set front and rear pointers to 0// if F = R then F0 R0 4. //Otherwise increment front pointer// else F F+ 1 Return (Y)

Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h>

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int r=-1; int f=-1; void insert(int[],int,int); int deletion(int[]); void display(int[]); void main ( ) { char ch; int y,item; int n,q[10]; clrscr () ; printf("\n\t MENU"); printf("\n\t1. Insert."); printf("\n\t 2.Delete."); printf("\n\t 3.Display."); printf("\n\t 4. Exit."); do { printf("\n\t Enter ur choice"); scanf ( "%d" , &ch) ; if (ch>4||ch<=0) { printf ("\n\t Invalid choice "); break; } switch(ch) { case 1 : printf("\n\t Enter the element to be insert:"); scanf("%d",& item ) ; insert(q,10, item ) ; break; case 2 : y=deletion(q) ; printf("\n\tThe deleted value:%d",y); break; case 3 : display (q) ; break; case 4: exit (0); } }while(ch<=4) ; getch () ; } void insert(int q[] ,int n,int item) { if (r>=n)

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{ printf("\n\t Queue is overflow"); return; } else { r=r+1; q[r]= item; printf("\n\t The value is inserted"); if (f==-1) f=0; } } int deletion(int q[]) { int y; if (f = =-1) { printf("\n\t the Queue is Empty"); } y=q[f] ; if (f==r) f=r=-1; else f++; return y; } void display(int q[]) { int i; for (i=f;i<=r;i++) printf("\t%d",q[i]); getch(); } Result:

MENU 1. Insert. 2.Delete. 3.Display. 4. Exit. Enter ur choice 1 Enter the element to be insert : 23 The value is inserted Enter ur choice 1

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Enter the element to be insert : 12 The value is inserted Enter ur choice 1 Enter the element to be insert: 45 The value is inserted Enter ur choice 3 23 12 45 Implementation of queue using single linked list:
FUNCTIONS USED:

Function name insert() del() display()


VARIABLES USED:

return type void void void

parameters frint struct node,rear struct node front struct node rear struct node

Variable name new temp x ch ptr front rear

data type pointer to struct node pointer to struct node int int struct pointer struct pointer struct pointer

purpose to store new node address to store temporary node address store data of new node store choice to store pointer any node to store front pointer of queue to store rear pointer of queue

16 b)Write a C program that implements Queue(its operations) using Pointers. Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<malloc.h> #include<stdlib.h> struct node { int data; struct node*ptr; }; /*inserting an element*/ void insert(struct node **front,struct node **rear) { struct node*new; int x;
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new=(struct node*)malloc(sizeof(struct node)); printf("\n Enter value to insert"); scanf("%d",&x) ; new->data=x; new->ptr=NULL; if (*front==NULL) { *front=new; *rear=new; } else { (*rear)->ptr=new; ( * rear) =new; } } /*display the values*/ void display(struct node *front) { printf("\n"); while (front!=NULL) { printf(" \t%d",front->data) ; front=front->ptr; } } /*deletion of element from the queue*/ void del(struct node **front) { struct node *temp; if( (*front) !=NULL) { temp= *front; (*front)=(*front)->ptr; free(temp) ; printf("\n One element deleted"); } } /*main program*/ void main ( ) { struct node *front=NULL; struct node *rear=NULL; int ch; clrscr(); printf("\n MENU"); printf("\n1.Insert.\n2.Delete.\n3.Exit."); do

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{ printf("\n Enter ur choice"); scanf ("%d", &ch) ; if(ch>3||ch<=0) { printf("Invalid choice, try again"); break; } switch (ch) { case 1: insert(&front,&rear); display(front); break; case 2: del(&front); display(front); break; case 3: exit(0); break; } }while(ch<=3); getch() ; }

Result: MENU 1.Insert 2.Delete. 3.Exit. Enter ur choice 1 Enter value to insert Enter ur choice 1 Enter value to insert Enter ur choice 1 Enter value to insert Enter ur choice 1 22 12 32

22 12 32

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WEEK-17

Conversion of infix expression to postfix notation:


FUNCTIONS USED:

Function name ipf spf


VARIABLES USED:

return type int int

parameters operator(char) operator(char)

Variable name s[] p[] a[] top i,j


ALGORITHM :

data type char char char int int

purpose to store stack elements to store postfix expression to store given infix expression stack pointer to store subscripts of arrays

procedure INFIX_POSTFIX( ) // Insert '(' at the beginning and')' at the of the given string// 1. // Scan the input infix expression from left to right taking one symbol at a time till end of string// while(A[I]!=NULL CHAR) do 2. // If an operand is encountered, place it into the output// if((A[I]>64 and A[I]<92) or(A[I]>96andA[I]<123))then 3. P[J++]A[I] //add to post fix// //If a left parenthesis ('(')is encountered, push it into the stack// else if(A[I]='(') then S[++TOP]A[I] //push stack// //If a right parenthesis (')')is encountered, pop the stack and append the operator to the output until the left parenthesis is encountered. Discard both-parenthesis// else if(A[I]=')') then while(S[TOP]!='(') do P[J++]S[TOP--] repeat //If an operator is encountered (say current operator) Repeatedly pop the stack and append the popped operator to output if it

4.

5.

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satisfies the stack top operator is same or higher precedence than the current operator just encountered and the stack is not empty. Else push current operator into the stack. Else push the operator to stack.// else while(TOP=0&&(ipf(A[I])<=spf(S[TOP)) do P[J++]=S[--TOP] repeat S[++TOP] =A[I] ; endif repeat 6. //Pop the stack and add to output string till the stack is empty.// print(P[]) Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<math.h> char s[20],p[20]; char temp; int top,i,j; int ipf(char); int spf(char); main() { char a[20]; temp='+' ; clrscr() ; printf("\n\t Enter any equation:") ; scanf ("%s" ,a) ; printf("\n %s",a) ; i=j=0; top=-1; s[top++]='(' ; while(a[i]!='\0') { if ((a [i] >64&&a [i] <92) || (a [i] >96&&a [i] <123)) p[j++] =a[i]; else if(a[i]==')') { while(s[top]!='(') p[j++] = s[top--] ; temp= s[--top] ; } else { while(top>=0&&(ipf(a[i])<=spf(temp)))

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Redefining Quality Education p[j++]=temp; temp= s[--top] ;

} s[++top] =a[i] ; temp=a[i] ; } i++; } while(top>=0) { if(s[top]=='(') top--; else p [j++] = s[top--] ; } p[j++]='\0'; printf("\n") ; for(i=0;i<=j;i++) printf("%c",p[i]); getch() ; return(0) ; } int ipf(char c) { if((c=='+') || (c=='-')) return(1); else if((c=='*')||(c=='/')) return(3); else if(c=='^') return(6); else if(c=='(') return(9); else return(0); } int spf(char c) { if((c=='+') || (c=='-')) return(2); else if((c=='*')|| (c=='/')) return(4); else if(c=='^') return(5); else return(0); }

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Result: Enter any equation: a+b-c ab+ca+b-c

Evaluation of postfix Expression:


VARIABLES USED:

Variable name a[] stack[] i top


ALGORITHM :

data type char float int int

purpose array to store given post fix stack to store answer of expression array index stack pointer

procedure POSTFIX_EVALUATE ( ) 1. 2. Scan the expression from left to right for one symbol at a time. If it is an operand, push into the stack; else pop the two operands from the stack,apply the indicated operation,and push the result into the stack. Repeat the steps 1 and 2 above, until end of the input expression. pop the top element of the stack, which is result of the expression.

3. 4.

Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<math.h> void main ( ) { static float stack [20] ; int i,top=-l; static char a[30]; clrscr () ; printf("\n\t Enter the string :"); scanf("%s",a) ; while(a[i] !='\0') { if (( (int) a[i] >47) && ((int) a [i] <58) stack [++top] = ((int)a[i]-48);

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Redefining Quality Education else if(a[i]=='+' || a[i]=='-'|| a[i]=='*' || a[i]=='/') { if(a[i]=='+') { stack[top-l]= stack[top-l]+ stack [top] ; top--; } if (a[i] == '-' ) { stack[top-l]= stack[top-l]- stack [top] ; top--; } if(a[i]=='*') { stack[top-l]= stack[top-l]* stack [top] ; top--; } if(a[i]=='/') { stack[top-l]= stack[top-l]+ stack [top] ; top--; } } i++;

} printf ("%f" ,stack[0]) ; getch() ; }

Result: Enter the string : 7 3 + 55.000000

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WEEk-18 18. Write C programs that implement the following sorting methods to sort a given list of integers in ascending order: i) Bubble sort ii)Selection sort

BUBBLE SORT Sorting is an arranging the given elements in order i.e. ascending/ descending. Sorting methods are 1) Bubble sort 1) Insertion sort 3) Selection sort 4) Quick sort 5) Heap sort (Tree sort). Bubble sort: In this method compare each pair of adjacent elements in a array of elements, swapped until smallest/ greatest element bubbled up to the top. Implementation of Bubble sort:
VARIABLES USED:

Variable name a[] n i,j temp

datatype int int int int

purpose to store given arrayel ements size of the list to repeat loops temporary variable

ALGORITHM:

Function Bubble-Sort (A, N) A Array of N elements to be sorted I,J Index TEMP Variable to count the number of exchanges . 1. //read the elements into array// for I1 to N increment by 1 do Read( A[]) repeat 2. for I1 to<N increment by 1 do 3. for J1 to <N increment by 1 do 4. if(A[J+l]<A[J]) then //adjust unordered elements// TEMPA[J] A[J]A[J+l] A[J+l]TEMP endif repeat

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repeat return;
Program:

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> int a[50]; bubblesort(int a[] ,int n) { int i,j,temp; for(i=0;i<n-1;i++) { for(j=0;j<n-i-1;j++) { if(a[j]>a[j+1]) { temp=a[j]; a[j]=a[j+1]; a[j+1]=temp; } } } return; } void main ( ) { int n,i; clrscr(); printf("\n\t How many numbers do u want to enter"); scanf("%d",&n); printf("\n\t Enter the numbers:"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) scanf("%d",&a[i]); bubblesort(a,n) ; printf("\n\t Numbers after sorting:"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) printf("%d ",a[i]); getch (); }

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Result: How many numbers do u want to enter 5 Enter the numbers: 21 34 12 56 10 Numbers after sorting: 10 12 21 34 56

SELECTION SORT In this method, search for smallest element on the array of elements and swap with first element. Next, search smallest element in remaining array of elements and swap with second element. Repeat this process until only the last two elements in array are compared. Implementation of selection sort:
VARIABLES USED:

Variable name a[] n i,j temp


ALGORITHM:

datatype int int int int

purpose to store given elements size of the list increment variables temporary variable

2. 3. 4.

5.

Procedure Selection - Sort (A, N) A Array of N elements to be sort. TEMP temporary variable MIN Position variable of the smallest element I,J Index //Read the elements into array// for I1 to N increment by 1 do Read( A[]) repeat for I1 to N increment by 1 do //Initialise minimum index// MIN I //Make a pass and obtain element with smallest value// for JI+1 to N increment by 1 do if A[J] < A[MIN] then MINJ end if repeat //Swapping smallest element with current index element// TEMPA[I] A[I]A[MIN]

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A[MIN]TEMP repeat return; Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> int a [50] ; selectionsort(int a[],int n) { int i,j,min,temp; for(i=0;i<n;i++) { min=i; for(j=i+1;j<n;j++) { if (a [j] <a [min] ) min=j; } temp=a [i] ; a[i]=a[min] ; a[min]=temp; } return; } void main () { int i,j,n; clrscr () ; printf ("\n\t How many numbers do you want enter ?"); scanf ( "%d" , &n) ; printf("\n\t Enter the numbers"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) scanf("%d",&a[i]); selectionsort(a,n); printf("\n\t Numbers after sorting"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) printf("%d ",a[i]); getch() ; } Result: How many numbers do you want enter? 5 Enter the numbers: 21 34 12 56 10 Numbers after sorting: 10 12 21 34 56

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WEEK-19 19) Write C programs that use both recursive and non recursive functions to perform the following searching operations for a Key value in a given list of integers :i)Linear search ii) Binary search LINEAR SEARCH Searching is finding a given element in an array of elements. Searchings are three methods 1) Linear search ,2) Binary search , 3) Fibonacci search . Linear search: We begin search by comparing the first element of an array with key element. If it matches search end, otherwise move to next element and compare. If no key element search is Unsuccess search.

Implementation of linear search:


VARIABLES USED:

Variable name a[] key i,flag,n


ALGORITHM:

datatype purpose int to store given list of values int element to be found int to store index ,boolean,no.of elements

Function linear-search (A, N, KEY) A Array of N elements. KEY Element to be found I Index FLAG Boolean 1 or 0 1 // Search start with first element // I 1 FLAG0 2. //Scan one by one element to search key element// for I 0 toN increment by 1 do if(A[I]=KEY) then //key element found// FLAG1 break endif repeat 3. //Successful Search?// if(FLAG=0) then print( 'Element not found.') return(0)

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else print ('Element found at location ') return(I) endif Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main( ) { int i, n, key=0, a[50], f=0; clrscr(); printf("Enter Number of elements in the array? "); scanf ("%d", &n); printf ("Enter array elements"); for (i=0;i<n;i++) { scanf (" %d", &a[i]); } for(i=0;i<n;i++) { printf("%d\t",a[i]); } printf("\n Enter element to be searched"); scanf("%d",&key); for (i=0;i<n;i++) { if(key==a[i]) { f=1; break; } } if(f==0) printf (" \n Element not found. "); else printf ("Element %d found at location %d.\n", key, i+1); getch( ); }

Result: Enter Number of elements in the array? 7 Enter array elements 2 30 4 10 12 15

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Enter Element to be searched 10 Element 10 found at location 4. BINARY SEARCH: This method starts with looking at the middle element of the array if it matches the key element then the search is completed. Otherwise the key element may be in upper half or lower half. The search progress with the upper half if the key element is less than middle element or with the lower half if the key element is greater than middle element Pre requisite of Binary search method is input elements array must be in ordered. Implementation of binary search (iterative):
VARIABLES USED:

Variable name a[] key i,flag,n low,mid,high


ALGORITHM: (ITERATIVE )

datatype purpose int to store given list of elements int element to be found int to store index ,boolean,no.of element int to store intervals of list

Function binary-search (A, N, KEY) A Array of N elements in ascending order KEY Element to be found LOW Temporary variable for lower limit of the search interval MID Temporary variable for middle limit of the search interval HIGH Temporary variable for upper limit of the search interval FLAG Boolean 1 or 0 1) //Initialization of boundaries of the list// LOW 1 HIGH N FLAG1 2) //Perform Search// while (LOW =< HIGH) do 3) 4) //Obtain index of midpoint of search interval// MID ((LOW + HIGH)/2) //Compare middle element with key// if KEY < A[MID] then HIGH MID - 1 else if KEY> A [MID] then LOW MID + 1 else print ('Element found at position')

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5)

FLAG0 return (MID); repeat while //Unsuccessful Search// if (FLAG) then print ('Element not found') return (0) endif

Program: #include <stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main( ) { int a[50],i,n,low,high,mid,key,flag=1; clrscr(); printf ("\n Enter Number of elements in the array "); scanf (" %d", &n); printf (" \ nEnter elements in ascending order: " ); for (i = 0; i < n; i++) scanf (" %d", &a[i]); printf (" \n Enter Element to be searched "); scanf (" %d", &key); low = 0; high = n - 1; while (low <=high) { mid = (low + high) / 2; if (key < a[mid]) high = mid - 1 ; else if (key> a[mid]) low = mid + 1 ; else { if (key == a[mid]) { printf(" \n Search successful."); printf("\n %d found at location %d." ,key, mid+1); flag = 0; break; } } } if (flag) printf (" \n Search Unsuccessful.");

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getch(); } Result: Number of elements in the array? 8 Enter elements in ascending order: 12 23 34 45 56 789 432 543 Enter Element to be searched? 789 Search successful. 789 found at location 6. Implementation of binary search (recursive)
ALGORITHM: (RECURSIVE)

Function Rbsearch (LOW, HIGH, A,KEY) A Array of N elements in ascending order KEY Element to be found LOW Temporary variable for lower limit of the search interval MID Temporary variable for middle limit of the search interval HIGH Temporary variable for upper limit of the search interval 1. // Intialise boundaries of the list// LOW 1 HIGH N 2. //Obtain index of midpoint of search interval// MID (LOW + HIGH)/2 3. // Compare middle element with key element// if KEY < A [MID] then LOC binary-search-R (LOW, MID - 1, A,KEY ) else if KEY > A[MID] then LOC binary-search-R (MID + 1, HIGH,A, ) else if(KEY=A[MID]) then return(MID) else return (LOC). endif program: #include <stdio.h> int key; void main( ) { int a[50],i,n,loc; int bin(); clrscr(); printf ("\n Enter Number of elements in the array? ");

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scanf ("%d", &n); printf ("\n Enter Array elements (ascending order) "); for (i=0;i<n;i++) scanf (" %d", &a[i]); printf("\n Enter element to be searched"); scanf("%d",&key); loc=bin(a,0,n); if(loc==0) printf("\n Un success search"); else printf("\n Success, element %d found at location %d ",key,loc); getch(); } int bin(int a[],int low,int high) { int mid; if(low<=high) { mid=(low+high)/2; if(key<a[mid]) bin(a,low,mid-1); else if(key>a[mid]) bin( a,mid+1,high); else if(key==a[mid]) return(mid+1); } else return 0; return 0; }

Result: Enter Number of elements in the array? 8 Enter elements in ascending order: 12 23 34 45 56 789 432 543 Enter Element to be searched 789 Success, element 789 found at location 6.

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WEEK-20 20)Write C program that implement the following sorting methods to sort a given list of integers in ascending order: i Quick sort QUICK SORT In this method, the array of elements divided into two partition so that the pivot element is placed in proper position satisfying 1) All elements to the left of pivot element are less than pivot element 2) All elements to right of the pivot element are greater than or equal to the pivot element. Repeat this process until array contains single element. Implementation of quick sort:
VARIABLES USED:

Variable name a[] n i,j temp ub,lb key


ALGORITHM:

datatype int int int int int int

purpose to store given elements size of thelist increment variables temporary variable to store intervals to store pivot element

Procedure quick sort(A, LB, UB) A Array of n elements LB lower bound of the current sub-list UB upper bound of the current sub-list I Index variable J Index variable KEY Pivot element 1. //Read the elements into array// for I1 to N increment by 1 do Read( A[]) repeat 2. if (LB<UB) then //checked whether list contains more than one element// 3 ILB, JUB . KEYLB 4. while (I<J) do //scan elements from left to right// 5. while(A[I]=A[KEY]) and (UB)) do II+1 Repeat //scan elements from right to left //

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6.

7.

8. 9. 10.

while(A[J]>A[KEY]) do JJ-1 repeat if(I<J)then swap(A[I],A[J]) endif repeat swap(A[J] ,A[KEY]); Call Quick_Sort (A, LB, J - 1) //Sort left sub-list// Call Quick_Sort (A, J, + 1, UB) //Sort right sub-list// endif end quiksort

Program:

#include <stdio.h> swap(int *a,int *b) { int temp; temp=*a; *a=*b; *b=temp; return; } quicksort(int a[10] ,int lb,int ub) { int i=lb,j=ub,key=lb; if (lb<ub) { while (i<j) { while((a[i]<a[key])&&(lb<ub)) i++; while(a[j]>a[key]) j--; if(i<j) swap(&a[i] ,&a[j]); } swap(&a[j],&a[key]); quicksort(a,lb,j-1) ; quicksort (a,j+1,ub) ; } return; } void main () {
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int i,n,a[100]; clrscr () ; printf("\n\t How many numbers do u want to enter?"); scanf("%d",&n) ; printf("\n\t Enter the numbers:"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) scanf("%d",&a[i]); quicksort(a,0,n-1); printf("\n\t Numbers after sorting:"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) printf("%d ",a[i]); getch () ; } Result: How many numbers do u want to enter? 5 Enter the numbers: 21 34 12 56 10 Numbers after sorting: 10 12 21 34 56

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WEEK-21 /* Write C program that implement the following sorting methods to sort a given list of integers in ascending order: i) Merge sort */ Program: #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #define MAX_ARY 10 void merge_sort(int x[], int end, int start); int main(void) { int ary[MAX_ARY]; int j = 0; printf("\n\nEnter the elements to be sorted: \n"); for(j=0;j<MAX_ARY;j++) scanf("%d",&ary[j]); /* array before mergesort */ printf("Before :"); for(j = 0; j < MAX_ARY; j++) printf(" %d", ary[j]); printf("\n"); merge_sort(ary, 0, MAX_ARY - 1); /* array after mergesort */ printf("After Merge Sort :"); for(j = 0; j < MAX_ARY; j++) printf(" %d", ary[j]); printf("\n"); getch(); } /* Method to implement Merge Sort*/ void merge_sort(int x[], int end, int start) {

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int j = 0; const int size = start - end + 1; int mid = 0; int mrg1 = 0; int mrg2 = 0; int executing[MAX_ARY]; if(end == start) return; mid = (end + start) / 2; merge_sort(x, end, mid); merge_sort(x, mid + 1, start); for(j = 0; j < size; j++) executing[j] = x[end + j]; mrg1 = 0; mrg2 = mid - end + 1; for(j = 0; j < size; j++) { if(mrg2 <= start - end) if(mrg1 <= mid - end) if(executing[mrg1] > executing[mrg2]) x[j + end] = executing[mrg2++]; else x[j + end] = executing[mrg1++]; else x[j + end] = executing[mrg2++]; else x[j + end] = executing[mrg1++]; } }

Result: Enter the elements to be sorted Before : 2 54 73 21 7 After Merge Sort : 2 7 21 54 73

: 2 54 73 21 7

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WEEK-22 /* Write C programs to implement the Lagrange interpolation and Newton- Gregory forward interpolation.*// Lagrange interpolation: Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #define MaxN 90 void main() { float arr_x[MaxN+1], arr_y[MaxN+1], numerator, denominator, x, y=0; int i, j, n; clrscr(); printf("Enter the value of n: \n"); scanf("%d", &n); printf("Enter the values of x and y: \n"); for(i=0; i<=n; i++) scanf("%f%f", &arr_x[i], &arr_y[i]); printf("Enter the value of x at which value of y is to be calculated: "); scanf("%f", &x); for (i=0; i<=n; i++) { numerator=1; denominator=1; for (j=0; j<=n; j++) if(j!=i) { numerator *= x-arr_x[j]; denominator *= arr_x[i]-arr_x[j]; } y+=(numerator/denominator)*arr_y[i]; } printf("When x=%4.1f y=%7.1f\n",x,y); getch(); } Result: Enter the value of n:3 Enter the values of x and y 11 2439 Enter the value of x at which value of y is to be calculated 6 When x=6.00 y= 36.000

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Newton- Gregory forward interpolation.: Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #define MaxN 100 #define Order_of_diff 4 void main () { float arr_x[MaxN+1], arr_y[MaxN+1], numerator=1.0, denominator=1.0, x, y, p, h, diff_table[MaxN+1][Order_of_diff+1]; int i,j,n,k; clrscr(); printf("Enter the value of n \n"); scanf("%d",&n); printf("Enter the values of x and y"); for(i=0; i<=n; i++) scanf("%f%f", &arr_x[i], &arr_y[i]); printf("Enter the value of x at which value of y is to be calculated"); scanf("%f", &x); h=arr_x[1]-arr_x[0]; for(i=0; i<=n-1; i++) diff_table[i][1]=arr_y[i+1]-arr_y[i];/*Creating the difference table and calculating first order differences*/ for(j=2; j<=Order_of_diff; j++)/*Calculating higher order differences*/ for(i=0; i<=n-j; i++) diff_table[i][j]=diff_table[i+1][j-1] - diff_table[i][j-1]; i=0; while(!(arr_x[i]>x)) /* Finding x0 */ i++; i--; p=(x-arr_x[i])/h; y=arr_y[i]; for (k=1; k<=Order_of_diff; k++) { numerator *=p-k+1; denominator *=k; y +=(numerator/denominator)*diff_table[i][k]; } printf("When x=%6.1f, y=%6.2f\n",x, y); getch(); }

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Result: Enter the value of n 2 Enter the values of x and y 1 1 2 4 3 9 Enter the value of x at which value of y is to be calculated 2.5 When x=2.5 y=6.50

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WEEK-23 \* Write C program to implement the linear regression and polynomial regression algorithms. *\ Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> #include<math.h> #include<string.h> float mean(float *a, int n); void deviation(float *a, float mean, int n, float *d, float *S); void main() { float a[20],b[20],dx[20],dy[20]; float sy=0,sx=0,mean_x=0,mean_y=0,sum_xy=0; float corr_coff=0,reg_coff_xy=0, reg_coff_yx=0; char type_coff[7]; int n=0,i=0; clrscr(); printf("Enter the value of n: "); scanf("%d",&n); printf("Enter the values of x and y:\n"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) scanf("%f%f",&a[i],&b[i]); mean_x=mean(a,n); mean_y=mean(b,n); deviation(a,mean_x,n,dx,&sx); deviation(b,mean_y,n,dy,&sy); for(i=0;i<n;i++) sum_xy=sum_xy+dx[i]*dy[i]; corr_coff=sum_xy/(n*sx*sy); printf("Enter the type of regression coefficient as 'x on y' or 'y on x': "); fflush(stdin); gets(type_coff); if(strcmp(type_coff,"x on y")==1) { reg_coff_xy=corr_coff*(sx/sy); printf("\nThe value of linear regression coefficient is %f",reg_coff_xy); } else if(strcmp(type_coff,"y on x")==1) {

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reg_coff_yx=corr_coff*(sy/sx); printf("\nThe value of linear regression coefficient is %f",reg_coff_yx); } else printf("\nEnter the correct type of regression coefficient."); getch(); }

float mean(float *a, int n) { float sum=0, i=0; for(i=0;i<n;i++) sum=sum+a[i]; sum=sum/n; return (sum); } void deviation(float *a, float mean, int n, float *d, float *s) { float sum=0,t=0; int i=0; for(i=0;i<n;i++) { d[i]=a[i]-mean; t=d[i]*d[i]; sum=sum+t; } sum=sum/n; *s=sqrt(sum); }

Result: Enter the value of n:3 Enter the values of x and y: 1 1 2 4 3 9 Enter the type of regression coefficient as 'x on y' or 'y on x':x on y The value of linear regression coefficient is -3.333333

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Redefining Quality Education

Week-24 /*Write C programs to implement Trapezoidal Simpson methods.*/ Trapezoidal Method: Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int i,num; float x[100],h,y[100],ans=0.0 ; clrscr() ; printf( Enter the number of terms : ) ; scanf(%d,&num); for(i=0;i<num;i++) { printf(/n Enter the value of x %d:,i); scanf(%f,&x[i]); printf(/n Enter the value of y %d:,i); scanf(%f,&y[i]); } h=x[i-1]-x[i-2]; for(i=1;i<=(num-1);i=i+2) { ans=ans+4*y[i]+2*y[i+1]; } ans=ans+y[0]+y[num-1] ; ans=ans*0.5*h ; printf(/n/n Integral of x is : %f ,ans); getch(); } Result : Enter the number of terms: 7 Enter the value of x 0 : 1 Enter the value of y0: 2.105 Enter the value of x 1: 2 Enter the value of y1: 2.808 Enter the value of x 2 : 3 Enter the value of y2: 3.614 Enter the value of x 3 : 4 Enter the value of y3: 4.604 Enter the value of x 4 : 5

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Enter the value of y4: 5.857 Enter the value of x 5 : 6 Enter the value of y5: 7.451 Enter the value of x 6 : 7 Enter the value of y6: 9.467 Integral of x is : 30.12

Simpson Method Program: #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> main() { int i,num; float x[100],h,y[100],ans=0.0 ; clrscr() ; printf( Enter the number of terms : ) ; scanf(%d,&num); for(i=0;i<num;i++) { printf(/n Enter the value of x %d:,i); scanf(%f,&x[i]); printf(/n Enter the value of y %d:,i); scanf(%f,&y[i]); } h=x[i-1]-x[i-2]; for(i=1;i<(num-2);i=i+2) { ans=ans+4*y[i]+2*y[i+1]; } ans=ans+y[0]+y[num-1] ; ans=(ans*h)/3.0 ; printf(/n/n Integral of x is : %f ,ans); getch(); } Result : Enter the number of terms: 5 Enter the value of x 0 : 1 Enter the value of y0: 13 Enter the value of x 1: 2 Enter the value of y1: 13 Enter the value of x 2 : 3 Enter the value of y2: 70 Enter the value of x 3 : 4

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Enter the value of y3: 80 Enter the value of x 4 : 5 Enter the value of y4: 100 Integral of x is : 257.6667

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